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  • 1.
    Agren, Anneli
    et al.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden..
    Buffam, Ishi
    Ecosystem and Landscape Ecology Lab, Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA..
    Bishop, Kevin
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences,Uppsala, Sweden..
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden..
    Sensitivity of pH in a boreal stream network to a potential decrease in base cations caused by forest harvest2010In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 67, no 7, p. 1116-1125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased forest harvest with more whole-tree utilization can decrease base cations (BC) in soils and stream runoff. This paper analyses how reducing stream BC changes the capacity of a boreal stream network to buffer pH changes. We estimated change in stream pH during spring snowmelt in 60 locations throughout a 68 km2 boreal catchment in northern Sweden with different scenarios of BC removal from stream water ranging from 10 to 50 mequiv. .L-1. The pH decreased in all scenarios, and if BC decreased by 50 mequiv. .L-1, stream length with pH above the acid threshold pH 5 during spring snowmelt decreased from 82% to 44% of the stream network, whereas the stream length with pH above 5.5 decreased from 60% to 10%. The pH sensitivity of different stream reaches to reductions in BC was positively related to the slope of the catchment, forest cover, and forested mires, whereas it was negatively related to the percentage of agricultural fields. Because the long-term effect of different forestry practices on stream BC is unclear, there is all the more reason to evaluate BC sensitivity before, rather than after, eventual problems arise.

  • 2.
    Ahlbeck, Ida
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Hansson, Sture
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Hjerne, Olle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Evaluating fish diet analysis methods by individual-based modelling2012In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 69, no 7, p. 1184-1201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of diet compositions is important in ecological research. There are many methods available and numerous aspects of diet composition. Here we used modelling to evaluate how well different diet analysis methods describe the true diet of fish, expressed in mass percentages. The methods studied were both basic methods (frequency of occurrence, dominance, numeric, mass, points) and composite indices (Index of Relative Importance, Comparative Feeding Index). Analyses were based on both averaged stomach content of individual fish and on pooled content from several fish. Prey preference, prey size, and evacuation rate influenced the performance of the diet analysis methods. The basic methods performed better than composite indices. Mass and points methods produced diet compositions most similar to the true diet and were also most robust, indicating that these methods should be used to describe energetic-nutritional sources of fish.

  • 3.
    Ahlbeck, Ida
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Hansson, Sture
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Hjerne, Olle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Evaluation of diet analysis methods by individual based modellingIn: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Ardren, W. R.
    et al.
    US Fish & Wildlife Service, USA.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Introduction to “conservation, ecology, and evolution of nonanadromous atlantic salmon”2021In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 78, no 6, p. iii-ViiArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Carlström, Julia
    et al.
    Berggren, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Tregenza, Nick
    Spatial and temporal impact of pingers on porpoises2009In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 72-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

    Bycatches are considered the most serious threat to harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and other small cetaceans worldwide. Pingers are used to reduce bycatch levels, but may also deter porpoises from critical habitats. We investigated the spatial and temporal responses of porpoises to simulated bottom-set nets equipped with periodically operating Dukane NetMark 1000 pingers. Echolocation rates were monitored by porpoise click train detectors (PODs) placed at and around the nets, and a shore-based observation team recorded surfacing positions and movements. Pinger sound significantly reduced the median echolocation encounter rate by 50%–100% at PODs placed up to 500 m and reduced the sighting rate up to 375 m from the simulated net. The average distance of approach increased by 300 m. When pingers were silent after being active for 24 h 50 min, the return time of porpoises was 6 h, in comparison with 2.5 h after pingers had been silent. During the study period of approximately 50 days, habituation was detectable at two of nine PODs. The results indicate that pingers affect porpoises at greater distances than previously observed. This confirms that pingers are an effective bycatch mitigation measure, but alternative solutions should be applied in ecologically important habitats and migration routes. An example is given from the Baltic region.

     

     

    Bycatches are considered the most serious threat to harbour porpoises and other small cetaceans worldwide.  Pingers are used to reduce bycatch levels, but may also deter porpoises from critical habitats.  We investigated the spatial and temporal responses of porpoises to simulated bottom set nets equipped with periodically operating Dukane NetMark 1000 pingers.  Echolocation rates were monitored by porpoise click train detectors (PODs) placed at and around the nets, and a shore-based observation team recorded surfacing positions and movements.  Pinger sound significantly reduced the median echolocation encounter rate by 50-100% at PODs placed up to 500m, and the sighting rate up to 375m from the simulated net.  The average distance of approach increased by 300m.  When pingers were silent after being active for 24h 50min, the return time of porpoises was 6h, in comparison to 2.5h after pingers had been silent.  During the study period of approximately 50 days, habituation was detectable at two of nine PODs.  The results indicate that pingers affect porpoises at greater distances than previously observed.  This confirms that pingers are an effective bycatch mitigation measure, but alternative solutions should be applied in ecologically important habitats and migration routes. An example is given from the Baltic region.

     

  • 6. Dekker, Willem
    et al.
    Sjöberg, Niklas B.
    Institute for Freshwater Research, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Assessment of the fishing impact on the silver eel stock in the Baltic using survival analysis2013In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 70, no 12, p. 1673-1684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Restoration of the depleted stock of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla (L.)) requires anthropogenic impacts to bequantified, reduced, and controlled. In this article, we assess the impact of the silver eel fishery on the Baltic Coast in Sweden, applying survival analysis to 60 years of mark–recapture experiments, involving 8000 recaptures out of 18 000 releases. Thehazard of being recaptured (overall 46%) varies along the coast and declined substantially over the decades. But, most notably,the hazard for the individual diminishes strongly after the first kilometres en route. This individualized hazard disqualifies themore traditional mark–recapture methodology, which assumes random recaptures. We advocate the general use of survivalanalysis for conventional mark–recapture data. The result of our analysis indicates that the impact of the fishery just prior the2009 fishing restrictions was in the order of 10%—in itself well within sustainability limits, though only but one of the factors contributing to the mortality in the Baltic Sea.

  • 7.
    Ek, A S
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Korsman, T
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    A paleolimnological assessment of the effects of post-1970 reductions of sulfur deposition in Sweden2001In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 58, no 8, p. 1692-1700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of diatoms in sediment cores from 10 acidic (pH < 6) lakes in southern Sweden shows that eight of the lakes have acidified after 1950, while two lakes have not significantly acidified. However, since the 1970s, sulfur deposition has decreased by 50%, and lake water chemistry monitored since 1983 shows an initial reversal of acidification. However, the diatom data do not indicate that a general recovery in pH has occurred yet. The diatoms show that a small recovery has occurred in only one lake (pH increase from 4.7 to 4.9). The 10 lakes vary in total organic carbon content from 2 to 17 mg.L-1. According to the diatoms, the lakes with high total organic carbon (>9 mg.L-1) have not acidified as much as the lakes with lower total organic carbon (<7 mg.L-1). We ascribe this difference in response to acid deposition to the buffering capacity of organic acids. Knowledge of the role of organic acids when combined with anthropogenic acid deposition is important in predicting responses to decreasing acid deposition and the time scales required for recovery. Paleolimnological methods are shown here to provide valuable information for these purposes as well as to provide a long-term perspective on lake acidity changes needed for the evaluation of recovery.

  • 8.
    Eklöv, Peter
    Department of Animal Ecology, Umeå University.
    Effects of habitat complexity and preyabundance on the spatial and temporaldistributions of perch (Perca fluviatilis)and pike (Esox lucius)1997In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 54, no 7, p. 1520-1531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structurally complex environments strongly affect the behaviours and foraging efficiencies of predators and prey. I studied temporal variation in the habitat distribution of perch (Perca fluviatilis) and pike (Esox lucius) in relation to habitatcomplexity and prey abundance in a lake. The study involved quantitative estimates of different habitat types, estimates omacroinvertebrate prey availability, and distribution and movement patterns of the fish. The numbers of 80–110 mm perch in the littoral zone decreased rapidly in spring, which was a result of either perch moving to the pelagic zone or predation mortality. Predation mortality is the most plausible explanation because piscivorous perch and pike >160 mm aggregated close to these high abundances of 80–110 mm perch, and 80–110 mm perch used only vegetated habitats as a possible protection against predators. Both the biomass and diversity of macroinvertebrates increased with vegetation density, whereas perch abundance was highest in an intermediate vegetation density. Pike size was inversely related to vegetation density as a result of potential cannibalism from the largest pike individuals, which preferred the tree structure habitat. Perch group size decreased with increasing vegetation density, and perch <80 mm always occurred in group sizes larger than three individuals and never occurred in the same groups as perch >160 mm. In contrast, perch >160 mm occurred at decreasing numbers with increasing group size and mainly stayed solitary or in pairs. Perch >160 mm showed no tendencies for homing behaviour and moved actively around the whole lake, whereas pike showed a strong homing behaviour. My study suggests that the structural complexity in the littoral zone can both qualitatively and quantitatively change the interaction between piscivorous predators and their prey.

    La variation temporelle touchant la distribution de la perche commune (Perca fluviatilis) et du grand brochet (Esox lucius) dans l'habitat d'un lac a suggéré que la complexité structurale de la zone littorale puisse modifier, qualitativement et quantitativement, les interactions entre les prédateurs piscivores et leurs proies. Le nombre de perches de 80-110 mm dans la zone littorale a diminué rapidement au printemps. La mortalité par prédation est une explication plus plausible de ce phénomène que la migration des perches vers la zone pélagique parce que les percidés et les brochets piscivores de taille 160 mm se rassemblaient près de ces zones de forte abondance de petites perches (80-110 mm), qui n'utilisent que les habitats couverts de végétation comme protection possible contre les prédateurs. La biomasse et la diversité de macroinvertébrés ont augmenté avec la densité de la végétation, tandis que l'abondance des perches était la plus élevée lorsque la densité de la végétation était intermédiaire. La taille du grand brochet était inversement proportionnelle à la densité de la végétation en raison de la possibilité de cannibalisme par les brochets de plus grande taille qui préféraient un habitat comportant des arbres. La taille des perches, en groupe, diminuait avec l'augmentation de la densité de la végétation et les percidés de taille < 80 mm se présentaient toujours en groupe de plus de trois individus et jamais dans les mêmes groupes que les percidés > 160 mm. Ces derniers vivaient principalement en solitaires ou en paires, ne présentaient aucune tendance en ce qui a trait au comportement de retour, et se déplaçaient activement autour du lac entier; le grand brochet présentait un comportement de retour très prononcé. [Traduit par la Rédaction]

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  • 9.
    Faithfull, Carolyn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Huss, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Vrede, Tobias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bergstrom, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Transfer of bacterial production based on labile carbon to higher trophic levels in an oligotrophic pelagic system2012In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 69, no 1, p. 85-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Additions of labile organic carbon (C) enhanced bacterial production (BP) and were associated with increases in crustacean zooplankton and planktivorous fish biomasses. This was shown in a mesocosm experiment where we traced the contribution of BP to zooplankton and fish using stable isotopes and labile glucose-C as a biomarker. BP increased with glucose-C addition, and all zooplankton and fish incorporated some glucose-C. However, the effect of labile-C addition on zooplankton was taxa-dependant, as although cladocerans incorporated the most labile-C, increased BP did not affect cladoceran biomass. Instead, calanoid copepod biomass increased with glucose addition. This suggests that the ability to selectively graze on high quality food, such as bacterial grazing protists capable of trophic upgrading, had a stronger positive effect on calanoid copepods biomass than unselective grazing on bacteria and protists had on cladoceran biomass. Higher BP was associated with increased survival and population growth of young-of-the-year perch (Perca fluviatilis) when stocked at high densities, which suggested that BP had a density-dependant positive effect on fish growth.

  • 10. Ferguson, J.W.
    et al.
    Ploskey, G.R.
    Leonardsson, Kjell
    Zabel, R.W.
    Lundqvist, H.
    Combining turbine blade-strike and life cycle models to assess mitigation strategies for fish passing dams2008In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 65, no 8, p. 1568-1585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combined model produced a tool for evaluating effects on fish populations from passage through hydro-power turbines at dams. Mean blade-strike mortality was higher for adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and sea-run brown trout (Salmo trutta) (25.2%-45.3%) than for juveniles (5.3%-9.7%). Based on life cycle modeling, salmon populations in two Swedish rivers responded differently to strategies for mitigating mortality caused by fish striking turbine blades. Although population growth rates increased up to 3% and were relatively similar for both rivers. the relative increase in the number of female salmon escaping above a dam annually after 20 years when both juveniles and adults were protected was greater in the River Pitealven (68%) than in the River Vindelalven (46%) and was approximately four times greater in the River Pitealven (38% vs. 10%) when only adults were protected. These population responses were not predicted by estimates of mortality through turbines. They showed the model could be used to evaluate strategies to conserve fish populations affected by dams located in fish migratory corridors and how postspawn adults contributed to population productivity.

  • 11. Goedkoop, W.
    et al.
    Demandt, Marnie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Ahlgren, Gunnel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Interactions between food quantity and quality (long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations) effects on growth and development of Chironomus riparius2007In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 64, no 3, p. 425-436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We quantified somatic growth, development, and emergence of the midge Chironomus riparius on experimental diets (oats, Spirulina, and Tetraphyll (R)) covering gradients in food quality (differing polyunsaturated fatty acids) and quantity (0.1-5.4 mg C center dot day(-1)). Additionally, similar incubations without food additions were made using a food-poor sediment containing peat and the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. Larval and adult size was affected by both food quantity and quality and increased some three to four times across the food concentration gradients. Adult emergence, however, was affected only by food quantity. A type 3 response model showed that a saturation level was reached for the oats treatment at 2.7 mg C center dot day(-1) (or 3.9 mu g omega 3 and 120 mu g omega 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids center dot day(-1)), indicating that the quality of oats constrained further stimulation of larval growth. In the peat treatment, larval growth was very low, no adults emerged, and no larvae even made it to the pupa stage. Fatty acid analyses showed that larvae were capable of synthesizing arachidonic acid via gamma-linolenic acid by Delta 6- and Delta 5-desaturase activity using linoleic acid available in food sources. This strongly suggests that C. riparius is not dependent on dietary sources of eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid and can sustain viable populations even under a low-quality food regimen.

  • 12. Gray, Suzanne M. f.
    et al.
    Hart, Francine L.
    Tremblay, Maude E. M.
    Lisney, Thomas J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Hawryshyn, Craig W.
    The effects of handling time, ambient light, and anaesthetic method, on the standardized measurement of fish colouration2011In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 330-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of handling time, ambient light intensity, and anaesthetic method, on the collection of spectral reflectance data were assessed in two species of Malawi cichlids (Melanochromis auratus and Metriaclima zebra). Using spectrometry, colour patches were measured over 10 min, under increasing ambient light levels, and using three anaesthetic methods. As time elapsed, maximum percent reflectance (R-max) decreased across all anaesthetic methods and species, suggesting that measurements should be taken immediately after capture and anaesthetization. With increasing light intensity, R-max increased significantly, suggesting that measurements should be taken under natural ambient conditions when possible. Finally, we found that anaesthetizing fish using an ice bath produced significantly higher R-max than using either MS-222 (tricaine methanesulphonate) or clove oil ( eugenol). However, the highest proportion of ultraviolet (UV) colouration was recorded while fish were anaesthetized with clove oil. Our results highlight the variation involved in measuring fish colour patterns using two related species, and thus indicate the need for a standardized approach to collecting spectral reflectance data in fish.

  • 13.
    Greenberg, Larry
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Norrgård, J. R.
    Gammelkroppa Lax AB.
    Gustafsson, P.
    County Administrative Board of Värmland.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Landlocked atlantic salmon in a large river-lake ecosystem: Managing an endemic, large-bodied population of high conservation value2021In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 78, no 6, p. 787-796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing and conserving threatenedmigratory salmonid populations in large river-lake ecosystems is challenging not only because of the ecosystems’ large size, but also because there is often more than one anthropomorphic stressor. The River Klarälven - Lake Vänern ecosystem, situated in Norway and Sweden, is a large, highly modified ecosystem, home to a threatened, endemic, large-bodied population of landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). With 11 dams, the salmon population has been maintained through extensive stocking and a truck and transport system for spawners. Here we review what we have learned about the salmon after 15 years of research, highlighting the major findings for each life stage. Our studies indicate that the salmon population is below carrying capacity, and we suggest measures to increase the number of spawners and downstream passage success. Habitat restoration to compensate for losses from former log-driving activities is expected to further increase carrying capacity. Re-establishing salmon in Klarälven’s upper reaches in Norway, while possible, is fraught with both ecological and legislative hurdles. Substantial long-termfunding is needed to foster co-management and ensure a sustainable fishery.

  • 14. Guenard, G.
    et al.
    Boisclair, Daniel
    Ugedal, Ola
    Forseth, Torbjörn
    Fleming, Ian A.
    Jonsson, Bror
    The bioenergetics ofdensity-dependent growth in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus L.)2012In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 69, p. 1651-1662Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Guenard, Guillaume
    et al.
    Université de Montréal, Canada.
    Boisclair, Daniel
    Université de Montréal, Canada.
    Ugedal, Ola
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim, Norway.
    Forseth, Torbjorn
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim, Norway.
    Jonsson, Bror
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Oslo, Norge.
    Comparison between activity estimates obtained using bioenergetic and behavioural analyses2008In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 65, no 8, p. 1705-1720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Activity rate of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) held in 90 m2 littoral enclosures were estimated using bioenergetic (with consumption estimated using stable caesium, 133Cs) and behavioural approaches (with fish movements quantified using video cameras). We found no statistically significant difference between values of activity rate obtained using the two approaches for three of the six experiments we performed. However, there was no relationship between estimates of activity rate obtained using the two approaches. Discrepancies may arise from the difficulty to meet assumptions regarding the temporal stability of the concentration of 133Cs in fish diet and of the assimilation coefficient of this tracer. When fish remain in an area where their behaviour can be well described (e.g., enclosure, habitat patches of littoral zones, coral reefs), the behavioural approach appears more robust to estimate activity rate because it depends most on a variable that is easiest to estimate (the number of movements performed). When these conditions are not met (low fish densities or major fish migrations), a reliable assessment of the concentration and assimilation of 133Cs in stomach contents appears critical to implement the bioenergetic approach based on this tracer.

  • 16.
    Guenard, Guillaume
    et al.
    De´partement de sciences biologiques, Universite´ de Montre´al,.
    Boisclair, Daniel
    De´partement de sciences biologiques, Universite´ de Montre´al,.
    Ugedal, Ola
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim, Norway..
    Forseth, Torbjorn
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim, Norway..
    Jonsson, Bror
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Oslo, Norway..
    Fleming, Ian A.
    Ocean Sciences Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada..
    Experimental assessment of the bioenergetic and behavioural differences between two morphologically distinct populations of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus)2010In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 67, p. 580-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

    A common environment experiment was conducted to assess the magnitude of the difference in growth, consumption,

    activity rate, and spatial and temporal patterns of habitat use between morphologically different populations of

    Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) originating from two Norwegian lakes. These two lakes contrasted sharply in terms of surface

    area, depth, elevation, length of the winter period, and fish community structure (presence–absence of brown trout,

    Salmo trutta). The experimental framework encompassed four littoral enclosures (average volume, 146 m3) stocked with

    char from either of the two populations with duplicated treatments. Char morphology was quantified with numerical image

    analysis, food consumption was estimated using caesium analysis (133Cs), and activity cost and patterns were determined

    using video cameras. Char populations were morphologically distinct and reacted differently in growth (1.9-fold difference

    between populations), food consumption (3-fold difference), and spatial activity patterns (20-fold difference) to the conditions prevailing in the enclosures. The results highlight that functional differences between morphologically distinct char

    may drive important differences in their bioenergetic and behavioural responses when exposed to similar environmental

    conditions. Such functional differences should be incorporated when developing habitat or trophic cascade models.

  • 17.
    Hagelin, Anna
    et al.
    Länsstyrelsen i Västra Götalands län.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Competition among juvenile brown trout, grayling, and landlocked Atlantic salmon in flumes: predicting effects of interspecific interactions on salmon reintroduction success2021In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 78, no 3, p. 332-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Worldwide declines in salmonid populations have generated major interest in conservation and restoration of wild populations and riverine habitats. Species reintroductions to previous habitats raise questions about their potential impact on these systems. In River Klaralven, landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo solar) have been extinct from upper reaches for over 50 years due to hydropower dams. Here we study competitive interactions among juvenile salmon, grayling (Thymallus thymalius), and brown trout (Salmo trutta) that occur in the upper reaches of the river. We examine foraging rates, aggression, and activity of juvenile fish in allopauy at three different densities and in sympatry with one or both potential competitors in laboratory flumes. Salmon captured prey less frequently in the presence of brown trout and grayling, whereas grayling and brown trout were unaffected by salmon, but affected each other. Grayling was the most aggressive and active species, whereas salmon the least. Consequently, reintroduction of salmon probably will have little impact on grayling and brown trout, whereas grayling and brown trout could affect the success of reintroducing salmon.

  • 18.
    Hagelin, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Museth, Jon
    Norsk institutt for naturforskning NINA, NOR.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Kraabol, Morten
    Multiconsult, NOR.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Upstream fishway performance by Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) spawners at complex hydropower dams – is prior experience a success criterion?2021In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 78, no 2, p. 124-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Passage of hydropower plants by upstream-migrating salmonid spawners is associated with increased mortality, delays, injuries and reduced migration success, and consequently the need for a more comprehensive understanding of fish behavior downstream of dams is widely recognized. Studies of passage typically involve tagging fish, and in many cases, the fish used in these studies are caught in the fishways, and hence have prior experience negotiating them. In this study, we studied fishway passage of tagged landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the River Klarälven, Sweden and brown trout (Salmo trutta) in the River Gudbrandslågen, Norway, and the influence of prior experience on passage success in 2012 and 2013. In the River Klarälven, fishway efficacy varied from 18 (2012) to 88% (2013). Most salmon (81%) entered the fishway trap on days without spill, and salmon moved from the turbine area to the spill zone when there was spill, with small individuals showing a stronger reaction than large fish. Analysis of fish with and without prior trap experience showed that a higher percentage of the “naïve” fish (70% of salmon and 43% of the trout) entered the fishway traps than the “experienced” ones (25% of the salmon and 15 % of the trout). Delays for fish that entered the trap ranged from 3-70 days for salmon and 2-47 days for trout, and there was no difference in median delay between naïve and experienced fish for each species. Manual positioning of radio-tagged salmon revealed that 11% of the naïve fish and 50% of the experienced fish ceased migration after tagging and release. In addition, a greater percentage of the salmon that were captured, marked and released in the lake attempted to enter the fishway (70%) than lake-caught salmon that were also transported 10km to the stream before release (33%). The data based on manual positioning and lake caught salmon indicate that differences in behavior of naïve and experienced individuals are likely stress-related. Moreover, our results suggest that estimates of fishway efficacy using fish with prior fishway experience may be biased, and based on our study, efficacy is underestimated.

  • 19.
    Herath, Tharindu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Animal Science and Export Agriculture, Uva Wellassa University, Passara Road, 90000 Badulla, Sri Lanka.
    Brugel, Sonia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lau, Danny C. P.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Seawater browning alters community composition and reduces nutritional quality of plankton in a subarctic marine ecosystem2022In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 79, no 8, p. 1291-1301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inflows of coloured terrestrial organic matter cause seawater browning and reduced phytoplankton production in subarctic coastal ecosystems, potentially deteriorating the nutritional quality of marine food webs. We analyzed the fatty-acid (FA) compositions of seston and the zooplankton taxa Eurytemora affinis and cladocerans at three locations of the northern Baltic Sea. At the coastal and northerly locations, salinity and phosphorus concentrations were low, while concentrations of humic substances (i.e., terrestrial organic matter) were high. The southerly location showed the opposite trend. The ratio between alga-specific ?3 polyunsaturated FA and terrigenous monounsaturated FA (MUFA) in Eurytemora decreased from south to north, as did the ratio between the alga-specific docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and terrigenous MUFA in cladocerans. With increasing humic substances, the biomass of DHA-rich phytoplankton decreased and the zooplankton MUFA content increased. Our results indicate that coloured terrestrial organic matter alters the phytoplankton composition, consequently affecting the zooplankton nutritional quality.

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  • 20.
    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Fischer, Philipp
    Interactions between native juvenile burbot (Loto loto L.) and the invasive spiny-cheek crayfish (Oronectes limosus, Rafinesque) in a large European lake2008In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 65, no 12, p. 2636-2643Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Freshwater crayfish are successful invaders in many ecosystems and as cryptic nocturnal species display a potential niche overlap with benthic nocturnal fish. In this study, we tested the effects of the invasive spinycheek crayfish (Orconectes limosus) on native young-of-the-year (YOY) and adult burbot (Lota lota) in Lake Constance. Using mesocosm experiments, we tested if shelter preferences of YOY and adult burbot and crayfish changed between single and mixed species treatments. To further study the role of crayfish as a stressor for   burbot, we monitored the nocturnal behaviour of the species in mesocosms using passive integrated transponder ( PIT) tag technology and subsequently determined the plasma cortisol levels in burbot after single and mixed species treatments. Spinycheek crayfish successfully repelled YOY burbot from their preferred daytime shelters into alternative, previously unselected shelters. Crayfish also affected the nocturnal behaviour of YOY burbot by eliciting avoidance behaviour and caused an increase in the plasma cortisol levels. While adult burbot did not display any changes between single and mixed species treatments, our results indicate negative effects of spinycheek crayfish on YOY burbot. We conclude that the frequently dense, invasive crayfish populations in lakes may negatively influence local benthic fish populations via their YOY cohorts.

  • 21.
    Huss, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Strand, Åsa
    Eriksson, Lars-Ove
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Influence of growth history on the accumulation of energy reserves and winter mortality on young fish2008In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 65, no 10, p. 2149-2156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In seasonal environments accumulated energy reserves are important to avoid starvation mortality during periods of low resource levels. Here we investigated patterns of energy accumulation and the importance of growth history for winter survival in young-of-the-year Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis). Under simulated winter conditions in aquaria’s we showed that high winter mortality most likely relate to the depletion of energy reserves in small perch. Correspondingly in a field study, using 4 lakes covering 3-6 lake years each, overwinter survival within cohorts was positively related to individual size. However, average size in autumn did not explain the variation in overwinter survival between cohorts. Instead we showed that seasonal growth history is an important factor. High growth rates late in season may increase cohort survival over winter irrespective of average size, related to a positive growth dependent increase in allocation to energy reserves when approaching winter. Mechanisms regulating within-season temporal dynamics of growth rates are therefore suggested to be important for overall cohort performance.

  • 22.
    Hutchings, Jeffrey A.
    et al.
    Dalhousie University, Canada; Flødevigen Marine Research Station, Norway; University of Agder, Norway.
    Ardren, William R.
    Western New England Complex, USA.
    Barlaup, Björn T
    Norwegian Research Centre, Norway.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Clarke, Keith D.
    Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Canada.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Lake, Colin
    Glenora Fisheries Station, Canada.
    Piironen, Jorma
    Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Finland.
    Sirois, Pascal
    Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, Canada.
    Sundt-Hansen, Line E
    Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, Canada.
    Fraser, Dylan J.
    Concordia University, Canada.
    Life-history variability and conservation status of landlocked Atlantic salmon: an overview2019In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 76, no 10, p. 1697-1708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonanadromous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exhibit a combination of variation in life history, habitat, and species co-existence matched by few vertebrates. Distributed in eastern North America and northern Europe, habitat ranges from hundreds of metres of river to Europe’s largest lakes. As juveniles, those with access to a lake usually migrate to feed and grow prior to reproduction. Prey such as smelt (Osmerus mordax, Osmerus eperlanus) and vendace (Coregonus albula) facilitate large body size (50–85 cm at maturity) and persistence in high-diversity (>20 fish species) environments; small-bodied salmon (10–30 cm at maturity), relying on insects as prey, coexist with few (fewer than five) other fishes. At maturity, weight varies more than 400-fold (17 to 7200 g) among populations, fecundity more than 150-fold (33 to 5600), and longevity almost fivefold (3 to 14 years). Landlocked salmon are managed to support sustainable fishing, achieve conservation and restoration targets, and mitigate threats; successes are evident but multiple challenges persist. Extraordinary variability in life history coupled with extensive breadth of habitat and species co-existence render landlocked Atlantic salmon singularly impressive from a biodiversity perspective.

  • 23.
    Jones, Douglas A.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. Univ Otago, Dept Zool, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand..
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Food availability in spring affects smolting in brown trout (Salmo trutta)2015In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 72, no 11, p. 1694-1699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior to out-migration, salmonid fish typically undergo physiological and morphological changes-a process known as smolting. This study indicates that smolting in brown trout (Salmo trutta) is affected by feeding conditions in spring immediately prior to out-migration. This conclusion was reached after experimentally testing the effect of seasonal variation in food availability on smolt status in the spring. A migratory strain of trout was administered either high or low food rations in the autumn, winter, or spring prior to release in the spring. While fish growth or condition could be affected in any season, it was spring rationing that reduced growth and growth-related variables and that caused increased smolting. Our result supports the idea that smoltification and the decision to migrate is affected by spring food availability regardless of conditions in the previous autumn or winter.

  • 24. Jonsson, Bror
    et al.
    Finstad, Anders G.
    Jonsson, Nina
    Winter temperature and food quality affect age and size at maturity in ectotherms: an experimentaltest with Atlantic salmon2012In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 69, no 11, p. 1817-1826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Field studies have revealed that many ectotherms mature younger and smaller in warmer environments although they grow faster. This has puzzled ecologists because the direct effect of factors that accelerate growth is expected to be larger, not smaller size. We tested this experimentally for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at two winter temperatures and diets. Logistic regression revealed that the probability of maturation during the second year in sea water, relative to the probability of older maturation, increased with temperature and growth rate during the first winter. Also, large size and high condition factor 1 year prior to maturation stimulated maturation. In females, a high lipid diet increased the probability of maturation as one-sea-winter fish, and there were significant interactions between winter temperature and food quality and between body size and condition factor the first autumn in sea water. Thus, if the direct effect of temperature on growth rate is the main effect of warming, salmon are likely to attain maturity younger and smaller. Also, richer food decreased age at maturation in females. This finding has consequences for interpretations of climate change impacts on age at maturity in Atlantic salmon and may also hold for many other ectotherm species.

    Salmo salar) at two winter temperatures and

    diets. Logistic regression revealed that the probability of maturation during the second year in sea water, relative to the

    probability of older maturation, increased with temperature and growth rate during the first winter. Also, large size and

    high condition factor 1 year prior to maturation stimulated maturation. In females, a high lipid diet increased the probability of

    maturation as one-sea-winter fish, and there were significant interactions between winter temperature and food quality and

    between body size and condition factor the first autumn in sea water. Thus, if the direct effect of temperature on growth rate is

    the main effect of warming, salmon are likely to attain maturity younger and smaller. Also, richer food decreased age at

    maturation in females. This finding has consequences for interpretations of climate change impacts on age at maturity in Atlantic salmon and may also hold for many other ectotherm species.

  • 25.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Setzer, Malin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Pope, John G.
    Technical University of Denmark, DTU Aqua, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Sandstrom, Alfred
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Institute of Freshwater Research, Drottningholm, Sweden.
    Addressing catch mechanisms in gillnets improves modeling of selectivity and estimates of mortality rates: a case study using survey data on an endangered stock of Arctic char2013In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 70, no 10, p. 1477-1487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimation of fish stock size distributions from survey data requires knowledge about gear selectivity. However, selectivity models rest on assumptions that seldom are analyzed. Departures from these can lead to misinterpretations and biased management recommendations. Here, we use survey data on great Arctic char (Salvelinus umbla) to analyze how correcting for entanglement of fish and nonisometric growth might improve estimates of selectivity curves, and subsequently estimates of size distribution and age-specific mortality. Initial selectivity curves, using the entire data set, were wide and asymmetric, with poor model fits. Removing potentially nonmeshed fish had the greatest positive effect on model fit, resulting in much narrower and less asymmetric selection curves, while attempting to take nonisometric growth into account, by using girth rather than length, improved model fit but not as much. Using simulations we show that correcting for both entanglement and size selectivity produces accurate estimates of mortality rates, while correcting for size selectivity only does not. Our study demonstrates an approach that increases the accuracy of estimates of fish size distributions and mortality rates from survey data.

  • 26.
    Jönsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Ranåker, Lynn
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lund University.
    Brönmark, Christer
    Lund University.
    Foraging efficiency and prey selectivity in a visual predator: differential effects of turbid and humic water2013In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 70, no 12, p. 1685-1690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predators exert strong regulating forces on lower trophic levels through predation. As most fish are visual foragers, visual conditions in the water may alter the strength of this regulation. We evaluated effects of turbidity and humic water on foraging efficiency and prey-size selectivity in Northern pike (Esox lucius) feeding on roach (Rutilus rutilus). Encounter rates decreased in both turbid and humic water but were not counteracted by increased searching activity. Capture success was unaffected by turbidity but was nonlinearly affected by humic water by being high in clear and highly humic water but low in less humic water. In highly humic water, the visual range approached pike's strike distance and, together with its cryptic colours, pike may have initiated its attack before the prey detected it, limiting the possibility for prey evasive manoeuvres. Prey-size selectivity towards small prey in clear water disappeared in turbid water but was maintained in humic water. Owing to its optical properties, turbidity degrades the quality of the visual information more through scattering than humic water does through absorption. We show that the effect of visual degradation on foraging depends on the cause of visual degradation, which has not previously been acknowledged in the visual foraging literature.

  • 27.
    Koeck, Barbara
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden;Univ Glasgow, Inst Biodivers Anim Hlth & Comparat Med, Coll Med Vet & Life Sci, Graham Kerr Bldg, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Lanark, Scotland.
    Zavorka, Libor
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden;Univ Toulouse, Lab Evolut & Diversite Biol EDB UMR 5174, CNRS, Toulouse, France.
    Aldven, David
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Naslund, Joacim
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden;Univ Stockholm, Dept Zool, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Arlinghaus, Robert
    Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries, Dept Biol & Ecol Fishes, Berlin, Germany;Humboldt Univ, Div Integrat Fisheries Management, Fac Life Sci, Berlin, Germany.
    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johnsson, Jorgen I.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Angling selects against active and stress-resilient phenotypes in rainbow trout2019In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 76, no 2, p. 320-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selection induced by human harvest can lead to different patterns of phenotypic change than selection induced by natural predation and could be a major driving force of evolution of wild populations. The vulnerability of individuals to angling depends on the individual decision to ingest the bait, possibly mediated by their neuroendocrine response towards the associated stimulus. To investigate the mechanisms behind individual vulnerability to angling, we conducted angling experiments in replicated ponds and quantified individual behavioral traits and neuroendocrine stress responsiveness in two salmonid species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta). We discovered a phenotypic syndrome in rainbow trout, but not in brown trout, where lower serotonergic and dopaminergic brain activity and cortisol levels (i.e., lower stress responsiveness) in response to a standardized experimental stressor were associated with higher activity, forming a proactive phenotype that showed increased vulnerability to angling. Our results show that angling targets the most stress-resilient and active phenotypes of rainbow trout, supporting the suggestion that fishing-induced phenotypic selection may lead to an increased representation of stress-responsive and low-activity phenotypes in harvested populations.

  • 28.
    Larsson, Per
    UNIV LUND, INST LIMNOL.
    Zooplankton and fish accumulate chlorinated hydrocarbons from contaminated sediments1986In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 43, no 7, p. 1463-1466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) originating from the sediment were taken up by zooplankton and fish in artificial ponds in the field. PCB uptake in zooplankton was concentration dependent, as levels of the residues in water varied seasonally. Planktivorous fish accumulated the compounds to high levels at high summer concentrations of PCBs in the water, after which elimination was slow. Levels of PCBs in benthic fishes continuously increased during the 1.5-yr study. The results show that chlorinated hydrocarbons deposited in sediments are available to aquatic organisms. Decreasing levels of PCBs in daphnids in the autumn-winter of 1983 and in the summer of 1984 may be due to different generations of daphnids being exposed to different concentrations of PCBs in the water, thus establishing new partitionings. 

  • 29.
    Larsson, Per
    et al.
    Limnology, Department of Ecology, University of Lund.
    Okla, L
    Ryding, S-O
    Westöö, B
    Contaminated sediment as a source of PCBs in a river system1990In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 746-754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transport of PCBs (Aroclor 1242) in a river system in southern Sweden was governed by outflow from sediment in a 26-ha contaminated lake. Experiments in the lake revealed that 14 g PCBs/d escaped from the sediment, while sedimentation was 3 g PCB/d. Volatilization of PCBs from the lake surface was 0.02 g/d, which was considerably higher than the atmospheric fallout . The majority of the sediment-desorbed compounds (80%) remained at the river mouth, 60 km downstream, and entered the Baltic Sea. Desorption increased the ratio of tetrachlorobiphenyls to pentachlorobiphenyls in the water. Transport across the water/air interface was higher for trichlorobiphenyls, while atmospheric deposition was dominated by penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls. Therefore, the sediment of the lake acted as a source of PCBs entering the river system as well as the atmosphere. 

  • 30.
    Larsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Serrano Gonzalez, Ignacio
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Eriksson, Lars-Ove
    Effects of muscle lipid concentration on wild and hatchery brown trout (Salmo trutta) smolt migration2012In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 69, no 1, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Annually, hatchery programs are releasing millions of salmonid smolts into the Baltic Sea. Recent estimations indicate a decline in smolt sea survival, questioning the ecological and socioeconomic values of these programs. Concurrently, hatchery smolts have increased in lipid concentration. Salmonids display partial migration, and it is suggested that the ratio of migrants/residents is affected by individual smolt energetic status. To test whether the increased energetic status of hatchery smolts could explain the noted decrease in survival, we released wild trout smolts, conventional hatchery smolts, and hatchery smolts of low energetic status into a Baltic Sea river. Using telemetry, we obtained data on the number of successful migrants, their swimming speed, and diel migratory behaviour. A much lower proportion of conventional smolts (30%) successfully migrated to the coast. No difference was found between wild (74%) and hatchery smolts of low energetic status (64%). Furthermore, conventional smolts migrated slower and showed no diel migratory pattern. The results are of high relevance for hatchery programs producing partially migrating fish.

  • 31.
    Leander, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Leonardsson, Kjell
    Hellström, Gustav
    The old and the new: evaluating performance of acoustic telemetry systems in tracking migrating Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolt and European eel (Anguilla anguilla) around hydropower facilities2020In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 77, no 1, p. 177-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acoustic telemetry represents the state-of-the-art technology for monitoring behaviour of aquatic organisms in the wild. Yet, the performance of different systems is rarely evaluated across species and environments. In this study, we evaluate two different acoustic telemetry systems, a commonly used analogue pulse-position-modulation-based system (VEMCO PPM) and a newly developed high-residency digital binary phase shift key-based system (VEMCO HR2), in ability to track downstream migrating Atlantic salmon smolt (Salmo salar) and European eel (Anguilla anguilla) around hydropower facilities. High-precision GPS were used to evaluate precision and accuracy of hyperbolically positioned data derived from each system. The PPM-based system had higher detection range than HR2 and generated more positions per transmission for eels migrating close to bottom than for surface-oriented salmon smolts. HR2 generated tenfold more positions per time unit than PPM, were less sensitive to noise, achieved submetre positional precision, and were considerably more accurate than PPM-derived positions after filtering. HR2 was deemed more capable than PPM in fine-scale positioning at moderate distances at hydropower facilities.

  • 32. Lennox, Robert J.
    et al.
    Afonso, Pedro
    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim
    Dahlmo, Lotte S.
    Nilsen, Cecilie I.
    Arlinghaus, Robert
    Cooke, Steven J.
    Souza, Allan T.
    Jarić, Ivan
    Prchalova, Marie
    Říha, Milan
    Westrelin, Samuel
    Twardek, William
    Aspillaga, Eneko
    Kraft, Sebastian
    Šmejkal, Marek
    Baktoft, Henrik
    Brodin, Tomas
    Hellström, Gustav
    Villegas-Rios, David
    Vollset, Knut Wiik
    Adam, Timo
    Sortland, Lene K.
    Bertram, Michael G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; Monash University, Australia.
    Crossa, Marcelo
    Vogel, Emma F.
    Gillies, Natasha
    Reubens, Jan
    Electronic tagging and tracking aquatic animals to understand a world increasingly shaped by a changing climate and extreme weather events2024In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 81, no 3, p. 326-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite great promise for understanding the impacts and extent of climate change and extreme weather events on aquatic animals, their species, and ecological communities, it is surprising that electronic tagging and tracking tools, like biotelemetry and biologging, have not been extensively used to understand climate change or develop and evaluate potential interventions that may help adapt to its impacts. In this review, we provide an overview of methodologies and study designs that leverage available electronic tracking tools to investigate aspects of climate change and extreme weather events in aquatic ecosystems. Key interventions to protect aquatic life from the impacts of climate change, including habitat restoration, protected areas, conservation translocations, mitigations against interactive effects of climate change, and simulation of future scenarios, can all be greatly facilitated by using electronic tagging and tracking. We anticipate that adopting animal tracking to identify phenotypes, species, or ecosystems that are vulnerable or resilient to climate change will help in applying management interventions such as fisheries management, habitat restoration, invasive species control, or enhancement measures that prevent extinction and strengthen the resilience of communities against the most damaging effects of climate change. Given the scalability and increasing accessibility of animal tracking tools for researchers, tracking individual organisms will hopefully also facilitate research into effective solutions and interventions against the most extreme and acute impacts on species, populations, and ecosystems.

  • 33.
    Lindell, MJ
    et al.
    Univ Lund, Dept Ecol Limnol, S-22362 Lund, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Water & Environm Studies, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Graneli, H
    Univ Lund, Dept Ecol Limnol, S-22362 Lund, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Water & Environm Studies, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Bertilsson, S
    Univ Lund, Dept Ecol Limnol, S-22362 Lund, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Water & Environm Studies, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Seasonal photoreactivity of dissolved organic matter from lakes with contrasting humic content2000In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 57, no 5, p. 875-885Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied seasonal variability in photodegradation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) resulting from artificial ultraviolet-A (UV-A) and UV-B irradiation. Water samples were taken approximately monthly from the surface layers of two oligotrophic lakes with contrasting humic content, situated in southern Sweden. Lake water was filter-sterilized (0.2 mum) and exposed to artificial UV radiation in quartz tubes. Potential DOC photodegradation, measured as a photoproduction of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and oxalic, malonic, formic, and acetic acid in irradiated samples, was observed throughout the sampling period. In addition, exposure to UV radiation resulted in a decrease in DOC, absorbance, and humic substance fluorescence. The photoproduction of DIC and the low molecular weight (LMW) organic acids varied seasonally, being generally higher in winter and spring (December-May), while DOC appeared to become less photoreactive after the extensive exposure to solar radiation during summer. Production rates of both DIC and LMW organic acids were approximately eight times higher in the humic lake despite that the DOC concentration was only two times higher than in the clearwater lake. This is most probably due to the high input of allochthonous DOC and the resulting higher absorbance to DOC ratio in the humic system. Furthermore, the longer hydraulic residence time in the clearwater system could have resulted in an accumulation of residual DOC, recalcitrant to further photodegradation.

  • 34.
    McClelland, Erin K.
    et al.
    Fisheries & Oceans Canada, 4160 Marine Dr, W Vancouver, BC V7V 1N6, Canada.;EKM Sci Consulting, 730 Drake St, Nanaimo, BC V9S 2T1, Canada..
    Watson, Breanna
    Fisheries & Oceans Canada, 4160 Marine Dr, W Vancouver, BC V7V 1N6, Canada..
    Sundström, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre. Fisheries & Oceans Canada, 4160 Marine Dr, W Vancouver, BC V7V 1N6, Canada..
    Leggatt, Rosalind A.
    Fisheries & Oceans Canada, 4160 Marine Dr, W Vancouver, BC V7V 1N6, Canada..
    Sakhrani, Dionne
    Fisheries & Oceans Canada, 4160 Marine Dr, W Vancouver, BC V7V 1N6, Canada..
    Devlin, Robert H.
    Fisheries & Oceans Canada, 4160 Marine Dr, W Vancouver, BC V7V 1N6, Canada..
    Assessing wild genetic background and parental effects on size of growth hormone transgenic coho salmon2022In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 79, no 5, p. 803-813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiments examining potential impacts of growth hormone (GH) transgenesis in fish typically use a single source strain and do not address potential differential impacts in strains of different genetic backgrounds. Here, we examine the effects of differing genetic backgrounds when reared in culture on the growth of transgenic and nontransgenic coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch ) produced by mating sires from different rivers with transgenic dams from a single origin. We found a significant difference in size between offspring of sires originating from various river systems in British Columbia. This difference was independent of differences between transgenotypes (i.e., transgenic vs. nontransgenic offspring). However, the effects of strain or sire were relatively small compared to the effects of the transgene, which were consistent regardless of sire origin. Thus, results derived from studies of GH transgenic fish from a single source population can provide useful information for assessments of GH transgenic salmon from other systems. This has important implications for examining potential risks from introgression of a transgene into different populations.

  • 35.
    Milbrink, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Vrede, Tobias
    Tranvik, Lars J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Rydin, Emil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Large-scale and long-term decrease in fish growth following the construction of hydroelectric reservoirs2011In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 68, no 12, p. 2167-2173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydroelectric reservoirs retain large volumes of water and have a global impact on sea level, elemental cycles, and biodiversity. Using data from a total of 90 historical and recent surveys in nine regulated and eight unregulated alpine and subalpine lakes, we show an additional large effect of reservoirs, i.e., that impoundment causes drastically decreased fish growth and thereby great negative consequences for inland fisheries in Scandinavia. Following a long period (40-65 years) after impoundment, the length and mass of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) of the single age class 4+ years was, on average, 35% and 72% lower, respectively, in impounded versus natural lakes in northern Scandinavia. The effect was stronger at higher altitudes and can be mitigated by addition of inorganic nutrients. We suggest that the decreased fish growth is a consequence of lowered ecosystem productivity, oligotrophication, caused by impoundment, resulting in erosion and loss of the littoral ecosystem as well as delayed flooding and leakage of nutrients from the riparian zone until after the growing season.

  • 36.
    Naslund, Joacim
    et al.
    University Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosengren, Malin
    University Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Del Villar, Diego
    Technical University Denmark, Denmark.
    Gansel, Lars
    SINTEF Fisheries & Aquaculture, Trondheim, Norway.
    Norrgard, Johnny R.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Persson, Lo
    Swedish University Agricultuaral Sciences, Sweden.
    Winkowski, John James
    Canada.
    Kvingedal, Eli
    Norway.
    Hatchery tank enrichment affects cortisol levels and shelter-seeking in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)2013In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 70, no 4, p. 585-590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stocking programs using hatchery-reared salmon are often implemented for augmenting natural populations. However, survival of these fish is often low compared with wild conspecifics, possibly because of genetic, physiological, and behavioural deficiencies. Here, we compared presmolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from three different environmental treatments (barren environment, plastic tube enrichment, and plastic shredding enrichment) with regard to plasma cortisol levels, shelter-seeking behaviour, and fin deterioration. Basal plasma cortisol levels were higher in barren-reared fish, indicating higher stress levels, while no differences were found in acute cortisol response after a 30 min confinement test. Shelter-seeking was higher in salmon reared in enriched tanks when tested alone, but not when tested in small groups. Barren-reared fish had higher levels of fin deterioration over winter, potentially owing to higher aggression levels. These results suggest that enrichment can reduce the impact of stressors experienced in the hatchery and thus increase fish welfare. Tank enrichment may also be used to produce salmon better adapted for the more complex environment encountered after release.

  • 37. Olsson, Karin
    et al.
    Nyström, Per
    Stenroth, Patrik
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Erika
    Svensson, Marie
    Granéli, Wilhelm
    The influence of food quality and availability on trophic position, carbon signature, and growth rate of an omnivorous crayfish2008In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 65, p. 2293-2304Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Olsén, K Håkan
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Petersson, Erik
    Ragnarsson, Bjarne
    Lundqvist, Hans
    Järvi, Torbjörn
    Downstream migration in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolt sibling groups2004In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 328-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown kin recognition abilities in salmonid fish. Some authors have suggested that the attraction of juvenile fish to siblings may indicate preference for shoaling with kin. The aim of the present study is to test the prerequisite for the hypothesis that siblings swim spatially closer than unrelated fish during their seaward migration as smolts. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) eggs from three families were each reared in two tanks to create familiar and unfamiliar sibling smolts. Before the experiment started they were tagged individually withpassive integrated transponders (PITs). Twelve individuals from each of six groups were mixed and released together at several occasions in the upper end of the 400-m-long experimental stream. An automatic PIT-monitoring system placed in the outlet recorded the time for passage of each individual leaving the stream. Eighty-five percent of the juveniles monitored by the PIT antenna showed downstream migration at night hours and they migrated significantly more often closer in time to both known and unknown siblings than to unrelated fish. The results suggest that there is a genetic component in the migratory behaviour of Atlantic salmon smolts and support the hypothesis that smolts migrate in kin-structured groups.

  • 39.
    Palm, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution.
    Dannewitz, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution.
    Jaervi, Torbjoern
    Koljonen, Marja-Liisa
    Prestegaard, Tore
    Olsen, K. Hakan
    No indications of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) shoaling with kin in the Baltic Sea2008In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 65, no 8, p. 1738-1748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have shown that fish shoals may consist of closely related individuals. It has been found. for example, that released out-migrating salmon smolts tend to aggregate with kin. including when sibling groups have been reared separately. We used genetic microsatellite markers to test whether "shoals" of adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) during the marine phase (i.e., aggregations of fish Caught in drift nets at offshore feeding areas in the Baltic Sea) consisted of closely related individuals (full-siblings, half-siblings). We found no evidence of kin cohesiveness related to shoals, however. Despite a weak overall tendency for individuals assigned to the same population (river or stock) to Occur tooether, estimates of genetic relatedness in combination with consistent heterozygote deficiencies. and results from mixed-stock analyses and assignment tests collectively indicated that shoals consisted of unrelated fish from multiple populations.

  • 40. Palm, Stefan
    et al.
    Dannewitz, Johan
    Järvi, Torbjörn
    Koljonen, Marja-Liisa
    Prestegaard, Tore
    Olsén, K Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    No indications of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) shoaling with kin in the Baltic Sea2008In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 65, no 8, p. 1738-1748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have shown that fish shoals may consist of closely related individuals. It has been found. for example, that released out-migrating salmon smolts tend to aggregate with kin. including when sibling groups have been reared separately. We used genetic microsatellite markers to test whether "shoals" of adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) during the marine phase (i.e., aggregations of fish Caught in drift nets at offshore feeding areas in the Baltic Sea) consisted of closely related individuals (full-siblings, half-siblings). We found no evidence of kin cohesiveness related to shoals, however. Despite a weak overall tendency for individuals assigned to the same population (river or stock) to Occur tooether, estimates of genetic relatedness in combination with consistent heterozygote deficiencies. and results from mixed-stock analyses and assignment tests collectively indicated that shoals consisted of unrelated fish from multiple populations.

  • 41.
    Perry, Diana
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Staveley, Thomas A. B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Hammar, Linus
    Meyers, Alyssa
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Gullström, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Temperate fish community variation over seasons in relation to large-scale geographic seascape variables2018In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 75, no 10, p. 1723-1732Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In shallow-water marine environments, ecosystem functioning is a complex interworking of fine-scale characteristics and region-wide factors, and the importance of these variables can vary on multiple temporal and spatial scales. This underwater video study targeted seasonal changes in the fish community of seagrass habitats along the Swedish west coast and the influence of offshore seascape variables (latitudinal position, wave exposure, open ocean, and deep water). Results showed that fish assemblage structure exhibited seasonal changes between summer and autumn and strong spatiotemporal variations in the importance of offshore factors affecting shallow-water fish communities. In summer, abundance from the Gobiidae family responded to wave exposure, whereas the Gadidae family and juvenile migrant habitat preference guild responded to latitudinal position and proximity to deep water. In autumn, deep water was related to abundance of Gadidae and juvenile migrants, whereas latitudinal position influenced Gasterosteidae. These findings underscore the importance of understanding the influence of offshore factors on facets of coastal fish assemblages to address large-scale geographic connectivity along nearshore–offshore gradients.

  • 42.
    Persson, Lennart
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Amundsen, Per Arne
    De Roos, Andre M.
    Knudsen, Rune
    Primicerio, Raul
    Klemetsen, Anders
    Density-dependent interactions in an Arctic char - brown trout system: competition, predation, or both?2013In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 70, no 4, p. 610-616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the study of mechanisms structuring fish communities, mixed competition-predation interactions where large predators feed on prey fish versus those in which small predators compete with prey fish for a shared prey have been the focus of substantial research. We used a long-term data set from a system inhabited by brown trout (Salmo trutta) (predator) and Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) (prey) to evaluate whether mixed interspecific interactions were present in this system as suggested in other studies focusing on this species pair. We found no evidence for a negative interspecific density dependence in individual performance in either Arctic char or brown trout. In contrast, a negative intraspecific density dependence was present, especially in Arctic char. Furthermore, large brown trout condition showed a positive response to encounter rate with Arctic char (related to the density of small Arctic char). The most parsimonious interaction module to explain the Arctic char - brown trout interaction patterns in the studied system does therefore not need to include interspecific competition. We suggest that size-structured mixed competition-predation interactions in different systems are realized as being either mainly structured through interspecific predation or by competition depending on species life history characteristics and environmental conditions.

  • 43.
    Petrin, Zlatko
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    McKie, Brendan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Buffam, Ishi
    Department of Forest Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Department of Forest Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Malmqvist, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Landscape-controlled chemistry variation affects communities and ecosystem function in headwater streams2007In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 64, no 11, p. 1563-1572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show that benthic freshwater communities of naturally acidic streams in boreal catchments differ depending on properties of the surrounding landscape. Although low pH usually is associated with negative impacts on species diversity and ecosystem function, here decomposition by insects and microbes as well as the abundance of leaf-eating insects were generally high at low pH and at humic sites influenced by mire-dominated compared with forest-dominated surroundings. Moreover, in situ growth experiments showed that the survival of two of the most abundant insect species was higher when they originated from mire-influenced sites, underscoring their tolerance to low pH. However, species diversity generally increased with pH and was greater at forest-influenced than at mire-influenced sites. Although less diverse, acidic and humic streams proved to be functional and supported distinct macroinvertebrate assemblages. Diversity and function in naturally acidic streams are apparently greatly influenced by the prevailing kinds of landscape-driven influences on water chemistry. In conclusion, well-known negative impacts of anthropogenic acidity on diversity and function may not apply to naturally acidic systems that are chemically and biologically heterogeneous.

  • 44. Reitzel, Kasper
    et al.
    Ahlgren, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry.
    Gogoll, Adolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Organic Chemistry I.
    Jensen, Henning
    Rydin, Emil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Characterization of phosphorus in sequential extracts from lake sediments using P-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy2006In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 63, no 8, p. 1686-1699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphorus (P) compounds in three different lake surface sediments were extracted by sequential P extraction and identified by P-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (P-31 NMR) spectroscopy. The extraction procedure primarily discriminates between inorganic P-binding sites but most extraction steps also contained P not reacting (nrP) with the molybdenum complex during P analyses. In all three lakes, the nrP dominated in the NaOH extracts. Nonreactive P from the dystrophic lake was dominated by potentially recalcitrant P groups such as orthophosphate monoesters, while the nrP in the two more productive lakes also contained polyphosphates, pyrophosphate, and organic P groups such as P lipids and DNA-P that may be important in remineralization and recycling to the water column. In addition, polyphosphates showed substantial dynamics in settling seston. The Humic-P pools (P associated with humic acids) showed strong signals of orthophosphate monoesters in all three lakes, which supported the assumption that P-containing humic compounds are indeed recovered in this fraction, although other organic P forms are also present. Thus, in addition to expanding the understanding of which organic P forms that are present in lake sediments, the P-31 NMR technique also demonstrated that the chemical extraction procedure may provide some quantification of recalcitrant versus labile organic P forms.

  • 45. Reitzel, Kasper
    et al.
    Ahlgren, Joakim
    Gogoll, Adolf
    Jensen, Henning S.
    Rydin, Emil
    Characterization of phosphorus in sequential extracts from lake sediments using P-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy2006In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 63, no 8, p. 1686-1699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphorus (P) compounds in three different lake surface sediments were extracted by sequential P extraction and identified by P-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (P-31 NMR) spectroscopy. The extraction procedure primarily discriminates between inorganic P-binding sites but most extraction steps also contained P not reacting (nrP) with the molybdenum complex during P analyses. In all three lakes, the nrP dominated in the NaOH extracts. Nonreactive P from the dystrophic lake was dominated by potentially recalcitrant P groups such as orthophosphate monoesters, while the nrP in the two more productive lakes also contained polyphosphates, pyrophosphate, and organic P groups such as P lipids and DNA-P that may be important in remineralization and recycling to the water column. In addition, polyphosphates showed substantial dynamics in settling seston. The Humic-P pools (P associated with humic acids) showed strong signals of orthophosphate monoesters in all three lakes, which supported the assumption that P-containing humic compounds are indeed recovered in this fraction, although other organic P forms are also present. Thus, in addition to expanding the understanding of which organic P forms that are present in lake sediments, the P-31 NMR technique also demonstrated that the chemical extraction procedure may provide some quantification of recalcitrant versus labile organic P forms.

  • 46.
    Seekell, David A
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lapierre, Jean-François
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Trade-offs between light and nutrient availability across gradients of dissolved organic carbon concentration in Swedish lakes: implications for patterns in primary production2015In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 72, no 11, p. 1663-1671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) limits primary production in lakes when present at high concentrations by reducing light availability, but stimulates primary production at lower concentrations by releasing nutrients through photolysis. These dual influences create the potential for threshold relationships between DOC and primary production, but empirical tests for the prevalence of thresholds are scarce. We used Box–Cox regression and environmental monitoring data from 703 subarctic and boreal lakes to assess patterns and potential threshold relationships between light and nutrient availability along gradients of DOC in northern Sweden’s six major watersheds. We found consistent patterns of increasing nutrient concentration and light attenuation with DOC. Further, we identified thresholds (mean = 5.96 mg·L−1) below which nutrient concentrations increased more rapidly than light extinction and above where the opposite occurred. These results suggest consistent patterns in primary production with shifts from nutrient to light limitation with increasing DOC. Accordingly, the thresholds agree with the vertex of the curvilinear relationship between lake primary production and DOC. We estimated that most lakes in Sweden are within ±3 mg·L−1 of the threshold, indicating high potential for changes from positive to negative influences of DOC on primary production if forecasted increases in DOC concentrations due to climate and land cover change are realized.

  • 47.
    Sundberg, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Ishaq, Rasha
    Tjärnlund, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Åkerman, Gun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Grunder, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bandh, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Broman, Dag
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Balk, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Contribution of commonly analyzed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment to potential toxicity in early life-stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)2006In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 63, no 6, p. 1320-1333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a series of bio-effect-directed fractionation experiments, we investigated the potential toxicity of sediment extracts from a contaminated bay. A previous study investigated abnormalities and hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) larvae by exposing newly fertilized eggs to the total extract and to fractions separated by degree of aromaticity. A major part of the potential toxicity was isolated in a fraction containing polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). In this study, we prepared a synthetic PAC mixture with 17 commonly analyzed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in amounts equimolar to those found in the sediment PAC fraction. The 17 PAHs, which included 11 of the 16 United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) priority PAHs, were unable to account for the toxicopathic effects observed and could explain less than 4% of the total EROD induction. The lack of a clear relationship between toxicopathic effects and EROD induction underlines the need for a battery of biomarkers for estimating environmental risk. These results reveal the limits of our knowledge regarding compounds responsible for potential toxicity in field situations.

  • 48.
    van Kooten, Tobias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Andersson, Jens
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    de Roos, Andre M.
    Size at hatching determines population dynamics and response to harvesting in cannibalistic fish2010In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 67, no 2, p. 401-416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We hypothesize that size at hatching strongly affects population dynamics of cannibalistic fish species and is a crucial determinant of how populations respond to selective removal of large individuals (harvesting). We use a mechanistic mathematical model to study the relation between hatching size and response to harvesting mortality, using Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) as a model organism. We show how hatching size determines dynamics through its effect on the relative strength of cannibalistic mortality and resource competition as mechanisms of population regulation. In populations with intermediate and large hatching size, cannibalistic mortality is an important determinant of population dynamics. and harvesting destabilizes population dynamics. When hatching size is small, population stability is less sensitive to this type of harvesting. Populations hatching at small size are regulated by competition, and harvesting large individuals affects such populations less. Harvesting can also induce the growth of very large individuals, absent in unharvested populations. Our results show that harvesting in cannibalistic lake fish populations can strongly alter Population dynamics in ways that can only be anticipated on the basis of mechanistic knowledge about how populations are regulated.

  • 49.
    Wennerström, Lovisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Olsson, Jens
    Ryman, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Laikre, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Temporally stable, weak genetic structuring in brackish water northern pike (Esox lucius) in the Baltic Sea indicates a contrasting divergence pattern relative to freshwater populations2017In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 74, no 4, p. 562-571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding spatiotemporal population genetic patterns is important for conservation management of ecologically and socioeconomically important species. This is particularly so in species-poor environments such as the brackish Baltic Sea. We examined over 600 northern pike (Esox lucius), a coastal predator and treasured sport fish, collected over major parts of the Baltic Sea coastline. We found low genetic divergence among populations, indicating a contrasting genetic structure of brackish water coastal spawners compared with previous reports on anadromous Baltic pike migrating up freshwater streams for spawning. A pattern of genetic isolation by distance either over shortest waterway or primarily along the mainland coast with islands as stepping stones suggested that gene flow is primarily taking place among neighboring populations, possibly with some migration over open water. Temporal data showed a stable genetic structure over a decade. Within a single sampling year, however, spatial divergence was larger during spawning than feeding season, indicating increased mixing of populations during the feeding season. Management should assure connectivity among brackish spawning grounds and large population sizes at identified core areas.

  • 50. Wenzel, Anja
    et al.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Vrede, Tobias
    Poor direct exploitation of terrestrial particulate organic material from peat layers by Daphnia galeata.2012In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 69, no 11, p. 1870-1880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Terrestrial organic material (t-OM) can subsidize lake food webs indirectly via incorporation of dissolved t-OM by bacteria and subsequent transfer to higher trophic levels or directly through metazoan consumption of particulate t-OM (t-POM). We tested the effects of peat layer t-POM on Daphnia galeata performance. A pure t-POM diet could not sustain survival, growth, and reproduction of D. galeata. Mixtures of heterotrophic bacteria (Pseudomonas sp.) and phytoplankton (Rhodomonas lacustris) gave higher survival, growth, and reproduction than mixtures of t-POM and Rhodomonas. Daphnids performed best when feeding on pure Rhodomonas diets. Quantification of phosphorus (P) and essential biochemicals (i.e., fatty acids) revealed that Rhodomonas had the highest amounts of all these components. Pseudomonas, while rich in P, contained few essential fatty acids, and t-POM had low concentrations of both P and fatty acids. We therefore suggest that the poor food quality of t-POM in our experiment was due to its suboptimal mineral and biochemical composition and that a substantial proportion of high-quality phytoplankton is necessary to sustain zooplankton biomass.

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