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  • 1. Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Fors, Carina
    Anund, Anna
    Hallvig, David
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Video-based observer rated sleepiness versus self-reported subjective sleepiness in real road driving2015Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 7, nr 4, artikel-id 38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Observer-rated sleepiness (ORS) based on video recordings of the driver's face is often used when analysing naturalistic driving data. The aim of this study is to investigate if ORS ratings agree with subjective self-reported sleepiness (SRS). Methods: Forty raters assessed 54 video-clips showing drivers with varying levels of sleepiness. The video-clips were recorded during a field experiment focusing on driver sleepiness using the same cameras that are typically used in large-scale field studies. The weak results prompted a second test. Ten human factors researchers made pairwise comparisons of videos showing the same four participants in an alert versus a very sleepy condition. The task was simply to select the video-clip where the driver was sleepy. Results: The overall average percentage of video segments where ORS and SRS matched was 41 % in Test 1. ORS 0 (alert) and ORS 2 (very sleepy) were easier to score than ORS 1 and it was slightly harder to rate night-time drives. Inter-rater agreement was low, with average Pearson's r correlations of 0.19 and Krippendorff's alpha of 0.15. In Test 2, the average Pearson's r correlations was 0.35 and Krippendorff's alpha was 0.62. The correspondence between ORS and SRS showed an agreement of 35 %. Conclusions: The results indicate that ORS ratings based on real road video recordings correspond poorly with SRS and have low inter-rater agreement. Further research is necessary in order to further evaluate the usefulness of ORS as a measure of sleepiness.

  • 2.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Fors, Carina
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Anund, Anna
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Hallvig, David
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Video-based observer rated sleepiness versus self-reported subjective sleepiness in real road driving2015Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 7, nr 4, artikel-id 38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Observer-rated sleepiness (ORS) based on video recordings of the driver’s face is often used when analysing naturalistic driving data. The aim of this study is to investigate if ORS ratings agree with subjective self-reported sleepiness (SRS).

    Forty raters assessed 54 video-clips showing drivers with varying levels of sleepiness. The video-clips were recorded during a field experiment focusing on driver sleepiness using the same cameras that are typically used in large-scale field studies. The weak results prompted a second test. Ten human factors researchers made pairwise comparisons of videos showing the same four participants in an alert versus a very sleepy condition. The task was simply to select the video-clip where the driver was sleepy.

    The overall average percentage of video segments where ORS and SRS matched was 41 % in Test 1. ORS 0 (alert) and ORS 2 (very sleepy) were easier to score than ORS 1 and it was slightly harder to rate night-time drives. Inter-rater agreement was low, with average Pearson’s r correlations of 0.19 and Krippendorff’s alpha of 0.15. In Test 2, the average Pearson’s r correlations was 0.35 and Krippendorff’s alpha was 0.62. The correspondence between ORS and SRS showed an agreement of 35 %.

    The results indicate that ORS ratings based on real road video recordings correspond poorly with SRS and have low inter-rater agreement. Further research is necessary in order to further evaluate the usefulness of ORS as a measure of sleepiness.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Toulouse School of Economics.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Benefit measures for noise abatement: calculations for road and rail traffic noise2013Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 135-148Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The aim of this study is to estimate monetary abatement values for road and rail traffic noise that can be used for policy purposes. However, a main objective is to critically discuss the assumptions necessary to convert the monetary values elicited in willingness to pay (WTP) studies to values than can be use for policy purposes.

    Methods

    We employ the hedonic regression technique on Swedish data to elicit individuals' preferences for noise abatement. Our elicited values are then converted to policy values and critically examined based on findings from a literature review.

    Results

    We show that WTP for road and rail not only differs in levels but also that the relationship between the noise level and the marginal value differs between the two sources. We also show that a health cost component added to the WTP estimate, based on the assumption of uninformed property buyers, will be small but not negligible and that also modest differences in the assumption of the discount rates will have a significant effect on the estimated values.

    Conclusions

    The main implications from this study are: (i) WTP for road and railway noise abatement differs not only on absolute but also marginal levels, (ii) Even small differences in the chosen discount rate, which is necessary to convert WTP values from a hedonic price study to policy values, have large effects on the policy values, and (iii) We show how to add a health cost component to the WTP estimates in order for the monetary estimates to reflect the total social cost. However, we argue that the motivation for doing so is weak and that more research is needed on this issue.

  • 4.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Dukic, Tania
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Börsbo, Björn
    Linköpings unuversitet.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköpings högskola.
    Piloting smart safe school bus: exploration of security gains from implementation of a driver support system, additional technical equipment and intelligent bus stops2010Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 157-163Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Road crash statistics reveal that school children are frequent victims and the most risky situation is when the child is outside the bus. The aim of this pilot study was to explore possible changes in speed, implementation of routines, hazard detection and child security gains from a driver support system integrated with intelligent bus stops and additional technical equipment.

    Methods: In total, 130 children with transmitters were using two specially equipped busses and bus stops. Speed of oncoming and overtaking cars, implementation of routines, the possibilities to discover potential hazards and experienced stress in the children were analysed by speed measurements, diary notes, questionnaires and focus group interviews.

    Results: This pilot study exploration showed that the speeds of other road users were reduced at one of two bus stops. The driver support system was frequently used in all its parts and was considered useful by the bus drivers. It also raised the level of routines and allowed the drivers to survey the children. Children reported feeling more secure with the system running and experienced less stress as a consequence of it.

    Conclusion: This pilot study shows that the evaluated systems may have the ability to reduce speed of other road users, raise the level of routines and make children feel more secure. Further studies are needed that apply a holistic approach on school transportation safety and security.

  • 5.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Börsbo, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Rehabiliteringsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Rehabiliteringsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA, Australia .
    Piloting smart safe school bus: exploration of security gains from implementation of a driver support system, additional technical equipment and intelligent bus stops2010Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 157-163Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Road crash statistics reveal that school children are frequent victims and the most risky situation is when the child is outside the bus. The aim of this pilot study was to explore possible changes in speed, implementation of routines, hazard detection and child security gains from a driver support system integrated with intelligent bus stops and additional technical equipment.

    Methods

    In total, 130 children with transmitters were using two specially equipped busses and bus stops. Speed of oncoming and overtaking cars, implementation of routines, the possibilities to discover potential hazards and experienced stress in the children were analysed by speed measurements, diary notes, questionnaires and focus group interviews.

    Results

    This pilot study exploration showed that the speeds of other road users were reduced at one of two bus stops. The driver support system was frequently used in all its parts and was considered useful by the bus drivers. It also raised the level of routines and allowed the drivers to survey the children. Children reported feeling more secure with the system running and experienced less stress as a consequence of it.

    Conclusion

    This pilot study shows that the evaluated systems may have the ability to reduce speed of other road users, raise the level of routines and make children feel more secure. Further studies are needed that apply a holistic approach on school transportation safety and security.

  • 6.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Dukic, Tania
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Thornthwaite, Sian
    STC Ltd., Derby, UK.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Is European school transport safe?: the need for a "door-to-door" perspective2011Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 75-83Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose To identify and establish the number and aetiology behind children being killed or injured during school transport from a door-to-door perspective by using experience from Sweden and the UK.

    Methods Available crash data were analysed. Results In total, 361 children in Sweden during 1994–2001, i.e. 24% of the 1,515 identified children aged 6–16 who were injured or killed were identified in 256 school transport events. The predominant reason for being killed or injured when travelling on school transportation was when children were outside the bus (74%), either when passing the bus to cross the street, running in front of the bus (21%) or behind the bus (30%). Contrary to the general belief that children older than 12 are mature enough to handle traffic, more than 50% of the fatal injuries in Sweden affected children aged 13–16. Similar results were found in the UK. The afternoon school journeys, pedestrians after alighting from the bus, and those in situations that deviated from their normal routine were found to be particularly vulnerable.

    Conclusions The travel chain perspective/or door to door perspective offers a promising approach for understanding school transport risks and for identifying effective countermeasures; including around bus stops and on the way to/from the bus stop. Data collection needs to be revised to reflect this approach.

  • 7.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL. Linköpings Universitet.
    Fors, Carina
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    The severity of driver fatigue in terms of line crossing: a pilot study comparing day- and night time driving in simulator2017Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 9, nr 2, artikel-id 31Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The overall aim of this study is to compare day-time driving with night-time driving looking at line crossings during self-reported sleepiness and long blinks. The hypothesis is that high levels of self-reported sleepiness (KSS 9) and long blink duration (>0.15 s) will be less associated with critical events during the day-time compared to night-time.

    Method: The study is based on data from a driving simulator experiment with 16 participants driving 150 km on a typical Swedish motorway scenario twice: once during daytime and once during night time. In total data from 6 segments of 4 km each equally distributed along the drive was averaged and included in the analysis. A Mixed Model Anova was used to test the effects on KSS, Blink Duration and Line Crossings with factors for Session (Day/Night) and Road segment (1–6), and participant as random. In addition, a logistic regression was used to identify when there is a risk for line crossings. Finally, the proportion of line crossings in relation to high KSS values and long blink durations was tested with Fisher’s exact test.

    Results: The results show no differences in the percentage of Line Crossings to the left during high levels of Karolinska Sleepiness Scale during daytime (33%) compare to night-time (40%). However, there was a significant difference between day and night time line crossings while the driver had long duration blinks (4% during daytime and 35% during night-time). Despite these results the most promising predictor of line crossings in each segment of 4 km/h was KSS with an Odds Ratio of 5.4 with a reference value at Karolinska Sleepiness Scale level 5.

    Conclusion: In conclusion, the results do not support the hypothesis that high levels of KSS will result in more frequent line crossings at night time compared to day time. However, the result supports the hypothesis that long blink durations are associated with more line crossings when they appear during night time than during daytime. © 2017, The Author(s).

  • 8.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Swedish National Rd and Transport Research Institute VTI, SE-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Rd and Transport Research Institute VTI, SE-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Rd and Transport Research Institute VTI, SE-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    The severity of driver fatigue in terms of line crossing: a pilot study comparing day- and night time driving in simulator2017Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 9, nr 2, artikel-id 31Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction The overall aim of this study is to compare daytime driving with night-time driving looking at line crossings during self-reported sleepiness and long blinks. The hypothesis is that high levels of self-reported sleepiness (KSS 9) and long blink duration (amp;gt;0.15 s) will be less associated with critical events during the day-time compared to night-time. Method The study is based on data from a driving simulator experiment with 16 participants driving 150 km on a typical Swedish motorway scenario twice: once during daytime and once during night time. In total data from 6 segments of 4 km each equally distributed along the drive was averaged and included in the analysis. A Mixed Model Anova was used to test the effects on KSS, Blink Duration and Line Crossings with factors for Session (Day/Night) and Road segment (1-6), and participant as random. In addition, a logistic regression was used to identify when there is a risk for line crossings. Finally, the proportion of line crossings in relation to high KSS values and long blink durations was tested with Fishers exact test. Results The results show no differences in the percentage of Line Crossings to the left during high levels of Karolinska Sleepiness Scale during daytime (33%) compare to night-time (40%). However, there was a significant difference between day and night time line crossings while the driver had long duration blinks (4% during daytime and 35% during night-time). Despite these results the most promising predictor of line crossings in each segment of 4 km/h was KSS with an Odds Ratio of 5.4 with a reference value at Karolinska Sleepiness Scale level 5. Conclusion In conclusion, the results do not support the hypothesis that high levels of KSS will result in more frequent line crossings at night time compared to day time. However, the result supports the hypothesis that long blink durations are associated with more line crossings when they appear during night time than during daytime.

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  • 9.
    Berg, Jessica
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP. Linköpings Universitet.
    Levin, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Hagberg, Jan-Erik
    Linköpings Universitet.
    "I want complete freedom": car use and everyday mobility among the newly retired2015Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 7, nr 4, artikel-id 31Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to investigate car use among newly retired people, to explore to what extent car transport is used for everyday mobility and how it is valued in comparison to other transport modes.

    The data consists of travel diaries and qualitative interviews with 24 individuals, aged between 61 and 67, living in a middle-sized Swedish city. The informants filled in a travel diary during 1 week that were analysed by VISUAL-TimePAcTS, an application for visualising and exploring activity diary data. The semi-structured qualitative interviews were analysed using a qualitative content analysis.

    The car was used for several trips daily and often for short trips. The informants had a lot of everyday projects that they would not be able to perform if they did not have access to a car. The informant’s social context implies new space-time constraints. Commitments to family members, engagement in associations and spouses’ occupations affect how much and when they use the car, and their overall mobility.

    In contrast to much research on older people’s mobility that has studied slightly older people, this study have focused on a specific group that are relatively healthy, well-off, and have the possibility to choose between different modes of transport. By combining travel diaries and qualitative interviews, we have explored how newly retired people reason as regard their travel behaviour but also how they actually travel.

  • 10.
    Berg, Jessica
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, NISAL - Nationella institutet för forskning om äldre och åldrande. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, NISAL - Nationella institutet för forskning om äldre och åldrande.
    Hagberg, Jan-Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, NISAL - Nationella institutet för forskning om äldre och åldrande.
    “I want complete freedom”: car use and everyday mobility among the newly retired2015Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 7, nr 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    To investigate car use among newly retired people, to explore to what extent car transport is used for everyday mobility and how it is valued in comparison to other transport modes.

    Methods

    The data consists of travel diaries and qualitative interviews with 24 individuals, aged between 61 and 67, living in a middle-sized Swedish city. They were recruited via the local branch of one of the main associations of pensioners, one large employer in the municipality, and through another study. The informants filled in a travel diary during 1 week that were analysed by VISUAL- TimePAcTS, an application for visualising and exploring activity diary data. The semi-structured qualitative interviews were analysed using a qualitative content analysis.

    Results

    The car was used for several trips daily and often for short trips. The informants had a lot of everyday projects that they would not be able to perform if they did not have access to a car. The importance of the car does not seem to have changed upon retirement, albeit it is partly used for other reasons than before. The informant’s social context implies new space-time constraints. Commitments to family members, engagement in associations and spouses’ occupations affect how much and when they use the car, and their overall mobility.

    Conclusions

    In contrast to much research on older people’s mobility that has studied slightly older people, this study have focused on a specific group that are relatively healthy, well-off, and have the possibility to choose between different modes of transport. By combining travel diaries and qualitative interviews, we have explored how newly retired people reason as regard their travel behaviour but also how they actually travel. Although the car was used more than other transport modes, being able to walk and cycle now that they had more time as retirees was highly valued. Our results indicate that urban residents that are retiring now and in the future are a key target group in transport planning when it comes to reduce car use in favour of slow modes of transport.

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  • 11.
    Chee, Pei Nen Esther
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL. Univ Nat Resources & Life Sci, Digitalisat & Automat Transport & Mobil Syst, Peter Jordan St 82, A-1190 Vienna, Austria..
    Wong, Yiik Diew
    Nanyang Technol Univ, Sch Civil & Environm Engn, 50 Nanyang Ave, Singapore 639798, Singapore..
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Which factors affect willingness-to-pay for automated vehicle services?: Evidence from public road deployment in Stockholm, Sweden2020Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 12, nr 1, artikel-id 20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Travel demand and travel satisfaction of a transport service are affected by user perceptions of the service quality attributes, and such perceptions should be included in studying user willingness-to-pay (WTP) for automated vehicle (AV) services. This study applied structural equation modelling with service quality attribute perceptions as latent variables affecting WTP. Objectives We investigated how WTP AV services are affected by socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge and experiences with AV, existing travel modes and particularly, perceptions of the associated service quality attributes. The AV services are: 1) on-demand personalised AV (PAV) service, 2) demand responsive shared AV (SAV) service, and 3) first-/last-mile automated bus (AB) service. Methods The data were collected from 584 potential users of a first-/last-mile AB service trial operated in Kista, Stockholm. Results Results show people hold different expectations towards each type of AV service. These expectations act as the minimum requirements for people to pay for the AV services. Respondents are found to be willing to pay more for PAV service if it is safe, provides good ride comfort, and is competitively priced relative to the price travelling by metro and train over a same distance. Other than service quality attribute perceptions, income level, existing travel modes for daily trips, familiarity with automated driving technology and AB ride experience are important factors affecting WTP for the AV services. Conclusion The developed model can be applied to understand expectations of potential users towards a new AV service, and to identify user groups who are willing to pay the service. New AV services can thus be designed sensibly according to users' actual needs.

  • 12.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Rehabiliteringsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Smärt och rehabiliteringscentrum. Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA, Australia .
    Horlin, Chiara
    Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA, Australia .
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden .
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, VTI, Linköping, Sweden .
    Barnett, Tania
    Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA, Australia .
    Usability of the SAFEWAY2SCHOOL system in children with cognitive disabilities2013Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 127-137Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    SAFEWAY2SCHOOL is a programme based on several systems for the enhancement of school transportation safety for children. The aim of the study was to explore whether children with cognitive disabilities will notice, realise, understand, trust and accept the SAFEWAY2SCHOOL system and act in accordance with its instructions.

    Methods

    Fourteen children with cognitive disabilities and a control group of 23 children were shown five videos of scenarios involving journeys to and from school. During the first viewing visual scanning patterns were recorded with an eye tracking device. After a second viewing the participant was asked ten questions per scenario. Five questions addressed what the children saw on the video, and the remaining five what they would need to know and/or do within the scenario. Additional ratings of trust, likability, acceptability and usability were also collected.

    Results

    Very few differences were found in the visual scanning patterns of children with disabilities compared to children who participated in the control group. Of the 50 questions regarding what children saw or needed to know and/or do, only one significant difference between groups was found. No significant differences were found regarding self-reported ratings of trust, acceptability or usability of the system. Despite some significant differences across five of the 11 likability aspects, ratings were consistently high for both groups.

    Conclusions

    Children with cognitive disabilities proved that the SAFEWAY2SCHOOL system is as useful for them as it was for children in the control group. However, a valid estimation of the full utility of SAFEWAY2SCHOOL requires in situ testing of the system with these children.

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  • 13.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Curtin Univerisity, Perth, Australia.
    Horlin, Chiara
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Shipping and Marine Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Barnett, Tania
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Usability of the SAFEWAY2SCHOOL system in children with cognitive disabilities2014Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 127-137Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    SAFEWAY2SCHOOL is a programme based on several systems for the enhancement of school transportation safety for children. The aim of the study was to explore whether children with cognitive disabilities will notice, realise, understand, trust and accept the SAFEWAY2SCHOOL system and act in accordance with its instructions.

    Methods

    Fourteen children with cognitive disabilities and a control group of 23 children were shown five videos of scenarios involving journeys to and from school. During the first viewing visual scanning patterns were recorded with an eye tracking device. After a second viewing the participant was asked ten questions per scenario. Five questions addressed what the children saw on the video, and the remaining five what they would need to know and/or do within the scenario. Additional ratings of trust, likability, acceptability and usability were also collected.

    Results

    Very few differences were found in the visual scanning patterns of children with disabilities compared to children who participated in the control group. Of the 50 questions regarding what children saw or needed to know and/or do, only one significant difference between groups was found. No significant differences were found regarding self-reported ratings of trust, acceptability or usability of the system. Despite some significant differences across five of the 11 likability aspects, ratings were consistently high for both groups.

    Conclusions

    Children with cognitive disabilities proved that the SAFEWAY2SCHOOL system is as useful for them as it was for children in the control group. However, a valid estimation of the full utility of SAFEWAY2SCHOOL requires in situ testing of the system with these children.

  • 14.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Curtin University of Technology, Jönköpings Universitet, Linköpings Universitet, La Trobe University.
    Horlin, Chiara
    Curtin University of Technology.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Dukic, Tania
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Barnett, Tania
    Curtin University of Technology.
    Anund, Anna
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Usability of the SAFEWAY2SCHOOL system in children with cognitive disabilities2014Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 127-137Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    SAFEWAY2SCHOOL is a programme based on several systems for the enhancement of school transportation safety for children. The aim of the study was to explore whether children with cognitive disabilities will notice, realise, understand, trust and accept the SAFEWAY2SCHOOL system and act in accordance with its instructions. Methods: Fourteen children with cognitive disabilities and a control group of 23 children were shown five videos of scenarios involving journeys to and from school. During the first viewing visual scanning patterns were recorded with an eye tracking device. After a second viewing the participant was asked ten questions per scenario. Five questions addressed what the children saw on the video, and the remaining five what they would need to know and/or do within the scenario. Additional ratings of trust, likability, acceptability and usability were also collected. Results: Very few differences were found in the visual scanning patterns of children with disabilities compared to children who participated in the control group. Of the 50 questions regarding what children saw or needed to know and/or do, only one significant difference between groups was found. No significant differences were found regarding self-reported ratings of trust, acceptability or usability of the system. Despite some significant differences across five of the 11 likability aspects, ratings were consistently high for both groups. Conclusions: Children with cognitive disabilities proved that the SAFEWAY2SCHOOL system is as useful for them as it was for children in the control group. However, a valid estimation of the full utility of SAFEWAY2SCHOOL requires in situ testing of the system with these children. © 2013 The Author(s).

  • 15. Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Renner, Linda
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Anund, Anna
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Estimated societal costs of a hierarchical measures approach to enhanced school transportation safety at bus stops on roads with high speed limits2010Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 2, nr 4, s. 201-207Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Most school bus related injury events in Sweden take place when the child is outside the bus. In order to enhance their safety, the societal costs of four different measures applied on “bus stops” on high speed roads were investigated.

    Methods: From a door-to-door perspective, a measure hierarchy, comprising the four existing measures, viz.: Rerouting using the current operating vehicle, New construction, Rerouting using a different operating vehicle, Speed reduction in the vicinity of the “bus stop” was applied.

    Results: By allocating 7.7 € per child per school day, almost nine out of ten children’s transportation safety may substantially be enhanced, simply by rerouting the current operating vehicle or using alternative operating vehicles.

    Conclusions: In the investigated municipality it was feasible to enhance school transportation safety for children by implementing cheap and alternative measures.

  • 16.
    Grumert, Ellen F.
    et al.
    Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst VTI, SE-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.;Linkoping Univ, Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden..
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst VTI, SE-58195 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap.
    Characteristics of variable speed limit systems2018Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 10, nr 2, artikel-id 21Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The control algorithm used for deciding on the speed limit in variable speed limit systems is crucial for the performance of the systems. The algorithm is designed to fulfil the purpose of the variable speed limit system, which can be one or several of the following aspects: increasing safety, increasing efficiency and decreasing environmental impacts. Today, many of the control algorithms used in practice are based on fixed thresholds in speed and/or flow. Therefore, they are not necessarily reflecting the current traffic conditions. Control algorithms with a greater level of complexity can be found in the literature. In this paper, four existing control algorithms are investigated to conclude on important characteristics affecting the performance of the variable speed limit system. The purpose of the variable speed limit system and, consequently, the design of the control algorithm differ. Requirements of the investigated control algorithms are that they should be easy to interpret and the execution time should be short. The algorithms are evaluated through microscopic traffic simulation. Performance indicators related to traffic safety, traffic efficiency and environmental impacts are presented. The results show that the characteristics of the variable speed limit system and the design of the control algorithm will have effect on the resulting traffic performance, given that the drivers comply with the variable speed limits. Moreover, the time needed to trigger the system, the duration and the size of speed limit reductions, and the location of the congestion are factors of importance for the performance of variable speed limit systems.

  • 17.
    Grumert, Ellen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, SE-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Characteristics of variable speed limit systems2018Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 10, nr 2, artikel-id 21Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The control algorithm used for deciding on the speed limit in variable speed limit systems is crucial for the performance of the systems. The algorithm is designed to fulfil the purpose of the variable speed limit system, which can be one or several of the following aspects: increasing safety, increasing efficiency and decreasing environmental impacts. Today, many of the control algorithms used in practice are based on fixed thresholds in speed and/or flow. Therefore, they are not necessarily reflecting the current traffic conditions. Control algorithms with a greater level of complexity can be found in the literature. In this paper, four existing control algorithms are investigated to conclude on important characteristics affecting the performance of the variable speed limit system. The purpose of the variable speed limit system and, consequently, the design of the control algorithm differ. Requirements of the investigated control algorithms are that they should be easy to interpret and the execution time should be short. The algorithms are evaluated through microscopic traffic simulation. Performance indicators related to traffic safety, traffic efficiency and environmental impacts are presented. The results show that the characteristics of the variable speed limit system and the design of the control algorithm will have effect on the resulting traffic performance, given that the drivers comply with the variable speed limits. Moreover, the time needed to trigger the system, the duration and the size of speed limit reductions, and the location of the congestion are factors of importance for the performance of variable speed limit systems.

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  • 18.
    Grumert, Ellen
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    KTH.
    Characteristics of variable speed limit systems2018Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 10, nr 2, artikel-id 21Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The control algorithm used for deciding on the speed limit in variable speed limit systems is crucial for the performance of the systems. The algorithm is designed to fulfil the purpose of the variable speed limit system, which can be one or several of the following aspects: increasing safety, increasing efficiency and decreasing environmental impacts. Today, many of the control algorithms used in practice are based on fixed thresholds in speed and/or flow. Therefore, they are not necessarily reflecting the current traffic conditions. Control algorithms with a greater level of complexity can be found in the literature. In this paper, four existing control algorithms are investigated to conclude on important characteristics affecting the performance of the variable speed limit system. The purpose of the variable speed limit system and, consequently, the design of the control algorithm differ. Requirements of the investigated control algorithms are that they should be easy to interpret and the execution time should be short. The algorithms are evaluated through microscopic traffic simulation. Performance indicators related to traffic safety, traffic efficiency and environmental impacts are presented. The results show that the characteristics of the variable speed limit system and the design of the control algorithm will have effect on the resulting traffic performance, given that the drivers comply with the variable speed limits. Moreover, the time needed to trigger the system, the duration and the size of speed limit reductions, and the location of the congestion are factors of importance for the performance of variable speed limit systems.

  • 19.
    Hansson, Lisa
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    The tactics behind public transport procurements: an integrated actor approach2011Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 3, nr 4, s. 13s. 197-209Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In striving for a “successful” public transport system, functional procurement operations are needed. The “Scandinavian model” has gained popularity in Europe, prompting considerable research into relationships between government and private transport operators. To understand the Scandinavian model, one must also identify the roles governmental actors and institutions play when interacting in procurement processes. This article aims to provide an understanding of the interrelationships between the actors involved in planning a public transport procurement process. Method: The method used is case study method and in specific process tracing. The empirical data consist of public documents and interviews concerning the work with a public transport procurement, located to a Swedish county. Results: The article demonstrates power relationships between the actors and identifies how resources are deployed to maximize influence while minimizing dependence on other actors. It also shows that there is a dominant coalition that employs strategies within the rules of the game to regulate the process of exchange. Conclusion: The article conclude that the procurement entity is the dominant organisation and that the actors working within it form a dominant coalition. The procurement entity, however, is dependent on political and financial resources from the principals to achieve its agenda.

  • 20.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Krupenia, Stas
    Scania.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Driver behaviour and driver experience of partial and fully automated truck platooning: a simulator study2017Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 9, nr 1, artikel-id 8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper builds our knowledge of truck driver behaviour in and experience of automated truck platooning, focusing on the effect of partially and fully automated truck platoons on driver workload, trust, acceptance, performance, and sleepiness.

    Twenty-four male drivers experienced three conditions in a truck driving simulator, i.e., baseline, partial automation, and full automation: the baseline condition was driving with standard cruise control; partial automation was automated longitudinal control ten metres behind the truck in front, with the driver having to steer; and full automation was automated longitudinal and lateral control. Each condition was simulated in three situations: light traffic, heavy traffic, and heavy traffic plus fog.

    The experiment demonstrated that automation affects workload. For all workload measures, partial automation produced higher workload than did the full-automation or baseline condition. The two measures capturing trust were consistent and indicated that trust was highest under the baseline condition, with little difference between partial and full automation. Driver acceptance of both levels of automation was lower than acceptance of baseline. Drivers rated their situation awareness higher for both partial and full automation than for baseline, although both levels of automation led to higher sleepiness.

    The challenge when implementing truck platooning is to develop a system, including human–machine interaction (HMI), that does not overburden the driver, properly addresses driver sleepiness, and satisfies current legislation. The system also must be trusted and accepted by drivers. To achieve this, the development of well-designed HMI will be crucial.

  • 21.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    An analysis of the determinants of local public transport demand focusing the effects of income changes2013Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 101-107Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In order for public transport to be a part of the solution to the environmental problems caused by traffic, there need to be a clear understanding of how, and to whatextent, different factors affect demand. There still seem to be some confusion regarding some key relationships, one of them being the effect of income on public transport demand. The purpose of this article is therefore to provide empirical estimates of how different factors, including price and car ownership (although income being the main issue), affect the demand for local public transport.

    Methods: In order to achieve the aim of the study, an econometric FD-model, allowing for unobserved effects, was estimated using panel data from Swedish counties from1986 to 2001.

    Results: The short-run (direct) elasticity with respect to fare, vehicle-kilometres, income and car ownership were found to be −0,4, 0,55, 0,34, and −1,37 respectively. However, income affects public transport demand directly, and through its effect on car ownership, these effects works in opposite direction. Combining these, it is found that total income effect is close to zero.

    Conclusions: It is concluded that, although the findings of several previous studies suggests that demand for public transport might be falling with increased income, there is no evidence of such effects in this study even when the full effect of changes in income (including changes in car ownership) is taken into account.

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  • 22.
    Hrelja, Robert
    et al.
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Antonson, H.
    Handling user needs: Methods for knowledge creation in Swedish transport planning2012Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 115-123Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aim

    Transport planning faces new demands for a dialogue with users. Transport planners no longer just build roads; nowadays they also must listen to users, whose wishes are meant to have an impact on the design and maintenance of the road transport system. Yet how can we know what users really want? This article sets out to analyze the methods with which transport planners gather information about users and their needs; to do so, it uses a case-study of how transport planners at the National Swedish Road Authority handle these questions on a day-to-day basis.

    Result and discussion

    The results show that the planners’ practices can be analytically understood as something that produces knowledge, representativity, and the identities and needs of the users. The planners base their analyses of user need largely on personal experience. The descriptive, interpretative, and evaluating elements in their knowledge production tend to be hidden in central policy documents and the workings of operational planning systems. If the goals with respect to user influence are to be attained, transport planning must be pursued with a greater understanding of how it conceives of its users as specific categories with particular needs and identities.

  • 23.
    Hrelja, Robert
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Antonson, Hans
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Handling User Needs: Methods for Knowledge Creation in Swedish Transport Planning2012Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 115-123Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Transport planning faces new demands for a dialogue with users. Transport planners no longer just build roads; nowadays they also must listen to users, whose wishes are meant to have an impact on the design and maintenance of the road transport system. Yet how can we know what users really want? This article sets out to analyze the methods with which transport planners gather information about users and their needs; to do so, it uses a case-study of how transport planners at the National Swedish Road Authority handle these questions on a day-to-day basis.

    The results show that the planners’ practices can be analytically understood as something that produces knowledge, representativity, and the identities and needs of the users. The planners base their analyses of user need largely on personal experience. The descriptive, interpretative, and evaluating elements in their knowledge production tend to be hidden in central policy documents and theworkings of operational planning systems. If the goals with respect to user influence are to be attained, transport planning must be pursued with a greater understanding of how it conceives of its users as specific categories with particular needs and identities.

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  • 24. Islam, Dewan Md Zahurul
    et al.
    Ricci, Stefano
    Nelldal, Bo-Lennart
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE).
    How to make modal shift from road to rail possible in the European transport market, as aspired to in the EU Transport White Paper 20112016Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 8, nr 3, artikel-id 18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction The total demand for freight transport in Europe has increased significantly in recent decades, but most of it has been handled by road transport. To fulfil the modal shift targets set in the EU White Paper 2011, it will be necessary to double rail's market share from today's 18 %, by 2050. Translating this into reality means rail will have to handle 3 to 4 times the cargo volume it does today. With this in mind, the paper develops a vision of an efficient rail freight system in 2050. Methodology To achieve the above objective, the research applies literature survey and group discussion methodology and applying a system approach. Keeping on board the EU Transport White Paper 2011 modal shift targets, as well as future freight demand and customer requirements, the current research attempts to answer the following three critical questions: How can rail offer the quality of service that will attract customers and fulfil the targets? How can rail offer its customers a price that is competitive with road? How can rail offer the capacity to meet the increased demand from modal shift? Results The authors find that the service quality can be improved by better planning, application of appropriate ICT-systems and adoption of an integrated supply chain approach. A more customer-orientated service can also be achieved by further deregulation of rail. There is also an urgent need for a faster implementation of Rail Freight Corridors (RFC). As well as liner trains, future rail freight services should be offering end-point trains, with semi/ fully automated loading/unloading equipment in hub-terminals, as well as terminals at sidings to improve the availability of intermodal operation. Conclusion To offer a competitive price and reliable service, a reduction in operating costs will be vital by implementing a number of measures, including operation of heavier and longer trains, wider loading gauge, higher average speed, and better utilisation of wagon space and all assets. This will bring increased capacity, as well as better timetable planning, signalling systems and infrastructure improvements.

  • 25.
    Jagerbrand, Annika K.
    et al.
    Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, SE-58195 Linkoping, Sweden; Calluna AB, Sweden; Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, SE-58195 Linkoping, Sweden; KMV Forum AB, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Fysiologisk mätteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, SE-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Speed reduction effects over distance of animal-vehicle collision countermeasures - a driving simulator study2018Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 10, nr 2, artikel-id 40Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeThis study examined if speed reduction effects from animal-vehicle collision (AVC) countermeasures are merely local or do extend to a wider area, and what implications the results have on road planning practice regarding AVCs.MethodsTwenty-five drivers drove repeatedly on a 9-km long road stretch in a high-fidelity driving simulator. The development of vehicle speed in the surrounding of an automatic speed camera, a wildlife warning sign and a radio message, were investigated in a full factorial within-subject experiment. The factors wildlife fence (with/without) and forest (dense/open landscape) were also included.ResultsThe radio warning message had the largest influence on vehicle speed with a speed reduction of 8km/h that lasted beyond 1km and 2km after the implementation. Eighty-eight per cent of the drivers reported being made extra aware of AVC due to the radio message, which was also associated with stress, insecurity and unsafety. The warning sign reduced vehicle speed by 1.5km/h, but speed reductions were not significantly reduced 1km after the implementation. Only 8 % of the drivers felt insecure/unsafe after passing the wildlife warning sign, explaining its limited impact on speed. There were no main effects of the automatic speed camera on vehicle speed at longer distances after implementation.ConclusionsWe recommend that AVC countermeasures should be of various design, occur at various segments along the road, and preferably be adaptive and geo-localized to minimize habituation effects on drivers.

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  • 26.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Antonson, Hans
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Speed reduction effects over distance of animal-vehicle collision countermeasures: a driving simulator study2018Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 10, nr 2, artikel-id 40Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study examined if speed reduction effects from animal-vehicle collision (AVC) countermeasures are merely local or do extend to a wider area, and what implications the results have on road planning practice regarding AVCs.

    Methods: Twenty-five drivers drove repeatedly on a 9-km long road stretch in a high-fidelity driving simulator. The development of vehicle speed in the surrounding of an automatic speed camera, a wildlife warning sign and a radio message, were investigated in a full factorial within-subject experiment. The factors wildlife fence (with/without) and forest (dense/open landscape) were also included.

    Results: The radio warning message had the largest influence on vehicle speed with a speed reduction of 8 km/h that lasted beyond 1 km and 2 km after the implementation. Eighty-eight per cent of the drivers reported being made extra aware of AVC due to the radio message, which was also associated with stress, insecurity and unsafety. The warning sign reduced vehicle speed by 1.5 km/h, but speed reductions were not significantly reduced 1 km after the implementation. Only 8 % of the drivers felt insecure/unsafe after passing the wildlife warning sign, explaining its limited impact on speed. There were no main effects of the automatic speed camera on vehicle speed at longer distances after implementation.

    Conclusions: We recommend that AVC countermeasures should be of various design, occur at various segments along the road, and preferably be adaptive and geo-localized to minimize habituation effects on drivers.

  • 27.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Tekniska Högskolan, JTH, Byggnadsteknik och belysningsvetenskap. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Antonson, Hans
    Department of Human Geography, Lund University, Sweden.
    Ahlström, Christer H.G.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping (VTI), Sweden.
    Speed reduction effects over distance of animal-vehicle collision countermeasures – a driving simulator study2018Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 10, nr 2, artikel-id 40Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study examined if speed reduction effects from animal-vehicle collision (AVC) countermeasures are merely local or do extend to a wider area, and what implications the results have on road planning practice regarding AVCs.

    Methods: Twenty-five drivers drove repeatedly on a 9-km long road stretch in a high-fidelity driving simulator. The development of vehicle speed in the surrounding of an automatic speed camera, a wildlife warning sign and a radio message, were investigated in a full factorial within-subject experiment. The factors wildlife fence (with/without) and forest (dense/open landscape) were also included.

    Results: The radio warning message had the largest influence on vehicle speed with a speed reduction of 8 km/h that lasted beyond 1 km and 2 km after the implementation. Eighty-eight per cent of the drivers reported being made extra aware of AVC due to the radio message, which was also associated with stress, insecurity and unsafety. The warning sign reduced vehicle speed by 1.5 km/h, but speed reductions were not significantly reduced 1 km after the implementation. Only 8 % of the drivers felt insecure/unsafe after passing the wildlife warning sign, explaining its limited impact on speed. There were no main effects of the automatic speed camera on vehicle speed at longer distances after implementation.

    Conclusions: We recommend that AVC countermeasures should be of various design, occur at various segments along the road, and preferably be adaptive and geo-localized to minimize habituation effects on drivers. 

  • 28.
    Krüger, Niclas A.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden .
    Haglund, A.
    Consumer value of fuel choice flexibility: a case study of the flex-fuel car in Sweden2013Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 207-215Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper examines the value of fuel choice flexibility derived from a flex-fuel engine. Method: Based on the stochastic properties of fuel prices, we use Monte-Carlo simulation in order to value the option to switch fuel. Results: Our findings indicate a considerable value of fuel choice flexibility, ranging between 7,500 and 37,800 SEK, depending on the underlying stochastic process we assume that fuel prices follow. This can be compared to the state subsidy of 10,000 SEK provided until recently for buying a flex-fuel car. Conclusion: Compared to an environmentally friendly pure ethanol strategy, the switching strategy is considerably less costly, about 2,000-19,000 SEK depending on the assumed underlying stochastic process, a fact that is important to take into consideration with environmental policy.

  • 29.
    Krüger, Niclas A
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Haglund, Alexander
    Karlstad University, Department of Economics.
    Consumer Value of Fuel Choice Flexibility: A Case Study of the Flex-Fuel Car in Sweden2013Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 207-215Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This paper examines the value of fuel choice flexibility derived from a flex-fuel engine.

    Method

    Based on the stochastic properties of fuel prices, we use Monte-Carlo simulation in order to value the option to switch fuel.

    Results

    Our findings indicate a considerable value of fuel choice flexibility, ranging between 7,500 and 37,800 SEK, depending on the underlying stochastic process we assume that fuel prices follow. This can be compared to the state subsidy of 10,000 SEK provided until recently for buying a flex-fuel car.

    Conclusion

    Compared to an environmentally friendly pure ethanol strategy, the switching strategy is considerably less costly, about 2,000–19,000 SEK depending on the assumed underlying stochastic process, a fact that is important to take into consideration with environmental policy.

  • 30.
    Krüger, Niclas
    et al.
    Centre of Transport Studies, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Haglund, Alexander
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för nationalekonomi och statistik.
    Consumer Value of Fuel Choice Flexibility – A Case Study of the Flex-Fuel Car in Sweden2013Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 207-215Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose                        

    This paper examines the value of fuel choice flexibility derived from a flex-fuel engine.

    Method                             

    Based on the stochastic properties of fuel prices, we use Monte-Carlo simulation in order to value the option to switch fuel.

    Results                             

    Our findings indicate a considerable value of fuel choice flexibility, ranging between 7,500 and 37,800 SEK, depending on the underlying stochastic process we assume that fuel prices follow. This can be compared to the state subsidy of 10,000 SEK provided until recently for buying a flex-fuel car.

    Conclusion                             

    Compared to an environmentally friendly pure ethanol strategy, the switching strategy is considerably less costly, about 2,000–19,000 SEK depending on the assumed underlying stochastic process, a fact that is important to take into consideration with environmental policy.

                                           

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  • 31.
    Krüger, Niclas
    et al.
    Centre of Transport Studies, Stockholm, Sweden; Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden; TRENoP, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Haglund, Alexander
    Department of Economics, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Consumer value of fuel choice flexibility: a case study of the flex-fuel car in Sweden2013Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 207-215Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper examines the value of fuel choice flexibility derived from a flex-fuel engine.

    Method: Based on the stochastic properties of fuel prices, we use Monte-Carlo simulation in order to value the option to switch fuel.

    Results: Our findings indicate a considerable value of fuel choice flexibility, ranging between 7,500 and 37,800 SEK, depending on the underlying stochastic process we assume that fuel prices follow. This can be compared to the state subsidy of 10,000 SEK provided until recently for buying a flex-fuel car.

    Conclusion: Compared to an environmentally friendly pure ethanol strategy, the switching strategy is considerably less costly, about 2,000-19,000 SEK depending on the assumed underlying stochastic process, a fact that is important to take into consideration with environmental policy.

  • 32.
    Krüger, Niclas
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Vierth, Inge
    School of Business, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Precautionary and operational costs of freight train delays: a case study of a Swedish grocery company2015Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 1-10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods: We develop on a conceptual level an estimation approach for the value of reduced transportation time variability (VTTV) related to the cargo component based on precautionary and operative delay costs. This approach is inspired by the safety stock approach but includes more general precautionary measures that firms take to avoid stock-out costs. This paper presents the analysis of a Swedish grocery company’s transports by shuttle train as a case study. First, the distribution of the arrival times of the shuttle train is analyzed in order to estimate the transportation time variability for the firm. Second, precautionary costs for measures undertaken to manage and mitigate the transportation time variability are estimated and the additional operational costs that occur in case of major delays are calculated.

    Results: It is found that the 10 % worst delays contribute to more than half of the total train delays, showing that actual transportation times exhibit a heavily skewed distribution with fat tails, indicating that the standard deviation might not be a sufficient measure of transport time variability. The calculated VTTV related to the cargo component based on the precautionary costs is around €4 per delay-tonne-hour and around €2.2 per standard deviation of transportation time.

    Conclusions: We show that by conducting a case study it is possible to get VTTV estimates for the cargo component valid for a specific company. In conclusion, assuming a high degree of transport market concentration with regard to shippers, a limited number of case studies for key companies in the market might be sufficient to get a representative VTTV measure. We therefore advocate further case studies and research aimed at getting more inputs from firms that send and receive goods. More research should also be done on how to incorporate risks for delays and the extremeness of empirical delays in transport models and VTTV definitions.

    Purpose: There is limited up-to-date knowledge about the monetary valuation of improved reliability for freight transports. This means that the benefits of reduced variability in transport time are not properly taken into account in cost-benefit analysis relating to, for example, infrastructure investments.

  • 33.
    Malone, Kerry
    et al.
    TNO, The Hague.
    Silla, Anne
    VTT, Espoo.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Bell, Daniel
    FACTUM, Wien.
    Safety, mobility and comfort assessment methodologies of intelligent transport systems for vulnerable road users2017Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 9, nr 2, artikel-id 21Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    This paper describes the modification and development of methodologies to assess the impacts of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) applications for Vulnerable Road users (VRUs) in the domains of safety, mobility and comfort. This effort was carried out in the context of the VRUITS project whose aim was to produce results at the EU-28 level.

    Methods

    An existing safety methodology was modified to take into account specific VRU aspects. The mobility and comfort assessments methodologies were developed in the project.

    Results

    The safety, mobility and comfort methodologies were applied to ten ITS applications for VRUs. The first innovation determined how the nine safety mechanisms for ex-ante analysis of ITS applications, including direct and indirect effects, can incorporate the important characteristics of the VRU groups (pedestrians, cyclists and Power-Two-Wheeler riders) in the analysis. The second innovation developed a conceptual model for mobility and comfort. Thirdly, the estimation of quantitative effects, using literature, empirical findings and expert judgement, was developed.

    Conclusions

    The new safety, mobility and comfort assessment methodologies were applied to calculate the respective effects for VRUs using ITS. These results are ex-ante findings, as very few to no empirical results for ITS applications for VRUs are available. In order to improve the accuracy of the estimates, there is a need for better standardized data and at the European level. Finally, validation of the methods could be done in the future field operational tests focusing on measuring user behavior.

  • 34.
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Fors, Carina
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Field test on visibility at cycle crossings at night2010Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 139-145Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The main purpose of the study was to compare the night-time visibility distance of cycle crossings to the nighttime visibility distance of bicyclists at the corresponding cycle crossings. This was tested both for dry and wet road surface. Methods: The test was carried out as a field study with twelve participants being passengers in an instrumented car. The test route included nine cycle crossings, that all were combined with pedestrian crossings. The participants individually pushed a noiseless button when they saw a dummy bicyclist standing still at a crossing, in part one, and when they saw a correctly marked cycle crossing in part two. Visibility: distances to bicyclist dummies and cycle crossings were measured. Half of the participants experienced dry road surface and the other half wet road surface. An analysis of variance was conducted with a split plot design of group (wet / dry road surface) × target (bicyclist dummy / cycle crossing) × crossing (9 different cycle crossings). Results: The bicyclist dummies were detected at a significantly longer distance (mean 59.1 m, standard error 2.9 m) than the cycle crossings (mean 17.5 m, standard error 1.0 m). The road condition (wet/dry) only had an effect on the visibility of cycle crossings. Conclusion: The field test showed that bicyclists are seen at longer distances than cycle crossings combined with pedestrian crossings in Sweden at night-time.

  • 35.
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Trade-offs in traffic: does being mainly a car driver or a cyclist affect adaptive behaviour while driving and cycling?2020Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 12, nr 1, artikel-id 12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim Road users, such as cyclists and car drivers, are constantly adapting to each other and to the road infrastructure. This study aimed to investigate what trade-offs can be observed when drivers and cyclists adapt to other road users and to the infrastructure. Methods A semi-controlled study was carried out in an urban traffic environment, where all participants travelled the same route twice, once as a cyclist and once as a car driver. The extended control model was used as an analytical framework to examine how people adapt depending on their main and current road-user role, experiencing different infrastructure and complexity. Results The results revealed possible trade-offs made while adapting, mainly in relation to rule-following. No differences in adaptive behaviour between people who mostly drive and people who mostly cycle were found. The current situational demands influence both the need to adapt and the adaptation carried out. A more complex traffic environment led to increased information intake, measured by glance behaviour.

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  • 36.
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Drift och underhåll, DOU. Linkoping University.
    Kircher, Katja
    Johansson, Björn J. E.
    Linkoping University.
    Trade-offs in traffic: does being mainly a car driver or a cyclist affect adaptive behaviour while driving and cycling?2020Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 12, nr 1, artikel-id 12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Road users, such as cyclists and car drivers, are constantly adapting to each other and to the road infrastructure. This study aimed to investigate what trade-offs can be observed when drivers and cyclists adapt to other road users and to the infrastructure. Methods: A semi-controlled study was carried out in an urban traffic environment, where all participants travelled the same route twice, once as a cyclist and once as a car driver. The extended control model was used as an analytical framework to examine how people adapt depending on their main and current road-user role, experiencing different infrastructure and complexity. Results: The results revealed possible trade-offs made while adapting, mainly in relation to rule-following. No differences in adaptive behaviour between people who mostly drive and people who mostly cycle were found. The current situational demands influence both the need to adapt and the adaptation carried out. A more complex traffic environment led to increased information intake, measured by glance behaviour. © 2020, The Author(s).

  • 37.
    Pettersson, Pär
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Berglund, Sixten
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden ; Volvo Global Truck Technology, Sweden.
    Jacobson, Bengt
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fast, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Johannesson, Pär
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Santandrea, Fabio
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    A proposal for an operating cycle description format for road transport missions2018Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 10, nr 2, artikel-id 31Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This article presents a proposal for an operating cycle format for describing transport missions of road vehicles, for example a logging truck fetching its cargo. The primary application is in dynamic simulation models for evaluation of energy consumption and other costs of transportation. When applied to product development, the objective is an ensemble of components and functions optimised for specific tasks and environments. When applied to selection of vehicle configuration, the objective is a vehicle specification tailored for its task. Method: The proposal is presented and its four main parts: road, weather, traffic and mission, are thoroughly explained. Furthermore, we implement the proposal in an example of a dynamic forward simulation model. Results: The example model is used for two case studies: a synthetic example of a complex transport mission (a logging truck fetching its cargo) that shows some advanced format features, and an example from a real vehicle log file (cargo transport) that seeks to compare the resulting simulated speed profile to the measured one. Conclusion: The results show that the proposed format works in practice. It can represent complex transport missions and it can be used to reproduce the main features of a logged speed profile even when combined with simple driver and vehicle models.

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  • 38.
    Selander, Helena
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Stave, Christina
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Dukic Willstrand, Tania
    Sweco .
    Peters, Björn
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Driving simulator-based training to improve self-rating ability of driving performance in older adults: a pilot study2019Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikel-id 35Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective The aim was to investigate the potential of using simulator-based training (SBT) to improve older drivers' self-rating ability and to compare two forms of feedback; corrective versus corrective and rewarding feedback.

    Method The study was designed to study the possibility of training for self-rated driving ability in a simulator, and the impact of corrective (errors made) feedback versus corrective (errors made) and rewarding (correct behaviour) feedback during training. In total, 21 older drivers (mean age 78.5, SD=3.9 years) were trained and assessed in the driving simulator. Driving performance was assessed by penalty scores as well as self and expert ratings.

    Results The average deviation from correctly rated ability (own vs. expert) changed from -0.7 (under-rating) to 0.1 at the final training and assessment occasion; i.e., drivers ratings became more like the expert's rating or, in other terms, better calibrated. The individuals with the largest deviations from the expert's rating initially improved their self-rating ability the most. There were no differences between the two feedback groups in terms of their ability to self-rate, but rewarding feedback had a positive effect on penalty scores. The SBT showed positive training effects on the ability to self-rate one's driving ability, and rewarding feedback contributed to lower penalty scores. However, simulator sickness was a shortcoming that needs to be adressed, and the optimal form of feedback should be further investigated.

  • 39.
    Silla, Anna
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd.
    Leden, Lars
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd.
    Rämä, Pirkko
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd.
    van Noort, Martin
    TNO, The Netherlands.
    Morris, Andrew
    Loughborough Design School, UK.
    Hancox, Graham
    Loughborough Design School, UK.
    Bell, Daniel
    FACTUM Chaloupka & Risser OG, Austria.
    Scholliers, Johan
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd.
    A headway to improve PTW rider safety within the EU through three types of ITSIngår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 40.
    Sjöman, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Produkt- och tjänstedesign.
    Ringenson, Tina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Kramers, Anna H.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Exploring everyday mobility in a living lab based on economic interventions2020Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 12, nr 1, artikel-id 5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    New mobility solutions, such as Mobility as a Service, have been suggested to have the potential to reduce car ownership and be part of a transition towards a more sustainable transportation system. However, research suggests that governance measures such as taxation and policies will be needed to ensure sustainability aspects. This paper explores everyday mobility by use of interventions in people’s everyday lives. The focus is on identifying underlying factors that may motivate or hinder changes that are positive from a sustainability perspective. This is then put in the perspective of new mobility services and policy making. Our findings support the view that privately owned cars are hard to replace with new mobility services that contribute to sustainability and are not based on individual cars. Economic interventions for increased sustainability will likely have limited effects, since the alternatives do not offer what car owners value most. Also, limited understanding of the car’s full costs may make the new services appear comparatively more expensive. Furthermore, urban planning to reduce the need for travel, and the capacity of the physical public transport infrastructure will continue to be important. Long vacation trips and “medium sized flows” are identified as opportunities for further research and for new solutions to support sustainable mobility transitions.

  • 41.
    Sjöman, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Produkt- och tjänstedesign.
    Ringenson, Tina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Kramers, Anna H
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Exploring everyday mobility in a living lab based on economic interventions2020Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 12, nr 1, artikel-id 5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    New mobility solutions, such as Mobility as a Service, have been suggested to have the potential to reduce car ownership and be part of a transition towards a more sustainable transportation system. However, research suggests that governance measures such as taxation and policies will be needed to ensure sustainability aspects. This paper explores everyday mobility by use of interventions in people's everyday lives. The focus is on identifying underlying factors that may motivate or hinder changes that are positive from a sustainability perspective. This is then put in the perspective of new mobility services and policy making. Our findings support the view that privately owned cars are hard to replace with new mobility services that contribute to sustainability and are not based on individual cars. Economic interventions for increased sustainability will likely have limited effects, since the alternatives do not offer what car owners value most. Also, limited understanding of the car's full costs may make the new services appear comparatively more expensive. Furthermore, urban planning to reduce the need for travel, and the capacity of the physical public transport infrastructure will continue to be important. Long vacation trips and "medium sized flows" are identified as opportunities for further research and for new solutions to support sustainable mobility transitions.

  • 42. Souche-Le Corvec, Stephanie
    et al.
    Raux, C.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Hamilton, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Brundell-Freij, K.
    Kiiskila, K.
    Tervonen, J.
    Predicting the results of a referendum on urban road pricing in France: "the cry of Cassandra"?2016Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 8, nr 2, artikel-id 15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Abundant literature now exists on the acceptability of the new pricing measure represented by urban tolls. However, this literature contains few examples providing a "political" analysis of their introduction. Here, our aim is to study how the political behavior of individuals, identified on the basis of general attitudes regarding the principles of regulation and pricing, influences, or does not influence, attitudes with respect to urban tolls. Method We study the ex-ante determinants of a vote on urban tolls. We use the results of a survey performed in France in the framework of the European Project ExpAcc (Explanatory Factors of Road User Charging Acceptability). We process the data using a Principal Components Analysis (PCA) then perform ordered logit estimation. Result Regarding the specific question to the referendum, we show that it would be rejected by electors. We also show that there is a significant link between general attitudes to regulation by legislation, tax or pricing policies in transport on the one hand, and the vote in the referendum on tolls on the other. We confirm that individual self-interest matters a lot in political behaviour but that other types of motives also matter strongly Conclusion As a consequence, a real-life political analysis cannot be limited to classical "economic" variables, even if they matter too obviously. Lastly, our results should be placed in relation with those concerning the more global issue of the acceptability of a new pricing measure through, for example, that of the compensation to be implemented.

  • 43.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    A case study exploring firefighters’ and municipal officials’ preparedness for electrical vehicles2017Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 9, nr 2, artikel-id 25Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study presents a social perspective on new vehicle technology. It explores the self-reported preparedness of the fire departments (i.e., rescue services) in Sweden’s three largest cities regarding rescue operations involving electrical vehicles (EVs).

    Methods: In this multi-method study, in-depth interviews were performed with emergency service officers and municipal officers in each city.

    Results: The results indicate that firefighters have little experience of accidents with EVs and they are learning reactively. The risks were not clearly identified. More knowledge is needed of identifying and disconnecting electricity in EVs. A more efficient way to find information about new vehicles is vital concerning the safety aspect in rescue operations. The level of knowledge about new vehicle technology varied between departments. For the municipal officers, environmental aspects are of most interest, whereas safety and rescue operations involving EVs are rarely addressed. The responsibility for disseminating information about the safe handling of EVs was unclear.

    Conclusion: The fire departments need more resources for education and training to keep up with technical developments and to be proactive. Another desired development is a solution for easy access to vehicle information. Since the environmental issues are setting the agenda, not the safety issues, lesser environment risks could become greater safety risks. We stress the need for various occupational decision making at all levels of society to cooperate in order to take responsibility for the safe introduction for new more environmentally friendly transport vehicle technique and disseminating safety information in a collected and systematic way.

  • 44.
    Sun, Qian C.
    et al.
    Geospatial Science, School of Science, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Xia, Jianhong C.
    School of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Foster, Jonathan
    School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för rehabilitering. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    A psycho-Geoinformatics approach for investigating older adults’ driving behaviours and underlying cognitive mechanisms2018Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 10, nr 2, artikel-id 36Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Safe driving constantly challenges the driver’s ability to respond to the dynamic traffic scene under space and time constraints. It is of particular importance for older drivers to perform sufficient visual and motor actions with effective coordination due to the fact of age-related cognitive decline. However, few studies have been able to integrate drivers’ visual-motor behaviours with environmental information in a spatial-temporal context and link to the cognitive conditions of individual drivers. Little is known about the mechanisms that underpin the deterioration in visual-motor coordination of older drivers.

    Development: Based on a review of driving-related cognitive decline in older adults and the context of driver-vehicle-environment interactions, this paper established a conceptual framework to identify the parameters of driver’s visual and motor behaviour, and reveal the cognitive process from visual search to vehicle control in driving. The framework led to a psycho-geoinformatics approach to measure older drivers’ driving behaviours and investigate the underlying cognitive mechanisms. The proposed data collection protocol and the analysis and assessments depicted the psycho-geoinformatics approach on obtaining quantified variables and the key means of analysis, as well as outcome measures.

    Conclusions: Recordings of the driver and their interactions with the vehicle and environment at a detailed scale give a closer assessment of the driver’s behaviours. Using geoinformatics tools in driving behaviours assessment opens a new era of research with many possible analytical options, which do not have to rely on human observations. Instead, it receives clear indicators of the individual drivers’ interactions with the vehicle and the traffic environment. This approach should make it possible to identify lower-performing older drivers and problematic visual and motor behaviours, and the cognitive predictors of risky driving behaviours. A better targeted regulation and tailored intervention programs for older can be developed by further research. 

  • 45.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Systemanalys och ekonomi.
    Liu, Chengxi
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Examining the relationships between individual's time use and activity participations with their health indicators2017Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 9, nr 2, artikel-id 26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Using a three-week household activity-travel survey, this paper explores the relationship between individuals’ self-reported physical, mental and social health conditions and their time allocation for different types of in-home and out-of-home time activities. Methods: A path model is developed to investigate the roles of activity-travel time use on the self-reported health conditions, while the socio-demographics and residential environment characteristics are also considered. Results: The model results reveal heterogeneous impacts of different types of activities and intensities on individual’s self-reported health conditions. This study, however, did not find evidence of positive relationship between cycling and walking and self-reported physical health condition, which has been found in many developed countries. Presumably this is because in developing countries like Indonesia the individuals who walk and cycle are likely to be a part of economically disadvantaged groups who have less awareness to their own health conditions. Conclusion: Beside activity and travel time use factors, age and working status were found significantly affecting the self-reported health conditions, regardless of respondents’ gender and income. Neighbourhood characteristics, such as population density, are also found positively correlated to self-reported respondents’ physical, social and mental health conditions.

  • 46.
    Svensson, Tomas
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Summerton, Jane
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Hrelja, Robert
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    The Politics of Speed: Local and regional actors' views on speed limits, traffic safety and mobility in Sweden2014Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 43-50Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In most European countries, the often difficult policy process of setting and implementing speed limits on specific roads is delegated to public administration on local and regional levels. The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the perspectives and priorities of regional actors, specifically planners and elected officials within public administration, concerning their everyday work in setting speed limits within a Swedish county. The analysis indicates significant conflicts among actors with regard to the priorities, politics and goals that should guide the setting of speed limits on regional and local roads. Some groups of actors support a mobility perspective that gives priority to relatively high speed limits in the interests of accessibility and mobility. This perspective is, however, in sharp contrast to the views of other actors, who share a commitment to improve traffic safety through lower speed limits, thereby adopting what can be called a traffic safety perspective. The paper concludes with a discussion of the politics and power relations among actors and their implications for our understanding of decision-making on the issue of speed limits.

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  • 47. Svensson, Tomas
    et al.
    Summerton, Jane
    Hrelja, Robert
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    The politics of speed: Local and regional actors’ views on speed limits, traffic safety and mobility in Sweden2014Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 43-50Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 48.
    Taylor, Nicholas B.
    et al.
    Transport Research Laboratory (TRL.
    Olstam, Johan
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL. Linköpings Universitet.
    Bernhardsson, Viktor
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Nitsche, Philippe
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology.
    Modelling delay saving through pro-active incident management techniques2017Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 9, nr 4, artikel-id 48Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Road traffic incidents cause delay, affect public safety and the environment. The CEDR PRIMA project aims to extend practical guidance for traffic managers in pro-active Traffic Incident Management (TIM) techniques to reduce the impacts and associated costs of incidents.

    Methods: The paper describes modelling methods used in the project for assessing the effect of different management techniques on incident duration and travel delay under various scenarios, including collision, adverse weather, heavy vehicle breakdown and other obstruction, assuming various management strategies and generic impacts of novel technologies. Macroscopic simulations of 178 variations of 13 basic scenarios have been performed using a flexible and computationally efficient macroscopic queue model, results being verified by simulation using a velocity-based Cell Transmission Model (CTM-v).

    Results: The results of the two modelling methods are broadly consistent. While delays estimated by the two methods can differ by up to 20%, this is small compared to the factor of 30 range of modelled delays caused by incidents, depending on their nature and circumstances, and is not sufficient to affect general conclusions. Under the peak traffic conditions assumed, the most important factor affecting delay is whether running lanes can be kept open, but quick clearance of carriageway is not always feasible.

    Conclusions: Comparison of two very different modelling methods confirms their consistency within the context of highly scenario-dependent results, giving confidence in the results. Future research and data needs include further validation of the models, potential application to traffic flow and conflict prediction and incident prevention, and more complete and consistent recording of incident timelines and impacts.

  • 49.
    Taylor, Nicholas B
    et al.
    Transport Research Laboratory (TRL), Crowthorne House, Wokingham, UK.
    Olstam, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Sweden.
    Bernhardsson, Viktor
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Sweden; AITAustrian Institute of Technology, TECHbase Vienna, Austria.
    Nitsche, Philippe
    AITAustrian Institute of Technology, TECHbase Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Modelling delay saving through pro-active incident management techniques2017Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 9, nr 48Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Road traffic incidents cause delay, affect public safetyand the environment. The CEDR PRIMA project aims toextend practical guidance for traffic managers in pro-activeTraffic Incident Management (TIM) techniques to reduce theimpacts and associated costs of incidents.Methods The paper describes modelling methods used in theproject for assessing the effect of different management techniqueson incident duration and travel delay under various scenarios,including collision, adverseweather, heavy vehicle breakdownand other obstruction, assuming various management strategiesand generic impacts of novel technologies. Macroscopicsimulations of 178 variations of 13 basic scenarios have beenperformed using a flexible and computationally efficientmacroscopic queue model, results being verified by simulationusing a velocity-based Cell Transmission Model (CTM-v).Results The results of the two modelling methods are broadlyconsistent. While delays estimated by the two methods candiffer by up to 20%, this is small compared to the factor of30 range of modelled delays caused by incidents, dependingon their nature and circumstances, and is not sufficient toaffect general conclusions. Under the peak traffic conditionsassumed, the most important factor affecting delay is whetherrunning lanes can be kept open, but quick clearance of carriagewayis not always feasible.Conclusions Comparison of two very different modellingmethods confirms their consistency within the context of highlyscenario-dependent results, giving confidence in the results.Future research and data needs include further validation ofthe models, potential application to traffic flow and conflictprediction and incident prevention, and more complete andconsistent recording of incident timelines and impacts.

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  • 50.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Peters, Björn
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Drift och underhåll, DOU.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linnaeus Centre Head.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linnaeus Centre Head.
    Cognitive workload and visual behavior in elderly drivers with hearing loss2014Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 6, nr 4, s. 377-385Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to examine eye tracking data and compare visual behavior in individuals with normal hearing (NH) and with moderate hearing loss (HL) during two types of driving conditions: normal driving and driving while performing a secondary task.

    Methods

    24 participants with HL and 24 with NH were exposed to normal driving and to driving with a secondary task (observation and recall of 4 visually displayed letters). Eye movement behavior was assessed during normal driving by the following performance indicators: number of glances away from the road; mean duration of glances away from the road; maximum duration of glances away from the road; and percentage of time looking at the road. During driving with the secondary task, eye movement data were assessed in terms of number of glances to the secondary task display, mean duration of glances to the secondary task display, and maximum duration of glances to the secondary task display. The secondary task performance was assessed as well, counting the number of correct letters, the number of skipped letters, and the number of correct letters ignoring order.

    Results

    While driving with the secondary task, drivers with HL looked twice as often in the rear-view mirror than during normal driving and twice as often as drivers with NH regardless of condition. During secondary task, the HL group looked away from the road more frequently but for shorter durations than the NH group. Drivers with HL had fewer correct letters and more skipped letters than drivers with NH.

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