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  • 1.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Keskitalo, E Carina H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Service logics and strategies of Swedish forestry in the structural shifts of forest ownership: challenging the "old" and shaping the "new"2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 508-520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is one of the most forested countries in Europe, and it has one of the highest shares of productive forest. Production in forestry is largely reliant on the private non-industrial forest owners, who own half of the forest land. As in many countries, however, forest ownership is changing towards a higher extent of urban, female or non-forestry-background owners. This poses a challenge for the forestry services sector, mainly forest owners' associations and companies, but also broadly the sector at large. By exploring the sales and marketing processes, this paper analyses the service logics and strategies of Swedish forestry under changing forest ownership, drawing on an interview study covering all the large actors in the Swedish forestry sector. The study illustrates an increased focus of forestry organizations on services from a strategic and managerial perspective, in customer-oriented relationship development and in value creation and sales processes, specifically in order to manage "new" forest owners and the demand of forest industries. The results highlight the domination of service logics associated with timber production and the challenges for the service market and the provision of diversified services to forest owners.

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  • 2. Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Keskitalo, E Carina H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Bergstén, Sabina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    In the eye of the storm: adaptation logics of forest owners in management and planning in Swedish areas2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 33, no 8, p. 800-808Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With a changing climate, storm and wind throw is becoming an increasing risk to forest. However, Swedish forest management practices have so far involved relatively little consideration of adaptation to climate change. This study examined resistance and alternatives to business as usual forest management, drawing upon material obtained in interviews with individual forest owners who spontaneously identified and discussed storm and wind throw as a risk to their forest. They thereby expressed a logic differing from that of the forest industry in Sweden, which has largely normalised storm risk rather than considering it in climate change adaptation work. The present analysis illustrates the broad and largely concerned position of individual forest owners, in contrast with a more established industry position on storm as an accepted and existing risk. Overall, the study highlights the diversity, agency and power relations within Swedish forestry and the forested landscape - aspects that are vital to better understanding processes relevant to forest and climate change adaptation.

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  • 3. Andersson, Jon
    et al.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hjalten, Joakim
    Short-term response to stump harvesting by the ground flora in boreal clearcuts2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 239-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied short-term ground vegetation responses to stump harvesting by recording the occurrence of all species of bryophytes, vascular plants and the cover of soil disturbance on 20 clearcuts in the Southern and Middle Boreal zone in northern Scandinavia. All 20 clearcuts were slash-harvested and scarified and 10 of the clearcuts were also stump-harvested. The added effect of stump harvesting was assessed by comparing stump-harvested clearcuts with non-stump-harvested clearcuts. We tested whether stump harvesting causes extra soil disturbance compared to conventional forestry and if stump harvesting is affecting the assemblage, species richness and occurrence of individual species of vascular plants and bryophytes in boreal clearcuts. Our results revealed that stump harvesting causes an increase in the area of disturbed soil surface compared to conventional harvesting. Four of the most commonly occurring plant species in this area were significantly affected by stump harvesting, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea had a median occurrence of only 20% of that in non-stump-harvested clearcuts. The large impact on some plant species from a relatively modest increase of soil disturbance caused by stump harvesting suggest that stumps, with their slightly elevated bases, contributes to the survival of certain species on clearcuts.

  • 4. Andersson, Mats
    et al.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Holmgren, Lina
    Non-industrial private forest owners' financial risk taking: Does gender matter?2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 25, p. 6-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Male and female non-industrial private forest (NIPF) owners differ in inheritance positions, valuations and forest management style. A survey of Swedish NIPF owners found that male and female owners differ in their willingness to take a financial risk. The preliminary analysis, looking only at gender, revealed no difference in the willingness to take risk. Dividing the population according to dependence on income from forestry, however, showed that female NIPF owners increased their willingness to take financial risk when the dependence of income from forestry changed from insubstantial to notable. Females' tolerance towards risk was also significantly higher than males' at the notable level of dependence of forestry income. Having or not having economic yield as one of the most important objectives of ownership seemed to have a little effect on the willingness to take financial risk; however, the results were further strengthened when adding this dimension. A gender perspective was applied to explain identified differences between male and female forest owners concerning their willingness to take financial risks. Whether these differences emanate from real differences in willingness to take risk, or whether they are effects from other differences in male and female forest ownership, is discussed.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Solbritt
    et al.
    Ekologiska Institutionen, Lunds Universitet.
    Söderström, Bengt
    Ekologiska Institutionen, Lunds Universitet.
    Effects of lime (CaCO3) on ectomycorrhizal colonization of Picea abies (L) KARST - seedlings planted in a spruce forest1995In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 149-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In two consecutive years, seedlings of Norway spruce (Picea abies) were planted in a 50-yr-old Norway spruce forest in limed (3.8 tons CaCO3 ha-1) and control plots. After 6 months they were harvested and the mycorrhizal status of the roots was analysed. Six types of mycorrhiza were distinguished. Three decreased after liming, two increased and one was not affected consistently by the liming. The effects on the total mycorrhizal colonization of the roots were opposite for the two years, indicating that the effects of liming are influenced strongly by other environmental factors. Statistical analysis also revealed pronounced natural variation in space. An inventory of the sporocarp-producing fungi showed that the number of saprotrophic species producing sporocarps was significantly higher in the limed plots whereas the number of ectomycorrhizal species was lower in the limed plots, compared with the control plots. It is concluded that more information is needed concerning the effects of liming on different soil types before any general conclusions can be made about its effects on mycorrhizal colonization.

  • 6.
    Backman, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Is there a Nordic Model for the treatment of introduced tree species?: A comparison of the use, policy, and debate concerning introduced tree species in the Nordic countries2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 222-232Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article compares the use, policy, and debate concerning introduced tree species in the five Nordic countries (Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Iceland). These countries have a long common history and are culturally similar. They are often framed under the benchmark of the Nordic Model or even the Nordic Forestry Model. Therefore, we hypothesize that the Nordic countries' treatment of introduced tree species share common aspects, and that global environmental agreements and international currents in science and policy have reinforced these similarities. The comparison shows that globalization is strong and it seems, at least at a first glimpse, that the Nordic countries follow a kind of Nordic Model in their approach to introduced tree species. However, the history and importance of forestry, ecological conditions, afforestation campaigns, traditions of using introduced trees, understandings, and stakeholder positions have shaped different national and even regional path dependencies and circumstances. This, in turn, has transmuted international policy-making, regulations, and discussions into different specific ways to interpret, control, and implement the use of introduced trees in practice. This article concludes that global environmental agreements and international currents in science and policy adapt to diverse national contexts.

  • 7.
    Backman, J.S.K.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Klemedtsson, A.K.
    Klemedtsson, Å.K., Dept. of Informatics and Mathematics, Univ. of Trollhättan/Uddevalla, SE-46129 Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Increased Nitrification in Acid Coniferous Forest Soil Due to High Nitrogen Deposition and Liming2003In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 514-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated whether liming stimulates the potential nitrification of acid forest soils in southern Sweden, and whether such stimulation (if present) is more pronounced in areas receiving high nitrogen (N) deposition. A short-term (30 h) soil-slurry incubation technique was used, which reduces the risk of bacterial growth, nitrate immobilization and denitrification during the incubation. The nitrate and nitrite produced were measured after biological conversion to nitrous oxide. The investigation was performed 6-7 yrs after the liming at four coniferous forest sites in the central and western parts of southern Sweden, which receive low and high deposition of N, respectively. Overall, liming had increased pH significantly down to 10 cm soil depth, but at 20 cm depth there was no difference between the limed and non-limed soil. In cases when liming had affected the total N pool and the potential nitrification, this was also limited to the uppermost 10 cm. It seems likely that the effects of liming on the potential nitrification were dependent on N availability, which is in turn influenced by N mineralization, trees' demands for N, and atmospheric N inputs. The strongest stimulatory effect of liming on the potential nitrification was seen on the west coast, indicating that these sites had the highest availability of ammonia for nitrifiers. However, liming also increased nitrification at one of the sites in south-central Sweden, which could have been mediated by increased rates of N mineralization.

  • 8.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Oja, Johan
    Grönlund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Customer adapted grading of Scots pine sawn timber using a multivariate method2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 87-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To define new grading rules, or to customize the ones in use in a rule-based automatic grading system of boards, is a time-consuming job for a sawmill engineer. This has the effect that changes are rarely made. The objective of this study was to continue the development of a method that replaces the calibration of grading rule settings by a holistic-subjective automatic grading, using multivariate models. The objective was also to investigate if this approach can improve sawmill profitability and at the same time have a satisfied customer. For the study, 323 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) boards were manually graded according to preferences of an important customer. That is, a customer that regularly purchases significant volumes of sawn timber. This manual grading was seen as reference grading in this work. The same boards were also scanned and graded by a rule-based automatic grading system, calibrated for the same customer. Multivariate models for prediction of board grade based on aggregated knot variables, obtained from the scanning, were calibrated using partial least squares regression. The results show that prediction of board grades by the multivariate models were more correct, with respect to the manual grading, than the grading by the rule-based automatic grading system. The prediction of board grades based on multivariate models resulted in 76-87% of the boards graded correctly, according to the manual grading, while the corresponding number was 63% for the rule-based automatic grading system.

  • 9.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sjögren, Jörgen
    Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Johan
    Department of Forestry Management, Forestry Research Institute of Sweden (Skogsforsk), Uppsala.
    Nordin, Annika
    Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.
    A struggling collaborative process: revisiting the woodland key habitat concept in Swedish forests2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 34, no 8, p. 699-708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The term woodland key habitat (WKH) was launched in Sweden in 1990. Definitions for the concept have changed over the years, and today the WKH concept and its application are issues of debate in Sweden. Consequently, the Swedish Forestry Agency (SFA) initiated a collaborative process including forest stakeholders with the purpose to clarify the application and develop the inventory methodology of WKH. We have studied, by means of interviews and observations, participant perceptions of how endogenous and exogenous factors affect the collaborative process. During our research, we identified three game changers: the pause in WKH registration in northwestern Sweden that caused several participants to drop out of the process; budget allocations for new nationwide WKH inventories that put the process on hold; and formal instructions from the government that came nine months later and essentially re-initiated the collaborative process. Altogether, this not only affected the participants’ abilities, understanding and willingness to participate, but also the overall legitimacy of the process – indicating the difficulty of conducting policy development in collaborative form, especially when it is highly politicized since it impact on the participants’ anticipation of the process and its end results.

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  • 10.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. European Forest Institute, North European Regional Office, SLU, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Forest Economics, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Mustonen, Mika
    LUKE, Finland.
    Gong, Peichen
    SLU.
    Increasing Forest Biomass Supply in Northern Europe – Countrywide Estimates and Economic Perspectives2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 314-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Woody biomass is the largest source of renewable energy in Europe, and the expected increase in demand for wood for energy purposes was the stimulus for writing this paper. Opportunities to increase the supply of forest biomass in the short and long term are discussed, as well as environmental side effects of intensive forest management. Focusing on northern Europe, national estimates of potential annual fellings and the corresponding potential amounts, simulated by the European Forest Information Scenario model, are then presented, as well as reported fellings. For the region as a whole, there seems to be substantial unused biophysical potential, although recent data from some countries indicate underestimated annual felling rates. We argue that an economic perspective is lacking in the debate about wood production for energy purposes in Europe and harvest potentials, and we discuss the effects of biophysical capacity limits in forest yield from a partial equilibrium perspective. Using a larger proportion of the biophysical potential in northern Europe than at present will entail trade-offs with environmental and social values, which means that strategies are needed to protect and account for the benefits and costs of all forms of ecosystem services.

  • 11.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sjöström, Roland
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stehn, Lars
    Structural Engineering, Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering , Luleå University of Technology , Luleå, Sweden.
    Value-added strategies and forward integration in the Swedish sawmill industry: positioning and profitability in the high-volume segment2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 482-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The changing market conditions for the Swedish sawmill industry place a focus on a better understanding of the pros and cons of value-added and forward integration strategies. The purpose of this article is to describe and explain recent value-added strategies in the Swedish sawmill industry. The study includes strategies from 13 of the 15 largest sawmill companies for the period between 2002 and 2005, describing a differentiation between value added in primary sawmill production and forward integration into secondary production. It also aims to relate some basic conditions, such as company size, company growth and corporate strategy, to value added and forward integration to profitability. The results show strong positive and significant correlations between forward integration, value added in primary production (somewhat weaker) and unit revenue, and profitability measured as return on investment. There were no strong or significant correlations between size and profitability, playing down the importance of economies of scale (among these already large companies). An interesting result is the much higher profitability of the buying sawmill companies compared with the forest corporations, stressing the importance of both a long-term strategy when investing in value-added activities and ultimately the priorities of ownership.

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  • 12.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Industrial Marketing, Management and Engineering, Linkping University.
    Nord, Tomas
    Industrial Marketing, Management and Engineering, Linkping University.
    Sjöström, Roland
    Industrial Marketing, Management and Engineering, Linkping University.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Value-added strategies and forward integration in the Swedish sawmill industry: positioning and profitability in the high-volume segment2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 482-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The changing market conditions for the Swedish sawmill industry place a focus on a better understanding of the pros and cons of value-added and forward integration strategies. The purpose of this article is to describe and explain recent value-added strategies in the Swedish sawmill industry. The study includes strategies from 13 of the 15 largest sawmill companies for the period between 2002 and 2005, describing a differentiation between value added in primary sawmill production and forward integration into secondary production. It also aims to relate some basic conditions, such as company size, company growth and corporate strategy, to value added and forward integration to profitability. The results show strong positive and significant correlations between forward integration, value added in primary production (somewhat weaker) and unit revenue, and profitability measured as return on investment. There were no strong or significant correlations between size and profitability, playing down the importance of economies of scale (among these already large companies). An interesting result is the much higher profitability of the buying sawmill companies compared with the forest corporations, stressing the importance of both a long-term strategy when investing in value-added activities and ultimately the priorities of ownership.

  • 13. Brännström, Mattias
    et al.
    Oja, Johan
    SP- Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Grönlund, Anders
    Predicting board strength by X-ray scanning of logs: The impact of different measurement concepts2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 60-70Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Brännström, Mattias
    et al.
    Oja, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Grönlund, Anders
    Predicting board strength by X-ray scanning of logs: the impact of different measurement concepts2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 60-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to compare the individual board strength predictions from an X-ray log scanner by using either two or four X-ray directions. The benefit of applying traceability between log and board was also studied. In total, 119 Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] sawlogs were scanned by an X-ray log scanner at the log sorting station of a sawmill and sawn into two centre pieces per log. Individual board traceability was enabled by following the rotational position of the log in the scanner and at the succeeding sawing. All boards were graded by a commercial strength grading machine before destructive testing was done. The resulting data were used to derive variables for building multivariate partial least squares strength prediction models. In the modelling a hierarchical modelling approach was used, where annual ring width, dry density and elasticity were also modelled. For all concepts studied the models' fit was similar. Only minor benefits could be found when using four directions and traceability compared with two directions and no traceability. One conclusion is that the result for traceability, from four directions in particular, is more sensitive for the interior knot reconstruction result. The strength prediction was on the same R2 level as for the strength grading machine

  • 15. Carina, E.
    et al.
    Keskitalo, Carina
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Liljenfeldt, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Implementation of forest certification in Sweden: an issue of organisation and communication2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 473-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of nature conservation is often implemented on productive forest land largely by means of forest certification a market-driven, voluntary system of third-party verification of the fulfilment of specific goals. This study assesses how certification requirements are being implemented in various organisations in the forest sector at various levels, and the problems and opportunities identified at each level in order to implement the requirements of the standard. Based on interviews with 34 stakeholders in Sweden, the study demonstrates that forest certification is a communication issue: it places great demands on communication or "information logistics" between different parts of the felling and forest management chain, from the top management to the contractor in the field. Integration with environmental performance systems, clarity in the division of responsibility, formalisation of requirements for forest planning and further integration of a culture of continuous improvement and internal reporting could support implementation of the certification system.

  • 16. Carina, E.
    et al.
    Keskitalo, Carina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Liljenfeldt, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Implementation of forest certification in Sweden: an issue of organisation and communication2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 473-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of nature conservation is often implemented on productive forest land largely by means of forest certification a market-driven, voluntary system of third-party verification of the fulfilment of specific goals. This study assesses how certification requirements are being implemented in various organisations in the forest sector at various levels, and the problems and opportunities identified at each level in order to implement the requirements of the standard. Based on interviews with 34 stakeholders in Sweden, the study demonstrates that forest certification is a communication issue: it places great demands on communication or "information logistics" between different parts of the felling and forest management chain, from the top management to the contractor in the field. Integration with environmental performance systems, clarity in the division of responsibility, formalisation of requirements for forest planning and further integration of a culture of continuous improvement and internal reporting could support implementation of the certification system.

  • 17.
    Cassing, Gunilla
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Greenberg, Larry A.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Mikusiñski, Grzegorz
    Department of Conservation Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Moose (Alces alces) browsing in young forest stands in central Sweden: A multiscale perspecive2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 21, p. 221-230Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18. Chiorescu, Sorin
    et al.
    Grönlund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    The fingerprint method: using over-bark and under-bark log measurement data generated by three-dimensional log scanners in combination with radiofrequency identification tags to achieve traceability in the log yard at the sawmill2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 374-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the forestry-wood chain the concept and the technologies of traceability are in a mature development phase. Important advances in marking and reading techniques have been made in different parts along the forestry-wood chain. For Swedish sawmills the most critical information gap is located between the log sorting station and the saw intake, where the forest log batch identity disappears and the logs are mixed according to different sorting criteria. This study utilizes radiofrequency identification tags for automatic log marking/reading to develop a traceability system for logs, which is free of marking/reading, between the log sorting station and the saw intake, i.e. the fingerprint method. The originality of the fingerprint approach rests on the hypothesis that logs are separate entities with individual features. The results show that the log parameters and the search algorithm developed, combined with the negative influence of the measurement uncertainty due to bark thickness and bark damage, made it possible to achieve an individual separation for 57% of the tested logs.

  • 19.
    Danielsson, Marie
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Kännaste, Astrid
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Lindström, Anders
    School of Industrial Technology and Management, Dalarna University.
    Hellqvist, Claes
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Stattin, Eva
    School of Industrial Technology and Management, Dalarna University.
    Långström, Bo
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Mini-seedlings of Picea abies are less attacked by Hylobius abietis than conventional ones: Is plant chemistry the explanation?2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 299-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (L.), is a major pest in conifer reforestation areas in the Palaearctic region. Size and chemistry of the seedlings may explain the damage rates in plantations. The performance of 10-week containerized seedlings (mini-seedlings) was compared with 1-year-old conventional seedlings of Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.), in a field experiment in central Sweden. After 2 years the weevil damage was lower for the mini-seedlings than for the conventional seedlings (3.5 vs 55%). After 3 years, the overall survival was 82 and 75%, respectively. Weevil damage was the main cause of mortality for conventional seedlings, whereas mini-seedlings mainly died from drought. Volatiles of the two seedling types were compared by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography -mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). Unwounded mini-seedlings and conventional seedlings differed in their compositions of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Miniseedlings mainly emitted limonene, known to be repellent to the pine weevil. When wounded, green leaf volatiles were released by mini-seedlings while the pine weevil attractant alpha-pinene was released by conventional seedlings. Volatiles may partly explain the mini-seedlings' resistance against weevil attack. Further studies are needed to clarify how long this miniseedling effect remains.

  • 20.
    Egertsdotter, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Plant physiological and genetical aspects of the somatic embryogenesis process in conifers2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 360-369Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The processes for producing conifer planting stock by somatic embryogenesis (SE) in conifers are described. Implementation of SE presents opportunities and limitations at various stages of the in vitro process. The topic of genetic stability, or somaclonal variation, is a particular concern and reviewed. Following the in vitro processes, several factors affect the successful acclimation, early growth and field performance of SE planting stock. Experiences with other conifer species in the context of commercial production are reviewed. While SE production has historically been a very labor-intensive process, recent advances have been made to automate the various steps. Developments to enable SE for Norway spruce in Sweden are described.

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  • 21.
    Eriksson, Ljusk Ola
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural SciencesSkogsmarksgränd, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wahlberg, Olof
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Nilsson, Malin
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural SciencesSkogsmarksgränd, Umeå, Sweden.
    Questioning the contemporary forest planning paradigm: making use of local knowledge2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 29, no S1, p. 56-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The forest planning system of large Swedish forest owners follows a three step procedure: long-term, medium-term, and short-term planning. The system is sequential and hierarchical in the sense that longer-term plans form the framework for shorter-term plans, and that top-level management prepares the long range plans and the lower management levels develop plans with successively shorter horizons. Studies indicate that this approach does not fully use existing knowledge within the organization. Problems associated with the top-down approach are also recognized in the general literature on organization and management. A proposal for a bottom-up approach is developed that aim at the use of local level knowledge to enhance accuracy and applicability of the forest plans. After top-level management has issued some fundamental planning directives, medium-term planning is conducted by the districts. Then the district plans are consolidated at the top-level for coordination and revision. A simulated planning process provides an illustration of the approach. The Heureka system is used here to optimize harvests and road costs with a mixed integer programming model of the problem, spanning 10 years with three seasons per year. The importance of detailed local knowledge to the outcome of planning is indicated, and needs for continued decision support systems development is discussed.

  • 22.
    Eriksson, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Explaining gender differences in private forest risk management2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 33, no 7, p. 716-723Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many countries, lower levels of forest management activities have been observed among female forest owners compared to male owners. The present study examined potential explanations for gender differences in private forest risk management among forest owners in Sweden (n=1482) using a questionnaire. Results from this study confirmed a slightly lower level of forest risk management among female owners in proactively combating damage caused by climate change and animal browsing when compared to their male counterparts. Further gender differences were revealed on a structural level. For example, female owners displayed higher levels of education and were more often non-resident owners and urban owners, as compared to their male counterparts. In addition, female and male owners differed regarding social-psychological variables (e.g. forest values and threat and coping appraisals). However the greatest gender difference was found in involvement in forest planning and forestry work. Even though gender differences were evident on multiple levels, involvement in forest issues and forest planning were found to be most important for explaining gender differences in forest risk management. By disentangling predictors of gender differences in private forest risk management, this study may contribute to a more strategic gender approach to forest risk governance.

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  • 23.
    Ezebilo, Eugene E
    et al.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Browsing damage by moose in Swedish forests: assessments by hunters and foresters2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 27, no 7, p. 659-668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, there is a longstanding conflict between the use of forests for timber production and game for hunting due to browsing damages on young forests. This study examines the assessments of two stakeholder groups regarding browsing damage by moose. The data originated from a mail survey that involved hunters and forest owners in Sweden. The samples were randomly selected from two national registers of hunters and forest owners, respectively. An ordered logit model was used to account for the assessments of severity of moose browsing damage. The results showed that on average, non-forest owning hunters rated the browsing damage on their main hunting ground lower than non-hunting forest owners rated the browsing damage on their forest estate. The respondents who both hunt and own forest had a rating that was intermediate between the former two groups. The ratings were mainly influenced by level of activity in improving game habitat, quantity of moose meat obtained, level of moose on forest estate and the importance of bagging game as well as forest estate size, hunting ground size, and the stakeholder group that the respondents belong. The findings can help in designing strategies for conflict resolution between forestry and hunting for moose.

  • 24. Farahat, Emad
    et al.
    Zhang, Peng
    Gunnarson, Björn E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Fuentes, Mauricio
    Stridbeck, Petter
    Linderholm, Hans W.
    Are standing dead trees (snags) suitable as climate proxies? A case study from the central Scandinavian Mountains2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 114-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Standing dead trees (snags) play important roles in forest ecology by storing carbon as well as providing habitats for many species. Moreover, snags preserved for hundreds of years can provide useful data to extend tree-ring chronologies used for climatological and ecological studies beyond the lifespans of living trees. Here we examined the growth patterns of Scots pine snags from the central Scandinavian Mountains, in relation to still living trees. Using changes point analyses, we showed that a majority (74%) of the snags displayed significant negative growth changes prior (on average 17 years) to death. Change points around the same years were also seen in living trees, but they recovered their growth. The average growth reduction of snags showing negative growth changes before death was 46%. In most cases the final growth change points coincided with very cold summers, or to a lesser degree to period of cool summers. It was suggested that pines ending up as snags were less resilient than the trees which continued living, and thus not able to recover after cold summer events. Since the snag growth reductions prior to death were partly unrelated to climate, care should be taken when using such data in dendroclimatological studies.

  • 25.
    Fransson, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Nilsson, Urban
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Lindroos, Ola
    Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Franklin, Oskar
    Ecosystems Services and Management Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria.
    Brännström, Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Evolution and Ecology Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria.
    Model-based investigation on the effects of spatial evenness, and size selection in thinning of Picea abies stands2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 189-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Size and spatial distribution of trees are important for forest stand growth, but the extent to which itmatters in thinning operations, in terms of wood production and stand economy, has rarely beendocumented. Here we investigate how the choice of spatial evenness and tree-size distribution ofresidual trees impacts wood production and stand economy. A spatially explicit individual-basedgrowth model was used, in conjunction with empirical cost functions for harvesting andforwarding, to calculate net production and net present value for different thinning operations inNorway spruce stands in Northern Sweden. The in silico thinning operations were defined by threevariables: (1) spatial evenness after thinning, (2) tree size preference for harvesting, and (3) basalarea reduction. We found that thinning that increases spatial evenness increases net productionand net present value by around 2.0%, compared to the worst case. When changing the spatialevenness in conjunction with size preference we could observe an improvement of the netproduction and net present value up to 8.0%. The magnitude of impact differed greatly betweenthe stands (from 1.7% to 8.0%) and was highest in the stand with the lowest stem density.

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  • 26.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Reconstruction of Pinus Sylvestris knots using measurable log features in the Swedish Pine Stem Bank2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 481-491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to develop a method for reconstruction of parametrically described whorls and knots from data possible to extract from industrial scanning of logs, using X-ray scanners. The method was conceived using the logs in the Swedish Pine Stem Bank as a foundation, and was based on a few predictor features extracted from these logs; namely whorl volume, distance between whorls and distance between pith and surface. These features were not measured in images but calculated from existing parameterised knots. Simulated test sawing shows that the reconstruction method results in a representative model of the knot structure in the log, when considering the grade distribution of the sawn timber produced by the simulation program. The results of this study could, for instance, be used for improved online quality predictions at sawmills. One step in this direction is to use industrial X-ray data to enlarge the amount of log data available for sawing simulation research. Future work can, therefore, focus on developing a practical application of the results presented here.

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  • 27.
    Funda, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Wennstrom, Ulfstand
    Almqvist, Curt
    Torimaru, Takeshi
    Gull, Bengt Andersson
    Wang, Xiao-Ru
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Low rates of pollen contamination in a Scots pine seed orchard in Sweden: the exception or the norm?2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 30, no 7, p. 573-586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated mating structure and gene flow in a clonal seed orchard of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) over three consecutive pollination seasons (2010-2012) with nine nuclear microsatellite markers. The paternity of 1991 offspring from four maternal parents was assigned to 28 candidate fathers using an exclusion procedure and a likelihood-based method implemented in the program CERVUS. Relative reproductive success was highly variable among pollen parents but consistent across years and ranged from 0.1% to 18.3%. Consequently, the seed crops' effective number of fathers was reduced to 52.9%, 48.8%, and 45.7% of the census in the three seasons, respectively. Self-fertilization fluctuated around the orchard's expected value of 5.1%, reaching 4.05%, 7.71%, and 6.61%, respectively. Pollen contamination was estimated to be 5.64%, 7.29%, and 4.89%, respectively, after correction for cryptic gene flow. CERVUS provided similar results as the exclusion method, but estimates greatly varied depending on the input parameters, mainly the proportion of fathers sampled. These results indicate the studied seed orchard is a well-functioning production population with only minor negative effects of self-fertilization and pollen contamination on the quality of seed crops. Genotyping issues associated with microsatellites as a potential source of false paternity assignment and exclusion are discussed.

  • 28. Grundberg, Stig
    et al.
    Grönlund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Simulated grading of logs with an X-ray Log Scanner: Grading accuracy compared with manual grading1997In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 70-76Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29. Gräns, D.
    et al.
    Hannrup, B.
    Isik, F.
    Lundqvist, Sven-Olof
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    McKeand, S.
    Genetic variation and relationships to growth traits for microfibril angle, wood density and modulus of elasticity in a Picea abies clonal trial in southern Sweden2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 494-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic variation in wood density, microfibril angle (MFA), wood stiffness (MOE), height, diameter and volume was investigated in a 26-year-old Norway spruce [(Picea abies (L.) Karst.] clonal trial in southern Sweden. Wood quality measurements were performed on 10 mm increment cores using SilviScan. For MFA, mean values of annual rings showed the highest value (30°) at ring 2 counting from the pith, followed by a steep decrease and a gradual stabilization around ring 12 at approximately 14°. MOE showed a monotonic increase from 5 GPa to 14 GPa when moving from pith to bark. High broad-sense heritability values were found for wood density (0.48), MFA (0.41) and MOE (0.50). All growth traits displayed heritability values of similar magnitudes as reported in earlier studies. The generally high age-age correlations between different sections of the wood cores suggested that early selection for wood quality traits would be successful. Owing to unfavorable genetic correlations between volume and MOE, the correlated response indicated that selection for volume only at age 10 would result in a 0.27% decrease in weighted MOE at age 26 for every 1% increase in volume.

  • 30.
    Götmark, Frank
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Schott, Kaitlin Muir
    University of Alberta, Canada.
    Jensen, Anna M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Factors influencing presence-absence of oak (Quercus spp.) seedlings after conservation-oriented partial cutting of high forests in Sweden2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 136-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied occurrence of oak seedlings (Quercus robur L. and Q. petraea Liebl.) in 11 semi-natural oak-rich temperate forests in south Sweden after partial cutting (mean harvest; 26% of basal area). Earlier studies show that canopy openness is positively correlated with oak seedling performance. We used 20 pairs of subplots in each forest, with and without oak seedlings and matched with respect to canopy openness, to analyse other factors associated with seedling establishment and growth. The height of the ground layer (herbs and woody plants) had negative influence, i.e. higher height was associated with reduced probability of seedling occurrence. Higher soil water content had positive influence on seedling occurrence. Protection of seedlings by e.g. Rubus spp., twigs or dead wood was associated with lower seedling occurrence, but seedlings that did establish there tended to be taller. Type of ground vegetation and species composition did not differ between subplots with and without oak seedling. Thus, after conservation-oriented partial cutting of closed canopy high forests, increasing height of the ground vegetation disfavours oak seedlings (independent of canopy openness). High soil moisture favours oak seedlings, as does protected microsites for seedlings that can maintain high growth rate among their competitors.

  • 31.
    Hagman, Olle
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Automatic quality grading of logs with TINA a gamma ray log scanner1993In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 8, p. 583-590Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32. Hallberg-Sramek, Isabella
    et al.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Nordin, Annika
    Framing woodland key habitats in the Swedish media: how has the framing changed over time?2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of woodland key habitats is well-established in northern Europe, denoting sites in the forest landscape with particularly high biodiversity. In Sweden, woodland key habitats have been inventoried on individual forest owner’s land by the Swedish Forest Agency since 1993. Recently, various actors have questioned the woodland key habitat concept and its policy implications. To investigate how framing of the concept has changed over time we conducted a media analysis based on theories of collective action frames. The analysis covered the period 1991–2018 and a total of 293 articles in daily newspapers. Our results showed that, over time, woodland key habitats have mostly been framed by government agencies, journalists and environmental organizations as suffering as a result of forestry practices and that nature conservation is the solution to this problem. Actors presenting other or conflicting frames are not as common and they occur mostly when the frequency of articles is high. However, it is noteworthy that individual forest owners sometimes framed themselves as suffering economically from the woodland key habitats, which contrasts with the dominant framing. There were no large differences between national and regional newspapers in the framing of woodland key habitats.

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  • 33.
    Hedwall, Per-Ola
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Brunet, Jörg
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Decreased variation of forest understory vegetation is an effect of fertilisation in young stands of Picea abies2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 26, no S11, p. 46-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The substitution of fossil fuels with biofuels to mitigate climate change has caused increased interest in enhancing forest biomass production through fertilisation. We investigated the effects of different fertilisation frequencies on the diversity of understory vegetation in young stands of Picea abies on five sites distributed in regions in the middle and south of Sweden. The treatments included fertilisation conducted annually, every second year or every third year, as well as an unfertilised control. A lower number of vascular plant species was observed on fertilised plots than on control plots, whereas the number of bryophyte species remained unchanged. Fertilised plots also showed a lower variance in species composition and a lower Shannon’s diversity index than unfertilised plots. Fertilised plots were more similar to each other than unfertilised plots were to each other over the geographical range. The two most intensive fertilisation treatments had similar effects on the vegetation, whereas the effects of fertilisation conducted every third year were not as substantial. However, the treatment in which fertilisation occurred every third year implies a lower stem-wood production, and there is little knowledge of the longterm differences between the treatments. We conclude that fertilisation of young stands will lead to long-term changes in understory vegetation at the stand scale, whereas the effects at the landscape level are still largely unknown.

  • 34.
    Hedwall, Per-Ola
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Gong, Peichen
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences ; European Forest Inst EFINORD.
    Ingerslev, Morten
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Fertilization in northern forests - biological, economic and environmental constraints and possibilities2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 301-311Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forests of northern ecosystems respond slowly to management activities and the possibilities to increase the growth in a short-term perspective and meet swift increases in society's demand for biomass are small. An exception among the silvicultural measures is fertilization which can be applied in combination with present management systems and, almost instantly, enhances forest productivity. There may, however, be both economic and environmental constraints to large-scale applications of fertilizers in forest. Here we review the literature concerning biomass production of forests under different fertilization regimens, environmental constraints and possibilities in northern forests on mineral soils. Further on we discuss the implications of both extensive and more intensive fertilization in relation to the developing bioeconomy, which encompasses the production and conversion of renewable biological resources into food, health and industrial products and energy. Fertilization in Sweden and Finland is currently practiced by extensive fertilization regimens where nitrogen fertilizers are applied once, or up to three times, during a rotation period, mainly in mature forest. This type of fertilization gives, in most cases, a small and transient effect on the environment as well as a high rate of return to the forest owner with low-economic risk. The increase in biomass production, however, is relatively small and consequently the impact on the processing industry and the bioeconomy is limited. More intensive fertilization regimens implying intensive fertilization starting in young forests may, on the other hand, considerably increase the biomass supply and value for the industry. The economic and environmental risks of this type of fertilization may, however, be larger and more research is needed on the effects on the stand level, and especially on the landscape level, including late rotation management of the forest.

  • 35.
    Hejazian, Mohammad
    et al.
    Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Mazandaran, Iran.
    Lotfalian, Majid
    Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Mazandaran, Iran.
    Lindroos, Ola
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Mohammadi Limaei, Soleiman
    University of Guilan, Someh Sara, Iran.
    Wood transportation machine replacement using goal programming2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Farm tractor + trailers play a key role in wood transportation after forests are logged. Despite of the fact that a forwarder is a forestry vehicle that carries felled logs for shorter distances off the ground, tractors are still used in some forest areas of the world, such as the Hyrcanian forest in northern Iran. This study was conducted to investigate the possibility of using both the light forwarder and forestry trailer instead of a farm tractor + trailer in wood transportation. The optimal machine option for wood transportation is determined using goal programming model in the study area. In this paper, multi-objective goals (such as economic, operational, environmental and ergonomic) were considered. The results showed that considering only the economic goal, the contractor could save up to 44% in costs by purchasing and replacing a forestry trailer with a 2-wheel trailer attached to the farm tractor. In addition, considering various goals, a light forwarder could be selected as the optimal machine. Currently, the most important objectives of all forest contractors are to establish economic goals and reduce wood transportation costs. Since other goals, such as environmental and ergonomic, are also important; it is suggested that multi-objective approaches should use for planning.

  • 36.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Treatments for induction of cold hardiness in Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings pre-cultivated under light-emitting diodes–impact of photoperiod and temperature including energy consumption and seedling quality after cold storage2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Nordic climates, the weather allows a narrow time window during spring and summer for forest seedlings to be transplanted from indoor growth to outdoor conditions. If a new method for year-round cultivation under LED lamps is to be successfully introduced in forest nurseries, a cold storage phase for batches produced outside of the vegetation period needs to be included in the concept. Different short-day treatments for induction of cold hardiness in very young seedlings of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris cultivated solely under LED lamps were investigated. The study compared a combination of two photoperiods (5 h or 8 h) at three different temperatures (5°C, 10°C or 20°C) applied during five weeks. Chlorophyll fluorescence, shoot electrolyte leakage and molecular testing for gene expression of cold acclimation were used to assess the treatments. After a period of three months in cold storage at 2°C, the vitality of the seedlings was evaluated using a root growth capacity test. Lower temperatures during the treatments, especially for Pinus sylvestris, had a significant effect on inducing cold hardiness. The results showed that the photoperiod should not be overly reduced to allow photosynthesis and generation of carbohydrate reserves but it could be optimized to reduce electricity consumption. © 2020, © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

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  • 37.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Light quality and intensity of light-emitting diodes during pre-cultivation of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings - impact on growth performance, seedling quality and energy consumption2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 159-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three different LED lamps with continuous spectra were compared against commonly used fluorescent lights. The lamps were characterized by light output, energy consumption and spectral quality for plant growth. The biological effects of light quality were compared by pre-cultivating seedlings of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Pinus sylvestris L. under each spectrum for 35 days in a growth chamber with controlled temperature, humidity and photoperiod. The seedlings were then transplanted and cultivated for one vegetation period at the nursery, then planted outdoors on a forest field trial and followed for three years. The seedlings showed similar growth performance for all spectra tested. LED lamps have several advantages to fluorescent light such as energy consumption, longer life span and adjustable light intensity. Regarding light intensity the effects on growth performance were studied for both species using the most promising LED spectra. The photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was maintained at 50, 100, 200 and 400 mu mol m(-2) s(-1). Unlike energy consumption, seedling development did not display a linear relationship to light intensity. Instead, the results show an optimum light level between 100 and 200 mu mol m(-2) s(-1) for the shade tolerant Picea abies seedlings and a level of around 200 mu mol m(-2) s(-1) for the more shade intolerant Pinus sylvestris seedlings.

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  • 38.
    Hof, Anouschka R.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE 901 83 Umea, Sweden.
    Svahlin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Not erroneous but cautious conclusions about the potential effect of climate change on the geographical distribution of insect pest species in the Swedish boreal forest. Response to Bjorklund et al. (2015)2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 128-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We argue that the conclusions drawn from the paper The potential effect of climate change on the geographical distribution of insect pest species in the Swedish boreal forest, published in the Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research were not erroneous as stated by a letter published in the same journal by Bjorklund et al. (2015. Erroneous conclusions about current geographical distribution and future expansion of forest insects in Northern Sweden: Comments on Hof and Svahlin (2015). Scand. J. Forest Res), but cautious. We regret possible underestimations caused by lack of occurrence records for some species for some areas. However, basing predictions of the impact of future climate change on the distribution of species on current range maps likely leads to grave overestimations of future range predictions since current range maps assume species are homogenously distributed throughout the landscape, which is often not the case. We argue that underestimating the distribution range of pest species rather than overestimating their distribution pinpoints areas that may need extra attention in future better, and therefore chose to be cautious rather than bold. We further like to stress that one should always be aware of possible insect outbreaks throughout the region, not only because predictions may underestimate the future distribution of species but also since the location and likelihood of insect pest outbreaks is not only determined by climatic factors.

  • 39.
    Hof, Anouschka R.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umea SE 901 83, Sweden.
    Svahlin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    The potential effect of climate change on the geographical distribution of insect pest species in the Swedish boreal forest2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 29-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the expected rising temperatures, outbreaks of insect pests may be more frequent, which can have large consequences on forest ecosystems and may therefore negatively affect the forestry sector. In order to be better able to predict where, but not if, outbreaks may occur in future we investigated the potential future (2070) geographical distribution of 30 prospective insect pest species (Coleoptera and Lepidoptera) by applying species distribution modelling. We also assessed the geographical extent to which the boreal forest in Sweden may be affected. We found that numerous species may experience large increases in their potential distribution in future, which may result in outbreaks in new areas. It is therefore likely that more trees will be infested by pests in future, which may have large implications for the Swedish forestry sector.

  • 40. Hogberg, Karl-Anders
    et al.
    Persson, Bengt
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Hallingback, Henrik R.
    Jansson, Gunnar
    Relationships between early assessments of stem and branch properties and sawn timber traits in a Pinus sylvestris progeny trial2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 421-431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sample of 162 trees was harvested from a 36-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) progeny trial to evaluate correlations between early measurements of branch diameter, and other stem and branch traits, with sawn timber traits, and hence their potential utility for predicting wood quality. The sample trees were assigned to three genetic groups of small, medium and large branch diameter, based on parental breeding values. Bottom logs were cut and sawn, and several important traits for the visual quality of the boards were assessed. Phenotypic correlations were then estimated between these traits and measurements of the height, diameter, branch diameter, branch angle, stem crookedness, number of branches and grain angle under bark of the corresponding trees when they were 16 and 36 years old. The diameter of the coarsest knot in the board was correlated with the branch diameter at the age of 16 years (0.50), and there were significant differences in this trait among the genetic branch diameter groups. In addition, the board twist was correlated with the grain angle under bark at the age of 36 years (0.54). Thus, the field assessments of branch diameter and grain angle under bark show relevance for the visual quality of centrally sawn small timber.

  • 41.
    Hong, Zhou
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Fries, Anders
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Sven-Olof
    RISE, Innventia.
    Andersson Gull, Bengt
    Skogforsk, Sweden.
    Wu, Harry X.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia.
    Measuring stiffness using acoustic tool for Scots pine breeding selection2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 363-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stiffness (modulus of elasticity, MOE) of conifer trees is the most important trait for structural wood products. Finding a fast, reliable and non-destructive way to measure MOE is a priority for screening large progeny trials in tree breeding programmes. For Scots pine, time-of-flight (TOF) velocity measured on standing trees accounted for 47% of the variation to the benchmark SilviScan-based clearwood MOE (MOEs), under the assumption of constant wood density. If wood density was included, 59% of the variation was accounted for. The TOF stiffness measurements on standing trees were, however, more related to the clearwood MOEs in the outerwood, and the prediction was the most reliable at breast height compared to the stem base and the top section. Microfibril angle (MFA) had higher correlation with acoustic velocity (VEL) of standing trees than wood density, and among the early, transition and latewood density, the latewood density had the highest correlation with stiffness measurements on standing trees. VEL measured at breast height in combination with wood density was the most reliable predictor of MOE of standing trees for selection and breeding in Scots pine.

  • 42. Hultnas, Mikael
    et al.
    Nylinder, Mats
    Agren, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Predicting the green density as a means to achieve the volume of Norway spruce2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 257-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All roundwood that arrives at pulp mills in Sweden is measured manually to obtain the volume. Shortened times between the harvest of the wood and its transportation to the mill have decreased the variation in the green density of wood and have increased the appeal of a method that combines the prediction of green density and weight scaling of the trucks with wood to obtain the volume. The aim of this article is to create a statistical model that can predict the green density of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) pulpwood with the help of density data from earlier years for a certain mill and meteorological data from the wood supply area of the mill. To create the model to predict the green density, stepwise regression was used. The results showed that the model can explain the variation in green density by 89%, and can predict the density with a mean error of 00.019 ton/m3. The average standard deviation of the ratio between the measured observations and the predicted density was 7% on a yearly basis with variations over the year. From October to March, the model showed results that were at the same level to the result for the volume measurement performed in Sweden today.

  • 43.
    Hytteborn, Håkan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Verwijst, Theo
    The importance of gaps and dwarf trees in the regeneration of Swedish spruce forests: The origin and content of Sernander's (1936) gap dynamics theory2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 26, no S10, p. 3-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is a review of a classic paper (1936) by the late Professor Rutger Sernander. This work by Sernander includes the very first formulations of a general theory about forest dynamics driven by storm fellings in fire refugia. Sernander discussed forest dynamics on three different scales: at the landscape, stand and individual tree scale. This article discusses all the important variables and the different stages in forest dynamics brought up by Sernander, such as different susceptibility to storm damage of stands growing on different soil types, the importance of different wind directions and speed, and differences between tree species with regard to susceptibility to wind. It also discusses differences in gap sizes and forms, decomposition degrees of fallen trees, different regeneration modes in connection with gap creation, the effects of wind disturbance on the field-layer vegetation and other stand characteristics, as observed by Sernander.

  • 44.
    Häggqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Leijon, Solveig Berg
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lidestav, Gun
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Forest days as an educational method in Swedish family forestry2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 25, no Suppl. 9, p. 25-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish forest owners are a diverse group with regard to activity, education and experience of practical forestry. Urbanization and increased gender equality have also changed the composition of forest owners and their involvement in practical forestry work. Yet, many forest owners perform some kind of practical work on their property. The combination of dangerous work and untrained practitioners has led to a number of serious accidents. As a part of a larger safety campaign, a forest day for absentee forest owners living in the Stockholm area was carried out. Safety and safe working with chainsaws was a core message. To assess the immediate learning effect among different categories of forest owners, a questionnaire and a before-and-after test were used. The results show that those who knew less, female forest owners and non-chainsaw users, learned the most. The study also shows that the use of safety equipment is limited among absentee forest owners and that forest days and courses are important for their conception of safety. During the forest day, men were central experts and women appeared as servants, demonstrating the presence of a masculine hegemony. As the forest owners learned from each other it is important that professional communicators are seen to be the most reliable and trustworthy

  • 45.
    Häggqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Leijon, Solveig Berg
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU.
    Lidestav, Gun
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU.
    Look at what they do: a revised approach to communication strategy towards private forest owners2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 29, no 7, p. 697-706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Private forest owners in Sweden and other countries are becoming an increasingly heterogeneous group as regards their experience and knowledge of forestry. Over the past decade, a number of studies have been conducted with the aim of describing different aspects of forest owners. However, little attention has been paid to the owners’ self-activity and how they learn. With the overall aim of exploring the relationship between self-activity and knowledge to use it as a starting point for new recommendations for planned communication towards forest owners, this study examines the extent and type of the work different categories of private forest owners perform, and from whom or where they learn. An analysis of data from a mail questionnaire and from the Database for Forest Owner Analysis showed that self-activity is common in all categories of owners but more frequent among male and resident forest owners. Forest owners have relatively few knowledge sources. Besides being self-taught, the most common ways of learning are from their fathers and from attending forest days. The study also shows a strong connection between self-activity and self-estimated knowledge of forestry. The recommendation for communication planning is therefore to use the extent and type of self-activity among different groups of forest owners as a point of departure for planning communication strategies.

  • 46. Högberg, Karl-Anders
    et al.
    Bozhkov, P. V.
    Grönroos, Roland
    Department of Forest Genetics, Uppsala Genetic Centre , Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    von Arnold, Sara
    Critical factors affecting ex vitro performance of somatic embryo plants of Picea abies2001In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 295-304Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential to use somatic embryos for large-scale propagation of elite genotypes, for integration into breeding programmes and for connecting breeding and mass propagation, is receiving much attention. However, before the methods are applied it is important that the plants regenerated via somatic embryogenesis grow as expected, i.e. as seedlings or cuttings. Growth of somatic embryo plants is under a cumulative influence of a number of treatments given during the in vitro phase and during the ex vitro establishment phase. The aim of this study was to identify treatments with a negative influence on the subsequent growth of somatic embryo plants of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.). Based on the results, the time of contact with abscisic acid during somatic embryo maturation and the length of continuous light treatment (CLT) during the first growth period strongly affect the height growth during two successive growth periods. In both cases longer treatments exerted negative effects. Based on these results a new method was set up, which includes: (1) prematuration treatment of the suspension culture in a growth regulator-free medium, by which the maturation step is synchronized and contracted; and (2) a two-phase germination treatment, first on a solidified medium and then in a liquid medium. This treatment avoids extended CLT during the first growth period. Another advantage of the two-phase germination treatment is a better root-system development. Somatic embryo plants produced according to this method can be transferred directly from in vitro conditions to the greenhouse.

  • 47. Högberg, Karl-Anders
    et al.
    Flygh, Gunnar
    Grönroos, Roland
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
    von Arnold, Sara
    Field performance of Pinus contorta trees propagated vegetatively via adventitious buds2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 318-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pinus contorta plants regenerated from adventitious buds induced on zygotic embryos were planted in a field trial where growth, straightness and flowering were followed over 7 years. Seedlings were taller than the plants derived from adventitious buds at the start of the field trial. Adventitious plants did not catch up with seedlings in height after 7 years in the field, but the relative height growth was equal. The higher frequency of plagiotropic growth that was displayed by adventitious plants the first year in the field was not reflected by differences in the frequency of basal sweeps 6 years later. However, the frequency of crooked stems was comparatively high but similar among the plant types. Flowering was more abundant for the seedlings than for adventitious plants. Taken together, the results show that P. contorta can be cloned via adventitious buds from zygotic embryos, and that the resulting plants show satisfactory growth for inclusion in breeding.

  • 48.
    Ingvarsson, Pär K.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Department of Plant Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala BioCentre, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Dahlberg, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    The effects of clonal forestry on genetic diversity in wild and domesticated stands of forest trees2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 370-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The level of genetic diversity maintained in a population is determined by the combined action of mutation, gene flow, genetic drift and selection. Forest tree breeding is a relatively recent phenomenon compared to most crop species and the material that is being deployed is, genetically, often very similar to wild-growing populations. The introduction of vegetative propagation has been hailed as a more efficient and flexible method than seed orchards to rapidly realize breeding progress and to adapt material to future climate change. What remains unclear is how a large deployment of vegetatively propagated material may affect the patterns of genetic diversity within and among forest stands. Here we review what is currently known about genetic diversity in managed and natural forest stands and specifically address the impacts of clonal forestry. To assess this we develop a quantitative model to describe the consequences of clone deployment on genetic and genotypic diversity in Swedish forests. We conclude with some remarks specific to Swedish conditions, likely scenarios for clonal deployment and finally some suggestions for future research priorities.

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    fulltext
  • 49.
    Johansson, Johanna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Biomass outtake and bioenergy development in Sweden: the role of policy and economic presumptions2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 34, no 8, p. 771-778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we review and analyse the policy design of biomass residue outtake in Sweden, focusing in particular on how public authorities specify and motivate rules and guidelines for the extraction of slash and stumps. The results show that the Swedish regulations are built on a mixed approach, including both voluntary, procedural and substantive requirements. The recommendations emphasize many merits of residue extraction, particularly climate change mitigation, new employment opportunities and reduced dependency on energy supplies from abroad. We identify a strong focus on precaution, evident in the risks for undesirable effects on nutritional balance and heavy metals in the soil, on biological diversity and on water quality in lakes and watercourses. The recommendations have remained relatively stable during the last 10 years, but the harvest of forest biomass for energy has varied. The annual harvest rate was positively related with energy prices. Harvest was much more extensive in the south, which is closer to the market. We conclude that economic presumptions have influenced the extent of slash harvest while environmental concerns seem to have limited the extraction of whole stumps. We expect that current levels of residue outtake can quickly change if the energy prices change.

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    fulltext
  • 50.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Johansson, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Andersson, Elias
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    #Metoo in the Swedish forest sector: testimonies from harassed women on sexualised forms of male control2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 419-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study adds to the literature on the gendered culture of the forest sector by examining testimonies of sexual harassment in relation to the gendering of forestry-related competence and organisations and the consequences that the sexualisation of social relations in organisations has, mainly for women. The empirical base of the study comprised testimonies within the campaign #slutavverkat published on Instagram to highlight experiences of sexual harassment of women in the Swedish forest sector. Qualitative content analysis of the testimonies suggested that the situations described in the testimonies in #slutavverkat comprise controlling actions that diminish women's power in the forest sector. Sexualised forms of male control and harassment thus work to remind women that they are first and foremost a representation of women, rather than of forestry professions and knowledge. In that sense, sexualised forms of male control and harassment are part of, rather than deviating from, the overall gendering of forestry as a men-dominated sphere. The study adds to organisational understandings and policy developments on discrimination and harassment and suggests that researchers and policy-makers interested in reducing inequality in forestry need to pay more attention to issues of harassment and sexualisation of social relations.

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