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  • 1.
    Bouchard, Marie-Eve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Ongoing change in post-independence Sao Tome: The use of rhotics as a marker of national identity among young speakers of Santomean Portuguese2019In: Language Variation and Change, ISSN 0954-3945, E-ISSN 1469-8021, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 21-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines variation in the use of rhotics in Santomean Portuguese. In Portuguese, the distribution of rhotics is determined by syllable structure (Bonet & Mascaro, 1997). However, the emerging variety of Portuguese spoken in Sao Tome and Principe diverges from the standard norm and shows great variability in its use of rhotics; specifically, Santomeans often use a strong-R in positions that require a weak-r in European and Brazilian Portuguese. Sociolinguistic interviews with 56 speakers from the capital of Sao Tome and Principe and its surroundings provide 5287 data points for analysis. Based on the apparent-time construct (Bailey, 2004; Bailey et al., 1991), variation patterns show a language change in progress in the use of the strong-R, with younger speakers using it more frequently. Results also reveal the emergence of rhotic fricatives in the speech of Santomeans born after the independence of the country.

  • 2.
    Gross, Johan
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Segregated vowels: Language variation and dialect features among Gothenburg youth2018In: Language Variation and Change, ISSN 0954-3945, E-ISSN 1469-8021, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 315-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the effects of housing segregation on variation in the vowel systems of young speakers of Swedish who have grown up in different neighborhoods of Gothenburg. Significant differences are found for variants of the variables /i:/ and /y:/, which are strongly associated with the local dialect; these two vowels also exhibit coherence. Another vowel pair, /.:/ and /o:/, are involved in a coherent leveling process affecting many of the central Swedish dialects but differing in degree of openness in different neighborhoods of Gothenburg. The results show that the variation is not simply a reflection of foreign background, nor of groups of youth adopting single variants; rather, a number of social factors conflate in housing segregation, which interferes with the transmission of more abstract aspects of the local dialect’s vowel system to young speakers in certain neighborhoods.

  • 3.
    Laitinen, Mikko
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    Sociolinguistic patterns in grammaticalisation: he, they, and those in human indefinite reference2008In: Language Variation and Change, ISSN 0954-3945, E-ISSN 1469-8021, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 155-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sociolinguistic patterns in language change are largely based on generalizations from linguistic variables consisting of lexemes or morphemes. This article takes a diachronic, corpus-based approach to the diffusion of a change in a more extensive morphosemantic function consisting of several linguistic subsystems. It focuses on the pronoun variants he, they, and those used for human indefiniteness in two contexts: (a) epicene anaphoric uses with indefinite pronouns and (b) cataphoric personal references. The quantitative corpus analyses show that the pronoun selection in Early and Late Modern English developed a greater tendency to use one pronoun type over the other in both contexts. The main data come from the Corpus of Early English Correspondence and its Extension. Statistical analyses compare the observed correlations of the pronouns with a set of social, external variables and language-internal factors. This article concludes that it is possible to establish sociolinguistic patterns in larger shifts if we account for the closely related internal developments in the language.

  • 4.
    Sundgren, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    The varying influence of social and linguistic factors on language stability and change: The case of Eskilstuna2009In: Language Variation and Change, ISSN 0954-3945, E-ISSN 1469-8021, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 97-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuity and Change in Present-Day Swedish: Eskilstuna Revisited is a large-scale study of language change in real time. In this article, the focus is on the results of a trend study and the analysis of how extralinguistic and linguistic factors influence how language varies and changes.

    The empirical material consists of informal conversationlike interviews, in which seven morphological and morphophonological variables have been analyzed in terms of the traditional extralinguistic factors of social group, gender, and age, as well as in terms of social networks. These morpho(phono)logical variables are sociolinguistically marked and have been hypothesized to show a process of more or less rapid change from regional dialect towards spoken standard. The rate of change at the level of the community has been slow, however. Comparisons between the influence of extralinguistic and linguistc factors indicate that social forces are more influential than linguistic ones.

     

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