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  • 1.
    Bengtsson, Anders Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    L’évolution du suffixe –issime: un inventaire et une fréquence des formes attestées dans Frantext2019In: Bergen Language and Lingustics Studies, ISSN 1892-2449, E-ISSN 1892-2449, Vol. 10, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthetic superlative -ÍSSIMUS in Latin survived in Italian, whereas it was borrowed in the Romance languages on the Iberian Peninsula and in French during the Renaissance. This suffix has been very frequent in these languages with the exception of French. In this language it has been accepted merely when used in titles. Condemned by grammarians, the suffix has thus been quite rare in French literature. The present study shows however that in the database Frantext, which comprises mostly literary texts, nearly 1,400 occurrences of words with the suffix -issime are found, rarissime and richissime being the most frequent (apart from titles). But with the emergence of new media, it seems that the suffix has become much more frequent in French. These adjectives are found mainly in areas like politics, sports, travels, adult movies and in comments by web visitors as shown in this study.

  • 2.
    Fort, Giovanni
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    I germanismi nello spazio linguistico della penisola italica: superstrato prodotto dalla migrazione; ambito di analisi diacronica, diatopica, e stilistica; strumento per la didattica2019In: Bergen Language and Lingustics Studies, ISSN 1892-2449, E-ISSN 1892-2449, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Germanic peoples appear strongly on the stage of history during late antiquity. With the advent of so-called “Barbarian Invasions” (or “folk migrations”, if the perspective is that of the invaders), raids by Germanic tribes gradually turn into migrations of ethnic groups settling in the areas they strike. With the fall of the Empire and the creation of Barbarian Kingdoms, this phenomenon leads to lasting effects on local languacultures. In the Italian peninsula, Goths, Langobards, and Franks, impacted the evolution of vulgar Latin, leaving visible traces in the Italian language.

    The Germanic element of Italian vocabulary is represented by a multitude of toponyms and anthroponyms; it characterises specific lexical areas, and is observable in basic vocabulary and derivational morphology. These elements (systematically collected within the LEI project) are an extremely interesting object of study, on several levels.

    In a diachronic perspective: analysing their presence at different stages, and as an instrument for dating.

    In a diatopic perspective: as a criterion of dialectological analysis, also frequently linked to geosynonyms and so-called “parole bandiera”. (Besides also being a differentiating criterion between romance languages).

    In a sociolinguistic and stylistic perspective: considering the value of a Latin or a Germanic equivalent, in context.

    It is moreover ultimately relevant to consider an approach involving Germanic elements in Italian as an effective pedagogical tool. They can prove extremely useful, not only in educating about the history of the languaculture of the Italian peninsula, but also in teaching basic language-competence, and in the expansion of vocabulary, exploiting intercomprehension in learners with a Germanic mother tongue in general, and a Scandinavian one in particular (and vice versa).

  • 3.
    Guignard, Sophie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    The irrational and the shift of human boundaries in contemporary novels by Castillon, Martinez and NDiaye2019In: Bergen Language and Lingustics Studies, ISSN 1892-2449, E-ISSN 1892-2449, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The infiltration of magical, marvellous and fantastic features in novels which have a realist anchoring is a remarkable trend in contemporary literature by women writers in French. In order to reveal the issues conveyed by such an imagery built on various literary traditions, I examine the representations of the irrational in recent novels by three authors: Eux (2014) and Les Pêchers (2015) by Claire Castillon, Du Domaine des murmures (2011) and La Terre qui penche (2015) by Carole Martinez and Ladivine (2013) by Marie NDiaye. I use the term “irrational” as a comprehensive notion referring to the fantastic and supernatural elements in the novels, including altered perceptions, paranormal and strange occurences, metamorphosis, staging of an alter ego, monstrosity and animality in human beings, life-after-death issues, emphasised relations to nature, and other phenomena and states that can not be explained by logic. Formulations of the irrational theme exploit a literary patrimony, related in particular to the traditions of medieval marvellous literature, the fairy tales, fantastic literature, surrealism and fantastic realism. I find that the irrational articulates a shift in human spatiotemporality towards vegetal states, animality or monstrosity, and initiates an altered approach to the world. A displaced sense of reality stemming from irrational phenomena and perceptions leads to a dislocation of human consciousness which is performed through the narrative voices. The framework for the analysis consists of a feminist and posthumanist conceptualisation which involves the notions of ‘performativity’ and ‘traces’ developed by Butler and Derrida.

  • 4.
    Lindholm, Elena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Collective motherliness in Spain: Reception and Reformulation of Ellen Key’s ideas (1907–1936)2019In: Bergen Language and Lingustics Studies, ISSN 1892-2449, E-ISSN 1892-2449, Vol. 10, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the early 1900s, Ellen Key's ideas about pedagogy, feminism and child rearing were influential around Europe. The same was true of Spain, although Key herself never visited the country. This article examines how Key's concept of collective motherliness was received and reformulated by Spanish intellectuals from two different generations: the first during the first two decades of the 20th century (1907-1920) and the second during the third and fourth decades (1920-1936). The focus is on works by two authors, each representing their generation of interpreters of Ellen Key: Carmen de Burgos (1867–1932) and Federica Montseny (1905–1994). The interpretation of these authors' texts in the light of Ellen Key's ideas of collective motherliness shows the reception and reformulation of these ideas in Spain changed between the two generations. The first focused more on collective values, such as women's education and patriarchal oppression in society, while the second generation focused more on individual aspects, such as free love and personal development.

  • 5.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Familia, género y espacio transnacional en Dime algo sobre Cuba, de Jesús Díaz2019In: Bergen Language and Lingustics Studies, ISSN 1892-2449, E-ISSN 1892-2449, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Family and intimate relationships across borders is a central topic in migration literature. This article investigates the representation of the transnational family in Dime algo sobre Cuba (1998), by the Cuban writer and filmmaker Jesús Díaz. Written from exile in Spain, the novel is set in Cuba’s “Special Period” of post-Cold War economic crisis and emigration of balseros (‘rafters’). The highly original plot of a twofold perilous voyage between Havana and Miami incorporates elements from both exile literature and undocumented migration narratives, but it also goes beyond the established patterns of these genres. Drawing on transnational family studies and feminist theory, this paper examines how the characters experience the migration process with focus on the internal dynamics of the subjects that comprise the family, their relations to multiple places, as well as the narrative modes of representing these relations. It shows the internal dynamics of the protagonist’s family as a split narrative of dis- and reintegration across political and national borders. It also discusses the lived experience of the double orientation of the migrant subject, facing a lost home(land) as well as a new place which s/he still does not inhabit. The analysis suggests that the process of the reorientation of the migrant subject is articulated as a gendered and sexualised narrative of the intimate relations of the protagonist, intertwined with the narrative of the homeland. However, the ambivalent ending of the novel with its references to cultural hybridity points to an opening where the future of Cuban exile and diaspora lies in the ability to forgive and establish cultural contact across borders.

  • 6.
    Stridfeldt, Monika
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, French.
    La production du schwa par des apprenants suédophones de FLE2019In: Bergen Language and Lingustics Studies, ISSN 1892-2449, E-ISSN 1892-2449Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Ström Herold, Jenny
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    English supplementive ing-clauses and their German and Swedish correspondences2018In: Bergen Language and Lingustics Studies, ISSN 1892-2449, E-ISSN 1892-2449, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 115-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates English supplementive ing-clauses (e.g., Hitler exploded, demanding examples.) in German and Swedish contrast. The material consists of popular non-fiction originals and their translations from the Linnaeus University English-German-Swedish corpus (LEGS) (version 0.1). The results show that coordination is the most frequent correspondence of supplementive ing-clauses in German and Swedish translations and originals. Like the supplementive ing-clause, a coordination is a compressed and semantically indeterminate structure. The other major correspondences include subordination, main clause and prepositional phrase. German translators more often use main clauses than Swedish translators, which seems to be related to an increasing German tendency for parataxis rather than hypotaxis. A number of German and Swedish instances involve different kinds of explicitation, including conjunctions and German pronominal adverbs.

  • 8.
    Sullet-Nylander, Francoise
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Roitman, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    La (dé)nomination du « peuple français » par Emmanuel Macron et Marine Le Pen Débat de l’entre-deux-tours du 3 mai 2017: une étude lexicale et sémantique2019In: Bergen Language and Lingustics Studies, ISSN 1892-2449, E-ISSN 1892-2449, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the proposed article, the authors investigate how the candidates to the French presidential elections, Emmanuel Macron and Marine Le Pen, named their fellow citizens, what types of denominations the two candidates used when referring to the French people during the TV-debate which took place in May 2017. The authors have carried out several discourse analytic studies on the final debate of the French presidential elections(Sullet-Nylander & Roitman 2010a, 2010b, 2011 and 2016).This new study deals with the concepts of denomination and/or nominationwithin a discourse analytic framework based on theoretical models and definitions by Kleiber (2001) and Siblot (2001). The identification of “les paradigmes désignationnels” (Charaudeau & Maingueneau 2002: 415) enables the collection of relevant semantic and lexical information related to this specific genre and discourse type. The analyses are quantitative and qualitative as well as comparative (between the two candidates). The following research questions are addressed: How do both candidates refer to French people during their exchanges? Do the differences in the frequency of a particular denomination depend on the political orientation of the candidates? What electoral strategies can be linked to these (de)nominations? The results show several differences between the two candidates, one of which the most salient beingMarine Le Pen’s use of the lexeme “compatriotes” while Macron prefers “concitoyens”.

  • 9.
    Svensson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Modern Languages, Romance Languages.
    À la frontière entre simultanéité et contraste: traduction de marqueurs de simultanéité, de contraste et de concession2019In: Bergen Language and Lingustics Studies, ISSN 1892-2449, E-ISSN 1892-2449, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 1440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the hypothesis that the use of these French markers alors que and tandis que is more generalized in an adversative and concessive context than the use of the Swedish markers medan et samtidigt som, similar to the French markers concerning their syntactic function and semantic value of simultaneity. The aim of the study is to identify different tendencies in the translation of the French markers alors que and tandis que and the Swedish markers medan and samtidigt som, which can all be considered to be ambiguous and have a double function. Their temporal signification of simultaneity has developed in an adversative or a concessive use. Our hypothesis is however that these markers are at different stages in the procedure of grammaticalisation, and that the French markers can more easily occur in a purely adversative or concessive context.

    This study, based on the occurrences of these markers in two bidirectional corpora including texts of specialist literature, ParaFraSe-HumSam (Svensson 2010), and novels, Corpus Parallèle Suédois-Français : version 2010 (Andersson 2007 ; Hellqvist 2015), shows a tendency to make explicit the adversative or concessive relation when translating the French markers tandis que and alors que, especially in the case of alors que. A difference in the use of verb tense in the clauses linked by the French and the Swedish conjunctions can also be confirmed; the French conjunctions sometimes link clauses in different verb tenses, which is rare in the case of the Swedish conjunctions medan et samtidigt som. This difference could indicate different levels of grammaticalisation of these conjunctions.

  • 10.
    Yvert-Hamon, Sophie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Stratégies de désignation dans le discours politique catholique et protestant pendant les guerres de religion: le tournant décisif de la conversion d’Henri IV (1593)2019In: Bergen Language and Lingustics Studies, ISSN 1892-2449, E-ISSN 1892-2449, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the strategies of designation in the political discourse of Huguenots on the one hand, and Ultra-Catholics on the other hand, during the period preceding and following the conversion of Henry IV (1593). Using Discourse Analysis as a theoretical and methodological framework, this study focuses on how the different actors (parties, the King) are presented in these discourses.

    The corpus is composed of two texts, both published in 1593. The first one is by the Duke of Mayenne, leader of the Catholic League, and aims to reunify all Catholics within the kingdom in order to annihilate Protestantism. It is written before the conversion of Henry IV to Catholicism and expresses the frustration of Ultra-Catholics at having a protestant king. The second text is by Philippe Duplessis-Mornay on behalf of the Huguenots’ political assemblies. It is a letter addressed to King Henry IV just after his conversion to Catholicism in 1593. This letter expresses the frustration of Huguenots as their protector converted to Catholicism. Analyzing the use of referential expressions according to the constructivist conception of the reference developed by Apothéloz and Reichler-Béguelin (1995), this study considers the referents as discourse-objects and the talking subject as acting on these objects. The study is qualitative and examines the different functions (argumentative, social, polyphonic) of the categorizations and recategorizations in order to underscore the discursive strategies of the authors. This paper argues that there are similarities in the way the different actors are presented in the two texts but that the perspective is essentially religious in the text by the Catholic League whereas the perspective is more political in the text by the Huguenots.

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