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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Rzepecka, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Equal Pro-inflammatory Profiles of CCLs, CXCLs, and Matrix Metalloproteinases in the Extracellular Microenvironment In Vivo in Human Dense Breast Tissue and Breast Cancer2018In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 8, article id 1994Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inflammatory microenvironment affects breast cancer progression. Proteins that govern the inflammatory response are secreted into the extracellular space, but this compartment still needs to be characterized in human breast tissues in vivo. Dense breast tissue is a major risk factor for breast cancer by yet unknown mechanisms and no non-toxic prevention for these patients exists. Here, we used the minimal invasive technique of microdialysis for sampling of extracellular proteins in live tissues in situ in breast cancers of women before surgery and in healthy women having dense or non-dense breast tissue on mammography. Proteins were profiled using a proximity extension assay. Out of the 32 proteins assessed, 26 exhibited similar profiles in breast cancers and dense breast tissues; CCL-4, -7, -8, -11, -15, -16, -22, -23, and -25, CXCL-5, -8, -9, -16 as well as sIL-6R, IL-18, vascular endothelial growth factor, TGF-a, fibroblast growth factor 19, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -2, -3, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator were all increased, whereas CCL-3, CX3CL1, hepatocyte growth factor, and MMP-9 were unaltered in the two tissues. CCL-19 and -24, CXCL-1 and -10, and IL-6 were increased in dense breast tissue only, whereas IL-18BP was increased in breast cancer only. Our results provide novel insights in the inflammatory microenvironment in human breast cancer in situ and define potential novel therapeutic targets. Additionally, we show previously unrecognized similarities of the pro-inflammatory microenvironment in dense breast tissue and breast cancer in vivo suggesting that anti-inflammatory breast cancer prevention trials for women with dense breast tissue may be feasible.

  • 2.
    Adam, Lucille
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    López-González, Moisés
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Björk, Albin
    Pålsson, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Poux, Candice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Wahren-Herlenius, Marie
    Fernández, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Spetz, Anna-Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Early Resistance of Non-virulent Mycobacterial Infection in C57BL/6 Mice Is Associated With Rapid Up-Regulation of Antimicrobial Cathelicidin Camp2018In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 9, article id 1939Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early clearance of tuberculosis is the successful eradication of inhaled bacteria before the development of an adaptive immune response. We previously showed, by utilizing a non-virulent mycobacteria infection model, that C57BL/6 mice are more efficient than BALB/c in their control of bacterial growth in the lungs during the first weeks of the infection. Here, we assessed early (within 1-3 days) innate immune events locally in the lungs to identify factors that may contribute to the control of non-virulent mycobacterial burden. We confirmed that C57BL/6 mice are more resistant to infection compared with BALB/c after intranasal inoculation with mycobacterium. Transcriptomic analyses revealed a remarkably silent signature in C57BL/6 mice despite effective control of bacterial growth. In contrast, BALB/c mice up-regulated genes associated with neutrophil and myeloid cell chemotaxis and migration. Flow cytometry analyses corroborated the transcriptomic analyses and demonstrated influx of both neutrophil and myeloid cell populations in BALB/c mice, while these did not increase in C57BL/6 mice. We further detected increased release of TNF-alpha from BALB/c lung cells but limited release from C57BL/6-derived cells. However, C57BL/6 mice showed a marked early up-regulation of the Camp gene, encoding the cathelicidin CRAMP peptide, post-mycobacterial exposure. CRAMP (LL-37 in human) expression in the lungs was confirmed using immunofluorescence staining. Altogether, these findings show that C57BL/6 mice can clear the mycobacterial infection early and that this early control is associated with high CRAMP expression in the lungs without concomitant influx of immune cells. The role of CRAMP/LL-37 during mycobacterial infection may be relevant for novel protective strategies, and warrants further studies of human cohorts.

  • 3.
    Ahl, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Sedin, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Seignez, Cedric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    Schwan, Emil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Kreuger, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    Christoffersson, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    Phillipson, Mia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    Turning Up the Heat: Local Temperature Control During in vivo Imaging of Immune Cells2019In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, article id 2036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intravital imaging is an invaluable tool for studying the expanding range of immune cell functions. Only in vivo can the complex and dynamic behavior of leukocytes and their interactions with their natural microenvironment be observed and quantified. While the capabilities of high-speed, high-resolution confocal and multiphoton microscopes are well-documented and steadily improving, other crucial hardware required for intravital imaging is often developed in-house and less commonly published in detail. In this report, we describe a low-cost, multipurpose, and tissue-stabilizing in vivo imaging platform that enables sensing and regulation of local tissue temperature. The effect of tissue temperature on local blood flow and leukocyte migration is demonstrated in muscle and skin. Two different models of vacuum windows are described in this report, however, the design of the vacuum window can easily be adapted to fit different organs and tissues.

  • 4.
    Ahmad, Fareed
    et al.
    Hannover Medical Sch, Germany.
    Shankar, Esaki M.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia; University of Malaya, Malaysia; School Basic Appl Science, India.
    Yong, Yean K.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Tan, Hong Y.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Ahrenstorf, Gerrit
    Hannover Medical Sch, Germany.
    Jacobs, Roland
    Hannover Medical Sch, Germany.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Schmidt, Reinhold E.
    Hannover Medical Sch, Germany.
    Kamarulzaman, Adeeba
    University of Malaya, Malaysia; University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Ansari, Abdul W.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia; University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Negative Checkpoint Regulatory Molecule 2B4 (CD244) Upregulation Is Associated with Invariant Natural Killer T Cell Alterations and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease Progression2017In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 8, article id 338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are implicated in innate immune responses against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, the determinants of cellular dysfunction across the iNKT cells subsets are seldom defined in HIV disease. Herein, we provide evidence for the involvement of the negative checkpoint regulator (NCR) 2B4 in iNKT cell alteration in a well-defined cohort of HIV-seropositive anti-retroviral therapy (ART) naive, ART-treated, and elite controllers (ECs). We report on exaggerated 2B4 expression on iNKT cells of HIV-infected treatment-naive individuals. In sharp contrast to CD4-iNKT cells, 2B4 expression was significantly higher on CD4+ iNKT cell subset. Notably, an increased level of 2B4 on iNKT cells was strongly correlated with parameters associated with HIV disease progression. Further, iNKT cells from ARTnaive individuals were defective in their ability to produce intracellular IFN-gamma Together, our results suggest that the levels of 2B4 expression and the downstream co-inhibitory signaling events may contribute to impaired iNKT cell responses.

  • 5.
    Almyroudis, Nikolaos G.
    et al.
    Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York, United States of America.
    Grimm, Melissa J.
    Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York, United States of America.
    Davidson, Bruce A.
    Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York, United States of America.
    Röhm, Marc
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Bacteriology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Urban, Constantin F.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Bacteriology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Segal, Brahm H.
    Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York, United States of America.
    NETosis and NADPH oxidase: at the intersection of host defense, inflammation, and injury2013In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 4, article id 45Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neutrophils are armed with both oxidant-dependent and -independent pathways for killing pathogens. Activation of the phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase constitutes an emergency response to infectious threat and results in the generation of antimicrobial reactive oxidants. In addition, NADPH oxidase activation in neutrophils is linked to activation of granular proteases and generation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETosis involves the release of nuclear and granular components that can target extracellular pathogens. NETosis is activated during microbial threat and in certain conditions mimicking sepsis, and can result in both augmented host defense and inflammatory injury. In contrast, apoptosis, the physiological form of neutrophil death, not only leads to non-inflammatory cell death but also contributes to alleviate inflammation. Although there are significant gaps in knowledge regarding the specific contribution of NETs to host defense, we speculate that the coordinated activation of NADPH oxidase and NETosis maximizes microbial killing. Work in engineered mice and limited patient experience point to varying susceptibility of bacterial and fungal pathogens to NADPH oxidase versus NET constituents. Since reactive oxidants and NET constituents can injure host tissue, it is important that these pathways be tightly regulated. Recent work supports a role for NETosis in both acute lung injury and in autoimmunity. Knowledge gained about mechanisms that modulate NETosis may lead to novel therapeutic approaches to limit inflammation-associated injury.

  • 6.
    Apostolou, Eirini
    et al.
    Univ Athens, Greece; Univ Athens, Greece.
    Moustardas, Petros
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Acad Athens, Greece.
    Iwawaki, Takao
    Kanazawa Med Univ, Japan.
    Tzioufas, Athanasios G.
    Univ Athens, Greece; Univ Athens, Greece.
    Spyrou, Ioannis
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ablation of the Chaperone Protein ERdj5 Results in a Sjogrens Syndrome-Like Phenotype in Mice, Consistent With an Upregulated Unfolded Protein Response in Human Patients2019In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, article id 506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Sjogrens syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disorder that affects mainly the exocrine glands. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress proteins have been suggested to participate in autoimmune and inflammatory responses, either acting as autoantigens, or by modulating factors of inflammation. The chaperone protein ERdj5 is an ER-resident disulfide reductase, required for the translocation of misfolded proteins during ER-associated protein degradation. In this study we investigated the role of ERdj5 in the salivary glands (SGs), in association with inflammation and autoimmunity. Methods: In situ expression of ERdj5 and XBP1 activation were studied immunohistochemically in minor SG tissues from primary SS patients and non-SS sicca-complaining controls. We used the mouse model of ERdj5 ablation and characterized its features: Histopathological, serological (antinuclear antibodies and cytokine levels), and functional (saliva flow rate). Results: ERdj5 was highly expressed in the minor SGs of SS patients, with stain intensity correlated to inflammatory lesion severity and anti-SSA/Ro positivity. Moreover, SS patients demonstrated higher XBP1 activation within the SGs. Remarkably, ablation of ERdj5 in mice conveyed many of the cardinal features of SS, like spontaneous inflammation in SGs with infiltrating T and B lymphocytes, distinct cytokine signature, excessive cell death, reduced saliva flow, and production of anti-SSA/Ro and anti-SSB/La autoantibodies. Notably, these features were more pronounced in female mice. Conclusions: Our findings suggest a critical connection between the function of the ER chaperone protein ERdj5 and autoimmune inflammatory responses in the SGs and provide evidence for a new, potent animal model of SS.

  • 7.
    Appelgren, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Segelmark, Mårten
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Nephrology. Lund Univ, Sweden; Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Marginal-Zone B-Cells Are Main Producers of IgM in Humans, and Are Reduced in Patients With Autoimmune Vasculitis2018In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 9, article id 2242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In mice, B1 and marginal zone (MZ) B-cells play an important role in prevention of autoimmunity through production of regulatory cytokines and natural antibodies. There is limited knowledge about the human counterparts of these cells. We therefore investigated functions of MZ-like B-cells and the frequency of circulating MZ-like and Bl-like B-cells in healthy controls (HC), as well as in patients with autoimmune vasculitis to learn more about the role of these cells in autoimmune disease. After stimulation with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) of class B in vitro, MZ-like B-cells were the main producers of IgM whereas switched memory B-cells primarily produced IgG and IgA. TNF and IL-10 were produced by both MZ-like and switched memory B-cells. Neither antibody nor TNF/IL-10 production by the B-cell subsets differed between patients and HC. Patients with autoimmune vasculitis, irrespective of disease activity, had lower percentage and absolute numbers of circulating MZ-like B-cells, and lower absolute numbers of B1-like B-cells. The percentage of B1-like B-cells was reduced during active disease. These findings remained significant when the analysis was confined to active treatment-naive patients (disease onset).Our results suggest that human innate-like B-cells might have a physiological role in prevention of autoimmunity.

  • 8. Arama, Charles
    et al.
    Quin, Jaclyn E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Kouriba, Bourema
    Östlund Farrants, Ann-Kristin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Doumbo, Ogobara K.
    Epigenetics and Malaria Susceptibility/Protection: A Missing Piece of the Puzzle2018In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 9, article id 1733Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A better understanding of stable changes in regulation of gene expression that result from epigenetic events is of great relevance in the development of strategies to prevent and treat infectious diseases. Histone modification and DNA methylation are key epigenetic mechanisms that can be regarded as marks, which ensure an accurate transmission of the chromatin states and gene expression profiles over generations of cells. There is an increasing list of these modifications, and the complexity of their action is just beginning to be understood. It is clear that the epigenetic landscape plays a fundamental role in most biological processes that involve the manipulation and expression of DNA. Although the molecular mechanism of gene regulation is relatively well understood, the hierarchical order of events and dependencies that lead to protection against infection remain largely unknown. In this review, we propose that host epigenetics is an essential, though relatively under studied, factor in the protection or susceptibility to malaria.

  • 9. Bagawath-Singh, Sunitha
    et al.
    Staaf, Elina
    Stoppelenburg, Arie Jan
    Spielmann, Thiemo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Kambayashi, Taku
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Johansson, Sofia
    Cytokines Induce Faster Membrane Diffusion of MHC Class I and the Ly49A Receptor in a Subpopulation of Natural Killer Cells2016In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cytokines have the potential to drastically augment immune cell activity. Apart from altering the expression of a multitude of proteins, cytokines also affect immune cell dynamics. However, how cytokines affect the molecular dynamics within the cell membrane of immune cells has not been addressed previously. Molecular movement is a vital component of all biological processes, and the rate of motion is, thus, an inherent determining factor for the pace of such processes. Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes, which belong to the innate immune system. By fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we investigated the influence of cytokine stimulation on the membrane density and molecular dynamics of the inhibitory receptor Ly49A and its ligand, the major histocompatibility complex class I allele H-2D(d), in freshly isolated murine NK cells. H-2D(d) was densely expressed and diffused slowly in resting NK cells. Ly49A was expressed at a lower density and diffused faster. The diffusion rate in resting cells was not altered by disrupting the actin cytoskeleton. A short-term stimulation with interleukin-2 or interferon- alpha + beta did not change the surface density of moving H-2D(d) or Ly49A, despite a slight upregulation at the cellular level of H-2D(d) by interferon-alpha + beta, and of Ly49A by IL-2. However, the molecular diffusion rates of both H-2D(d) and Ly49A increased significantly. A multivariate analysis revealed that the increased diffusion was especially marked in a subpopulation of NK cells, where the diffusion rate was increased around fourfold compared to resting NK cells. After IL-2 stimulation, this subpopulation of NK cells also displayed lower density of Ly49A and higher brightness per entity, indicating that Ly49A may homo-cluster to a larger extent in these cells. A faster diffusion of inhibitory receptors could enable a faster accumulation of these molecules at the immune synapse with a target cell, eventually leading to a more efficient NK cell response. It has previously been assumed that cytokines regulate immune cells primarily via alterations of protein expression levels or posttranslational modifications. These findings suggest that cytokines may also modulate immune cell efficiency by increasing the molecular dynamics early on in the response.

  • 10. Baharom, Faezzah
    et al.
    Rankin, Gregory
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Blomberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Smed-Sorensen, Anna
    Human Lung Mononuclear Phagocytes in Health and Disease2017In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 8, article id 499Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lungs are vulnerable to attack by respiratory insults such as toxins, allergens, and pathogens, given their continuous exposure to the air we breathe. Our immune system has evolved to provide protection against an array of potential threats without causing collateral damage to the lung tissue. In order to swiftly detect invading pathogens, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs)-together termed mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs)-line the respiratory tract with the key task of surveying the lung microenvironment in order to discriminate between harmless and harmful antigens and initiate immune responses when necessary. Each cell type excels at specific tasks: monocytes produce large amounts of cytokines, macrophages are highly phagocytic, whereas DCs excel at activating naive T cells. Extensive studies in murine models have established a division of labor between the different populations of MNPs at steady state and during infection or inflammation. However, a translation of important findings in mice is only beginning to be explored in humans, given the challenge of working with rare cells in inaccessible human tissues. Important progress has been made in recent years on the phenotype and function of human lung MNPs. In addition to a substantial population of alveolar macrophages, three subsets of DCs have been identified in the human airways at steady state. More recently, monocyte-derived cells have also been described in healthy human lungs. Depending on the source of samples, such as lung tissue resections or bronchoalveolar lavage, the specific subsets of MNPs recovered may differ. This review provides an update on existing studies investigating human respiratory MNP populations during health and disease. Often, inflammatory MNPs are found to accumulate in the lungs of patients with pulmonary conditions. In respiratory infections or inflammatory diseases, this may contribute to disease severity, but in cancer patients this may improve clinical outcomes. By expanding on this knowledge, specific lung MNPs may be targeted or modulated in order to attain favorable responses that can improve preventive or treatment strategies against respiratory infections, lung cancer, or lung inflammatory diseases.

  • 11.
    Barcenilla, Hugo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Åkerman, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Pihl, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Hematopoiesis and Developmental Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, H.K.H. Kronprinsessan Victorias barn- och ungdomssjukhus Linköping/Motala.
    Casas, Rosaura
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Mass Cytometry Identifies Distinct Subsets of Regulatory T Cells and Natural Killer Cells Associated With High Risk for Type 1 Diabetes2019In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, article id 982Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by autoimmune destruction of insulin producing beta-cells. The time from onset of islet autoimmunity to manifest clinical disease can vary widely in length, and it is fairly uncharacterized both clinically and immunologically. In the current study, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from autoantibody-positive children with high risk for T1D, and from age-matched healthy individuals, were analyzed by mass cytometry using a panel of 32 antibodies. Surface markers were chosen to identify multiple cell types including T, B, NK, monocytes, and DC, and antibodies specific for identification of differentiation, activation and functional markers were also included in the panel. By applying dimensional reduction and computational unsupervised clustering approaches, we delineated in an unbiased fashion 132 phenotypically distinct subsets within the major immune cell populations. We were able to identify an effector memory Treg subset expressing HLA-DR, CCR4, CCR6, CXCR3, and GATA3 that was increased in the high-risk group. In addition, two subsets of NK cells defined by CD16(+) CD8(+) CXCR3(+) and CD16(+) CD8(+) CXCR3(+) CD11c(+) were also higher in the same subjects. High-risk individuals did not show impaired glucose tolerance at the time of sampling, suggesting that the changes observed were not the result of metabolic imbalance, and might be potential biomarkers predictive of T1D.

  • 12.
    Baygan, Arjang
    et al.
    Translational Cell Therapy Research Group (TCR), Division of Therapeutic Immunology, Department of LabMed, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Aronsson-Kurttila, Wictor
    Translational Cell Therapy Research Group (TCR), Division of Therapeutic Immunology, Department of LabMed, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Moretti, Gianluca
    Translational Cell Therapy Research Group (TCR), Division of Therapeutic Immunology, Department of LabMed, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tibert, Babylonia
    Translational Cell Therapy Research Group (TCR), Division of Therapeutic Immunology, Department of LabMed, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dahllöf, Göran
    Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Klingspor, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology. Department of Microbiology, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Britt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Neuropediatrics/Paediatric oncology.
    Khoein, Bita
    Translational Cell Therapy Research Group (TCR), Division of Therapeutic Immunology, Department of LabMed, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Moll, Guido
    Translational Cell Therapy Research Group (TCR), Division of Therapeutic Immunology, Department of LabMed, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hausmann, Charlotta
    Center for Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation, Department of Pathology/Oncology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svahn, Britt-Marie
    Translational Cell Therapy Research Group (TCR), Division of Therapeutic Immunology, Department of LabMed, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Westgren, Magnus
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Remberger, Mats
    Center for Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation, Department of Pathology/Oncology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sadeghi, Behnam
    Translational Cell Therapy Research Group (TCR), Division of Therapeutic Immunology, Department of LabMed, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ringden, Olle
    Translational Cell Therapy Research Group (TCR), Division of Therapeutic Immunology, Department of LabMed, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Safety and Side Effects of Using Placenta-Derived Decidual Stromal Cells for Graft-versus-Host Disease and Hemorrhagic Cystitis2017In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 8, article id 795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are increasingly used in regenerate medicine. Placenta-derived decidual stromal cells (DSCs) are a novel therapy for acute graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) and hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). DSCs are more immunosuppressive than MSCs. We assessed adverse events and safety using DSCs among 44 treated patients and 40 controls. The median dose of infused cells was 1.5 (range 0.9–2.9) × 106 DSCs/kg. The patients were given 2 (1–5) doses, with a total of 82 infusions. Monitoring ended 3 months after the last DSC infusion. Three patients had transient reactions during DSC infusion. Laboratory values, hemorrhages, and transfusions were similar in the two groups. The frequency of leukemic relapse (2/2, DSC/controls) and invasive fungal infections (6/6) were the same in the two groups. Causes of death were those seen in HSCT patients: infections (5/3), respiratory failure (1/1), circulatory failure (3/1), thromboembolism (1/0), multiorgan failure (0/1), and GVHD and others (2/7). One-year survival for the DSC patients with GVHD was 67%, which was significantly better than achieved previously at our center. One-year survival was 90% in the DSC-treated HC group. DSC infusions appear safe. Randomized studies are required to prove efficacy.

  • 13.
    Bergström, Joakim J. E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Heyman, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology.
    Mice Immunized With IgG Anti-Sheep Red Blood Cells (SRBC) Together With SRBC Have a Suppressed Anti-SRBC Antibody Response but Generate Germinal Centers and Anti-IgG Antibodies in Response to the Passively Administered IgG2017In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 8, article id 911Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antigen-specific IgG antibodies, passively administered together with large particulate antigens such as erythrocytes, can completely suppress the antigen-specific antibody response. The mechanism behind has been elusive. Herein, we made the surprising observation that mice immunized with IgG anti-sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and SRBC, in spite of a severely suppressed anti-SRBC response, have a strong germinal center (GC) response. This occurred regardless of whether the passively administered IgG was of the same allotype as that of the recipient or not. Six days after immunization, the GC size and the number of GC B cells were higher in mice immunized with SRBC alone than in mice immunized with IgG and SRBC, but at the other time points these parameters were similar. GCs in the IgG-groups had a slight shift toward dark zone B cells 6 days after immunization and toward light zone B cells 10 days after immunization. The proportions of T follicular helper cells (TFH) and T follicular regulatory cells (TFR) were similar in the two groups. Interestingly, mice immunized with allogeneic IgG anti-SRBC together with SRBC mounted a vigorous antibody response against the passively administered suppressive IgG. Thus, although their anti-SRBC response was almost completely suppressed, an antibody response against allogeneic, and probably also syngeneic, IgG developed. This most likely explains the development of GCs in the absence of an anti-SRBC antibody response.

  • 14.
    Bergström, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Xu, Hui
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Heyman, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Epitope-Specific Suppression of IgG Responses by Passively Administered Specific IgG: Evidence of Epitope Masking2017In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 8, article id 238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Specific IgG, passively administered together with particulate antigen, can completely prevent induction of antibody responses to this antigen. The ability of IgG to suppress antibody responses to sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) is intact in mice lacking Fc gamma Rs, complement factor 1q, C3, or complement receptors 1 and 2, suggesting that Fc-dependent effector functions are not involved. Two of the most widely discussed explanations for the suppressive effect are increased clearance of IgG-antigen complexes and/or that IgG "hides" the antigen from recognition by specific B cells, so-called epitope masking. The majority of data on how IgG induces suppression was obtained through studies of the effects on IgM-secreting single spleen cells during the first week after immunization. Here, we show that IgG also suppresses antigen-specific extrafollicular antibody-secreting cells, germinal center B-cells, longlived plasma cells, long-term IgG responses, and induction of memory antibody responses. IgG anti-SRBC reduced the amount of SRBC in the spleens of wild-type, but not of Fc gamma R-deficient mice. However, no correlation between suppression and the amount of SRBC in the spleen was observed, suggesting that increased clearance does not explain IgG-mediated suppression. Instead, we found compelling evidence for epitope masking because IgG anti-NP administered with NP-SRBC suppressed the IgG anti-NP, but not the IgG anti-SRBC response. Vice versa, IgG anti-SRBC administered with NP-SRBC, suppressed only the IgG anti-SRBC response. In conclusion, passively transferred IgG suppressed all measured parameters of an antigen-specific antibody/B cell response and an important mechanism of action is likely to be epitope masking.

  • 15. Bernet, Néstor Vazquez
    et al.
    Corcoran, Martin
    Hardt, Uta
    Kaduk, Mateusz
    Phad, Ganesh E.
    Martin, Marcel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Hedestam, Gunilla B. Karlsson
    High-Quality Library Preparation for NGS-Based Immunoglobulin Germline Gene Inference and Repertoire Expression Analysis2019In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, article id 660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) of immunoglobulin (Ig) repertoires (Rep-seq) enables examination of the adaptive immune system at an unprecedented level. Applications include studies of expressed repertoires, gene usage, somatic hypermutation levels, Ig lineage tracing and identification of genetic variation within the Ig loci through inference methods. All these applications require starting libraries that allow the generation of sequence data with low error rate and optimal representation of the expressed repertoire. Here, we provide detailed protocols for the production of libraries suitable for human Ig germline gene inference and Ig repertoire studies. Various parameters used in the process were tested in order to demonstrate factors that are critical to obtain high quality libraries. We demonstrate an improved 5'RACE technique that reduces the length constraints of Illumina MiSeq based Rep-seq analysis but allows for the acquisition of sequences upstream of Ig V genes, useful for primer design. We then describe a 5' multiplex method for library preparation, which yields full length V(D)J sequences suitable for genotype identification and novel gene inference. We provide comprehensive sets of primers targeting IGHV, IGKV, and IGLV genes. Using the optimized protocol, we produced IgM, IgG, IgK, and IgL libraries and analyzed them using the germline inference tool IgDiscover to identify expressed germline V alleles. This process additionally uncovered three IGHV, one IGKV, and six IGLV novel alleles in a single individual, which are absent from the IMGT reference database, highlighting the need for further study of Ig genetic variation. The library generation protocols presented here enable a robust means of analyzing expressed Ig repertoires, identifying novel alleles and producing individualized germline gene databases from humans.

  • 16. Bjornsdottir, Halla
    et al.
    Rudin, Agnes Dahlstrand
    Klose, Felix P.
    Elmwall, Jonas
    Welin, Amanda
    Stylianou, Marios
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Christenson, Karin
    Urban, Constantin F.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Forsman, Huamei
    Dahlgren, Claes
    Karlsson, Anna
    Bylund, Johan
    Phenol-soluble Modulin α Peptide Toxins from aggressive Staphylococcus aureus induce rapid Formation of neutrophil extracellular Traps through a reactive Oxygen species-independent Pathway2017In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 8, article id 257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neutrophils have the ability to capture and kill microbes extracellularly through the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). These are DNA and protein structures that neutrophils release extracellularly and are believed to function as a defense mechanism against microbes. The classic NET formation process, triggered by, e.g., bacteria, fungi, or by direct stimulation of protein kinase C through phorbol myristate acetate, is an active process that takes several hours and relies on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are further modified by myeloperoxidase (MPO). We show here that NET-like structures can also be formed by neutrophils after interaction with phenol-soluble modulin alpha (PSM alpha) that are cytotoxic membrane-disturbing peptides, secreted from community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA). The PSMa-induced NETs contained the typical protein markers and were able to capture microbes. The PSMa-induced NET structures were disintegrated upon prolonged exposure to DNase-positive S. aureus but not on exposure to DNase-negative Candida albicans. Opposed to classic NETosis, PSMa-triggered NET formation occurred very rapidly, independently of ROS or MPO, and was also manifest at 4 degrees C. These data indicate that rapid NETs release may result from cytotoxic membrane disturbance by PSMa peptides, a process that may be of importance for CA-MRSA virulence.

  • 17.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology.
    Gottfries, Carl-Gerhard
    Gottfries Clin AB, Molndal, Sweden..
    Elfaitouri, Amal
    Benghazi Univ, Fac Publ Hlth, Dept Infect Dis & Trop Med, Benghazi, Libya..
    Rizwan, Muhammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology.
    Rosén, Anders
    Linkoping Univ, Div Cell Biol, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Infection Elicited Autoimmunity and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: An Explanatory Model2018In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 9, article id 229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) often also called chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a common, debilitating, disease of unknown origin. Although a subject of controversy and a considerable scientific literature, we think that a solid understanding of ME/CFS pathogenesis is emerging. In this study, we compiled recent findings and placed them in the context of the clinical picture and natural history of the disease. A pattern emerged, giving rise to an explanatory model. ME/CFS often starts after or during an infection. A logical explanation is that the infection initiates an autoreactive process, which affects several functions, including brain and energy metabolism. According to our model for ME/CFS pathogenesis, patients with a genetic predisposition and dysbiosis experience a gradual development of B cell clones prone to autoreactivity. Under normal circumstances these B cell offsprings would have led to tolerance. Subsequent exogenous microbial exposition (triggering) can lead to comorbidities such as fibromyalgia, thyroid disorder, and orthostatic hypotension. A decisive infectious trigger may then lead to immunization against autoantigens involved in aerobic energy production and/or hormone receptors and ion channel proteins, producing postexertional malaise and ME/CFS, affecting both muscle and brain. In principle, cloning and sequencing of immunoglobulin variable domains could reveal the evolution of pathogenic clones. Although evidence consistent with the model accumulated in recent years, there are several missing links in it. Hopefully, the hypothesis generates testable propositions that can augment the understanding of the pathogenesis of ME/CFS.

  • 18.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Gottfries, Carl-Gerhard
    Gottfries Clin AB, Sweden.
    Elfaitouri, Amal
    Benghazi Univ, Libya.
    Rizwan, Muhammad
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Rosén, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Infection Elicited Autoimmunity and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: An Explanatory Model2018In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 9, article id 229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) often also called chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a common, debilitating, disease of unknown origin. Although a subject of controversy and a considerable scientific literature, we think that a solid understanding of ME/CFS pathogenesis is emerging. In this study, we compiled recent findings and placed them in the context of the clinical picture and natural history of the disease. A pattern emerged, giving rise to an explanatory model. ME/CFS often starts after or during an infection. A logical explanation is that the infection initiates an autoreactive process, which affects several functions, including brain and energy metabolism. According to our model for ME/CFS pathogenesis, patients with a genetic predisposition and dysbiosis experience a gradual development of B cell clones prone to autoreactivity. Under normal circumstances these B cell offsprings would have led to tolerance. Subsequent exogenous microbial exposition (triggering) can lead to comorbidities such as fibromyalgia, thyroid disorder, and orthostatic hypotension. A decisive infectious trigger may then lead to immunization against autoantigens involved in aerobic energy production and/or hormone receptors and ion channel proteins, producing postexertional malaise and ME/CFS, affecting both muscle and brain. In principle, cloning and sequencing of immunoglobulin variable domains could reveal the evolution of pathogenic clones. Although evidence consistent with the model accumulated in recent years, there are several missing links in it. Hopefully, the hypothesis generates testable propositions that can augment the understanding of the pathogenesis of ME/CFS.

  • 19.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Rizwan, Muhammad
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Bohlin-Wiener, Agnes
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Elfaitouri, Amal
    Benghazi Univ, Libya.
    Julin, Per
    Stora Skondal, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Zachrisson, Olof
    Gottfries Clin AB, Sweden.
    Rosén, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gottfries, Carl-Gerhard
    Gottfries Clin AB, Sweden.
    Antibodies to Human Herpesviruses in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients2019In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, article id 1946Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis, also referred to as chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating disease characterized by myalgia and a sometimes severe limitation of physical activity and cognition. It is exacerbated by physical and mental activity. Its cause is unknown, but frequently starts with an infection. The eliciting infection (commonly infectious mononucleosis or an upper respiratory infection) can be more or less well diagnosed. Among the human herpesviruses (HHV-1 -8), HHV-4 (Epstein-Barr virus; EBV), HHV-6 (including HHV-6A and HHV-6B), and HHV-7, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of ME/CFS. It was therefore logical to search for serological evidence of past herpesvirus infection/reactivation in several cohorts of ME/CFS patients (all diagnosed using the Canada criteria). Control samples were from Swedish blood donors. We used whole purified virus, recombinant proteins, and synthetic peptides as antigens in a suspension multiplex immunoassay (SMIA) for immunoglobulin G (IgG). The study on herpesviral peptides based on antigenicity with human sera yielded novel epitope information. Overall, IgG anti-herpes-viral reactivities of ME/CFS patients and controls did not show significant differences. However, the high precision and internally controlled format allowed us to observe minor relative differences between antibody reactivities of some herpesviral antigens in ME/CFS versus controls. ME/CFS samples reacted somewhat differently from controls with whole virus HHV-1 antigens and recombinant EBV EBNA6 and EA antigens. We conclude that ME/CFS samples had similar levels of IgG reactivity as blood donor samples with HHV-1-7 antigens. The subtle serological differences should not be over-interpreted, but they may indicate that the immune system of some ME/CFS patients interact with the ubiquitous herpesviruses in a way different from that of healthy controls.

  • 20.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology.
    Rizwan, Muhammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology.
    Böhlin-Wiener, Agnes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology.
    Elfaitouri, Amal
    Benghazi Univ, Dept Infect Dis & Trop Med, Fac Publ Hlth, Benghazi, Libya.
    Julin, Per
    Stora Skondal, Neurol Rehabil Clin, Skondal, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zachrisson, Olof
    Gottfries Clin AB, Molndal, Sweden.
    Rosen, Anders
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Div Cell Biol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Gottfries, Carl-Gerhard
    Gottfries Clin AB, Molndal, Sweden.
    Antibodies to Human Herpesviruses in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients2019In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, article id 1946Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis, also referred to as chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating disease characterized by myalgia and a sometimes severe limitation of physical activity and cognition. It is exacerbated by physical and mental activity. Its cause is unknown, but frequently starts with an infection. The eliciting infection (commonly infectious mononucleosis or an upper respiratory infection) can be more or less well diagnosed. Among the human herpesviruses (HHV-1 -8), HHV-4 (Epstein-Barr virus; EBV), HHV-6 (including HHV-6A and HHV-6B), and HHV-7, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of ME/CFS. It was therefore logical to search for serological evidence of past herpesvirus infection/reactivation in several cohorts of ME/CFS patients (all diagnosed using the Canada criteria). Control samples were from Swedish blood donors. We used whole purified virus, recombinant proteins, and synthetic peptides as antigens in a suspension multiplex immunoassay (SMIA) for immunoglobulin G (IgG). The study on herpesviral peptides based on antigenicity with human sera yielded novel epitope information. Overall, IgG anti-herpes-viral reactivities of ME/CFS patients and controls did not show significant differences. However, the high precision and internally controlled format allowed us to observe minor relative differences between antibody reactivities of some herpesviral antigens in ME/CFS versus controls. ME/CFS samples reacted somewhat differently from controls with whole virus HHV-1 antigens and recombinant EBV EBNA6 and EA antigens. We conclude that ME/CFS samples had similar levels of IgG reactivity as blood donor samples with HHV-1-7 antigens. The subtle serological differences should not be over-interpreted, but they may indicate that the immune system of some ME/CFS patients interact with the ubiquitous herpesviruses in a way different from that of healthy controls.

  • 21.
    Bondza, Sina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science. Ridgeview Instruments AB, Vange, Sweden.
    Foy, Eleanor
    Univ Leeds, Leeds Inst Rheumat & Musculoskeletal Med, Leeds, W Yorkshire, England..
    Brooks, Jonathan
    Pfizer Inc, Cambridge, MA USA..
    Andersson, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science. Ridgeview Instruments AB, Vange, Sweden.
    Robinson, James
    Univ Leeds, Leeds Inst Rheumat & Musculoskeletal Med, Leeds, W Yorkshire, England..
    Richalet, Pascale
    BioRevera LLC, Arlington, MA USA..
    Buijs, Jos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science. Ridgeview Instruments AB, Vange, Sweden.
    Real-time Characterization of Antibody Binding to Receptors on Living Immune Cells2017In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 8, article id 455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding molecular interactions on immune cells is crucial for drug development to treat cancer and autoimmune diseases. When characterizing molecular interactions, the use of a relevant living model system is important, as processes such as receptor oligomerization and clustering can influence binding patterns. We developed a protocol to enable time-resolved analysis of ligand binding to receptors on living suspension cells. Different suspension cell lines and weakly adhering cells were tethered to Petri dishes with the help of a biomolecular anchor molecule, and antibody binding was analyzed using LigandTracer. The protocol and assay described in this report were used to characterize interactions involving eight cell lines. Experiments were successfully conducted in three different laboratories, demonstrating the robustness of the protocol. For various antibodies, affinities and kinetic rate constants were obtained for binding to CD20 on both Daudi and Ramos B-cells, the T-cell co-receptor CD3 on Jurkat cells, and the Fc gamma receptor CD32 on transfected HEK293 cells, respectively. Analyzing the binding of Rituximab to B-cells resulted in an affinity of 0.7-0.9 nM, which is similar to values reported previously for living B-cells. However, we observed a heterogeneous behavior for Rituximab interacting with B-cells, which to our knowledge has not been described previously. The understanding of complex interactions will be facilitated with the possibility to characterize binding processes in real-time on living immune cells. This provides the chance to broaden the understanding of how binding kinetics relate to biological function.

  • 22.
    Brandsma, Arianne M.
    et al.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Lab Translat Immunol, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Bondza, Sina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science. Ridgeview Instruments AB, Vänge, Sweden.
    Evers, Mitchell
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Lab Translat Immunol, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Koutstaal, Rosanne
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Lab Translat Immunol, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Nederend, Maaike
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Lab Translat Immunol, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Jansen, J. H. Marco
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Lab Translat Immunol, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Rosner, Thies
    Univ Kiel, Div Stem Cell Transplantat & Immunotherapy, Dept Internal Med 2, Kiel, Germany.
    Valerius, Thomas
    Univ Kiel, Div Stem Cell Transplantat & Immunotherapy, Dept Internal Med 2, Kiel, Germany.
    Leusen, Jeanette H. W.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Lab Translat Immunol, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    ten Broeke, Toine
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Lab Translat Immunol, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Potent Fc Receptor Signaling by IgA Leads to Superior Killing of Cancer Cells by Neutrophils Compared to IgG2019In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, article id 704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibody therapy of cancer is increasingly used in the clinic and has improved patient's life expectancy. Except for immune checkpoint inhibition, the mode of action of many antibodies is to recognize overexpressed or specific tumor antigens and initiate either direct F(ab')(2)-mediated tumor cell killing, or Fc-mediated effects such as complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity/phagocytosis (ADCC/P) after binding to activating Fc receptors. All antibodies used in the clinic are of the IgG isotype. The IgA isotype can, however, also elicit powerful anti-tumor responses through engagement of the activating Fc receptor for monomeric IgA (Fc alpha RI). In addition to monocytes, macrophages and eosinophils as Fc alpha RI expressing immune cells, neutrophils are especially vigorous in eliminating IgA opsonized tumor cells. However, with IgG as single agent it appears almost impossible to activate neutrophils efficiently, as we have visualized by live cell imaging of tumor cell killing. In this study, we investigated Fc receptor expression, binding and signaling to clarify why triggering of neutrophils by IgA is more efficient than by IgG. Fc alpha RI expression on neutrophils is similar to 2 times and similar to 20 times lower than that of Fc gamma receptors Fc gamma RIIa and Fc gamma RIIIb, but still, binding of neutrophils to IgA- or IgG-coated surfaces was similar. In addition, our data suggest that IgA- mediated binding of neutrophils is more stable compared to IgG. IgA engagement of neutrophils elicited stronger Fc receptor signaling than IgG as indicated by measuring the p-ERK signaling molecule. We propose that the higher stoichiometry of IgA to the Fc alpha R/FcR gamma-chain complex, activating four ITAMs (Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-based Activating Motifs) compared to a single ITAM for Fc gamma RIIa, combined with a possible decoy role of the highly expressed Fc gamma RIIIb, explains why IgA is much better than IgG at triggering tumor cell killing by neutrophils. We anticipate that harnessing the vast population of neutrophils by the use of IgA monoclonal antibodies can be a valuable addition to the growing arsenal of antibody-based therapeutics for cancer treatment.

  • 23.
    Bösl, Korbinian
    et al.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Ctr Mol Inflammat Res, Trondheim, Norway;Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Clin & Mol Med, Trondheim, Norway.
    Ianevski, Aleksandr
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Clin & Mol Med, Trondheim, Norway.
    Than, Thoa T.
    Inst Pasteur Korea, Seongnam, South Korea.
    Andersen, Petter I.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Clin & Mol Med, Trondheim, Norway.
    Kuivanen, Suvi
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Virol, Helsinki, Finland.
    Teppor, Mona
    Univ Tartu, Inst Technol, Tartu, Estonia.
    Zusinaite, Eva
    Univ Tartu, Inst Technol, Tartu, Estonia.
    Dumpis, Uga
    Pauls Stradins Clin Univ Hosp, Riga, Latvia.
    Vitkauskiene, Astra
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Dept Lab Med, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Cox, Rebecca J.
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, Influenza Ctr, Bergen, Norway.
    Kallio-Kokko, Hannimari
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Virol & Immunol, Helsinki Univ Hosp, Helsinki, Finland.
    Bergqvist, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infection medicine.
    Tenson, Tanel
    Univ Tartu, Inst Technol, Tartu, Estonia.
    Merits, Andres
    Univ Tartu, Inst Technol, Tartu, Estonia.
    Oksenych, Valentyn
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Clin & Mol Med, Trondheim, Norway.
    Björås, Magnar
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Clin & Mol Med, Trondheim, Norway.
    Anthonsen, Marit W.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Clin & Mol Med, Trondheim, Norway.
    Shum, David
    Inst Pasteur Korea, Seongnam, South Korea.
    Kaarbö, Mari
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Dept Microbiol, Oslo, Norway.
    Vapalahti, Olli
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Vet Biosci, Helsinki, Finland.
    Windisch, Marc P.
    Inst Pasteur Korea, Seongnam, South Korea.
    Superti-Furga, Giulio
    Austrian Acad Sci, CeMM Res Ctr Mol Med, Vienna, Austria;Med Univ Vienna, Ctr Physiol & Pharmacol, Vienna, Austria.
    Snijder, Berend
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Mol Syst Biol, Dept Biol, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Kainov, Denis
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Clin & Mol Med, Trondheim, Norway;Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Mol Syst Biol, Dept Biol, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Kandasamy, Richard K.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Ctr Mol Inflammat Res, Trondheim, Norway;Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Clin & Mol Med, Trondheim, Norway;Univ Oslo, Nord EMBL Partnership, Ctr Mol Med Norway NCMM, Oslo, Norway;Univ Massachusetts, Sch Med, Dept Med, Program Innate Immun,Div Infect Dis & Immunol, Worcester, MA 01655 USA.
    Common Nodes of Virus-Host Interaction Revealed Through an Integrated Network Analysis2019In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, article id 2186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Viruses are one of the major causes of acute and chronic infectious diseases and thus a major contributor to the global burden of disease. Several studies have shown how viruses have evolved to hijack basic cellular pathways and evade innate immune response by modulating key host factors and signaling pathways. A collective view of these multiple studies could advance our understanding of virus-host interactions and provide new therapeutic perspectives for the treatment of viral diseases. Here, we performed an integrative meta-analysis to elucidate the 17 different host-virus interactomes. Network and bioinformatics analyses showed how viruses with small genomes efficiently achieve the maximal effect by targeting multifunctional and highly connected host proteins with a high occurrence of disordered regions. We also identified the core cellular process subnetworks that are targeted by all the viruses. Integration with functional RNA interference (RNAi) datasets showed that a large proportion of the targets are required for viral replication. Furthermore, we performed an interactome-informed drug re-purposing screen and identified novel activities for broad-spectrum antiviral agents against hepatitis C virus and human metapneumovirus. Altogether, these orthogonal datasets could serve as a platform for hypothesis generation and follow-up studies to broaden our understanding of the viral evasion landscape.

  • 24.
    Chenna Narendra, Sudeep
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Chalise, Jaya Prakash
    Osaka Univ, Japan.
    Biggs, Sophie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kalinke, Ulrich
    Zentrum Expt and Klin Infekt Forsch, Germany.
    Magnusson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Regulatory T-Cells Mediate IFN-alpha-Induced Resistance against Antigen-Induced Arthritis2018In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 9, article id 285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: CD4(+)FoxP3(+)CD25(+) regulatory T-cells (T-regs) are important for preventing tissue destruction. Here, we investigate the role of T-regs for protection against experimental arthritis by IFN-alpha. Methods: Arthritis was triggered by intra-articular injection of methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA) in wild-type mice, Foxp3DTReGFP(+/-) mice [allowing selective depletion of T-regs by diphtheria toxin (DT)] and CD4-Cre(+/-) IFNA1R flox/flox mice (devoid of IFNAR signaling in T-cells) earlier immunized with mBSA, with or without treatment with IFN-alpha or the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)-metabolite kynurenine. T-regs were depleted in DT-treated Foxp3DTReGFP(+/-) mice and enumerated by FoxP3 staining. Suppressive capacity of FACS-sorted CD25(+high)CD4(+) T-regs was tested in vivo by adoptive transfer and ex vivo in cocultures with antigen-stimulated CFSE-stained T-responder (CD25-CD4(+)) cells. IDO was inhibited by 1-methyl tryptophan. Results: Both control mice and mice devoid of IFNAR-signaling in T helper cells were protected from arthritis by IFN-alpha. Depletion of T-regs in the arthritis phase, but not at immunization, abolished the protective effect of IFN-alpha and kynurenine against arthritis. IFN-alpha increased the number of T-regs in ex vivo cultures upon antigen recall stimulation but not in naive cells. IFN-alpha also increased the suppressive capacity of T-regs against mBSA-induced T-responder cell proliferation ex vivo and against arthritis when adoptively transferred. The increased suppressive activity against proliferation conferred by IFN-alpha was clearly reduced by in vivo inhibition of IDO at immunization, which also abolished the protective effect of IFN-alpha against arthritis. Conclusion: By activating IDO during antigen sensitization, IFN-alpha activates T-regs, which prevent arthritis triggered by antigen rechallenge. This is one way by which IFN-alpha suppresses inflammation.

  • 25.
    Crisci, Elisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. North Carolina State Univ, NC USA.
    Svanberg, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Hematopoiesis and Developmental Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ellegård, Rada
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Hematopoiesis and Developmental Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Clinical genetics.
    Khalid, Mohammad
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. King Khalid Univ, Saudi Arabia.
    Hellblom, Julia
    Not Found:Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin and Expt Med, Div Mol Virol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Okuyama, Kazuki
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bhattacharya, Pradyot
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Hematopoiesis and Developmental Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nyström, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Hematopoiesis and Developmental Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Shankar, Esaki M.
    Cent Univ Tamil Nadu, India.
    Eriksson, Kristina
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Hematopoiesis and Developmental Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    HSV-2 Cellular Programming Enables Productive HIV Infection in Dendritic Cells2019In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, article id 2889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted infection caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Genital herpes significantly enhances the acquisition and transmission of HIV-1 by creating a microenvironment that supports HIV infection in the host. Dendritic cells (DCs) represent one of the first innate cell types that encounter HIV-1 and HSV-2 in the genital mucosa. HSV-2 infection has been shown to modulate DCs, rendering them more receptive to HIV infection. Here, we investigated the potential mechanisms underlying HSV-2-mediated augmentation of HIV-1 infection. We demonstrated that the presence of HSV-2 enhanced productive HIV-1 infection of DCs and boosted inflammatory and antiviral responses. The HSV-2 augmented HIV-1 infection required intact HSV-2 DNA, but not active HSV-2 DNA replication. Furthermore, the augmented HIV infection of DCs involved the cGAS-STING pathway. Interestingly, we could not see any involvement of TLR2 or TLR3 nor suppression of infection by IFN-beta production. The conditioning by HSV-2 in dual exposed DCs decreased protein expression of IFI16, cGAS, STING, and TBK1, which is associated with signaling through the STING pathway. Dual exposure to HSV-2 and HIV-1 gave decreased levels of several HIV-1 restriction factors, especially SAMHD1, TREX1, and APOBEC3G. Activation of the STING pathway in DCs by exposure to both HSV-2 and HIV-1 most likely led to the proteolytic degradation of the HIV-1 restriction factors SAMHD1, TREX1, and APOBEC3G, which should release their normal restriction of HIV infection in DCs. This released their normal restriction of HIV infection in DCs. We showed that HSV-2 reprogramming of cellular signaling pathways and protein expression levels in the DCs provided a setting where HIV-1 can establish a higher productive infection in the DCs. In conclusion, HSV-2 reprogramming opens up DCs for HIV-1 infection and creates a microenvironment favoring HIV-1 transmission.

  • 26.
    Darweesh, Mahmoud
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Al Azhr Univ, Dept Microbiol & Immunol, Assiut, Egypt.
    Kamel, Wael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Gavrilin, Mikhail A
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Internal Med, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
    Akusjärvi, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Svensson, Catharina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Adenovirus VA RNAI Blocks ASC Oligomerization and Inhibits NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation2019In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, article id 2791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virus infected immune cells can rapidly respond to the invader by activating the inflammasome and as a consequence release proinflammatory cytokines and eventually die by pyroptosis. In human adenovirus-5 (Ad5) infected THP-1 cells, inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation was demonstrated by a decreased secretion of HMGB1 and matured forms of caspase-1and IL-1ß. An Ad5 mutant virus defective in expression of the non-coding VA RNAI failed to inhibit the NLRP3 inflammasome and in addition displayed formation of ASC specks and increased cell lysis. Importantly, in vitro synthesized VA RNAI was able to inhibit the NLRP3 inflammasome activity in THP-1 cells in the absence of an Ad5 infection, suggesting that VA RNAI binding to PKR and blocking its function is sufficient for inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Although the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation required the phylogenetically conserved base paired tetranucleotide sequence in the central stem of VA RNAI, we demonstrate that PKR binding to VA RNAI primarily protected the apical stem, but not the tetranucleotide sequence itself. VA RNAI did not influence the interaction between PKR and NLRP3. In contrast, we describe a novel interaction between PKR and ASC and further show that VA RNAI inhibited ASC phosphorylation and oligomerization. Collectively, our results indicate a novel role for Ad5 VA RNAI as an inhibitor of NLRP3 inflammasome activation by targeting the cellular pro-inflammatory protein PKR.

  • 27.
    Dou, Dan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Revol, Rebecca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Östbye, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Wang, Hao
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Daniels, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Influenza A Virus Cell Entry, Replication, Virion Assembly and Movement2018In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 9, article id 1581Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Influenza viruses replicate within the nucleus of the host cell. This uncommon RNA virus trait provides influenza with the advantage of access to the nuclear machinery during replication. However, it also increases the complexity of the intracellular trafficking that is required for the viral components to establish a productive infection. The segmentation of the influenza genome makes these additional trafficking requirements especially challenging, as each viral RNA (vRNA) gene segment must navigate the network of cellular membrane barriers during the processes of entry and assembly. To accomplish this goal, influenza A viruses (IAVs) utilize a combination of viral and cellular mechanisms to coordinate the transport of their proteins and the eight vRNA gene segments in and out of the cell. The aim of this review is to present the current mechanistic understanding for how IAVs facilitate cell entry, replication, virion assembly, and intercellular movement, in an effort to highlight some of the unanswered questions regarding the coordination of the IAV infection process.

  • 28.
    Ellegård, Rada
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Clinical genetics.
    Khalid, Mohammad
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. King Khalid Univ, Saudi Arabia.
    Svanberg, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Holgersson, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Thoren, Ylva
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Wittgren, Mirja Karolina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hinkula, Jorma
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nyström, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Shankar, Esaki M.
    Univ Malaya, Malaysia; Cent Univ Tamil Nadu, India.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Complement-Opsonized HIV-1 Alters Cross Talk Between Dendritic Cells and Natural Killer (NK) Cells to Inhibit NK Killing and to Upregulate PD-1, CXCR3, and CCR4 on T Cells2018In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 9, article id 899Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dendritic cells (DCs), natural killer (NK) cells, and T cells play critical roles during primary HIV-1 exposure at the mucosa, where the viral particles become coated with complement fragments and mucosa-associated antibodies. The microenvironment together with subsequent interactions between these cells and HIV at the mucosal site of infection will determine the quality of immune response that ensues adaptive activation. Here, we investigated how complement and immunoglobulin opsonization influences the responses triggered in DCs and NK cells, how this affects their cross talk, and what T cell phenotypes are induced to expand following the interaction. Our results showed that DCs exposed to complement-opsonized HIV (C-HIV) were less mature and had a poor ability to trigger IFN-driven NK cell activation. In addition, when the DCs were exposed to C-HIV, the cytotolytic potentials of both NK cells and CD8 T cells were markedly suppressed. The expression of PD-1 as well as co-expression of negative immune checkpoints TIM-3 and LAG-3 on PD-1 positive cells were increased on both CD4 as well as CD8 T cells upon interaction with and priming by NK-DC cross talk cultures exposed to C-HIV. In addition, stimulation by NK-DC cross talk cultures exposed to C-HIV led to the upregulation of CD38, CXCR3, and CCR4 on T cells. Together, the immune modulation induced during the presence of complement on viral surfaces is likely to favor HIV establishment, dissemination, and viral pathogenesis.

  • 29.
    Eriksson, Oskar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Mohlin, Camilla
    Linnaeus Univ, Linnaeus Ctr Biomat Chem, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    N. Ekdahl, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Linnaeus Univ, Linnaeus Ctr Biomat Chem, Kalmar, Sweden.
    The Human Platelet as an Innate Immune Cell: Interactions Between Activated Platelets and the Complement System2019In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, article id 1590Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Platelets play an essential role in maintaining homeostasis in the circulatory system after an injury by forming a platelet thrombus, but they also occupy a central node in the intravascular innate immune system. This concept is supported by their extensive interactions with immune cells and the cascade systems of the blood. In this review we discuss the close relationship between platelets and the complement system and the role of these interactions during thromboinflammation. Platelets are protected from complement-mediated damage by soluble and membrane-expressed complement regulators, but they bind several complement components on their surfaces and trigger complement activation in the fluid phase. Furthermore, localized complement activation may enhance the procoagulant responses of platelets through the generation of procoagulant microparticles by insertion of sublytic amounts of C5b9 into the platelet membrane. We also highlight the role of post-translational protein modifications in regulating the complement system and the critical role of platelets in driving these reactions. In particular, modification of disulfide bonds by thiol isomerases and protein phosphorylation by extracellular kinases have emerged as important mechanisms to fine-tune complement activity in the platelet microenvironment. Lastly, we describe disorders with perturbed complement activation where part of the clinical presentation includes uncontrolled platelet activation that results in thrombocytopenia, and illustrate how complement-targeting drugs are alleviating the prothrombotic phenotype in these patients. Based on these clinical observations, we discuss the role of limited complement activation in enhancing platelet activation and consider how these drugs may provide opportunities for further dissecting the complex interactions between complement and platelets.

  • 30.
    Eriksson, Oskar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Mohlin, Camilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    The Human Platelet as an Innate Immune Cell: Interactions Between Activated Platelets and the Complement System2019In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, p. 1-16, article id 1590Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Platelets play an essential role in maintaining homeostasis in the circulatory system after an injury by forming a platelet thrombus, but they also occupy a central node in the intravascular innate immune system. This concept is supported by their extensive interactions with immune cells and the cascade systems of the blood. In this review we discuss the close relationship between platelets and the complement system and the role of these interactions during thromboinflammation. Platelets are protected from complement-mediated damage by soluble and membrane-expressed complement regulators, but they bind several complement components on their surfaces and trigger complement activation in the fluid phase. Furthermore, localized complement activation may enhance the procoagulant responses of platelets through the generation of procoagulant microparticles by insertion of sublytic amounts of C5b9 into the platelet membrane. We also highlight the role of post-translational protein modifications in regulating the complement system and the critical role of platelets in driving these reactions. In particular, modification of disulfide bonds by thiol isomerases and protein phosphorylation by extracellular kinases have emerged as important mechanisms to fine-tune complement activity in the platelet microenvironment. Lastly, we describe disorders with perturbed complement activation where part of the clinical presentation includes uncontrolled platelet activation that results in thrombocytopenia, and illustrate how complement-targeting drugs are alleviating the prothrombotic phenotype in these patients. Based on these clinical observations, we discuss the role of limited complement activation in enhancing platelet activation and consider how these drugs may provide opportunities for further dissecting the complex interactions between complement and platelets.

  • 31. Ernst, Diana
    et al.
    Widera, Christian
    Baerlecken, Niklas T
    Schlumberger, Wolfgang
    Daehnrich, Cornelia
    Schmidt, Reinhold E
    Gabrysch, Katja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Witte, Torsten
    Antibodies against MYC-Associated Zinc Finger Protein: An Independent Marker in Acute Coronary Syndrome?2017In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 8, article id 1595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Atherosclerosis is considered the pathophysiology underlying cardiovascular (CVD), cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular diseases. Evidence supporting an autoimmune component is emerging, with imaging studies correlating MYC-associated zinc finger protein antibody (MAZ-Ab) optical density (OD) with plaque activity. This study compares MAZ-Ab OD on ELISA testing among patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) to healthy controls and investigates the association of MAZ-Ab to traditional CVD risk factors.

    Methods: Patients admitted with ACSs between August 2007 and July 2011 were included. Serum samples taken at presentation were retrospectively tested for MAZ-Ab and compared with serum from healthy volunteers with no CVD risk factors. Large-scale assessment of post-ACS prognostic relevance was performed using the established PLATO cohort.

    Results:  = 0.436).

    Conclusion: MAZ-Ab OD was higher or all ACS phenotypes compared with controls. Given current understanding of MAZ-Ab function, these findings support an autoimmune component to CVD independent of conventional risk factors and indeed the extent of end-organ damage.

  • 32.
    Filipovic, Iva
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Med Huddinge, Ctr Infect Med, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sönnerborg, Isabella
    Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Med Huddinge, Ctr Infect Med, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Div Transplantat Surg, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Strunz, Benedikt
    Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Med Huddinge, Ctr Infect Med, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Friberg, Danielle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    Cornillet, Martin
    Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Med Huddinge, Ctr Infect Med, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hertwig, Laura
    Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Med Huddinge, Ctr Infect Med, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Martin A.
    Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Med Huddinge, Ctr Infect Med, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björkström, Niklas K.
    Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Med Huddinge, Ctr Infect Med, Stockholm, Sweden.
    29-Color Flow Cytometry: Unraveling Human Liver NK Cell Repertoire Diversity2019In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, article id 2692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have demonstrated extraordinary diversity in peripheral blood human natural killer (NK) cells and have suggested environmental control of receptor expression patterns on distinct subsets of NK cells. However, tissue localization may influence NK cell differentiation to an even higher extent and less is known about the receptor repertoire of human tissue-resident NK cells. Advances in single-cell technologies have allowed higher resolution studies of these cells. Here, the power of high-dimensional flow cytometry was harnessed to unravel the complexity of NK cell repertoire diversity in liver since recent studies had indicated high heterogeneity within liver NK cells. A 29-color flow cytometry panel allowing simultaneous measurement of surface tissue-residency markers, activating and inhibitory receptors, differentiation markers, chemokine receptors, and transcription factors was established. This panel was applied to lymphocytes across three tissues (liver, peripheral blood, and tonsil) with different distribution of distinct NK cell subsets. Dimensionality reduction of this data ordered events according to their lineage, rather than tissue of origin. Notably, narrowing the scope of the analysis to the NK cell lineage in liver and peripheral blood separated subsets according to tissue, enabling phenotypic characterization of NK cell subpopulations in individual tissues. Such dimensionality reduction, coupled with a clustering algorithm, identified CD49e as the preferred marker for future studies of liver-resident NK cell subsets. We present a robust approach for diversity profiling of tissue-resident NK cells that can be applied in various homeostatic and pathological conditions such as reproduction, infection, and cancer.

  • 33. Forsell, M. N. E.
    et al.
    Kvastad, Linda
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology.
    Sedimbi, S. K.
    Andersson, J.
    Karlsson, M. C. I.
    Regulation of subunit-specific germinal center B cell responses to the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins by antibody-mediated feedback2017In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 8, no JUN, article id 738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The regulation of germinal center (GC) B cell responses to single epitopes is well investigated. How monoclonal B cells are regulated within the polyclonal B cell response to protein antigens is less so. Here, we investigate the primary GC B cell response after injection of mice with HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins. We demonstrate that single GCs are seeded by a diverse number of B cell clones shortly after a single immunization and that the presence of Env-specific antibodies can inhibit the development of early GC B cells. Importantly, the suppression was dependent on the GC B cells and the infused antibodies to target the same subunit of the injected HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins. An affinity-dependent antibody feedback has previously been shown to regulate GC B cell development. Here, we propose that this antibody-based feedback acts on GC B cells only if they target the same or overlapping epitopes. This study provides important basic information of GC B cell regulation, and for future vaccine designs with aim to elicit neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1.

  • 34.
    Forsell, Mattias N. E.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry. Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kvastad, Linda
    Sedimbi, Saikiran K.
    Andersson, John
    Karlsson, Mikael C. I.
    Regulation of Subunit-Specific Germinal Center B Cell Responses to the HIV-1 Envelope Glycoproteins by Antibody-Mediated Feedback2017In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 8, article id 738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The regulation of germinal center (GC) B cell responses to single epitopes is well investigated. How monoclonal B cells are regulated within the polyclonal B cell response to protein antigens is less so. Here, we investigate the primary GC B cell response after injection of mice with HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins. We demonstrate that single GCs are seeded by a diverse number of B cell clones shortly after a single immunization and that the presence of Env-specific antibodies can inhibit the development of early GC B cells. Importantly, the suppression was dependent on the GC B cells and the infused antibodies to target the same subunit of the injected HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins. An affinity-dependent antibody feedback has previously been shown to regulate GC B cell development. Here, we propose that this antibody-based feedback acts on GC B cells only if they target the same or overlapping epitopes. This study provides important basic information of GC B cell regulation, and for future vaccine designs with aim to elicit neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1.

  • 35. Forslund, E.
    et al.
    Guldevall, Karolin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics.
    Olofsson, Per E.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics.
    Frisk, Thomas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics.
    Christakou, Athanasia E.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Wiklund, Martin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Önfelt, Björn
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics.
    Novel microchip-based tools facilitating live cell imaging and assessment of functional heterogeneity within NK cell populations2012In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 3, no OCT, p. 300-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Each individual has a heterogeneous pool of NK cells consisting of cells that may be specialized towards specific functional responses such as secretion of cytokines or killing of tumor cells. Many conventional methods are not fit to characterize heterogeneous populations as they measure the average response of all cells. Thus, there is a need for experimental platforms that provide single cell resolution. In addition, there are transient and stochastic variations in functional responses at the single cell level, calling for methods that allow studies of many events over extended periods of time. This paper presents a versatile microchip platform enabling long-term microscopic studies of individual NK cells interacting with target cells. Each microchip contains an array of microwells, optimized for medium or high-resolution time-lapse imaging of single or multiple NK and target cells, or for screening of thousands of isolated NK-target cell interactions. Individual NK cells confined with target cells in small microwells is a suitable setup for high-content screening and rapid assessment of heterogeneity within populations, while microwells of larger dimensions are appropriate for studies of NK cell migration and sequential interactions with multiple target cells. By combining the chip technology with ultrasonic manipulation, NK and target cells can be forced to interact and positioned with high spatial accuracy within individual microwells.This setup effectively and synchronously creates NK-target conjugates at hundreds of parallel positions in the microchip. Thus, this facilitates assessment of temporal aspects of NK-target cell interactions, e.g., conjugation, immune synapse formation, and cytotoxic events.The microchip platform presented here can be used to effectively address questions related to fundamental functions of NK cells that can lead to better understanding of how the behavior of individual cells add up to give a functional response at the population level.

  • 36.
    Frisk, Jun Mei Hu
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Kjellén, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Melo, Fabio R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Öhrvik, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Pejler, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Regulates Proteoglycan Composition of Mast Cell Secretory Granules2018In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 9, article id 1670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mast cells (MCs) are characterized by an abundance of lysosome-like secretory granules filled with immunomodulatory compounds including histamine, cytokines, lysosomal hydrolases, MC-restricted proteases, and serglycin proteoglycans. The latter are essential for promoting the storage of other granule compounds and are built up of the serglycin core protein to which highly sulfated and thereby negatively charged glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains of heparin or chondroitin sulfate type are attached. In the search for mechanisms operating in regulating MC granule homeostasis, we here investigated the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. We show that inhibition of MEK1/2 (a MAPK kinase) leads to increased metachromatic staining of MC granules, indicative of increased proteoglycan content. Indeed, MEK1/2 inhibition caused a profound increase in the expression of the gene coding for the serglycin core protein and of genes coding for various enzymes involved in the biosynthesis/sulfation of the GAGs attached to the serglycin core protein. This was accompanied by corresponding increases in the levels of the respective GAGs. Deletion of the serglycin core protein abrogated the induction of enzymes operative in proteoglycan synthesis, indicating that availability of the serglycin proteoglycan core protein has a regulatory function impacting on the expression of the various serglycin-modifying enzymes. MEK1/2 inhibition also caused a substantial increase in the expression of granule-localized, proteoglycan-binding proteases. Altogether, this study identifies a novel role for MAPK signaling in regulating the content of secretory granules in MCs.

  • 37.
    Fu, Zhirong
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology.
    Thorpe, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology.
    Akula, Srinivas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology.
    Chahal, Gurdeep
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology.
    Hellman, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology.
    Extended Cleavage Specificity of Human Neutrophil Elastase, Human Proteinase 3, and Their Distant Ortholog Clawed Frog PR3-Three Elastases With Similar Primary but Different Extended Specificities and Stability2018In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 9, article id 2387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Serine proteases are major granule constituents of several of the human hematopoietic cell lineages. Four proteolytically active such proteases have been identified in human neutrophils: cathepsin G (hCG), N-elastase (hNE), proteinase 3 (hPR-3), and neutrophil serine protease 4 (hNSP-4). Here we present the extended cleavage specificity of two of the most potent and most abundant of these enzymes, hNE and hPR-3. Their extended specificities were determined by phage display and by the analysis of a panel of chromogenic and recombinant substrates. hNE is an elastase with a relatively broad specificity showing a preference for regions containing several aliphatic amino acids. The protease shows self-cleaving activity, which results in the loss of activity during storage even at +4 degrees C. Here we also present the extended cleavage specificity of hPR-3. Compared with hNE, it shows considerably lower proteolytic activity. However, it is very stable, shows no self-cleaving activity and is actually more active in the presence of SDS, possibly by enhancing the accessibility of the target substrate. This enables specific analysis of hPR-3 activity even in the presence of all the other neutrophil enzymes with addition of 1% SDS. Neutrophils are the most abundant white blood cell in humans and one of the key players in our innate immune defense. The neutrophil serine proteases are very important for the function of the neutrophils and therefore also interesting from an evolutionary perspective. In order to study the origin and functional conservation of these neutrophil proteases we have identified and cloned an amphibian ortholog, Xenopus PR-3 (xPR-3). This enzyme was found to have a specificity very similar to hPR-3 but did not show the high stability in the presence of SDS. The presence of an elastase in Xenopus closely related to hPR-3 indicates a relatively early appearance of these enzymes during vertebrate evolution.

  • 38. Fuchs, Anke
    et al.
    Gliwiński, Mateusz
    Grageda, Nathali
    Spiering, Rachel
    Abbas, Abul K
    Appel, Silke
    Bacchetta, Rosa
    Battaglia, Manuela
    Berglund, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Blazar, Bruce
    Bluestone, Jeffrey A
    Bornhäuser, Martin
    Ten Brinke, Anja
    Brusko, Todd M
    Cools, Nathalie
    Cuturi, Maria Cristina
    Geissler, Edward
    Giannoukakis, Nick
    Gołab, Karolina
    Hafler, David A
    van Ham, S Marieke
    Hester, Joanna
    Hippen, Keli
    Di Ianni, Mauro
    Ilic, Natasa
    Isaacs, John
    Issa, Fadi
    Iwaszkiewicz-Grześ, Dorota
    Jaeckel, Elmar
    Joosten, Irma
    Klatzmann, David
    Koenen, Hans
    van Kooten, Cees
    Korsgren, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Kretschmer, Karsten
    Levings, Megan
    Marek-Trzonkowska, Natalia Maria
    Martinez-Llordella, Marc
    Miljkovic, Djordje
    Mills, Kingston H G
    Miranda, Joana P
    Piccirillo, Ciriaco A
    Putnam, Amy L
    Ritter, Thomas
    Roncarolo, Maria Grazia
    Sakaguchi, Shimon
    Sánchez-Ramón, Silvia
    Sawitzki, Birgit
    Sofronic-Milosavljevic, Ljiljana
    Sykes, Megan
    Tang, Qizhi
    Vives-Pi, Marta
    Waldmann, Herman
    Witkowski, Piotr
    Wood, Kathryn J
    Gregori, Silvia
    Hilkens, Catharien M U
    Lombardi, Giovanna
    Lord, Phillip
    Martinez-Caceres, Eva M
    Trzonkowski, Piotr
    Minimum Information about T Regulatory Cells: A Step toward Reproducibility and Standardization.2018In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 8, article id 1844Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellular therapies with CD4+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) hold promise of efficacious treatment for the variety of autoimmune and allergic diseases as well as posttransplant complications. Nevertheless, current manufacturing of Tregs as a cellular medicinal product varies between different laboratories, which in turn hampers precise comparisons of the results between the studies performed. While the number of clinical trials testing Tregs is already substantial, it seems to be crucial to provide some standardized characteristics of Treg products in order to minimize the problem. We have previously developed reporting guidelines called minimum information about tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells, which allows the comparison between different preparations of tolerance-inducing antigen-presenting cells. Having this experience, here we describe another minimum information about Tregs (MITREG). It is important to note that MITREG does not dictate how investigators should generate or characterize Tregs, but it does require investigators to report their Treg data in a consistent and transparent manner. We hope this will, therefore, be a useful tool facilitating standardized reporting on the manufacturing of Tregs, either for research purposes or for clinical application. This way MITREG might also be an important step toward more standardized and reproducible testing of the Tregs preparations in clinical applications.

  • 39. García-Sanchez, Marta
    et al.
    Jiménez-Pelayo, Laura
    Horcajo, Pilar
    Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier
    Ólafsson, Einar B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Bhandage, Amol K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Barragan, Antonio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Werling, Dirk
    Miguel Ortega-Mora, Luis
    Collantes-Fernández, Esther
    Differential Responses of Bovine Monocyte-Derived Macrophages to Infection by Neospora caninum Isolates of High and Low Virulence2019In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, article id 915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neospora caninum, a protozoan parasite closely related to Toxoplasma gondii, represents one of the main causes of abortion in cattle. Macrophages (Mempty sets) are mediators of the innate immune response against infection and likely one of the first cells encountered by the parasite during the host infection process. In this study, we investigated in vitro how high or low virulent isolates of N. caninum (Nc-Spain7 and Nc-Spain1H, respectively) interact with bovine monocyte-derived Mempty sets and the influence of the isolate virulence on the subsequent cellular response. Both isolates actively invaded, survived and replicated in the Mempty sets. However, Nc-Spain7 showed a higher invasion rate and a replication significantly faster, following an exponential growth model, whereas Nc-Spain1H presented a delayed replication and a lower growth rate without an exponential pattern. N. caninum infection induced a hypermigratory phenotype in bovine Mempty sets that was characterized by enhanced motility and transmigration in vitro and was accompanied by morphological changes and abrogated extracellular matrix degradation. A significantly higher hypermotility was observed with the highly virulent isolate Nc-Spain7. Nc-Spain1H-infected Mempty sets showed elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and IL12p40 expression, which also resulted in increased IFN-gamma release by lymphocytes, compared to cells infected with Nc-Spain7. Furthermore, IL-10 was upregulated in Mempty sets infected with both isolates. Infected Mempty sets exhibited lower expression of MHC Class II, CD86, and CD1b molecules than uninfected Mempty sets, with non-significant differences between isolates. This work characterizes for the first time N. caninum replication in bovine monocyte-derived Mempty sets and details isolate-dependent differences in host cell responses to the parasite.

  • 40.
    Gebremariam, Hanna G.
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Wenner Gren Inst, Dept Mol Biosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Qazi, Khaleda Rahman
    Stockholm Univ, Wenner Gren Inst, Dept Mol Biosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Somiah, Tanvi
    Stockholm Univ, Wenner Gren Inst, Dept Mol Biosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pathak, Sushil Kumar
    Stockholm Univ, Wenner Gren Inst, Dept Mol Biosci, Stockholm, Sweden;Khallikote Univ, Dept Biosci & Bioinformat, Berhampur, Odisha, India.
    Sjölinder, Hong
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning i Sörmland (CKFD). Stockholm Univ, Wenner Gren Inst, Dept Mol Biosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekström, Eva Sverremark
    Stockholm Univ, Wenner Gren Inst, Dept Mol Biosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Ann-Beth
    Stockholm Univ, Wenner Gren Inst, Dept Mol Biosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lactobacillus gasseri Suppresses the Production of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Helicobacter pylori-Infected Macrophages by Inhibiting the Expression of ADAM172019In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, article id 2326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of Helicobacter pylori to evade the host immune system allows the bacterium to colonize the host for a lifetime. Long-term infection with H. pylori causes chronic inflammation, which is the major risk factor for the development of gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. Lactobacilli are part of the human microbiota and have been studied as an adjunct treatment in H. pylori eradication therapy. However, the molecular mechanisms by which lactobacilli act against H. pylori infection have not been fully characterized. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Lactobacillus strains upon coincubation of host macrophages with H. pylori. We found that Lactobacillus gasseri Kx110A1 (L. gas), a strain isolated from a human stomach, but not other tested Lactobacillus species, blocked the production of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF and IL-6 in H. pylori-infected macrophages. Interestingly, L. gas also inhibited the release of these cytokines in LPS or LTA stimulated macrophages, demonstrating a general anti-inflammatory property. The inhibition of these cytokines did not occur through the polarization of macrophages from the M1 (proinflammatory) to M2 (anti-inflammatory) phenotype or through the altered viability of H. pylori or host cells. Instead, we show that L. gas suppressed the release of TNF and IL-6 by reducing the expression of ADAM17 (also known as TNF-alpha-converting enzyme, TACE) on host cells. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism by which L. gas prevents the production of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF and IL-6 in host macrophages.

  • 41.
    Gebremariam, Hanna G.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Qazi, Khaleda Rahman
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Somiah, Tanvi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Pathak, Sushil Kumar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Sjölinder, Hong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Sverremark Ekström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Jonsson, Ann-Beth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Lactobacillus gasseri Suppresses the Production of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Helicobacter pylori-Infected Macrophages by Inhibiting the Expression of ADAM172019In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, article id 2326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of Helicobacter pylori to evade the host immune system allows the bacterium to colonize the host for a lifetime. Long-term infection with H. pylori causes chronic inflammation, which is the major risk factor for the development of gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. Lactobacilli are part of the human microbiota and have been studied as an adjunct treatment in H. pylori eradication therapy. However, the molecular mechanisms by which lactobacilli act against H. pylori infection have not been fully characterized. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Lactobacillus strains upon coincubation of host macrophages with H. pylori. We found that Lactobacillus gasseri Kx110A1 (L. gas), a strain isolated from a human stomach, but not other tested Lactobacillus species, blocked the production of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF and IL-6 in H. pylori-infected macrophages. Interestingly, L. gas also inhibited the release of these cytokines in LPS or LTA stimulated macrophages, demonstrating a general anti-inflammatory property. The inhibition of these cytokines did not occur through the polarization of macrophages from the M1 (proinflammatory) to M2 (anti-inflammatory) phenotype or through the altered viability of H. pylori or host cells. Instead, we show that L. gas suppressed the release of TNF and IL-6 by reducing the expression of ADAM17 (also known as TNF-alpha-converting enzyme, TACE) on host cells. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism by which L. gas prevents the production of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF and IL-6 in host macrophages.

  • 42.
    Georganaki, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    van Hooren, Luuk
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Dimberg, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Vascular Targeting to Increase the Efficiency of Immune Checkpoint Blockade in Cancer2018In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 9, article id 3081Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Boosting natural immunity against malignant cells has had a major breakthrough in clinical cancer therapy. This is mainly due to the successful development of immune checkpoint blocking antibodies, which release a break on cytolytic anti-tumor-directed T-lymphocytes. However, immune checkpoint blockade is only effective for a proportion of cancer patients, and a major challenge in the field is to understand and overcome treatment resistance. Immune checkpoint blockade relies on successful trafficking of tumor-targeted T-lymphocytes from the secondary lymphoid organs, through the blood stream and into the tumor tissue. Resistance to therapy is often associated with a low density of T-lymphocytes residing within the tumor tissue prior to treatment. The recruitment of leukocytes to the tumor tissue relies on up-regulation of adhesion molecules and chemokines by the tumor vasculature, which is denoted as endothelial activation. Tumor vessels are often poorly activated due to constitutive pro-angiogenic signaling in the tumor microenvironment, and therefore constitute barriers to efficient leukocyte recruitment. An emerging possibility to enhance the efficiency of cancer immunotherapy is to combine pro-inflammatory drugs with anti-angiogenic therapy, which can enable tumor-targeted T-lymphocytes to access the tumor tissue by relieving endothelial anergy and increasing adhesion molecule expression. This would pave the way for efficient immune checkpoint blockade. Here, we review the current understanding of the biological basis of endothelial anergy within the tumor microenvironment, and discuss the challenges and opportunities of combining vascular targeting with immunotherapeutic drugs as suggested by data from key pre-clinical and clinical studies.

  • 43.
    Gerasimcik, Natalija
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    He, Minghui
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Baptista, Marisa A. P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; University of Würzburg, Germany.
    Severinson, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Westerberg, Lisa S.
    Deletion of Dock10 in B cells results in normal Development but a Mild Deficiency upon In Vivo and In Vitro stimulations2017In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 8, article id 491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We sought to identify genes necessary to induce cytoskeletal change in B cells. Using gene expression microarray, we compared B cells stimulated with interleukin-4 (IL-4) and anti-CD40 antibodies that induce B cell spreading, cell motility, tight aggregates, and extensive microvilli with B cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide that lack these cytoskeletal changes. We identified 84 genes with 10-fold or greater expression in anti-CD40 + IL-4 stimulated B cells, one of these encoded the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) dedicator of cytokinesis 10 (Dock10). IL-4 selectively induced Dock10 expression in B cells. Using lacZ expression to monitor Dock10 promoter activity, we found that Dock10 was expressed at all stages during B cell development. However, specific deletion of Dock10 in B cells was associated with a mild phenotype with normal B cell development and normal B cell spreading, polarization, motility, chemotaxis, aggregation, and Ig class switching. Dock10-deficient B cells showed lower proliferation in response to anti-CD40 and IL-4 stimulation. Moreover, the IgG response to soluble antigen in vivo was lower when Dock10 was specifically deleted in B cells. Together, we found that most B cell responses were intact in the absence of Dock10. However, specific deletion of Dock10 in B cells was associated with a mild reduction in B cell activation in vitro and in vivo.

  • 44.
    Gerasimcik, Natalija
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    He, Minghui
    Dahlberg, Carin I. M.
    Kuznetsov, Nikolai V.
    Severinson, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Westerberg, Lisa S.
    The small rho GTPases Rac1 and Rac2 are important for T-cell independent antigen responses and for suppressing switching to IgG2b in Mice2017In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 8, article id 1264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Rho GTPases Cdc42, Rac1, and Rac2 coordinate receptor signaling to cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. Deletion of Rac1 and Rac2 early during B cell development leads to failure in B cell entry into the splenic white pulp. Here, we sought to understand the role of Rac1 and Rac2 in B cell functionality and during the humoral antibody response. To circumvent the migratory deficiency of B cells lacking both Rac1 and Rac2, we took the approach to inducibly delete Rac1 in Rac2(-/-) B cells in the spleen (Rac1(B)Rac2(-/-) B cells). Rac1(B)Rac2(-/-) mice had normal differentiation of splenic B cell populations, except for a reduction in marginal zone B cells. Rac1(B)Rac2(-/-) B cells showed normal spreading response on antibody-coated layers, while both Rac2(-/-) and Rac1(B)Rac2(-/-) B cells had reduced homotypic adhesion and decreased proliferative response when compared to wild-type B cells. Upon challenge with the T-cell-independent antigen TNP-conjugated lipopolysaccharide, Rac1(B)Rac2(-/-) mice showed reduced antibody response. In contrast, in response to the T-cell-dependent antigen sheep red blood cells, Rac1(B)Rac2(-/-) mice had increased serum titers of IgG1 and IgG2b. During in vitro Ig class switching, Rac1(B)Rac2(-/-) B cells had elevated germline gamma 2b transcripts leading to increased Ig class switching to IgG2b. Our data suggest that Rac1 and Rac2 serve an important role in regulation of the B cell humoral immune response and in suppressing Ig class switching to IgG2b.

  • 45.
    Gerstner, Christina
    et al.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Ctr Mol Med, Rheumatol Unit,Dept Med Solna, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Dubnovitsky, Anatoly
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Mol Med, Dept Clin Neurosci, Neuroimmunol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sandin, Charlotta
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Ctr Mol Med, Rheumatol Unit,Dept Med Solna, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kozhukh, Genadiy
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Ctr Mol Med, Rheumatol Unit,Dept Med Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Uchtenhagen, Hannes
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Ctr Mol Med, Rheumatol Unit,Dept Med Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.;Virginia Mason, BRI, Translat Res Program, Seattle, WA USA..
    James, Eddie A.
    Virginia Mason, BRI, Tetramer Core, Seattle, WA USA..
    Rönnelid, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Ytterberg, Anders Jimmy
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Ctr Mol Med, Rheumatol Unit,Dept Med Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Pieper, Jennifer
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Ctr Mol Med, Rheumatol Unit,Dept Med Solna, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Reed, Evan
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Ctr Mol Med, Rheumatol Unit,Dept Med Solna, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tandre, Carolina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology.
    Rieck, Mary
    Virginia Mason, BRI, Translat Res Program, Seattle, WA USA..
    Zubarev, Roman A.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ronnblom, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology. Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Sci, Sci Life Lab, Rheumatol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Sandalova, Tatyana
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp Solna, Dept Infect Dis, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Buckner, Jane H.
    Virginia Mason, BRI, Translat Res Program, Seattle, WA USA..
    Achour, Adnane
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp Solna, Dept Infect Dis, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Malmstrom, Vivianne
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Ctr Mol Med, Rheumatol Unit,Dept Med Solna, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Functional and Structural Characterization of a Novel HLA-DRB1*04:01-Restricted alpha-Enolase T Cell Epitope in Rheumatoid Arthritis2016In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 7, article id 494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibodies to citrullinated proteins, common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, are strongly associated to a specific set of HLA-DR alleles including HLA-DRB1*04:01, *04:04, and *01:01. Here, we first demonstrate that autoantibody levels toward the dominant citrullinated B cell epitope from alpha-enolase are significantly elevated in HLA-DRB1*04:01-positive RA patients. Furthermore, we identified alpha-enolase-derived T cell epitopes and demonstrated that native and citrullinated versions of several peptides bind with different affinities to HLA-DRB1*04:01, *04:04, and *01:01. The citrulline residues in the eight identified peptides are distributed throughout the entire length of the presented epitopes and more specifically, localized at peptide positions p-2, p2, p4, p6, p7, p10, and p11. Importantly, in contrast to its native version peptide 26 (TSKGLFRAAVPSGAS), the HLA-DRB1*04:01-restricted citrullinated peptide Cit26 (TSKGLFCitAAVPSGAS) elicited significant functional T cell responses in primary cells from RA patients. Comparative analysis of the crystal structures of HLA-DRB1*04:01 in complex with peptide 26 or Cit26 demonstrated that the posttranslational modification did not alter the conformation of the peptide. And since citrullination is the only structural difference between the two complexes, this indicates that the neo-antigen Cit26 is recognized by T cells with high specificity to the citrulline residue.

  • 46. Grebennikov, Dmitry
    et al.
    Bouchnita, Anass
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computational Science.
    Volpert, Vitaly
    Bessonov, Nikolay
    Meyerhans, Andreas
    Bocharov, Gennady
    Spatial lymphocyte dynamics in lymph nodes predicts the cytotoxic T cell frequency needed for HIV infection control2019In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, article id 1213Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Guldevall, Karolin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Brandt, Ludwig
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Forslund, Elin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Karolinska Inst, Dept Microbiol Tumor & Cell Biol, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Karl
    Frisk, Thomas W.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Olofsson, Per E.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Gustafsson, Karin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Manneberg, Otto
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Vanherberghen, Bruno
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Brismar, Hjalmar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Karre, Klas
    Uhlin, Michael
    Önfelt, Björn
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Microchip screening Platform for single cell assessment of NK cell cytotoxicity2016In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 7, article id 119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we report a screening platform for assessment of the cytotoxic potential of individual natural killer (NK) cells within larger populations. Human primary NK cells were distributed across a silicon-glass microchip containing 32,400 individual microwells loaded with target cells. Through fluorescence screening and automated image analysis, the numbers of NK and live or dead target cells in each well could be assessed at different time points after initial mixing. Cytotoxicity was also studied by time-lapse live-cell imaging in microwells quantifying the killing potential of individual NK cells. Although most resting NK cells (approximate to 75%) were non-cytotoxic against the leukemia cell line K562, some NK cells were able to kill several (>= 3) target cells within the 12-h long experiment. In addition, the screening approach was adapted to increase the chance to find and evaluate serial killing NK cells. Even if the cytotoxic potential varied between donors, it was evident that a small fraction of highly cytotoxic NK cells were responsible for a substantial portion of the killing. We demonstrate multiple assays where our platform can be used to enumerate and characterize cytotoxic cells, such as NK or T cells. This approach could find use in clinical applications, e.g., in the selection of donors for stem cell transplantation or generation of highly specific and cytotoxic cells for adoptive immunotherapy.

  • 48.
    Haileselassie, Yeneneh
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Navis, Marit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Vu, Nam
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Qazi, Khaleda Rahman
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Rethi, Bence
    Sverremark-Ekström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Postbiotic Modulation of retinoic acid imprinted Mucosal-like Dendritic cells by Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri 17938 In Vitro2016In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 7, p. 1-11, article id 96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lactobacilli are widely used as probiotics with beneficial effects on infection-associated diarrhea, but also used in clinical trials of e.g., necrotizing enterocolitis and inflammatory bowel diseases. The possibility of using probiotic metabolic products, so-called postbiotics, is desirable as it could prevent possible side effects of live bacteria in individuals with a disturbed gut epithelial barrier. Here, we studied how Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 cell-free supernatant (L. reuteri-CFS) influenced retinoic acid (RA)-driven mucosal-like dendritic cells (DC) and their subsequent effect on T regulatory cells (Treg) in vitro. RA clearly imprinted a mucosal-like DC phenotype with higher IL10 production, increased CD103 and CD1d expression, and a downregulated mRNA expression of several inflammatory-associated genes (NFκB1, RELB, and TNF). Treatment with L. reuteri-CFS further influenced the tolerogenic phenotype of RA-DC by downregulating most genes involved in antigen uptake, antigen presentation, and signal transduction as well as several chemokine receptors, while upregulating IL10 production. L. reuteri-CFS also augmented CCR7 expression on RA-DC. In cocultures, RA-DC increased IL10 and FOXP3 expression in Treg, but pre-treatment with L. reuteri-CFS did not further influence the Treg phenotype. In conclusion, L. reuteri-CFS modulates the phenotype and function of mucosal-like DC, implicating its potential application as postbiotic.

  • 49.
    Hanstock, Helen
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales.
    Edwards, Jason
    Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales.
    Walsh, Neil
    Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales.
    Tear Lactoferrin and Lysozyme as Clinically Relevant Biomarkers of Mucosal Immune Competence2019In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, article id 1178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tears have attracted interest as a minimally-invasive biological fluid from which to assess biomarkers. Lactoferrin (Lf) and lysozyme (Lys) are abundant in the tear fluid and have antimicrobial properties. Since the eye is a portal for infection transmission, assessment of immune status at the ocular surface may be clinically relevant. Therefore, the aim of this series of studies was to investigate the tear fluid antimicrobial proteins (AMPs) Lf and Lys as biomarkers of mucosal immune status. To be considered biomarkers of interest, we would expect tear AMPs to respond to stressors known to perturb immunity but be robust to confounding variables, and to be lower in participants with heightened risk or incidence of illness. We investigated the relationship between tear AMPs and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI; study 1) as well as the response of tear AMPs to prolonged treadmill exercise (study 2) and dehydration (study 3). Study 1 was a prospective cohort study conducted during the common cold season whereas studies 2 and 3 used repeated-measures crossover designs. In study 1, tear Lys concentration (C) as well as tear AMP secretion rates (SRs) were lower in individuals who reported pathogen-confirmed URTI (n = 9) throughout the observation period than in healthy, pathogen-free controls (n = 17; Lys-C, P = 0.002, d = 0.85; Lys-SR, P < 0.001, d = 1.00; Lf-SR, P = 0.018, d = 0.66). Tear AMP secretion rates were also lower in contact lens wearers. In study 2, tear AMP SRs were 42–49% lower at 30 min−1 h post-exercise vs. pre-exercise (P < 0.001, d = 0.80–0.93). Finally, in study 3, tear AMPs were not influenced by dehydration, although tear AMP concentrations (but not secretion rates) displayed diurnal variation. We conclude that Lf and Lys have potential as biomarkers of mucosal immune competence; in particular, whether these markers are lower in infection-prone individuals warrants further investigation.

  • 50.
    Hellman, Lars T.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology.
    Akula, Srinivas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology.
    Thorpe, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology.
    Fu, Zhirong
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology.
    Tracing the Origins of IgE, Mast Cells, and Allergies by Studies of Wild Animals2017In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 8, article id 1749Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In most industrialized countries, allergies have increased in frequency quite dramatically during the past 50 years. Estimates show that 20-30% of the populations are affected. Allergies have thereby become one of the major medical challenges of the twenty-first century. Despite several theories including the hygiene hypothesis, there are still very few solid clues concerning the causes of this increase. To trace the origins of allergies, we have studied cells and molecules of importance for the development of IgE-mediated allergies, including the repertoire of immunoglobulin genes. These studies have shown that IgE and IgG most likely appeared by a gene duplication of IgY in an early mammal, possibly 220-300 million years ago. Receptors specific for IgE and IgG subsequently appeared in parallel with the increase in Ig isotypes from a subfamily of the recently identified Fc receptor-like molecules. Circulating IgE levels are generally very low in humans and laboratory rodents. However, when dogs and Scandinavian wolfs were analyzed, IgE levels were found to be 100-200 times higher compared to humans, indicating a generally much more active IgE synthesis in free-living animals, most likely connected to intestinal parasite infections. One of the major effector molecules released upon IgEmediated activation by mast cells are serine proteases. These proteases, which belong to the large family of hematopoietic serine proteases, are extremely abundant and can account for up to 35% of the total cellular protein. Recent studies show that several of these enzymes, including the chymases and tryptases, are old. Ancestors for these enzymes were most likely present in an early mammal more than 200 million years ago before the separation of the three extant mammalian lineages; monotremes, marsupials, and placental mammals. The aim is now to continue these studies of mast cell biology and IgE to obtain additional clues to their evolutionary conserved functions. A focus concerns why the humoral immune response involving IgE and mast cells have become so dysregulated in humans as well as several of our domestic companion animals.

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