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  • 1.
    Acerbi, Alberto
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Cultural Evolution.
    Jacquet, Pierre O.
    Tennie, Claudio
    Behavioral constraints and the evolution of faithful social learning2012In: Current Zoology, ISSN 1674-5507, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 307-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioral “traditions”, i.e. behavioral patterns that are acquired with the aid of social learning and that are relativelystable in a group, have been observed in several species. Recently, however, it has been questioned whether non-human sociallearning is faithful enough to stabilize those patterns. The observed stability could be interpreted as a result of various constraintsthat limit the number of possible alternative behaviors, rather than of the fidelity of transmission mechanisms. Those constraints canbe roughly described as “internal”, such as mechanical (bodily) properties or cognitive limitations and predispositions, and “external”, such as ecological availability or pressures. Here we present an evolutionary individual-based model that explores the relationships between the evolution of faithful social learning and behavioral constraints, represented both by the size of the behavioral repertoire and by the “shape” of the search space of a given task. We show that the evolution of high-fidelity transmission mechanisms, when associated with costs (e.g. cognitive, biomechanical, energetic, etc.), is only likely if the potential behavioral repertoire of a species is large and if the search space does not provide information that can be exploited by individual learning. Moreover we show how stable behavioral patterns (“traditions”) can be achieved at the population level as an outcome of both high-fidelity and low-fidelity transmission mechanisms, given that the latter are coupled with a small behavioral repertoire or with a search space that provide substantial feedback. Finally, by introducing the possibility of environmental change, we show that intermediaterates of change favor the evolution of faithful social learning.

  • 2.
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Why are sexually selected weapons almost absent in females?2013In: Current Zoology, ISSN 1674-5507, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 564-568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In sex role reversed species, predominantly females evolve sexually selected traits, such as ornaments and/or weapons. Female ornaments are common and their function well documented in many species, whether sex role reversed or not. However, sexually selected female weapons seem totally absent except for small wing spurs in three jacana species, present in both males and females. This poor female weaponry is in sharp contrast to the situation in species with conventional sex roles: males commonly have evolved sexually selected weapons as well as ornaments. At the same time, females in many taxa have naturally selected weapons, used in competition over resources or in predator defence. Why are sexually selected weapons then so rare, almost absent, in females? Here I briefly review weaponry in females and the function of these weapons, conclude that the near absence of sexually selected weapons begs an explanation, and suggest that costs of sexually selected weapons may exceed costs of ornaments. Females are more constrained when evolving sexually selected traits compared to males, at least compared to those males that do not provide direct benefits, as trait costs reduce a female’s fecundity. I suggest that this constraining trade-off between trait and fecundity restricts females to evolve ornaments but rarely weapons. The same may apply to paternally investing males. Whether sexually selected weapons actually are more costly than sexually selected ornaments remains to be investigated.

  • 3.
    Brodin, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Drotz, Marcus K.
    Lake Vänern Museum Nat & Cultural Hist, S-53154 Linköping, Sweden.
    Individual variation in dispersal associated behavioral traits of the invasive Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis, H. Milne Edwards, 1854) during initial invasion of Lake Vänern, Sweden2014In: Current Zoology, ISSN 1674-5507, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 410-416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding and predicting species range-expansions and biological invasions is an important challenge in modern ecology because of rapidly changing environments. Recent studies have revealed that consistent within-species variation in behavior (i.e. animal personality) can be imperative for dispersal success, a key stage in the invasion process. Here we investigate the composition and correlation of two important personality traits associated with invasion success, activity and boldness, and how they are connected to sex and individual size in a newly colonised population of the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis in Lake Vanern, Sweden. We found no effect of sex or size on behavioral expressions of E. sinensis but a clear positive correlation between boldness and activity. In addition, this study generates important baseline data for monitoring behavioral development, and thereby changing ecological impact, of an invading population over time. This has implications for predicting ecological effects of invasive species as well as for managing ecological invasions.

  • 4.
    Corral-López, Alberto
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Eckerström-Liedholm, Simon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Van der Bijl, Wouter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Kotrschal, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    No association between brain size and male sexual behavior in the guppy2015In: Current Zoology, ISSN 1674-5507, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 265-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal behavior is remarkably variable at all taxonomic levels. Over the last decades, research on animal behavior has focused on understanding ultimate processes. Yet, it has progressively become more evident that to fully understand behavioral variation, ultimate explanations need to be complemented with proximate ones. In particular, the mechanisms generating variation in sexual behavior remain an open question. Variation in aspects of brain morphology has been suggested as a plausible mechanism underlying this variation. However, our knowledge of this potential association is based almost exclusively on comparative analyses. Experimental studies are needed to establish causality and bridge the gap between micro-and macroevolutionary mechanisms concerning the link between brain and sexual behavior. We used male guppies that had been artificially selected for large or small relative brain size to study this association. We paired males with females and scored the full known set of male and female sexual behaviors described in guppies. We found several previously demonstrated associations between male traits, male behavior and female behavior. Females responded more strongly towards males that courted more and males with more orange coloration. Also, larger males and males with less conspicuous coloration attempted more coerced copulations. However, courting, frequency of coerced copulation attempts, total intensity of sexual behavior, and female response did not differ between large-and small-brained males. Our data suggest that relative brain size is an unlikely mechanism underlying variation in sexual behavior of the male guppy. We discuss these findings in the context of the conditions under which relative brain size might affect male sexual behavior

  • 5.
    de Boer, Raïssa Anna
    et al.
    University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Costantini, David
    Casasole, Giulia
    AbdElgawad, Hamada
    Asard, Han
    Eens, Marcel
    Müller, Wendt
    Sex-specific effects of inbreeding and early life conditions on the adult oxidative balance2018In: Current Zoology, ISSN 1674-5507, Vol. 64, no 5, p. 631-639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inbreeding negatively affects various life-history traits, with inbred individuals typically having lower fitness than outbred individuals (= inbreeding depression). Inbreeding depression is often emphasized under environmental stress, but the underlying mechanisms and potential long-lasting consequences of such inbreeding-environment interactions remain poorly understood. Here, we hypothesize that inbreeding-environment interactions that occur early in life have long-term physiological effects, in particular on the adult oxidative balance. We applied a unique experimental design to manipulate early life conditions of inbred and outbred songbirds (Serinus canaria) that allowed us to separate prenatal and postnatal components of early life conditions and their respective importance in inbreeding-environment interactions. We measured a wide variety of markers of oxidative status in adulthood, resulting in a comprehensive account for oxidative balance. Using a Bayesian approach with Markov chain Monte Carlo, we found clear sex-specific effects and we also found only in females small yet significant long-term effects of inbreeding-environment interactions on adult oxidative balance. Postnatal components of early life conditions were most persuasively reflected on adult oxidative balance, with inbred females that experienced disadvantageous postnatal conditions upregulating enzymatic antioxidants in adulthood. Our study provides some evidence that adult oxidative balance can reflect inbreeding-environment interactions early in life, but given the rather small effects that were limited to females, we conclude that oxidative stress might have a limited role as mechanism underlying inbreeding-environment interactions.

  • 6.
    Fritzsche, Karoline
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Booksmythe, Isobel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    The measurement of sexual selection on females and males2013In: Current Zoology, ISSN 1674-5507, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 558-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As in any field of research, the study of sexual selection is subject to ongoing debate over definitions and interpretations of the fundamental concepts involved. These arguments generally promote progress, as they highlight areas where current explanations are incomplete. Here we briefly review two ongoing discussions in the sexual selection literature. First, the definition of sexual selection has received renewed interest in light of increasing research effort into when and how it operates in females. Second, how best to measure sexual selection is an ongoing subject of debate; in practice, recognition that the appropriate measures depend on the focus of the specific study, and that multiple measures should be employed wherever possible, seems to provide the most informative approach. The wide scope of recent empirical work in these and related areas, with the application of new techniques and approaches, reflects that the field of sexual selection is being constantly expanded and enriched.

  • 7.
    Hellström, Gustav
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Magnhagen, Carin
    Balancing past and present: how experience influences boldness over time in Eurasian perch2017In: Current Zoology, ISSN 1674-5507, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 159-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adapting to fluctuating predation conditions is a challenge for prey. By learning through experience, animals may adjust their anti-predator behavior to better reflect current predation risk. Although many studies show experience of predation to alter prey behavior, little is known about how prey rely on such experience over time. By comparing boldness over different temporal scales between individuals of Eurasian perch, either experienced or naive of predators, we examine how risk is traded based on past and present experience. Differences in predator exposure during the first year of life were found to lead to differences in risk-taking behavior, even after the perch been kept in a predator-free environment for 9 months. However, the response to a potential predator was quickly readjusted after increased experience of current conditions. The results highlight how prey have to balance past experiences of predators against current threat levels.

  • 8.
    Heynen, Martina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bunnefeld, Nils
    Borcherding, Jost
    Facing different predators: adaptiveness of behavioral and morphological traits under predation2017In: Current Zoology, ISSN 1674-5507, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 249-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predation is thought to be one of the main structuring forces in animal communities. However, selective predation is often measured on isolated traits in response to a single predatory species, but only rarely are selective forces on several traits quantified or even compared between different predators naturally occurring in the same system. In the present study, we therefore measured behavioral and morphological traits in young-of-the-year Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis and compared their selective values in response to the 2 most common predators, adult perch and pike Esox lucius. Using mixed effects models and model averaging to analyze our data, we quantified and compared the selectivity of the 2 predators on the different morphological and behavioral traits. We found that selection on the behavioral traits was higher than on morphological traits and perch predators preyed overall more selectively than pike predators. Pike tended to positively select shallow bodied and nonvigilant individuals (i.e. individuals not performing predator inspection). In contrast, perch predators selected mainly for bolder juvenile perch (i.e. individuals spending more time in the open, more active), which was most important. Our results are to the best of our knowledge the first that analyzed behavioral and morphological adaptations of juvenile perch facing 2 different predation strategies. We found that relative specific predation intensity for the divergent traits differed between the predators, providing some additional ideas why juvenile perch display such a high degree of phenotypic plasticity.

  • 9.
    Larsson, Matz
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. The Cardiology Clinic, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; The Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Why do fish school?2012In: Current Zoology, ISSN 1674-5507, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 116-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synchronized movements (schooling) emit complex and overlapping sound and pressure curves that might confuse the inner ear and lateral line organ (LLO) of a predator. Moreover, prey-fish moving close to each other may blur the electro-sensory perception of predators. The aim of this review is to explore mechanisms associated with synchronous swimming that may have contributed to increased adaptation and as a consequence may have influenced the evolution of schooling. The evolutionary development of the inner ear and the LLO increased the capacity to detect potential prey, possibly leading to an increased potential for cannibalism in the shoal, but also helped small fish to avoid joining larger fish, resulting in size homogeneity and, accordingly, an increased capacity for moving in synchrony. Water-movements and incidental sound produced as by-product of locomotion (ISOL) may provide fish with potentially useful information during swimming, such as neighbour body-size, speed, and location. When many fish move close to one another ISOL will be energetic and complex. Quiet intervals will be few. Fish moving in synchrony will have the capacity to discontinue movements simultaneously, providing relatively quiet intervals to allow the reception of potentially critical environmental signals. Besides, synchronized movements may facilitate auditory grouping of ISOL. Turning preference bias, well-functioning sense organs, good health, and skillful motor performance might be important to achieving an appropriate distance to school neighbors and aid the individual fish in reducing time spent in the comparatively less safe school periphery. Turning preferences in ancestral fish shoals might have helped fish to maintain groups and stay in formation, reinforcing aforementioned predator confusion mechanisms, which possibly played a role in the lateralization of the vertebrate brain.

  • 10.
    Möller, Anders Pape
    et al.
    Univ Paris Saclay, Univ Paris Sud, AgroParisTech, Ecol Systemat Evolut,CNRS, Batiment 362, F-91405 Orsay, France.
    Mateos-Gonzalez, Fernando
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Plumage brightness and uropygial gland secretions in barn swallows2019In: Current Zoology, ISSN 1674-5507, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 177-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The uropygial gland has been hypothesized to play a role in sexual signaling through a "make-up" function derived from the effects of secretions from the gland on the appearance of the plumage and bare parts of the body. Here we show that plumage brightness of dorsal feathers of individual barn swallows Hirundo rustica was greater in mated than in unmated individuals. In addition, plumage brightness increased with colony size. Furthermore, plumage brightness was positively correlated with the amount of wax in the uropygial gland, negatively correlated with time of sampling of uropygial wax (perhaps because more wax is present early in the morning after an entire night of wax production without any preening), and negatively correlated with the number of chewing lice that degrade the plumage. Experimentally preventing barn swallows from access to the uropygial gland reduced plumage brightness, showing a causal link between secretions from the uropygial gland and plumage brightness. These findings provide evidence consistent with a role of uropygial secretions in signaling plumage brightness.

  • 11.
    Nicklasson, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sjöström, Desirée
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Amundin, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Kolmården Wildlife Park, Kolmården, Sweden.
    Roth, Daniel
    Borås Zoo, Borås, Sweden.
    Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa
    Instituto de Neuro-Etologia, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Taste responsiveness to two steviol glycosides in three species of nonhuman primates2018In: Current Zoology, ISSN 1674-5507, Vol. 64, no 1, p. 63-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Primates have been found to differ widely in their taste perception and studies suggest that a co-evolution between plant species bearing a certain taste substance and primate species feeding on these plants may contribute to such between-species differences. Considering that only platyrrhine primates, but not catarrhine or prosimian primates, share an evolutionary history with the neotropical plant Stevia rebaudiana, we assessed whether members of these three primate taxa differ in their ability to perceive and/or in their sensitivity to its two quantitatively predominant sweet-tasting substances. We found that not only neotropical black-handed spider monkeys, but also paleotropical black-and-white ruffed lemurs and Western chimpanzees are clearly able to perceive stevioside and rebaudioside A. Using a two-bottle preference test of short duration, we found that Ateles geoffroyi preferred concentrations as low as 0.05 mM stevioside and 0.01 mM rebaudioside A over tap water. Taste preference thresholds of Pan troglodytes were similar to those of the spider monkeys, with 0.05 mM for stevioside and 0.03 mM for rebaudioside A, whereas Varecia variegata was slightly less sensitive with a threshold value of 0.1 mM for both substances. Thus, all three primate species are, similar to human subjects, clearly more sensitive to both steviol glycosides compared to sucrose. Only the spider monkeys displayed concentration-response curves with both stevioside and rebaudioside A which can best be described as an inverted U-shaped function suggesting that Ateles geoffroyi, similar to human subjects, may perceive a bitter side taste at higher concentrations of these substances. Taken together, the results of the present study do not support the notion that a co-evolution between plant and primate species may account for between-species differences in taste perception of steviol glycosides.

  • 12.
    Olofsson, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Thiruvananthapuram, India.
    Wiklund, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Favati, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    On the deterring effect of a butterfly's eyespot in juvenile and sub-adult chickens2015In: Current Zoology, ISSN 1674-5507, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 749-757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Circular patterns, or eyespots, are common anti-predator features in a variety of animals. Two defensive functions have been documented: large eyespots may intimidate predators, whereas smaller marginal eyespots may divert attacks. However, a given eyespot potentially serves both functions, possibly depending on the predator's size and/or experience. Naive predators are potentially more likely to misdirect their attacks towards eyespots; alternatively, their typically smaller size would make them more intimidated by the same eyespots. Here we test how juvenile and sub-adult naive chickens respond to a single eyespot on a butterfly's wing. We presented the birds with dead wall brown butterflies, Lasiommata megera, that had their apical eyespot visible or painted over. We assessed the birds' responses' by (i) scoring their intimidation reaction, (ii) whether they uttered alarm calls and, (iii) if they attacked the butterfly and where they targeted their attacks. Results show that both age categories received higher intimidation scores when offered a butterfly with a visible eyespot. Juveniles were more intimidated by the butterfly than the sub-adults: they received higher intimidation scores and were more prone to utter alarm calls. Moreover, only sub-adults attacked and did so by preferentially attacking the butterfly's anterior. We demonstrate an intimidating effect of the type of eyespot that has previously been shown only to divert attacks. We suggest that one and the same eyespot may serve two functions relative to different predators; however, further experiments are needed to disentangle the role of predator identity and its link to size, ontogeny and experience.

  • 13.
    Temrin, H.
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden .
    Nordlund, J.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden .
    Rying, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Tullberg, B. S.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden .
    Is the higher rate of parental child homicide in stepfamilies an effect of non-genetic relatedness?2011In: Current Zoology, ISSN 1674-5507, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 253-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an evolutionary perspective individuals are expected to vary the degree of parental love and care in relation to the fitness value that a child represents. Hence, stepparents are expected to show less solicitude than genetically related parents, and this lack of genetic relatedness has been used to explain the higher frequencies of child abuse and homicide found in stepfamilies. However, other factors than non-genetic relatedness may cause this over-representation in stepfamilies. Here we use a 45-year data set of parental child homicides in Sweden to test two hypotheses related to the higher incidence in stepfamilies: 1) adults in different types of family differ in their general disposition to use violence, and 2) parents are more likely to kill stepchildren than genetically related children. Of the 152 perpetrators in biparental families there was an overrepresentation of perpetrators in stepfamilies (n=27) compared with the general population. We found support for the first hypothesis in that both general and violent crime rates were higher in stepfamilies, both in the general population and among perpetrators of child homicide. However, we found no support for the second hypothesis because of the 27 perpetrators in stepfamilies the perpetrator killed a genetically related child in 13 cases, a stepchild in 13 cases and both types of children in one case. Moreover, out of the 12 families where the perpetrator lived with both stepchildren and genetic children, there was no bias towards killing stepchildren. Thus, we found no evidence for an effect of non-genetic relatedness per se. 

  • 14.
    Temrin, Hans
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Nordlund, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Rying, Mikael
    Tullberg, Birgitta S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Is the higher rate of parental child homicide in stepfamilies an effect of non-genetic relatedness?2011In: Current Zoology, ISSN 1674-5507, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 253-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an evolutionary perspective individuals are expected to vary the degree of parental love and care in relation to the fitness value that a child represents. Hence, stepparents are expected to show less solicitude than genetically related parents, and this lack of genetic relatedness has been used to explain the higher frequencies of child abuse and homicide found in stepfamilies. However, other factors than non-genetic relatedness may cause this over-representation in stepfamilies. Here we use a 45-year data set of parental child homicides in Sweden to test two hypotheses related to the higher incidence in stepfamilies: 1) adults in different types of family differ in their general disposition to use violence, and 2) parents are more likely to kill stepchildren than genetically related children. Of the 152 perpetrators in biparental families there was an overrepresentation of perpetrators in stepfamilies (n=27) compared with the general population. We found support for the first hypothesis in that both general and violent crime rates were higher in stepfamilies, both in the general population and among perpetrators of child homicide. However, we found no support for the second hypothesis because of the 27 perpetrators in stepfamilies the perpetrator killed a genetically related child in 13 cases, a stepchild in 13 cases and both types of children in one case. Moreover, out of the 12 families where the perpetrator lived with both stepchildren and genetic children, there was no bias towards killing stepchildren. Thus, we found no evidence for an effect of non-genetic relatedness per se.

  • 15.
    Thorlacius, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hellström, Gustav
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Behavioral dependent dispersal in the invasive round goby Neogobius melanostomus depends on population age2015In: Current Zoology, ISSN 1674-5507, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 529-542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological invasions cause major ecological and economic costs in invaded habitats. The round goby Neogobius melanostomus is a successful invasive species and a major threat to the biodiversity and ecological function of the Baltic Sea. It is native to the Ponto-Caspian region and has, via ballast water transport of ships, invaded the Gulf of Gdansk in Poland. Since 1990, it has spread as far north as Raahe in Northern Finland (64 degrees 41'04"N, 24 degrees 28'44"E). Over the past decade, consistent individual differences of behavioral expressions have been shown to explain various ecological processes such as dispersal, survival or reproduction. We have previously shown that new and old populations differ in personality trait expression. Individuals in new populations are bolder, less sociable and more active than in old populations. Here we investigate if the behavioral differentiation can be explained by phenotype-dependent dispersal. This was investigated by measuring activity, boldness and sociability of individually marked gobies, and subsequently allowing them to disperse in a system composed of five consecutive tanks connected by tubes. Individual dispersal tendency and distance was measured. Our results revealed that in newly established populations, more active individuals disperse sooner and that latency of a group to disperse depends on the mean sociability of the group. This indicates the presence of personality dependent dispersal in this species and that it is maintained at the invasion front but lost as the populations get older.

  • 16.
    Wennersten, Lena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Karpestam, Einat
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Phenotype manipulation influences microhabitat choice in pygmy grasshoppers2012In: Current Zoology, ISSN 1674-5507, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 392-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The matching habitat choice hypothesis posits that individuals actively choose those microhabitats that best match their specificphenotype to maximize fitness. Despite the profound implications, matching habitat choice has not been unequivocally demonstrated. Weconducted two experiments to examine the impact of pigmentation pattern in the color polymorphic pygmy grasshopper Tetrix subulata onhabitat choice in a laboratory thermal mosaic arena. We found no behavioral differences in the thermal mosaic among pygmy grasshoppersbelonging to either pale, intermediate or dark natural color morphs. However, after manipulating the grasshoppers’ phenotype, the utilizationthrough time of warmer and colder parts of the arena was different for black-painted and white-painted individuals. White-paintedindividuals used warmer parts of the arena, at least during the initial stage of the experiment. We conclude that microhabitat choicerepresents a form of behavioural plasticity. Thus, even if the choice itself is flexible and not genetically determined, it can still lead to spatialgenetic structure in the population because the phenotypes themselves may be genetically mediated

  • 17.
    Winberg, Svante
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Role of brain serotonin in modulating fish behavior2016In: Current Zoology, ISSN 1674-5507, Vol. 62, no 3, p. 317-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The organization of the brain serotonergic system appears to have been highly conserved across the vertebrate subphylum. In fish as well as in other vertebrates, brain serotonin (5-HT), mainly acts as a neuromodulator with complex effects on multiple functions. It is becoming increasingly clear that acute and chronic increase in brain 5-HT neurotransmission have very different effects. An acute 5-HT activation, which is seen in both winners and losers of agonistic interactions, could be related to a general arousal effect, whereas the chronic activation observed in subordinate fish is clearly linked to the behavioral inhibition displayed by these individuals. Fish displaying divergent stress coping styles (proactive vs. reactive) differ in 5-HT functions. In teleost fish, brain monoaminergic function is also related to life history traits.

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