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  • 1.
    Adamczyk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Trondheim, Norway.
    Søndenå, Rune
    Department for Solar Energy, IFE, Kjeller, Norway.
    You, Chang Chuan
    Department for Solar Energy, IFE, Kjeller, Norway.
    Stokkan, Gaute
    Sintef Materials and Chemistry, Trondheim, Norway.
    Lindroos, Jeanette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Rinio, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Di Sabatino, Marisa
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Trondheim, Norway.
    Recombination Strength of Dislocations in High-Performance Multicrystalline/Quasi-Mono Hybrid Wafers During Solar Cell Processing2018In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 215, no 2, article id 1700493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wafers from a hybrid silicon ingot seeded in part for High Performance Multicrystalline, in part for a quasi-mono structure, are studied in terms of the effect of gettering and hydrogenation on their final Internal Quantum Efficiency.The wafers are thermally processed in different groups – gettered and hydrogenated. Afterwards, a low temperature heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer cell process is applied to minimize the impact of temperature. Such procedure made it possible to study the effect of different processing steps on dislocation clusters in the material using the Light Beam Induced Current technique with a high spatial resolution. The dislocation densities are measuredusing automatic image recognition on polished and etched samples. The dislocation recombination strengths are obtained by a correlation of the IQE with the dislocation density according to the Donolato model. Different clusters are compared after different process steps. The results show that for the middle of the ingot, the gettering step can increase the recombination strength of dislocations by one order of magnitude. A subsequent passivation with layers containing hydrogen can lead to a decrease in the recombination strength to levels lower than in ungettered samples.

  • 2.
    Alnoor, Hatim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Seed layer synthesis effect on the concentration of interface defects and emission spectra of ZnO nanorods/p-GaN light-emitting diode2017In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 214, no 1, article id 1600333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the low-temperature aqueous chemical synthesis (LT-ACS), holds great promises for the synthesis of one-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanostructure-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and hence require parameter tuning for optimal performance. N-ZnO nanorods (NRs)/p-GaN heterojunction LEDs have been synthesized by the LT-ACS using ZnO nanoparticle (NPs) seed layers prepared with different precursor solutions. The effect of these seed layers on the interface defect properties and emission intensity of the as-synthesized n-Zn/p-GaN heterojunction LEDs has been demonstrated by spatially resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) and electroluminescence (EL) measurements, respectively. A significant reduction of the interface defects in the n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN heterostructure synthesized from a seed layer prepared from zinc acetate (ZnAc) with a mixture of potassium hydroxide (KOH) and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) (donated as ZKH seed) compared with those prepared from ZnAc and KOH (donated as ZK seed) is observed as revealed by spatially resolved CL. Consequently, the LEDs based on n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN prepared from ZKH seed show an improvement in the yellow emission (approximate to 578nm) compared to that based on the ZK seed as deduced from the electroluminescence measurements. The improvement in the yellow EL emission on the ZKH LED probably attributed to the low presence of the non-radiative defect as deduced by light-output current (L-I) characteristics analysis.

  • 3.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Karlsson, Linda
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Kozarcanin, A.
    Thompson, D.W.
    Center for Microelectronic and Optical Materials Research and Department of Electrical Engineering University of Nebraska, USA.
    Tiwald, T.
    J.A. Woollam Co., Inc. Lincoln, USA.
    Woollam, J.A.
    Center for Microelectronic and Optical Materials Research and Department of Electrical Engineering University of Nebraska, USA.
    Carbonic anhydrase adsorption in porous silicon studied with infrared ellipsometry2005In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 202, p. 1688-1692Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Poksinski, Michal
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansen, Knut
    Scientific Engineering QED, Linköping, Sweden.
    Enhancement in ellipsometric thin film sensitivity near surface plasmon resonance conditions2008In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 205, no 4, p. 817-820Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ellipsometry used in internal reflection mode exhibits enhanced thin film sensitivity if operated close to surface plasmon resonance conditions. Compared to conventional ellipsometry, the changes in the ellipsometric parameter Δ are several orders of magnitude larger. Here, the origin of this large sensitivity is discussed by analysing thin film approximations of the complex reflectance ratio. It is found that the thickness sensitivity in Δ is proportional to the inverse of the difference between the intrinsic and the radiation-induced damping of the surface plasmons.

  • 5.
    Babulanam, SM
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    AC and DC superimposed AC conduction in sodium fluoride thin films1985In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 90, p. 755-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Buyanova, Irina A.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials.
    Tu, C. W.
    Univ Calif, Dept Elect & Comp Engn, La Jolla, CA USA.
    Optical and electronic properties of GaInNP alloys - a new material system for lattice matching to GaAs2008In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 205, no 1, p. 101-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we will review our recent results from optical characterization studies of GaInNP. We will show that N incorporation in these alloys affects their structural and defect properties, as well as the electronic structure. The main structural changes include (i) increasing carrier localization due to strong compositional fluctuations, which is typical for all dilute nitrides, and (ii) N-induced long range ordering effects, specific for GaInNP. The observed degradation of radiative efficiency of the alloys upon increasing N content is attributed to formation of several defects acting as centres of efficient non-radiative recombination. One of the defects is identified as a complex involving a Ga interstitial atom. N incorporation is also found to change the band line up from the type I in the GaInP/GaAs structures to the type 11 in the GaInNP/GaAs heterojunctions with [N] > 0.5%. For the range of N compositions studied ([N] <= 2%), a conduction band offset at the GaInNP/GaAs interface is found to nearly linearly depend on [N] at -0.10 eV/%, whereas the valence band offset remains unaffected. (c) 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  • 7.
    Carvalho, Alexandra
    et al.
    Department of Physics, I3N, University of Aveiro, Campus Santiago.
    Santos, Paulo
    Department of Physics, I3N, University of Aveiro, Campus Santiago.
    Coutinho, José
    Department of Physics, I3N, University of Aveiro, Campus Santiago.
    Jones, Robert
    School of Physics, University of Exeter.
    Rayson, Mark
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Briddon, Patrick R.
    Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Light induced degradation in B doped Cz-Si solar cells2012In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 209, no 10, p. 1894-1897Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse the formation energy of interstitial boron (Bi) and the properties of the defect resulting from its association with an oxygen dimer (BiO2i) to evaluate the possibility that it may be the slow-forming centre responsible for the light-induced degradation of B-doped Si solar cells. However, we find that the formation energy of Bi is too high, and therefore its concentration is negligible. Moreover, we find that the lowest energy form of BiO2i is a shallow donor, and the deep donor form is high in energy. Lowest energy structure of the BiO2i defect.

  • 8.
    Carvalho, Alexandra
    et al.
    Department of Physics, I3N, University of Aveiro, Campus Santiago.
    Öberg, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Barroso, Manuel
    Department of Physics, I3N, University of Aveiro, Campus Santiago.
    Rayson, Mark
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Briddon, Patrick
    Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
    P-doping of Si nanoparticles: the effect of oxidation2012In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 209, no 10, p. 1847-1850Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The radial dependence of the formation energy of substitutional phosphorus in silicon nanoparticles covered by an amorphous oxide shell is analysed using local density functional theory calculations. It is found that P+ is more stable at the silicon core. This explains the experimental observation of segregation of phosphorus to the Si-rich regions in a material consisting of Si nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix [Perego et al., Nanotechnology 21, 025602 (2010)]. Formation energy of positively charged substitutional phosphorus in a 1.5 nm diameter Si nanoparticle covered by a ∼2 nm-thick amorphous SiO2 shell, as a function of its distance to the centre.

  • 9.
    Chey, Chan Oeurn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alnoor, Hatim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fast synthesis, morphology transformation, structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods grown by seed-free hydrothermal method2014In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 211, no 11, p. 2611-2615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fast and low cost seed-free hydrothermal synthesis method to synthesize zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods with controllable morphology, size and structure has been developed. Ammonia is used to react with water to tailor the ammonium hydroxide concentration, which provides a continuous source of OH− for hydrolysis and precipitation of the final products. Hence, allowing ZnO nanorods to growth on large areas of metal (Au and Ag coated glass), p-type Si and organic flexible (PEDOT: PSS) substrates. Increasing the growth time, the morphology transforms from pencil-like to hexagonal shape rod-like morphology. Within one hour the length of the ZnO nanorods has reached almost 1 µm. The optical characteristics has shown that the grown ZnO nanorods are dominated by two emission peaks, one is in the UV range centered at 381 nm and other one with relatively high intensity appears in the visible range and centered at 630 nm. While the growth duration was increased from 2 h to 6 h, the optical band gap was observed to increase from 2.8 eV to 3.24 eV, respectively. This fast and low cost method is suitable for LEDs, UV-photodetector, sensing, photocatalytic, multifunctional devices and other optoelectronic devices, which can be fabricated on any substrates, including flexible and foldable substrates.

  • 10. Chulapakorn, T.
    et al.
    Primetzhofer, D.
    Sychugov, Ilya
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Suvanam, Sethu Saveda
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Linnros, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Hallén, Anders
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Impact of H-uptake by forming gas annealing and ion implantation on photoluminescence of Si-nanoparticles2018In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 215, no 3, article id 1700444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) are formed by implanting 70 keV Si+ into a SiO2-film and subsequent thermal annealing. SiNP samples are further annealed in forming gas. Another group of samples containing SiNP is implanted by 7.5 keV H+ and subsequently annealed in N2-atmosphere at 450 °C to reduce implantation damage. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) is employed to establish depth profiles of the H-concentration. Enhanced hydrogen concentrations are found close to the SiO2surface, with particularly high concentrations for the as-implanted SiO2. However, no detectable uptake of hydrogen is observed by NRA for samples treated by forming gas annealing (FGA). H-concentrations detected after H-implantation follow calculated implantation profiles. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy is performed at room temperature to observe the SiNP PL. Whereas FGA is found to increase PL under certain conditions, i.e., annealing at high temperatures, increasing implantation fluence of H reduces the SiNP PL. Hydrogen implantation also introduces additional defect PL. After low-temperature annealing, the SiNP PL is found to improve, but the process is not found equivalently efficient as conventional FGA.

  • 11.
    Chulapakorn, Thawatchart
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sychugov, Ilya
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Department of Materials and Nano Physics, SE-164 40 Kista, Sweden.
    Suvanam, Sethu Saveda
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), School of Information and Communication Technology, PO Box Electrum 229, SE-16440 Kista, Sweden.
    Linnros, Jan
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Department of Materials and Nano Physics, SE-164 40 Kista, Sweden.
    Hallén, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics. Royal Institute of Technology, School of Information & Communication Technology, SE-16440 Kista, Sweden.
    Impact of H-Uptake from Forming Gas Annealing and Ion Implantation on the Photoluminescence of Si Nanoparticles2018In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 215, no 3, article id 1700444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) are formed by implanting 70keV Si+ into a SiO2-film and subsequent thermal annealing. SiNP samples are further annealed in forming gas. Another group of samples containing SiNP is implanted by 7.5keV H+ and subsequently annealed in N-2-atmosphere at 450 degrees C to reduce implantation damage. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) is employed to establish depth profiles of the H-concentration. Enhanced hydrogen concentrations are found close to the SiO2 surface, with particularly high concentrations for the as-implanted SiO2. However, no detectable uptake of hydrogen is observed by NRA for samples treated by forming gas annealing (FGA). H-concentrations detected after H-implantation follow calculated implantation profiles. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy is performed at room temperature to observe the SiNP PL. Whereas FGA is found to increase PL under certain conditions, i.e., annealing at high temperatures, increasing implantation fluence of H reduces the SiNP PL. Hydrogen implantation also introduces additional defect PL. After low-temperature annealing, the SiNP PL is found to improve, but the process is not found equivalently efficient as conventional FGA.

  • 12.
    Demeyu, Lemi
    et al.
    Department of Physics Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Stafström, Sven
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Computational Physics.
    Monte Carlo simulation of controlled charge carriers diffusion in highly ordered iodine doped pentacene film2007In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 204, no 10, p. 3545-3555Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Diplas, Spyros
    et al.
    SINTEF Ind, Norway.
    Kyratsi, Theodora
    Univ Cyprus, Cyprus.
    Sun, Jianwu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pirriera, Monica Della
    LEITAT Technol Ctr, Spain.
    Ulyashin, Alexander G.
    SINTEF Ind, Norway.
    Materials for Energy Harvesting2018In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 215, no 17, article id 1800645Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 14. Dong, Wenjing
    et al.
    Zhang, Tianning
    Chen, Xin
    Wang, Baoyuan
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology. Hubei University, China.
    Charge transport study of perovskite solar cells through constructing electron transport channels2017In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 214, no 10, article id 1700089Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perovskite solar cells (PSC) have attracted much attention in the recent years. It is important to understand their working principle in order to uncover the reasons behind their high efficiency. In this study, the carrier transport mechanism of PSC by controlling the structure of a scaffold is investigated. CeO2 is used as an electron blocking material in PSCs to study the electron transport behavior for the first time. The influence of light absorption can be excluded because CeO2 has a similar bandgap to TiO2. A variety of scaffolds are constructed using nano-TiO2 and CeO2. The results show that electrons can transport from light absober (perovskite) to FTO electrode (external circuit) through two kinds of channels. The energy band level, as well as the electronic conductivity of the scaffolds, is are key issues that affect electron transport. Although perovskites are able to transport both electrons and holes, it is still necessary to have effective electron transport channels (ETCs) between perovskite and external circuit for the sake of high efficiency. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis suggests that the lack of such channels will result in high recombination. The number of ETCs and effecient electron-hole separation are also proven to be important for cell performance.

  • 15.
    Gallas, B.
    et al.
    Inst de NanoSciences de Paris - CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, France.
    Rivory, J.
    Inst de NanoSciences de Paris - CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, France.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vidal, F.
    Inst de NanoSciences de Paris - CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, France.
    Etgens, V.H.
    Inst de NanoSciences de Paris - CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, France.
    Changes in optical properties of MnAs thin films on GaAs(001) induced by a- to B-phase transition2008In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 205, no 4, p. 859-862Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    MnAs layers with 45 nm thickness were grown epitaxially on GaAs(001) substrates. Ellipsometry measurements were made in the spectral range 0.045 eV to 6 eV as a function of temperature (between –10 °C and 50 °C) at 70° of incidence. In this way the transition from the hexagonal α-phase to the orthorhombic β-phase could be monitored. Non-zero off-diagonal elements of the Jones matrix for an azimuth of 38° off the [10] axis of the substrate indicate that the optical functions of MnAs are anisotropic in both phases. The optical conductivity exhibits low-energy interband transitions around 0.3 eV, more clearly seen in the α-phase than in the β-phase. Extrapolation of the optical conductivity to zero frequency confirms that the α-phase is about two times more conducting than the β-phase. A broad structure is observed in the visible range around 3 eV. The α-phase is characterised by an anisotropy induced energy difference of this structure with a maximum at 2.8 eV for the extraordinary index and at 3.15 eV for the ordinary index. This difference vanishes in the β-phase in which anisotropy mainly induces changes in amplitude of the 3 eV structure. The assignment of the structures will be discussed.

  • 16.
    Gallas, B.
    et al.
    Inst des NanoSciences de Paris - CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, France.
    Rivory, J.
    Inst des NanoSciences de Paris - CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, France.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vidal, F.
    Inst des NanoSciences de Paris - CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, France.
    Stchakovsky, M.
    Thin Film Division, Jobin-Yvon S.A.S. Horiba Group, France.
    Monitoring the a to B-phase transition in MnAs/GaAs(001) thin films as funcion of temperature2008In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 205, no 4, p. 863-866Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    MnAs layers with a 5 nm thick amorphous GaAs capping layer were grown epitaxially on GaAs(001). Generalized ellipsometric measurements were made on a 45 nm thick layer in the spectral range 1.5–4 eV at temperatures between –10 °C and 50 °C in steps of 5 °C. By using both the diagonal and off-diagonal elements of the Jones matrix, the in-plane unixial anisotropy of MnAs was determined in terms of the ordinary and extraordinary complex dielectric functions. The measurements at each temperature could be well reproduced by modeling using the optical properties of the two limiting phases α-MnAs and β-MnAs determined at –10 °C and 50 °C, respectively. The best sensitivity to the volume fractions of the two phases was obtained near 2.2 eV by monitoring the generalized ellipsometric parameter Δp for which the variations reached 30°.

  • 17. Gavagnin, Marco
    et al.
    Wanzenboeck, Heinz D
    Belic, Domagoj
    Shawrav, Mostafa M
    Persson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Gunnarsson, Klas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Svedlindh, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Bertagnolli, Emmerich
    Magnetic force microscopy study of shape engineered FEBID iron nanostructures2014In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 211, no 2, p. 368-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The capability to control matter down to the nanoscale level in combination with the novel magnetic properties of nanomaterials have attracted increasing attention in the last few decades due to their applications in magnetic sensing, hard disc data storage and logic devices. Therefore, many efforts have been devoted to the implementation of both nanofabrication methods as well as characterization of magnetic nanoelements. In this study, Fe-based nanostructures have been synthesized on Si(100) by focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) utilizing iron pentacarbonyl as precursor. The so obtained nanostructures exhibit a remarkably high iron content (Fe>80at.%), expected to give rise to a ferromagnetic behaviour. For that reason, magnetic force microscopy (MFM) analyses were performed on the obtained FEBID Fe nanostructures. Moreover, object oriented micromagnetic framework (OOMMF) magnetic simulations have been executed to study the influence of the geometry on the magnetic properties of iron single-domain nanowires. FEBID is a mask-less nanofabrication method based on the injection of precursor gas molecules in proximity of the deposition area where their decomposition is locally induced by a focused electron beam.

  • 18.
    Giannazzo, F.
    et al.
    CNR, Italy.
    Fisichella, G.
    CNR, Italy.
    Greco, G.
    CNR, Italy.
    La Magna, A.
    CNR, Italy.
    Roccaforte, F.
    CNR, Italy.
    Pecz, B.
    HAS, Hungary.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dagher, R.
    CNRS, France; University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, France.
    Michon, A.
    CNRS, France.
    Cordier, Y.
    CNRS, France.
    Graphene integration with nitride semiconductors for high power and high frequency electronics2017In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 214, no 4, article id 10600460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Group III nitride semiconductors (III-N), including GaN, AlN, InN, and their alloys, are currently the materials of choice for many applications in optoelectronics (light-emitting diodes, laser diodes), and high-power and high-frequency transistors. Due to its attractive electrical, optical, mechanical, and thermal properties, graphene (Gr) integration with III-N technology has been considered in the last few years, in order to address some of the major issues which still limit the performances of GaN-based devices. To date, most of the studies have been focused on the use of Gr as transparent conductive electrode (TCE) to improve current spreading from top electrodes and light extraction in GaN-LEDs. This paper will review recent works evaluating the benefits of Gr integration with III-N for high power and high frequency electronics. From the materials side, recent progresses in the growth of high quality GaN layers on Gr templates and in the deposition of Gr on III-N substrates and templates will be presented. From the applications side, strategies to use Gr for thermal management in high-power AlGaN/GaN transistors will be discussed. Finally, recent proposals of implementing new ultra-high-frequency (THz) transistors, such as the Gr base hot electron transistor (GBHET), by Gr integration with III-N will be highlighted. (C) 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH amp; Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  • 19.
    Guziewicz, Elzbieta
    et al.
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Phys, Warsaw, Poland.
    Paskaleva, Albena
    Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Solid State Phys, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Knez, Mato
    Basque Fdn Sci, Ikerbasque, San Sebastian, Spain.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Advanced Oxide Materials - Growth, Application, Characterization2018In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 215, no 16, article id 1800546Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20. Haratizadeh, H
    et al.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Amano, H
    Effects of Si doping position on the emission energy and recombination dynamics of GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells2006In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 203, no 1, p. 149-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report results from detailed optical spectroscopy from MOCVD grown GaN/Al0.07Ga0.93N multiple quantum wells (MQWs). Effects of Si doping position on the emission energy and recombination dynamics were studied by means of photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved PL measurements. The samples were Si doped with the same level but different position of the dopant layer. Only the sample doped in the well shows the MQW emission redshifted compare to the GaN bandgap. The redshift is attributed to the self-energy shift of the electron states due to the correlated motion of the electrons exposed to the fluctuating potential of the donor ions. At low temperature the PL decay time of the sample doped in the well by a factor of two is longer than for the barrier doped case. The difference is explained by the effect of interplay of free carriers and ions on the screening of the polarization field in these doped structures.

  • 21.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ali Abbasi, Mazhar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The improved piezoelectric properties of ZnO nanorods with oxygen plasma treatment on the single layer graphene coated polymer substrate2014In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 211, no 2, p. 455-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The step towards the fabrication of nanodevices with improved performance is of high demand; therefore, in this study, oxygen plasma treated ZnO nanorods based piezoelectric nanogenerator is developed on the single layer graphene coated PET flexible polymer substrate. ZnO nanorods on the single layer graphene are grown by hydrothermal growth method and the structural study is carried out by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The piezoelectric properties of ZnO nanorods with and without plasma treatment were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The oxygen plasma treated sample of ZnO nanorods showed significant increase in the piezoelectric potential which could be due to the decrease in the defects levels in the ZnO and also increase in the mechanical properties of ZnO nanorods. Furthermore X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirms that the filling of vacancies by oxygen in the matrix of ZnO using oxygen plasma treatment has gave an enhanced piezoelectric potential compared to the sample of ZnO nanorods not treated with oxygen plasma. In addition to XPS experiment, cathodoluminescence (CL) technique was used for the determination of defect level in the ZnO nanorods after the treatment of oxygen plasma and the obtained information supported the XPS data of oxygen plasma treatment sample by showing the decreased level of defect levels in the prepared sample. From the XPS and CL studies, it is observed that the defect level has significant influence on the piezoelectric potential of the ZnO nanostructures.

  • 22. Kataria, S.
    et al.
    Wagner, S.
    Ruhkopf, J.
    Gahoi, A.
    Pandey, H.
    Bornemann, R.
    Vaziri, Sam
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Smith, Anderson D.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Lemme, Max C.
    Univ Siegen, Germany.
    Chemical vapor deposited graphene: From synthesis to applications2014In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 211, no 11, p. 2439-2449Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphene is a material with enormous potential for numerous applications. Therefore, significant efforts are dedicated to large-scale graphene production using a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. In addition, research is directed at developing methods to incorporate graphene in established production technologies and process flows. In this paper, we present a brief review of available CVD methods for graphene synthesis. We also discuss scalable methods to transfer graphene onto desired substrates. Finally, we discuss potential applications that would benefit from a fully scaled, semiconductor technology compatible production process.

  • 23.
    Keller, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Stolt, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Edoff, Marika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Törndahl, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Atomic layer deposition of In2O3 transparent conductive oxide layers for application in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with different buffer layers2016In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 213, no 6, p. 1541-1552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution presents the development of atomic layer deposited (ALD) In2O3 films for utilization as transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layers in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) solar cells. The effects of ALD process parameters on the morphology and growth of In2O3 are studied and related to the electrical and optical properties of the films. Maintaining similar resistivity values compared to commonly used ZnO:Al (AZO) TCOs (ρ = (5–7) × 10−4 Ωcm), a superior mobility of μ ≈ 110 cm2/Vs could be achieved (more than five times higher than a ZnO:Al reference), which results in a significantly reduced parasitic optical absorption in the infrared region. Application of the optimized In2O3 layers in CIGSe solar cells with varying buffer layers (CdS and Zn1–xSnxOy (ZTO)) leads to a distinct improvement in short circuit current density Jsc in both cases. While for solar cells containing the ZTO/In2O3 window structure, a drop in open-circuit voltage Voc and a deterioration under illumination is observed, the TCO exchange (from AZO to In2O3) on CdS buffer layers results in an increase in Voc without detectable light bias degradation. The efficiency η of the best corresponding solar cells could be improved by about 1% absolute.

  • 24.
    Khan, Azam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysis of direct and converse piezoelectric responses from zinc oxide nanowires grown on a conductive fabric2015In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 212, no 3, p. 579-584Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single crystalline hexagonal wurtzite zinc oxide nanowires were grown on conductive commercial textile fabric as piezoelectric material. Aqueous chemical growth (ACG) method was used for the synthesis of ZnO nanowires. Field emission surface scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques were used for surface and structural analysis of grown nanowires. The mechanical and piezoelectric properties of the nanowires were investigated by nanoindantation. Piezoelectric potentials up to 0.013 V were measured in response to direct applied loads in the range 0 - 11 mN. Also, a DC voltage was applied for measurement of converse piezoelectric response under a low constant applied force (~5 μN) and the piezoelectric coefficient was found to be 33.2 pm/V. This study performed on commercial conductive textile demonstrates the feasibility to fabricate wearable nanogenerator clothing.

  • 25.
    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tsiaoussis, Ioannis
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Eriksson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effect of Ag doping on the microstructure and photoluminescence of ZnO nanostructures2014In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 211, no 9, p. 2109-2114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ZnO nanostructures were obtained by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition via Ag catalyst-assisted growth in a temperature range of 200-500 degrees C. Growth at temperatures above 500 degrees C resulted in vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NLs). Ag incorporation into ZnO up to 0.4 at.% promoted creation of basal plane stacking fault (BSF) defects and corrugation of the side facets of the NLs. The presence of BSFs give rise to an additional photoluminescence peak with a wavelength of similar to 386 nm, which is slightly red-shifted compared to the commonly observed NBE emission at similar to 375 nm. The observed emission was found to be specifically observed from the side facets of the NLs. It is suggested that this emission is due to a high concentration of BSFs in the ZnO as a result of an incorporation of Ag as acceptor dopant. [GRAPHICS] SEM image of an Ag-doped ZnO nanorod with corrugated side facets. The observed corrugation is accompanied by a high concentration of basal plane stacking faults.

  • 26.
    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Lashkarev, G.
    Inst Problems Mat Sci, UA-03680 Kiev, Ukraine.
    Ulyashin, A.
    Inst Energy Technol, N-2027 Kjeller, Norway.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Investigation of ZnO as a perspective material for photonics2008In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 205, no 1, p. 144-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emissive properties of ZnO are of great interests in terms of the UV LED device design. The persistent "green" luminescence due to deep defect is an obstacle for obtaining an intense UV emission, expected from ZnO. We report the positive role of thermally diffused H toward quenching the defect emission in ZnO. It is suggested that hydrogen passivates defects responsible for DLE, resulting in efficient near band edge luminescence. As-grown ZnO/SiNx :H/Si films, deposited at 350 degrees C demonstrate intense narrow peaks of UV emission at 380 nm and a ratio of emission intensities, NBE/DLE approximate to 42. [GRAPHICS]

  • 27.
    Khun, Kimleang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Development of fast and sensitive ultraviolet photodetector using p-type NiO/n-type TiO2 heterostructures2013In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 210, no 12, p. 2720-2724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fast and sensitive ultraviolet (UV) photodetector are of high demand due to their potential applications in several fields. Therefore, the present study describes the synthesis of well aligned TiO2 nanorods, NiO nanostructures and their composite hetero-structures on the fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate by hydrothermal method. The material characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The synthesized nanostructures are well aligned, dense, and uniform on the substrate. TiO2 nanostructures are tetragonal in shape with rutile phase. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics were measured at room temperature. The photodiode exhibits nonlinear and rectifying behavior with high sensitivity and fast UV detection response. The enhanced photocurrent and less dark current are the attractive features of the fabricated photodiode. The observed UV response for the photodetector describes its worth and potential application in the respective fields.

  • 28.
    Klangtakai, Pawinee
    et al.
    Khon Kaen University, Thailand Nanotec KKU Centre Excellence Adv Nanomat Energy Pro, Thailand Khon Kaen University, Thailand .
    Sanorpim, Sakuntam
    Chulalongkorn University, Thailand .
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pimanpang, Samuk
    Khon Kaen University, Thailand Nanotec KKU Centre Excellence Adv Nanomat Energy Pro, Thailand Khon Kaen University, Thailand .
    Onabe, Kentaro
    University of Tokyo, Japan .
    Anomalous excitation-power-dependent photoluminescence of InGaAsN/GaAs T-shaped quantum wire2014In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 211, no 8, p. 1740-1744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The selected InGaAsN/GaAs T-shaped quantum wire (T-QWR) fabricated by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy has been investigated by microphotoluminescence (m-PL) and excitation-power-dependent mu-PL. The optical characteristics of one-dimensional structure were taken at low-temperature (4 K) and room temperature (RT) to clarify the intersection of two familiar quantum wells (QWs) in the [001] and [110] directions, named QW1 and QW2, respectively. For the excitation-power-dependent measurement, the intensity of the excitation source was used in the range of 0.001I(0) to I-0. The result shows that all of emissions related to QW1 and QWR peaks have a nonsymmetric line shape as evidenced by the tailing on the lower-energy side. All peaks shift to higher-energy side (blueshift) with the increase of the excitation power intensity. The blueshift and the low-energy tailing of PL peaks are attributed to the alloying effect. However, the emission peak related to QWR region shows a larger blueshift rate than that of QW1 on increasing of the excitation power intensity. This is an anomalous characteristic for the low-dimensional structure, affected by the large fluctuation state in the QWR region. This fluctuation state is combined of both edges of QWs (QW1 and QW2).

  • 29.
    Larsen, Jes K
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Scragg, Jonathan JS
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Frisk, Christopher
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Ren, Yi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Platzer-Björkman, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Potential of CuS cap to prevent decomposition of Cu2ZnSnS4 during annealing2015In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 212, no 12, p. 2843-2849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the challenges associated with processing of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is the thermal decomposition reaction that causes loss of S and SnS from the absorber surface. To reduce the decomposition a sufficiently high SnS and S partial pressure must be supplied during annealing. The absorber surface can alternatively be protected with a thin cap. Aiming to obtain a more flexible process, CZTS precursors were capped with a thin CuS layer before annealing. The cap was subsequently removed with a KCN etch before device finishing. It was found that the cap coverage decreased during annealing, exposing a part of the absorber surface. At the same time, the initially Cu poor absorber took up Cu from the cap, ending up with a stoichiometric Cu content. Devices made from capped precursors or precursors annealed without sulfur had poor device characteristics. An increased doping density of almost one order of magnitude could be the reason for the very poor performance. CuS is therefore not a suitable cap material for CZTS. Other cap materials could be investigated to protect the CZTS absorber surface during annealing.

  • 30.
    Lenz, Thomas
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute Polymer Research, Germany; Grad School Mat Science Mainz, Germany.
    Zhao, Dong
    Max Planck Institute Polymer Research, Germany.
    Richardson, George
    University of London Imperial Coll Science Technology and Med, England; University of London Imperial Coll Science Technology and Med, England.
    Katsouras, Ilias
    Max Planck Institute Polymer Research, Germany; Holst Centre, Netherlands.
    Asadi, Kamal
    Max Planck Institute Polymer Research, Germany; Max Planck Grad Centre, Germany.
    Glasser, Gunnar
    Max Planck Institute Polymer Research, Germany.
    Zimmermann, Samuel T.
    University of London Imperial Coll Science Technology and Med, England; University of London Imperial Coll Science Technology and Med, England.
    Stingelin, Natalie
    University of London Imperial Coll Science Technology and Med, England; University of London Imperial Coll Science Technology and Med, England.
    Christian Roelofs, W. S.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Blom, Paul W. M.
    Max Planck Institute Polymer Research, Germany; Grad School Mat Science Mainz, Germany.
    de Leeuw, Dago M.
    Max Planck Institute Polymer Research, Germany; King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia.
    Microstructured organic ferroelectric thin film capacitors by solution micromolding2015In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 212, no 10, p. 2124-2132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ferroelectric nanostructures offer a promising route for novel integrated electronic devices such as non-volatile memories. Here we present a facile fabrication route for ferroelectric capacitors comprising a linear array of the ferroelectric random copolymer of vinylidenefluoride and trifluoroethylene (P(VDF-TrFE)) interdigitated with the electrically insulating polymer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Micrometer size line gratings of both polymers were fabricated over large area by solution micromolding, a soft lithography method. The binary linear arrays were realized by backfilling with the second polymer. We investigated in detail the device physics of the patterned capacitors. The electrical equivalent circuit is a linear capacitor of PVA in parallel with a ferroelectric capacitor of P(VDF-TrFE). The binary arrays are electrically characterized by both conventional Sawyer-Tower and shunt measurements. The dependence of the remanent polarization on the array topography is explained by numerical simulation of the electric field distribution.

  • 31.
    Lopez-Lorente, Angela
    et al.
    Univ Ulm, Inst Analyt & Bioanalyt Chem, D-89081 Ulm, Germany.
    Wang, Pei
    Univ Ulm, Inst Analyt & Bioanalyt Chem, D-89081 Ulm, Germany.
    Sieger, Markus
    Univ Ulm, Inst Analyt & Bioanalyt Chem, D-89081 Ulm, Germany.
    Vargas Catalan, Ernesto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences. Mol Fingerprint Sweden AB, Eksatravagen 130, S-75655 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nikolajeff, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences. Mol Fingerprint Sweden AB, Eksatravagen 130, S-75655 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Mol Fingerprint Sweden AB, Eksatravagen 130, S-75655 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mizaikoff, Boris
    Univ Ulm, Inst Analyt & Bioanalyt Chem, D-89081 Ulm, Germany.
    Mid-infrared thin-film diamond waveguides combined with tunable quantum cascade lasers for analyzing the secondary structure of proteins2016In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 213, no 8, p. 2117-2123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diamond has excellent optical properties including broadband transmissivity, low self-absorption, and a high refractive index, which have prompted its use for optical sensing applications. Thin-film diamond strip waveguides (DSWGs) combined with tunable quantum cascade lasers (tQCLs) providing an emission wavelength range of 5.78-6.35 mu m (1735-1570 cm(-1)) have been used to obtain mid-infrared (MIR) spectra of proteins, thereby enabling the analysis of their secondary structure via the amide I band. Three different proteins were analyzed, namely bovine serum albumin (BSA), myoglobin, and gamma-globulin. The secondary structure of BSA and myoglobin has a major contribution of a-helices, whereas gamma-globulins are rich in beta-sheet structures, which is reflected in the amide I band. Acomparison of the spectra obtained via the combination of the tQCL and DSWG with spectra obtained using conventional Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and a commercial diamond attenuated total reflection (ATR) element has been performed. It is shown that the main features evident in FTIR-ATR spectra are also obtained using tQCL-DSWG sensors.

  • 32. Maccaferri, Nicolo
    et al.
    Kataja, Mikko
    Bonanni, Valentina
    Bonetti, Stefano
    Pirzadeh, Zhaleh
    Dmitriev, Alexandre
    van Dijken, Sebastiaan
    Åkerman, Johan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Vavassori, Paolo
    Effects of a non-absorbing substrate on the magneto-optical Kerr response of plasmonic ferromagnetic nanodisks2014In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 211, no 5, p. 1067-1075Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetoplasmonics is an emerging field of intense research on materials combining magnetic and plasmonic functionalities. The novel optical and magneto-optical (MO) properties displayed by these materials could allow the design of a new class of magnetically controllable optical nano-devices. In this work, we investigate the effects of a non-absorbing (insulating) substrate on the MO activity of pure ferromagnetic disk-shaped nanostructures supporting localized plasmon resonances. We show that the red-shift of the localized plasmon resonance, related to the modification of the localization of the electromagnetic field due to the substrate, is not the only effect that the substrate has on the MO response. We demonstrate that the reflectivity of the substrate itself plays a key role in determining the MO response of the system. We discuss why it is so and provide a description of the modeling tools suitable to take into account both effects. Understanding the role of the substrate will permit a more aware design of magnetoplasmonic nanostructured devices for future biotechnological and optoelectronic applications. [GRAPHICS] Ferromagnetic nickel nanodisk in vacuum (left) and on a non-absorbing substrate (right), illuminated by linearly polarized light. The polarization of the reflected field is changed in the first case due to a combination of intrinsic magneto-optical properties and the nanoconfinement of the material. In the second case, the polarization of the reflected light is affected also by the presence of the substrate.

  • 33.
    Messina, Luca
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Physics.
    Chiapetto, Monica
    Olsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Physics.
    Becquart, Charlotte S.
    Malerba, Lorenzo
    An object kinetic Monte Carlo model for the microstructure evolution of neutron-irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels2016In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 213, no 11, p. 2974-2980Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents a full object kinetic Monte Carlo framework for the simulation of the microstructure evolution of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. The model pursues a "gray-alloy" approach, where the effect of solute atoms is seen exclusively as a reduction of the mobility of defect clusters. The same set of parameters yields a satisfactory evolution for two different types of alloys, in very different irradiation conditions: an Fe-C-MnNi model alloy (high flux) and a high-Mn, high-Ni RPV steel (low flux). A satisfactory match with the experimental characterizations is obtained only if assuming a substantial immobilization of vacancy clusters due to solute atoms, which is here verified by means of independent atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. The microstructure evolution of the two alloys is strongly affected by the dose rate; a predominance of single defects and small defect clusters is observed at low dose rates, whereas larger defect clusters appear at high dose rates. In both cases, the predicted density of interstitial loops matches the experimental solute-cluster density, suggesting that the MnNi-rich nanofeatures might form as a consequence of solute enrichment on immobilized small interstitial loops, which are invisible to the electron microscope.

  • 34.
    Misheva, M.
    et al.
    Department of Physics, Sofia University, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gogova, Daniela
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Positron annihilation study of HVPE grown thick GaN layers2005In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 202, no 5, p. 713-717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single-crystalline GaN layers with a thickness up to 330 µm were grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on basal plane sapphire at gallium stable conditions in a bottom-fed vertical reactor at atmospheric pressure. Positron annihilation spectroscopy experiments were implemented in order to identify native point defects in the as-grown non-intentionally doped n-type GaN. Comparatively low concentrations of Ga vacancy related defects in the order of 1016 to 1017 cm–3 were extracted from the positron annihilation spectroscopy data. The Ga vacancy defect concentration was related to the intensity of the yellow photoluminescence band centered at 2.2 eV. The influence of the growth rate on the Ga vacancy related defect concentration was investigated. A trend of decreasing of the defect concentration with increasing of layer thickness is observed, which correlates with improving crystalline quality with the thickness.

  • 35.
    Monemar, Bo
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Keller, S.
    DenBaars, S. P.
    Mishra, U. K.
    Effect of an (Al,In)N insertion layer on the radiative emission properties of (In,Ga)N/GaN multiple quantum well structures2007In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 204, no 1, p. 304-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As an effort to investigate new techniques to reduce the effect of the strong internal polarization fields in (In,Ga)N/GaN quantum well (QW) structures we have studied the influence of inserting a thin wide band-gap AI(0 95)In(0.05)N interlayer inside the QWs, in order to modify the potential and increase the electron-hole overlap. A strong reduction of the decay times of the photoluminescence (PL) was observed in this case at all temperatures up to 300 K, without a strong reduction in PL intensity. The tunneling electron-hole transition across the interlayer is observed to be dominant at room temperature for high excitation conditions. (c) 2007 WILEYNCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  • 36.
    Nour, Eiman
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chey, Chan
    Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Royal University of Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Low frequency accelerator sensor based on piezoelectric ZnO nanorods grown by low temperature scalable process2016In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 213, no 9, p. 2503-2508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Piezoelectric vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) were grown by low temperature aqueous chemical approach and successfully used as a low frequency self-powered accelerator detector system. The nanogenerator (NG) device was tested under the influence of low frequency vibrations, different load masses, and finger prints pressure. The experimental results show relatively high sensitivity to frequencies as low as 5 Hz. This energy conversion device has produced a maximum output voltage of about 0.3 and 1.4 V under a frequency of 41 Hz and a mass of 1000 g, respectively. The fabricated NG can be used as an accelerator sensor with a good performance in the range from about 0.67 to 5.5 m s−2 with a sensitivity of 0.045 V s2 m−1. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the NG is able to harvest energy under finger-print scanning. The result from the finger-print pressure was consistent with the masses testing results. This energy-harvesting technology also provides a simple and cost-effective platform to capture low-frequency mechanical energy, i.e., body movements, and other applications like developing a sensitive finger print camera, etc.

  • 37. Ochalski, TJ
    et al.
    Grzegorczyk, A
    Rudzinski, M
    Larsen, PK
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Optical study of AlGaN/GaN based HEMT structures grown on sapphire and SiC2005In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 202, no 7, p. 1300-1307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A detailed photoluminescence (PL), time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL), and photoreflectance (PR) analysis of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures grown on different substrates: sapphire and silicon carbide (SiC) is presented in this paper. The properties of high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) based on AlGaN/GaN structures are strongly dependent on the quality of the AlxGa1-xN top layer. We have examined a number of samples, grown on sapphire, in which the thicknesses of the Al0.3Ga0.7N layers vary from 18 to 75 nm. Room temperature PL under pulsed 266 nm excitation allowed for determination of the AI content in the examined thin AlGaN layers. Time-resolved PL measured at 1.6 K showed huge difference in the emission dynamics for different Al0.3Ga0.7N layer thicknesses. We observed an enormous increase of the emission decay time above the critical thickness of the AlGaN layer. PR spectra (associated with the GaN main layer) measured on AlGaN/GaN systems are discussed in terms of the thickness of the capping layer. The PR modulated by a high power 266 nm pulsed laser measured on a transistor structure exhibited an additional feature placed between signals related to the GaN and AlGaN layers, respectively. Such a transition is possible to monitor only for the structures of the best quality and is accordingly observable only on samples grown on SiC. (c) 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  • 38.
    Omanakuttan, Giriprasanth
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Stergiakis, Stamoulis
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Sahgal, Abhishek
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Sychugov, Ilya
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Sun, Yan-Ting
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaxIn1-xP toward direct GaxIn1-xP/Si heterojunction2017In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 214, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growth of GaInP by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) was studied on planar GaAs, patterned GaAs for epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG), and InP/Si seed templates for corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth (CELOG). First results on the growth of direct GaInP/Si heterojunction by CELOG is presented. The properties of GaxIn(1-x)P layer and their dependence on the process parameters were investigated by X-ray diffraction, including reciprocal lattice mapping (XRD-RLM), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), photoluminescence (PL), and Raman spectroscopy. The fluctuation of Ga composition in the GaxIn(1-x)P layer was observed on planar substrate, and the strain caused by the composition variation is retained until relaxation occurs. Fully relaxed GaInP layers were obtained by ELOG and CELOG. Raman spectroscopy reveals that there is a certain amount of ordering in all of the layers except those grown at high temperatures. Orientation dependent Ga incorporation in the CELOG, but not in the ELOG GaxIn(1-x)P layer, and Si incorporation in the vicinity of direct GaxIn(1-x)P/Si heterojunction from CELOG are observed in the SEM-EDS analyses. The high optical quality of direct GaInP/Si heterojunction was observed by cross-sectional micro-PL mapping and the defect reduction effect of CELOG was revealed by high PL intensity in GaInP above Si.

  • 39.
    Pevere, Federico
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Bruhn, Benjamin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Sangghaleh, Fatemeh
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Hormozan, Yashar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Sychugov, Ilya
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Linnros, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Effect of X-ray irradiation on the blinking of single silicon nanocrystals2015In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 212, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photoluminescence (PL) intermittency (blinking) observed for single silicon nanocrystals (Si-NCs) embedded in oxide is usually attributed to trapping/de-trapping of carriers in the vicinity of the NC. Following this model, we propose that blinking could be modified by introducing new trap sites, for example, via X-rays. In this work, we present a study of the effect of X-ray irradiation (up to 65 kGy in SiO) on the blinking of single Si-NCs embedded in oxide nanowalls. We show that the luminescence characteristics, such as spectrum and life-time, are unaffected by X-rays. However, substantial changes in ON-state PL intensity, switching frequency, and duty cycle emerge from the blinking traces, while the ON- and OFF- time distributions remain of mono-exponential character. Although we do not observe a clear monotonic dependence of the blinking parameters on the absorbed dose, our study suggests that, in the future, Si-NCs could be blinking-engineered via X-ray irradiation.

  • 40.
    Pinto, H.
    et al.
    College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter.
    Jones, R.
    College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter.
    Palmer, D.W.
    College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter.
    Goss, J.O
    School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Briddon, P.R.
    School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Öberg, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Theory of the surface effects on the luminescence of the NV(-) defect in nanodiamond2011In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 208, no 9, p. 2045-2050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A vacancy with one of the carbon neighbours replaced by a nitrogen atom in diamond (the NV centre) is a defect of particular interest due to its many potential applications. In the negatively charged state, the defect is paramagnetic with spin 1 and under optical excitation it exhibits an intense luminescence with a zero-phonon line at 1.945eV. This fluorescence is found in nanodiamonds even as small as 5nm and an important question is the effect of the surface of the nanodiamond on the optical emission of NV-. Density functional calculations are used in this work to investigate the effect of the bare (001) and (001)-OH diamond surfaces on the electronic structure of NV -. We show that the (001)-OH diamond surface has the minimum interaction with the defect and is the ideal terminating surface of nanodiamonds, while the bare (001) diamond surface has a strong effect on broadening the emission.

  • 41.
    Pinto, H.
    et al.
    Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics.
    Jones, R.
    College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter.
    Palmer, D.W.
    College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter.
    Goss, J.P.
    School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Briddon, P.R.
    School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Öberg, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    On the diffusion of NV defects in diamond2012In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 209, no 9, p. 1765-1768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Besides their importance for quantum information processing, NV defects are crucial agents for the diffusion and aggregation of nitrogen in diamond. In the absence of transition metals, it is thought that the first stage of nitrogen aggregation, where close neighbour nitrogen pairs are formed, is mediated by NV defects. Here we use density functional theory to explore the barriers to NV diffusion. We conclude that the barrier is around 5 eV when there is a ready source of vacancies and that this barrier is weakly dependent on pressure.

  • 42.
    Porro, Samuele
    et al.
    Department of Physics, Polytechnic of Torino, Torino, Italy.
    Ciechonski, Rafal
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electrical Analysis and Interface States Evaluation of of Ni Schottky diodes on 4H-SiC thick epilayers2005In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 202, no 13, p. 2508-2514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work has been focused on characterization of thick 4H-SiC layers produced by sublimation epitaxy. Nickel Schottky contacts have been fabricated in order to characterize the grown material and evaluate the interfacial layer between metal and semiconductor. The characterization study includes current-voltage and capacitance-voltage high temperature measurements, from which Schottky barrier, net donor concentration and on-state resistance values have been extracted. The diodes show a typical behavior of J-V and C-V curves with temperature, with Schottky barrier heights of 1.3 eV ÷ 1.4 eV and net donor concentration of 4 × 1015 cm-3 ÷ 1 × 1016 cm-3. From the Bardeen's model on reverse J-V, the density of states of the interfacial layer has been estimated to 7 × 1011 eV-1 cm-2 ÷ 8 × 1011 eV-1 cm-2, a value that is similar to the density of states of oxide layers in deliberated MOS structures realized on the same epilayers.

  • 43. Radnóczi, G. Z.
    et al.
    Seppänen, Timo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pécz, B.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Growth of highly curved Al1-xinxN nanocrystals2005In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 202, no 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A materials structure is reported that is characterized by high lattice curvature assigned to a compositional gradient. The phenomenon occurs for physical vapour deposition of Al1-xInxN epitaxial thin films with directional fluxes of Al and In at kinetically limited growth conditions. According to our growth model unit cells are incorporated on the growth surfaces of emerging whiskers (nanowires) with a continuously varying lattice parameter depending on their position with respect to Al- and In-rich sides of the whisker. Such curved crystals are effectively quenched solid solutions. We present a description of this generic, self-assembled curved crystal structure and its implications. © 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  • 44.
    Reuterskiold Hedlund, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics.
    Oberg, Olof
    RISE Acreo, Box 1070, SE-16425 Kista, Sweden..
    Lim, Jang-Kwon
    RISE Acreo, Box 1070, SE-16425 Kista, Sweden..
    Wang, Qin
    RISE Acreo, Box 1070, SE-16425 Kista, Sweden..
    Salter, Michael
    RISE Acreo, Box 1070, SE-16425 Kista, Sweden..
    Hammar, Mattias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics.
    Trench-Confined InP-Based Epitaxial Regrowth Using Metal-Organic Vapor-Phase Epitaxy2018In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 215, no 8, article id 1700454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, an area-selective metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) for trench-confined InP-based epitaxial regrowth in-between arrayed rectangular-shaped device elements is reported. Test structures are fabricated to investigate the influence of MOVPE growth and other processing parameters on regrowth control, doping incorporation, and morphology. For correctly chosen crystallographic mesa orientation and mask geometry, good control of growth selectivity, layer morphology, and doping concentration can be achieved, although with an enhanced and non-constant growth rate. This is discussed in terms of orientation-dependent growth rate and loading effects. In addition, a selective etch and regrowth approach which allows for the processing of field-effect transistors of significance for spatial light modulators with trench-integrated driver electronics is successfully implemented.

  • 45.
    Rinio, Markus
    et al.
    Fraunhofer ISE, Laboratory and Servicecenter, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen, Germany.
    Yodyunyong, Arthit
    Fraunhofer ISE, Laboratory and Servicecenter, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen, Germany.
    Keipert-Colberg, Sinje
    Fraunhofer ISE, Laboratory and Servicecenter, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen, Germany.
    Borchert, Dietmar
    Fraunhofer ISE, Laboratory and Servicecenter, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen, Germany.
    Montesdeoca-Santana, Amada
    Universidad de La Laguna, Avda Astrofísico Fco Sánchez, 2, 38206 La Laguna, Spain.
    Recombination in ingot cast siliconsolar cells2011In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 208, no 4, p. 760-768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Minority carrier recombination is studied in multicrystalline ingot cast silicon solar cells. The normalized recombination strength G of dislocations is obtained by correlating topogramsof the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) with those of the dislocation densityr.G is obtained by fitting an extended theory of Donolato to the experimental data. The measured G-values vary significantly between adjacent dislocation clusters and correlate with the spatial pattern of the dislocations. All G-values are strongly dependent on the parameters of the solar cell process. The influence of phosphorus diffusion and hydrogenation is shown. After solidification of the silicon, impurities from the crucible enter the ingot and deteriorate its border regions during cooling to room temperature. These deteriorated border regions can be significantly improved byan additional low temperature anneal that is applied after phosphorus diffusion. The experiments indicate that the mechanism of the anneal is external phosphorus gettering into the emitter.

  • 46.
    Shubina, Tatiana
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Ivanov, SV
    Jmerik, VN
    Glazov, MM
    Kalvarskii, AP
    Tkachman, MG
    Vasson, A
    Leymarie, J
    Kavokin, A
    Amano, H
    Akasaki, I
    Butcher, KSA
    Guo, Q
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Kop'ev, PS
    Optical properties of InN with stoichoimetry violation and indium clustering2005In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 202, no 3, p. 377-382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate that nonstoichiometry is one of the main reason of strong deviation of the InN optical gap in the 0.7-2 eV range, with N/In < 1 and N/In > 1 corresponding to the lower and higher energies, respectively. The phenomenon is discussed in terms of atomic orbital energies, which are strongly different for indium and nitrogen, therefore both excess atom incorporation and elimination could change the optical gap. We estimate such trends using the approximation of the empirical nearest-neighbor tight binding theory. It is also demonstrated that resonant absorption in In-enriched regions is an additional factor lowering an effective absorption edge.

  • 47.
    Shubina, Tatiana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Leymarie, J.
    Jmerik, V.N.
    Amano, H.
    Schaff, W.J.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Ivanov, S.V.
    Optical properties of InN related to surface plasmons2005In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 202, no 14, p. 2633-2641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the complex nature of infrared luminescence and absorption in InN films, which cannot be entirely explained by the concept of a conventional narrow-gap semiconductor. In particular, it concerns the detection of peaks near absorption edges by both thermally detected optical absorption and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy and the observation of extraordinarily strong resonant enhancement of emission. To describe the experimental data a model is proposed, which takes into account surface plasmons in metal-like inclusions, modifying the optical properties of InN. © 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA,.

  • 48.
    Song, Yang
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Larsson, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    A Theoretical Study of Dye Molecules Adsorbed onto Diamond (111) Surfaces2016In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 213, no 8, p. 2105-2111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combinations of different dye molecules adsorbed on 100% H-terminated B-doped diamond (111) surfaces, have been carefully simulated by using DFT under periodic boundary conditions. The dye molecules include C20H13NO3S4, C35H37NO2S3, C34H38OS2, C32H36OS2, and C31H35S3Br. The functional group within these dyes, behaves as an electron acceptor during the sunlight harvesting process. By comparing the upper valence band edge of the diamond surface with the HOMO and LUMO levels of the dyes in an energy diagram, a suitable scheme for a p-type dye sensitized solar cell was constructed. These functionalities were further confirmed by the observation of a partial degree of electron transfer from the diamond surface to the dye molecules. The combination of spectra for the dye molecules showed a wide absorption range from 200nm to 620nm. The effect of B doping on the binding of the dye molecules have furthermore been investigated. Shorter diamond//dye bonds are well correlated with large electron bond populations, and a larger degree of electron transfer. The former is regarded to be a meassure of covalency, and the latter a meassure of ionicity, in the interfacial bond. 

  • 49.
    Tamm, Aile
    et al.
    University of Tartu, Estonia .
    Kozlova, Jekaterina
    University of Tartu, Estonia .
    Aarik, Lauri
    University of Tartu, Estonia .
    Aidla, Aleks
    University of Tartu, Estonia .
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kiisler, Alma-Asta
    University of Tartu, Estonia .
    Kasikov, Aarne
    University of Tartu, Estonia .
    Ritslaid, Peeter
    University of Tartu, Estonia .
    Maendar, Hugo
    University of Tartu, Estonia .
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sammelselg, Vaeino
    University of Tartu, Estonia University of Tartu, Estonia .
    Kukli, Kaupo
    University of Tartu, Estonia University of Helsinki, Finland .
    Aarik, Jaan
    University of Tartu, Estonia .
    Atomic layer deposition of ZrO2 for graphene-based multilayer structures: In situ and ex situ characterization of growth process2014In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 211, no 2, p. 397-402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real time monitoring of atomic layer deposition by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) was used to follow the growth of ZrO2 thin films on graphene. The films were grown from ZrCl4 and H2O on graphene prepared by chemical vapor deposition method on 100-nm thick nickel film or on Cu-foil and transferred onto QCM sensor. The deposition was performed at a substrate temperature of 190 degrees C. The growth of the dielectric film on graphene was significantly retarded compared to the process carried out on QCM without graphene. After the deposition of dielectric films, the basic structure of graphene was retained.

  • 50.
    Tiwari, Amit K.
    et al.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Goss, J.P.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Briddon, P.R.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Wright, N.G.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Horsfall, A.B.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Jones, R.
    School of Physics, University of Exeter.
    Pinto, H.
    School of Physics, University of Exeter.
    Rayson, Mark
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Thermodynamic stability and electronic properties of F- and Cl-terminated diamond2012In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 209, no 9, p. 1709-1714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical termination of diamond has important consequences for its electrical and chemical properties. Despite the impressive potential for various scientific and technological applications, halogen termination of diamond is not fully understood. We find using first principle atomistic simulation that 100% fluorinated diamond (100) surface exhibit a chemically stable positive electron affinity of 2.13 eV, whereas 100% chlorination is energetically unfavourable. The positive electron affinity of halogenated diamond generally increases with increasing surface coverage. For mixed halogen and hydrogen termination, a wide range of negative and positive electron affinities can be achieved theoretically by varying the relative concentrations of adsorbed species.

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