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  • 1.
    Abraham, Klaus
    et al.
    BfR Fed Inst Risk Assessment, Natl Breastfeeding Comm, Berlin, Germany.
    Brennan, Christine
    Stillforderung Schweiz, Bern, Switzerland.
    Cattaneo, Adriano
    Univ La Laguna, Breastfeeding Comm Spanish Pediat Assoc, Tenerife, Spain.
    Gomez, Marta Diaz
    Univ La Laguna, Breastfeeding Comm Spanish Pediat Assoc, Tenerife, Spain.
    Grguric, Josip
    Univ Zagreb, UNICEF Off Croatia, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Solveig, Thorp Holmsen
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Norwegian Resource Ctr Breastfeeding, Oslo, Norway.
    Kylberg, Elisabeth
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    van Lonkhuijsen, Myrthe
    Nederlandse Vereniging van Lactatiekundigen, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Breastfeeding in Europe: Current Status and Perspectives2015In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 67, p. 15-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Ali, Mohamed A.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Novum, Dept Biosci & Nutr, Unit Publ Hlth Nutr, SE-14183 Huddinge, Sweden; Akershus Univ Coll, Fac Hlth Nutr & Management, Lillestrom, Norway.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Polyamines: dietary intake, database progress and food contribution to the total daily intake2009In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 55, p. 203-204Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Ali, Mohamed A.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Novum, Dept Biosci & Nutr, Unit Publ Hlth Nutr, SE-14183 Huddinge, Sweden; Akershus Univ Coll, Fac Hlth Nutr & Management, Lillestrom, Norway.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Polyamines: dietary intake, database progress and food contribution to the total daily intake2009In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 55, p. 203-204Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4. Ax, Erika
    et al.
    Sjögren, Per
    Lind, P. Monica
    Lampa, Erik
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lind, Lars
    Dietary pattern affects blood levels of environmental pollutants in elderly Swedish men and women2011In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 58, no Suppl. 3, p. 59-60Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Bjarnholt, Christel
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Kugelberg, Susanna
    Karolinska Inst, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Hughes, Roger
    Univ Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, Qld, Australia.
    Stockley, Lynn
    Stockley Associates, Nr Chepstow, England.
    Margetts, Barrie M.
    Univ Southampton, Southampton, England.
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Univ Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Perez Rodrigo, Carmen
    Bilbao Dept Publ Hlth, Bilbao, Spain.
    Kennedy, Nick
    Trinity Coll Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Karolinska Inst, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Public health nutrition workforce development missing in european nutrition policies: the JOBNUT project2009In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 55, p. 185-185Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Bjarnholt, Christel
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Karolinska Inst, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Krawinkel, Michael
    Univ Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
    Kristjansdottir, Asa G.
    Univ Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Hlastan Ribic, Cirila
    Ctr Community Hlth, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Vaz de Almeida, Maria Daniel
    Univ Porto, Fac Ciencias Nutr & Alimentacao, P-4100 Oporto, Portugal.
    Francini, Bela
    Univ Porto, Fac Ciencias Nutr & Alimentacao, Oporto, Portugal.
    Papadaki, Alina
    Univ Crete, Iraklion, Greece.
    Karlsson, Christina
    ICA AB, Solna, Sweden.
    Brug, Johannes
    EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Maucec-Zakotnik, Jozica
    Ctr Community Hlth, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Ehrenblad, Bettina
    Karolinska Inst, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Duleva, Vesselka
    Natl Ctr Publ Hlth Protect, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Lien, Nanna
    Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    te Velde, Saskia
    EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Izquierdo de Santiago, Raquel
    Freshfel Europe, Brussels, Belgium.
    Roos, Eva
    Folkhalsan, Helsinki, Finland.
    Klepp, Knut-Inge
    Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Binard, Philippe
    Freshfel Europe, Brussels, Belgium.
    Petrova, Stefka
    Natl Ctr Publ Hlth Protect, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Univ Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Progreens: promotion of fruit and vegetable intake in school children across Europe2009In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 55, p. 504-504Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7. Bozorgmanesh, Mohammad Reza
    et al.
    Hadaegh, Farzad
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Mehrabi, Yadollah
    Azizi, Fereidoun
    Temporal Changes in Anthropometric Parametersand Lipid Profile according to Body Mass Indexamong an Adult Iranian Urban Population2008In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 53, p. 13-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To examine changes in anthropometric parametersand lipid profiles over a period of 3.6 years in an Iranian adultpopulation according to body mass index (BMI) groups.Methods: Between 1998 and 2001 (phase 1) and 2002 and2005 (phase 2), 5,618 nondiabetic Iranian adults aged 6 20years were examined. Analysis of covariance was used to delineatetrends in anthropometric parameters as well as totaland low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC, LDL-Cand HDL-C, respectively) across BMI groups. Results: AlthoughBMI increased in women, this increase was not significantin obese persons. Among the men, however, a significantincrease in BMI was observed only in lean persons.Waist circumference (WC) increased across all BMI groupsin both sexes. A significant decrease was observed in TC[men: –0.83 mmol/l, 95% confidence interval (CI) –1.27 to–0.40; women: –0.78 mmol/l, CI –0.97 to –0.60] and LDL-C(men: –0.63 mmol/l, CI –1.13 to –0.13; women: –0.51 mmol/l,CI –0.78 to –0.24). A significant decrease in mean HDL-Cwas observed only among men (–0.09 mmol/l, CI –0.13to –0.04), with no difference among BMI groups (p = 0.3).There were no significant decreases in TC/HDL-C and LDLC/HDL-C ratios in men or women. Conclusions: Despite an 

    increase in WC, favorable trends were observed in TC andLDL-C levels. The favorable trend in TC levels was counterbalancedby changes in HDL-C, as reflected by the absence of asignificant decrease in TC/HDL-C or LDL-C/HDL-C

  • 8.
    Brug, Johannes
    et al.
    Department of Public Health, Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm , Sweden.
    Klepp, Knut-Inge
    Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway .
    The pro children study: conceptualization, baseline results and intervention development of a European effort to promote fruit and vegetable consumption in schoolchildren2005In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 209-211Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Brug, Johannes
    et al.
    Department of Public Health, Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm , Sweden.
    Klepp, Knut-Inge
    Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway .
    The pro children study: conceptualization, baseline results and intervention development of a European effort to promote fruit and vegetable consumption in schoolchildren2005In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 209-211Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Caudwell, P.
    et al.
    Gibbons, C.
    Hopkins, M.
    Näslund, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Gastroenterology/Hepatology.
    Finlayson, G.
    Blundell, J.
    Separating Satiety And Satiation In Appetite Control: Effect Of Exercise In Overweight And Obese Adults2013In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 63, no Suppl. 1, p. 1053-1053Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Christensen, S.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Moller, E.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bonn, S.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lissner, L.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Ploner, A.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sjolander, A.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bälter, Katarina
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Meal-Q - a new meal-based FFQ on the web2011In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 58, p. 414-414Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Contreras, Mariela
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Zelaya, E.
    Persson, Lars-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Ekström, Eva-Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Infant And Young Child Feeding Practices And Nutritional Status In Nicaragua: Associations With Housing Quality, Food Security And Maternal Education2013In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 63, no Suppl. 1, p. 702-703Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Contreras, Mariela
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Zelaya, E.
    Persson, Lars-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Ekström, Eva-Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Snacking And Infant Young Child Feeding Practices In A Rural Area Of Nicaragua2013In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 63, no Suppl. 1, p. 702-702Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Iron requirements in infancy2011In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 59-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iron deficiency anemia is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide and infants constitute a risk group due to their high iron requirements. Iron is critical for brain development, and case control studies have shown a consistent association between iron deficiency anemia in infancy and poor neurodevelopment, suggesting that it is important to prevent iron deficiency anemia in infants. However, it is also important to avoid excessive iron intakes which may have adverse effects on growth. Due to redistribution of iron from hemoglobin to iron stores, healthy, term, normal birth weight infants are virtually self-sufficient with regard to iron during the first 6 months of life. After that age, iron becomes a critical nutrient. The estimated daily iron requirements at the age of 6-12 months (0.9-1.3 mg/kg body weight) are higher than during any other period of life. Exclusively breast-fed infants normally do not need additional iron until 6 months of life. Formula-fed infants should receive iron-fortified formula. Low birth weight infants should receive additional iron supplements from an early age. From 6 months of age, all infants should receive a sufficient intake of iron-rich (complementary) foods, which may be meat products or iron-fortified foods. The estimations of iron requirements in infants have a weak evidence base and current European and American recommendations for infants differ significantly. To further clarify iron requirements in infants, there is clearly a need for randomized, controlled trials assessing the effects of different iron intake on anemia, neurodevelopment, and other health outcomes.

  • 15.
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Meeting the iron needs of low and very low birth weight infants2017In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 71, p. 16-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low birth weight (LBW), defined as a birth weight of < 2,500 g, affects 16% of all newborns and is a risk factor for impaired neurodevelopment as well as adverse cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes, including hypertension. LBW infants include both term, small for gestational age infants and preterm infants. Most LBW infants have only marginally LBW (2,000-2,500 g). Recent advances in neonatal care have significantly improved the survival of very LBW (VLBW) infants (< 1,500 g). LBW infants are at high risk of iron deficiency due to low iron stores at birth and higher iron requirements due to rapid growth. Using a factorial approach, iron requirements of LBW infants have been estimated to be 1-2 mg/kg/day, which is much higher than the requirements of term, normal birth weight infants, who need almost no dietary iron during the first 6 months of life. In VLBW infants, blood losses and blood transfusions related to neonatal intensive care, as well as erythropoietin treatment, will greatly influence iron status and iron requirements. The timing of umbilical cord clamping at birth is of great importance for the amount of blood transfused from the placenta to the newborn and thereby total body iron. Delayed cord clamping of LBW infants is associated with less need for blood transfusion, less intraventricular hemorrhage, and less necrotizing enterocolitis. Randomized controlled trials have shown that an iron intake of 1-3 mg/kg/day (1-2 mg for marginally LBW and 2-3 mg for VLBW) is needed to effectively prevent iron deficiency. There is some recent evidence that these levels of iron intake will prevent some of the negative health consequences associated with LBW, especially behavioral problems and other neurodevelopmental outcomes and possibly even hypertension. However, it is also important to avoid excessive iron intakes which have been associated with adverse effects in LBW infants.

  • 16.
    Dragsted, L.
    et al.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Nutr Exercise & Sports, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Acar, E.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Food Sci, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Gurdeniz, G.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Nutr Exercise & Sports, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Andersen, M-B
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Nutr Exercise & Sports, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Poulsen, S.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Nutr Exercise & Sports, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Astrup, A.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Nutr Exercise & Sports, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Bro, R.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Food Sci, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Engelsen, S. B.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Food Sci, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Savorani, F.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Food Sci, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Brader, L.
    Aarhus Univ Hosp, Dept Med & Endocrinol MEA, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Hermansen, K.
    Aarhus Univ Hosp, Dept Med & Endocrinol MEA, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Schwab, U.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Publ Hlth & Clin Nutr, Joensuu, Finland..
    Kolehmainen, M.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Publ Hlth & Clin Nutr, Joensuu, Finland..
    Paananen, J.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Publ Hlth & Clin Nutr, Joensuu, Finland..
    Poutanen, K. S.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Publ Hlth & Clin Nutr, Joensuu, Finland..
    Cloetens, L.
    Lund Univ, Biomed Nutr Pure & Appl Biochem, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Akesson, B.
    Lund Univ, Biomed Nutr Pure & Appl Biochem, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Siloaho, M.
    Univ Oulu, Dept Internal Med, Inst Clin Med, SF-90100 Oulu, Finland..
    Savolainen, M. J.
    Univ Oulu, Dept Internal Med, Inst Clin Med, SF-90100 Oulu, Finland..
    Gunnarsdottir, I
    Univ Iceland, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland.;Natl Univ Hosp Iceland, Landspitali, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Thorsdottir, I
    Univ Iceland, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland.;Natl Univ Hosp Iceland, Landspitali, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Ulven, S. M.
    Oslo & Akershus Univ Coll Appl Sci, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Hlth Nutr & Management, Oslo, Norway..
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Uusitupa, M.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Publ Hlth & Clin Nutr, Joensuu, Finland..
    Larsen, T. M.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Nutr Exercise & Sports, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Metabolomic response to Nordic foods2015In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 67, p. 55-55Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Ekström, Eva-Charlotte
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Forsen, E.
    Balla, Elazar Tadesse
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Berhane, Y.
    Predicted Implications Of Using Percentage Weight Gain As Single Discharge Criterion In Management Of Acute Child Malnutrition In Rural Ethiopia2013In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 63, no Suppl. 1, p. 696-696Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 18. Elmadfa, I.
    et al.
    Freisling, H.
    Kueck, M.
    Matullat, I.
    Hall, Gunnar
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Azpiroz, A.
    Outcomes of the Nutri-Senex project: A co-ordination action funded by the European commission2008In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 52, no SUPPL. 1, p. 72-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This project's primary aim is to contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of the elderly. The state of the art in age-related research and technology, to highlight the most promising areas for development, has been documented in an extensive literature report. A research database has been established to map current research activities within the European research area. Through several expert group meetings with representatives from universities, research institutions, organizations concerned with the care of the elderly, and industry, suitable technologies and policies that can improve the diet of the elderly have been identified. A legislation survey relating to aspects of nutrition of the elderly has been carried out. A set of guidelines and recommendations of best practice for use in the health and care industry have been developed. The project's results are disseminated through an enhanced website, technology transfer workshops and a staff training program. Good communication between the partners has been promoted and permanent research links have been forged. The main outputs will lead to better co-ordinated European research: less duplication of effort, more rapid commercialization, increased awareness of the problems faced by the elderly, improved guidelines and recommendations for health care professionals and policymakers. Copyright © 2008 S. Karger AG.

  • 19. Engebretsen, I.
    et al.
    Nankunda, J.
    Nankabirwa, V.
    Diallo, A.
    Fadnes, L.
    Doherty, T.
    Jackson, D.
    Ekström, Eva-Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Sommerfelt, H.
    Meda, N.
    Tylleskar, T.
    Tumwine, J.
    Early Infant Feeding Practices In The Promise-Ebf Trial: Promotion Of Exclusive Breastfeeding By Peer Counsellors In Three Countries In Africa2013In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 63, no Suppl. 1, p. 709-709Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20. Engeset, D.
    et al.
    Skeie, G.
    Olsen, A.
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Dietary patterns and whole grain in Scandinavia. The HELGA project2013In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 63, no Supplement 1, p. 341-341Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objectives: In the recent years a trendwithin nutrition epidemiology has been to assess overall dietaryquality, often by identifying dietary patterns. The HELGAstudy population is based on samples of existing cohorts fromthe three Scandinavian countries. All three cohorts are part ofthe EPIC study. The aim of this study is to find a typical wholegrain pattern in Scandinavia and see if the pattern is similar inthe three countries.Methods: The associations among the variables were investigatedby factor analysis.Results: Both Norway and Sweden had two breakfast patternsand one dinner pattern. Both the countries had a healthybreakfast pattern including food items commonly consideredhealthy, such as fruit, yoghurt and breakfast cereals. However,coarse bread was the main item in a more traditional pattern for Norway, while it was a part of the healthy pattern inSweden. The second breakfast pattern in Sweden included unhealthyitems like white bread, cakes, sweets, soft drinks andalcohol. The dinner pattern was almost equal in Sweden andNorway. Denmark differed from the other Scandinavian countriesconcerning dietary patterns. Only one breakfast patternwas found. This pattern had some similarities with the traditionalNorwegian pattern, but scored high on all whole grainitems while in Norway only wheat had a high score. Two dinnerpatterns are seen for Denmark, the healthier one includesfruit and vegetables, fish and poultry, the second includes meatand meat products, ice cream and alcohol.Conclusions: When comparing dietary patterns from thethree Scandinavian countries, we find both differences andsimilarities. The main whole grain item used in Norway andSweden seems to be wheat, while rye is more dominant in Denmark.

  • 21.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Nutrition.
    Forsberg, A M
    Nilsson, E
    Bergström, J
    Hultman, E
    Electrolytes, water, RNA, total creatine and calculated resting membrane potential in muscle tissue from pregnant women.2000In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 44, p. 144-149Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Geraedts, Maartje C. P.
    et al.
    Med Ctr, Dept Human Biol, Maastricht Univ, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Troost, Freddy J.
    Med Ctr, Dept Internal Med, Div Gastroenterol & Hepatol, Maastricht Univ, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Tinnemans, Rik
    Med Ctr, Dept Anim Res & Testing Serv, Maastricht Univ, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Soderholm, Johan D.
    Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linköping Univ, Linköping, Sweden.
    Brummer, Robert
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences. Med Ctr, Dept Internal Med, Div Gastroenterol & Hepatol, Maastricht Univ, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Saris, Wim H. M.
    Med Ctr, Dept Human Biol, Maastricht Univ, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Release of Satiety Hormones in Response to Specific Dietary Proteins Is Different between Human and Murine Small Intestinal Mucosa2010In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 308-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Aim: High protein diets are the most effective to stimulate cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) release; however, which proteins are the most potent is not known. Here, the effects of specific dietary proteins on intestinal CCK and GLP-1 release were examined. Methods: Duodenal biopsies of 10 healthy male subjects and 10 male rats were taken and placed in an Ussing chamber system. The biopsies were exposed on the luminal side to buffer, egg protein, codfish protein, ovomucoid, pea protein, and wheat protein. After an exposure time of 2 h, samples were taken from the serosal side. Results: Pea protein and wheat protein increased CCK and GLP-1 release in human duodenal tissue, while codfish protein only increased CCK release. No elevated levels of CCK and GLP-1 were found after exposure of rat tissue to different proteins. Conclusion: Pea and wheat protein are the most potent stimulators of CCK and GLP-1 release in human duodenal tissue, and may therefore be good dietary additives in weight management. Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel

  • 23.
    Geraedts, Maartje C. P.
    et al.
    Maastricht University.
    Troost, Freddy J.
    Maastricht University.
    Tinnemans, Rik
    Maastricht University.
    Söderholm, Johan D
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Brummer, Robert-Jan
    Maastricht University.
    Saris, Wim H. M.
    Maastricht University.
    Release of Satiety Hormones in Response to Specific Dietary Proteins Is Different between Human and Murine Small Intestinal Mucosa2010In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 308-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Aim: High protein diets are the most effective to stimulate cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) release; however, which proteins are the most potent is not known. Here, the effects of specific dietary proteins on intestinal CCK and GLP-1 release were examined. Methods: Duodenal biopsies of 10 healthy male subjects and 10 male rats were taken and placed in an Ussing chamber system. The biopsies were exposed on the luminal side to buffer, egg protein, codfish protein, ovomucoid, pea protein, and wheat protein. After an exposure time of 2 h, samples were taken from the serosal side. Results: Pea protein and wheat protein increased CCK and GLP-1 release in human duodenal tissue, while codfish protein only increased CCK release. No elevated levels of CCK and GLP-1 were found after exposure of rat tissue to different proteins. Conclusion: Pea and wheat protein are the most potent stimulators of CCK and GLP-1 release in human duodenal tissue, and may therefore be good dietary additives in weight management.

  • 24. Gibbons, C.
    et al.
    Caudwell, P.
    Finlayson, G.
    Webb, Dominic-Luc
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Gastroenterology/Hepatology.
    Hellström, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Gastroenterology/Hepatology.
    Naslund, E.
    Blundell, J.
    Gastrointestinal Peptide Response To Fat And Carbohydrate: Implications For Satiety Control2013In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 63, no Suppl. 1, p. 458-458Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Gurinovic, Mirjana A.
    et al.
    Univ Belgrade, Serbia.
    Oshaug, Arne
    Akershus Univ Coll, Norway.
    Finglas, Paul
    Inst Food Res, UK.
    Glibetic, Maria
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Hollman, Peter
    Wageningen Univ, Netherlands.
    Hulshof, Paul J.
    Wageningen Univ, Netherlands.
    Porubska, Janka
    VUP Food Res Inst, Slovakia.
    Tepsic, Jasna
    Capacity building in food composition data base in central and eastern Europe, Middle east and North Africa countries: Successful collaboration between EUROFIR and other networks2009In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 55, no Supplement 1, p. 565-565, article id P127-04Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Görman, U
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Nordström, K
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Ahlgren, J
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Grimaldi, K
    Eurogenetica Ltd, Burnham-on-Sea, UK .
    Mathers, J
    Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
    Perrudin, M
    Keller and Heckman LLP, Brussels, Belgium.
    Savigny, J
    Keller and Heckman LLP, Brussels, Belgium.
    Coff, C
    University College Zealand, Sorø,Denmark .
    Jönsson, H
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Juth, N
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kjellström, S
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Meijboom, F
    Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rondeltap, A
    Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    van Trijp, H
    Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Is it right? The ethical and legal implications of personalised nutrition2013In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 3-4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Hall, G.
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Wendin, Karin
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sensory design of foods for the elderly2008In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 52, no SUPPL. 1, p. 25-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Aims:Elderly persons with dysphagia need food that requires little or no chewing, that is easy to swallow and has attractive sensory characteristics. The aim was to investigate how ingredients varied according to experimental designs influence the perceived sensory, chewing and swallowing characteristics of two types of texture-modified model foods. Methods: Meat- and carrot-based, texture-modified model foods were produced. The following parameters were varied: particle size, fat content, starch and egg composition. The samples were studied using sensory analyses, focus group discussions and consumer studies. Results: The design parameters mainly had an impact on sensory texture attributes. The experts in the focus groups selected three products of each type which were regarded as being optimal for older persons. All the products contained a high proportion of egg yolk and a low amount of starch. Older consumers considered all the selected products to be easy to chew and swallow. The differences between older persons in nursing homes compared to those living in their own homes could be linked to health. Conclusions: Optimization of factors influencing food quality through the use of experimental designs in combination with sensory and consumer studies is required in order to meet the needs and demands of older people. Copyright © 2008 S. Karger AG.

  • 28. Hall, Gunnar
    et al.
    Wendin, Karin
    SIK, The Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology AB.
    Sensory design of foods for the elderly2008In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 52, p. 25-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Aims: Elderly persons with dysphagia need food that requires little or no chewing, that is easy to swallow and has attractive sensory characteristics. The aim was to investigate how ingredients varied according to experimental designs influence the perceived sensory, chewing and swallowing characteristics of two types of texture-modified model foods. Methods: Meat- and carrot-based, texture-modified model foods were produced. The following parameters were varied: particle size, fat content, starch and egg composition. The samples were studied using sensory analyses, focus group discussions and consumer studies. Results: The design parameters mainly had an impact on sensory texture attributes. The experts in the focus groups selected three products of each type which were regarded as being optimal for older persons. All the products contained a high proportion of egg yolk and a low amount of starch. Older consumers considered all the selected products to be easy to chew and swallow. The differences between older persons in nursing homes compared to those living in their own homes could be linked to health. Conclusions: Optimization of factors influencing food quality through the use of experimental designs in combination with sensory and consumer studies is required in order to meet the needs and demands of older people.

  • 29.
    Hallström, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Vereecken, Carine
    Department of Public Health, University Hospital, Ghent.
    Ruiz, Jonatan
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN FAMILIAR FACTORS AND BREAKFAST CONSUMPTION AMONG EUROPEAN ADOLESCENTS: THE HELENA-STUDY2009In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 627-627Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationale & Objectives

    To identify factors influencing breakfast habits in European adolescents.

     

    Materials & Methods

    The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) is a school based study. In 2006-2007, 3546 adolescents, 12,5-17,49 years of age, in ten European cities responded to questions about breakfast habits and determinants about eating behavior. Logistic regression and descriptive percentage are used for the analyses.

     

    Results & Findings

    66% of boys and 58% of girls regularly consume breakfast. Boys whose parents support them to eat healthy are more likely to consume breakfast (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.43-0.85). Girls whose peers eat healthy are more likely to consume breakfast (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.51-0.91). Hunger (59%), taste (57%), health (48%) and parents (45%) are the most important factors influencing adolescents’ food choices at breakfast.

     

    Conclusions

    Parents’ and peers’ influences should be considered in the development and testing of intervention strategies.

  • 30.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Current Safety Standards in Infant Nutrition: A European Perspective2012In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 188-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Foods intended specifically for infants and young children are considered under European community law and are defined in specific commission directives. In principal, these directives conclude that such foods must be safe, have a special composition, be distinguishable from normal foods, be suitable for fulfilling particular nutritional requirements, and should, when marketed, indicate such suitability. Since infant formulas are intended as the sole source of nutrition during the first months of life, their nutritional adequacy and safety are particularly strictly regulated. The Scientific Committee on Food report from 2003, on which the current commission directive is based, makes clear recommendations on how benefits, suitability, and safety of modifications beyond established standards should be documented and evaluated. These principles resulted in part from a workshop on characterization of infant food modifications in the EU and two position papers by the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN). These papers are reviewed below. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel

  • 31.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Editorial2012In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 60, no Suppl 2, p. 5-6Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Iggman, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Center for Clinical Research Dalarna. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology. Dalarna Univ, Falun, Sweden..
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Adipose tissue fatty acids and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in elderly men2015In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 67, p. 422-422Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 33. Iglesia, I.
    et al.
    Mouratidou, T.
    Gonzalez-Gross, M.
    Huybrechts, I.
    Breidenassel, C.
    Diaz, L.
    Palacios, G.
    Hallström, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    de Henauw, S.
    Gottrand, F.
    Kafatos, A.
    Widhalm, K.
    Manios, Y.
    Molnar, D.
    Stehle, P.
    Moreno, L.
    B-VITAMIN INTAKES AND RELATED BIOMARKER STATUS AND ASSOCIATION TO FOOD CONSUMPTION IN EUROPEAN ADOLESCENTS PARTICIPATING IN THE HELENA STUDY.2013In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 63, p. 417-418Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 34. Jacks, Birgitta
    et al.
    Apoteket, A. B.
    Sall, Moussa
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH.
    Zinc deficiency in the Niger inland delta, Mali2007In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 51, p. 223-223Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 35. Jankovic, N.
    et al.
    Geelen, A.
    Kampman, E.
    de Groot, C. P.
    Pikhart, H.
    Huangfu, P.
    Bofetta, P.
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.
    Kee, F.
    O'Doherty, M.
    Franco, O. H.
    Hooven van den, E. H.
    Rooij van, F.
    Trichopoulou, A.
    Orfanos, P.
    Tjonneland, A.
    Gonzalez, C. A.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Peeters, P. H.
    Park, Y.
    Pajak, A.
    Malyutina, S.
    Kubinova, R.
    Feskens, E. J.
    ASSOCIATION BETWEEN A HEALTHY DIET ACCORDING TO WHO GUIDELINES AND ALL-CAUSE MORTALITY IN EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN ELDERLY, THE CHANCES PROJECT2013In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 63, no Supplement 1, p. 234-234Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objectives: The Healthy Diet Indicator(HDI) measures adherence to the WHO guidelines for preventingdiet related chronic diseases, and can be applied to assessassociations of diet with health across populations. We examinedthe association between the HDI and all-cause mortalityin European and American elderly people aged 60 years andabove.Methods: We analysed data on 395,863 men and womenfrom 11 prospective cohort studies from the Consortium onHealth and Ageing: Network of Cohorts In Europe And TheUnited States (CHANCES). Across cohorts, the follow-upperiods ranged from 10 to 20 yrs. Diet was assessed throughvalidated methods. For the translation of foods to nutrients,country specific food composition tables were used. The continuouslyscored HDI (range mean and SD HDI score 45±9to 54±7 across cohorts) was based on intakes of saturated andpolyunsaturated fatty acids, mono-and disaccharides, protein,cholesterol, dietary fibre and fruits and vegetables. The associationbetween the HDI and all-cause mortality was evaluated ineach cohort separately, by multiple Cox proportional hazardsregression. A pooled hazard ratio (HR) was subsequently estimatedusing a random-effects model.Results: Across all cohorts, 84,863 people died during4,492,298 person-years of follow-up. Adjusted HR of death, fora 10 point increment in HDI score, ranged between 0.81 (95%CI 0.77-0.86) in Denmark and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.84-1.16) in Poland.The pooled adjusted HR estimate showed a significantinverse association of 0.90 (95% CI 0.87-0.93) but there was asignificant heterogeneity between studies (p=0.001, I2=66%).Conclusion: Our results show that higher dietary quality isinversely associated with all- cause mortality but

  • 36.
    Klepp, Knut-Inge
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo , Norway.
    Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen
    Community Nutrition Unit, Department of Public Health, Bilbao, Spain.
    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
    Department of Movement and Sport Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent , Belgium.
    Due, P Pernille
    Department of Social Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elmadfa, Ibrahim
    nstitute for Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Haraldsdóttir, Jóhanna
    Research Department of Human Nutrition, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    König, Jurgen
    Institute of Food, Nutrition and Human Health, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thórsdóttir, Inga
    Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Vaz de Almeida, Maria Daniel
    Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brug, Johannes
    Department of Public Health, Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands .
    Promoting fruit and vegetable consumption among European schoolchildren: rationale, conceptualization and design of the pro children project2005In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 212-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: The Pro Children Project was designed to assess fruit and vegetable consumption in European schoolchildren and their parents, as well as determinants of the children's consumption patterns. A second objective was to develop and test strategies, applicable across Europe, for promoting consumption of fruits and vegetables among schoolchildren and their parents. In this paper, the rationale, theoretical background, overall design and implementation of the project is presented.

    METHODS: Surveys of national, representative samples of 11-year-old schoolchildren and their parents were conducted in 9 countries, i.e. in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Iceland, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain and Sweden. Comprehensive school-based educational programmes have been developed and tested in three settings, i.e. in Spain, the Netherlands and in Norway. A precoded 24-hour recall form combined with a set of food frequency questions assessing regular intake were used to assess fruit and vegetable consumption. Determinants were assessed employing a comprehensive theoretical framework including personal, social and environmental factors related to fruit and vegetable consumption. The intervention programmes have been tested employing a group-randomized trial design where schools have been randomly allocated to an intervention arm and a delayed intervention arm. Surveys among all participating children and their parents were conducted prior to the initiation of the intervention, immediately after the end of the intervention and at the end of the subsequent school year.

    CONCLUSION: The project is expected to provide new information of great importance for improving our understanding of consumption patterns of fruits and vegetables and for guiding future efforts to promote increased consumption patterns across Europe.

  • 37.
    Klepp, Knut-Inge
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo , Norway.
    Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen
    Community Nutrition Unit, Department of Public Health, Bilbao, Spain.
    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
    Department of Movement and Sport Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent , Belgium.
    Due, P Pernille
    Department of Social Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elmadfa, Ibrahim
    nstitute for Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Haraldsdóttir, Jóhanna
    Research Department of Human Nutrition, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    König, Jurgen
    Institute of Food, Nutrition and Human Health, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thórsdóttir, Inga
    Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Vaz de Almeida, Maria Daniel
    Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brug, Johannes
    Department of Public Health, Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands .
    Promoting fruit and vegetable consumption among European schoolchildren: rationale, conceptualization and design of the pro children project2005In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 212-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: The Pro Children Project was designed to assess fruit and vegetable consumption in European schoolchildren and their parents, as well as determinants of the children's consumption patterns. A second objective was to develop and test strategies, applicable across Europe, for promoting consumption of fruits and vegetables among schoolchildren and their parents. In this paper, the rationale, theoretical background, overall design and implementation of the project is presented.

    METHODS: Surveys of national, representative samples of 11-year-old schoolchildren and their parents were conducted in 9 countries, i.e. in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Iceland, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain and Sweden. Comprehensive school-based educational programmes have been developed and tested in three settings, i.e. in Spain, the Netherlands and in Norway. A precoded 24-hour recall form combined with a set of food frequency questions assessing regular intake were used to assess fruit and vegetable consumption. Determinants were assessed employing a comprehensive theoretical framework including personal, social and environmental factors related to fruit and vegetable consumption. The intervention programmes have been tested employing a group-randomized trial design where schools have been randomly allocated to an intervention arm and a delayed intervention arm. Surveys among all participating children and their parents were conducted prior to the initiation of the intervention, immediately after the end of the intervention and at the end of the subsequent school year.

    CONCLUSION: The project is expected to provide new information of great importance for improving our understanding of consumption patterns of fruits and vegetables and for guiding future efforts to promote increased consumption patterns across Europe.

  • 38. Koletzko, Berthold
    et al.
    Fewtrell, Mary
    Gibson, Robert
    van Goudoever, Johannes B.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Szajewska, Hania
    Shamir, Raanan
    Core Data Necessary for Reporting Clinical Trials on Nutrition in Infancy2015In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 31-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an updated and revised summary of the 'core data set' that has been proposed to be recorded and reported in all clinical trials on infant nutrition by the recently formed Consensus Group on Outcome Measures Made in Paediatric Enteral Nutrition Clinical Trials (COMMENT). This core data set was developed based on a previous proposal by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) Committee on Nutrition in 2003. It comprises confidential data to identify subjects and facilitate contact for further follow-up, data to characterize the cohort studied and data on withdrawals from the study, and some additional core data for all nutrition studies on preterm infants. We recommend that all studies on nutrition in infancy should collect and report this core data set to facilitate interpretation and comparison of results from clinical studies, and of systematic data evaluation and meta-analyses. Editors of journals publishing such reports are encouraged to require the reporting of the minimum data set described here either in the main body of the publication or as supplementary online material.

  • 39. Konrad, M.
    et al.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Gomes, A. M.
    Olsen, S.
    de Looy, A.
    DIETS2: EUROPEAN DIETETIC ADVANCED COMPETENCES-EDAC 20122013In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 63, p. 1736-1737Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objectives: DIETS2 (Dietitians ensuringeducation, teaching and professional quality) is an EU ThematicNetwork bring together an active network of dietetic (andnutrition) associations and higher education institutions. Theintention is to improve European nutritional health througheducation and practice. ‘Health 2020’ (WHO, 2012) calls fora new working culture fostering cooperation across Europe to enhance healthcare necessitating a great emphasis on lifelonglearning for health professionals. Advanced competencestandards for dietitians, which describe the higher levels ofknowledge and complex responsibilities required, have nowbeen developed.Methods: Invitation to access an on-line questionnaire(Lime-survey) was sent out via European Federation of Associationsof Dietitians (EFAD) and DIETS2 partners in 2011.The questionnaire collected information on demographics,working environments and identified second and third cycledietetic competences.Results: 2030 dietitians from 35 countries over a range ofoccupational fields; Clinical (66%), Public Health (35%), Administrative(30%), Higher Education Teaching (20%) and Research(18%) responded. Competences identified for working atadvanced level were Advanced Knowledge and Understandingof Dietetics; Dietetic Process and Professional Reasoning; ProfessionalRelationships; Professional Autonomy and Accountability;Educator Skills; Research and Development in Dieteticsand its Science; Leadership and Management of ProfessionalDietetics; Entrepreneurial Skills and Business Development ofDietetics. The identified advanced competences (EDAC, 2012)and their performance indicators are now accepted by EFADfor Pan-European application and form the basis for LifelongLearning for dietitians post qualification.Conclusions: The EDAC Framework represents the firstdefinition of the competences required by nutrition and dieteticprofessionals to meet the Health 2020 agenda and provides abenchmark against which health professionals and their clientscan judge their competence.

  • 40. Kyro, C.
    et al.
    Olsen, A.
    Landberg, R.
    Skeie, G.
    Loft, S.
    Aman, P.
    Leenders, M.
    Dik, V.
    Siersema, P.
    Pischon, T.
    Christensen, J.
    Overvad, K.
    Boutron-Ruault, M. C.
    Fagherazzi, G.
    Cottet, V.
    Kuehn, T.
    ChangClaude, J.
    Boeing, H.
    Trichopoulou, A.
    Bamia, C.
    Trichopoulos, D.
    Palli, D.
    Krogh, V.
    Tumino, R.
    Vineis, P.
    Panico, S.
    Peters, P.
    Weiderpass, E.
    Bakken, T.
    Asli, L.
    Argueelles, M.
    Jakszyn, P.
    Sanchez, M. J.
    Castano, J.
    Barricarte, A.
    Ljuslinder, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Palmqvist, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Key, T.
    Travis, R.
    Ferrari, P.
    Freisling, H.
    Jenab, M.
    Tjonneland, A.
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, B.
    ALKYLRESORCINOLS (BIOMARKERS OF WHOLE-GRAIN INTAKE) AND RISK OF COLORECTAL CANCER IN THE EUROPEAN PROSPECTIVE INVESTIGATION INTO CANCER AND NUTRITION2013In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 63, no Supplement 1, p. 1207-1208Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objectives: Few studies have investigatedthe association between whole-grain intake and colorectal cancer.Whole-grain products are one of the dietary items proneto measurement errors, making the use of objective measures,such as biomarkers, highly relevant. The objective of the studywas to investigate the association between biomarkers ofwhole-grain intake, alkylresorcinols, and colorectal cancer ina nested case-control study within the European ProspectiveInvestigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods: We included 1372 first incident colorectal cancercases and 1372 individually matched controls and calculatedthe incidence rate ratios (IRR) for overall and sub-sites of colorectalcancer using conditional logistic regression adjusted forpotential confounders.Results: Plasma total alkylresorcinol concentrations werenot associated with risk of overall colorectal cancer, proximalcolon cancer or rectal cancer. However, high plasma total alkylresorcinolconcentrations were statistically significantly associatedwith lower incidence of cancer located in the distal (leftor descending) part of the colon. Adjusted IRR of distal coloncancer for highest versus lowest quartile of plasma alkylresorcinolwas 0.48 (95% confidence interval = 0.28 to 0.83). Furthermore,we observed an inverse association with colon cancerfor the Scandinavian part of the participants. Alkylresorcinolsmay be more appropriate as biomarkers in Middle Europe andScandinavia i.e. in areas where whole grains are regularly consumed.Conclusions: Whole-grain intake, assessed by alkylresorcinols,was associated with a lower incidence of distal coloncancer. Alkylresorcinols seem useful as objective biomarkersof whole-grain intake in populations where whole-grains are astaple part of the diet. Acknowledgements: This work was supportedby World Cancer Research Fund International (WCRF)and WCRF Netherlands (WCRF NL) (2011/436), and NordForsk(Centre of Excellence programme HELGA (070015)).

  • 41.
    Lehto, Elviira
    et al.
    Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ray, Carola
    Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Örebro universitet, Restaurang- och hotellhögskolan.
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali-University Hospital & Faculty of Food Science and Human Nutrition, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Roos, Eva
    Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland.
    The ones with lowest fruit and vegetable intake benefitted of the intervention only moderately2015In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 67, no Suppl. 1, p. 360-361Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Infrequent fruit and vegetable (FV) intake is especially common among children with low parental educational level (PEL) and among boys.

    Objectives: Our aim was to examine whether a school-based intervention was efficient in increasing children’s FV intake especially among those whose FV intake is the lowest and which factors could explain the the group differences in the associations.

    Method / Design: In Finland 11-year-old (at baseline) children participated in the PRO GREENS intervention in winter 2009. In control schools were 424 and in intervention schools 386 children (response rate 77%). Children filled in validated food frequency questionnaire assessing FV intake (times/day) and a validated questionnaire about factors influencing FV intake (availability of FV, liking for FV, preferences, self-efficacy to eat FV, attitudes towards FV and knowledge of the recommendations) both at baseline May 2009 and follow-up May 2010. Parental educational level (low, middle, high) was reported by the parents. Associations were examined with linear regression and mediation analyses.

    Results: The intervention increased fruit intake among girls but not among boys. Intervention increased also children’s knowledge of the recommendations. Since knowledge had no impact on boys’ fruit intake, the increase in knowledge mediated only intervention’s effect on girls’ fruit intake. Intervention increased children’s fruit intake similarly in all PEL groups.Intervention increased vegetable intake only in the middle PEL group but no intervention effect was noted among children with low or high PEL. Knowledge, the only factor which mediated the intervention’s effect on children’s vegetable intake, could not explain PEL differences in the effectivity of the intervention.

    Conclusions: Increase in knowledge was not a sufficient prerequisite to increase FV intake among boys or the lowest PEL group. More in depth analyses are needed to find out which factors to target in interventions to reach an effect in the target groups.

  • 42.
    Lehto, Elviira
    et al.
    Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ray, Carola
    Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali-University Hospital, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland; Faculty of Food Science and Human Nutrition, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Roos, Eva
    Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland.
    The ones with lowest fruit and vegetable intake benefitted of the intervention only moderately2015In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 67, no Suppl. 1, p. 360-361Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Infrequent fruit and vegetable (FV) intake is especially common among children with low parental educational level (PEL) and among boys.

    Objectives: Our aim was to examine whether a school-based intervention was efficient in increasing children’s FV intake especially among those whose FV intake is the lowest and which factors could explain the the group differences in the associations.

    Method / Design: In Finland 11-year-old (at baseline) children participated in the PRO GREENS intervention in winter 2009. In control schools were 424 and in intervention schools 386 children (response rate 77%). Children filled in validated food frequency questionnaire assessing FV intake (times/day) and a validated questionnaire about factors influencing FV intake (availability of FV, liking for FV, preferences, self-efficacy to eat FV, attitudes towards FV and knowledge of the recommendations) both at baseline May 2009 and follow-up May 2010. Parental educational level (low, middle, high) was reported by the parents. Associations were examined with linear regression and mediation analyses.

    Results: The intervention increased fruit intake among girls but not among boys. Intervention increased also children’s knowledge of the recommendations. Since knowledge had no impact on boys’ fruit intake, the increase in knowledge mediated only intervention’s effect on girls’ fruit intake. Intervention increased children’s fruit intake similarly in all PEL groups.Intervention increased vegetable intake only in the middle PEL group but no intervention effect was noted among children with low or high PEL. Knowledge, the only factor which mediated the intervention’s effect on children’s vegetable intake, could not explain PEL differences in the effectivity of the intervention.

    Conclusions: Increase in knowledge was not a sufficient prerequisite to increase FV intake among boys or the lowest PEL group. More in depth analyses are needed to find out which factors to target in interventions to reach an effect in the target groups.

  • 43.
    Ludvigsson, Jonas F.
    et al.
    Department of Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Pediatrics, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Fasano, Alessio
    Mucosal Biology Research Center, Center for Celiac Research, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore MD, United States.
    Timing of Introduction of Gluten and Celiac Disease Risk2012In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 60, no Suppl. 2, p. 22-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Breast milk is the natural nutrition for infants, but in the second half of the first year of life, complementary feeding is needed. Many complementary foods contain gluten, but gluten exposure is associated with the risk of developing celiac disease (CD). CD is a disease with considerable morbidity and mortality. Although CD is associated with certain genetic features, carrying the human leukocyte antigen haplotypes DQ2 or DQ8 (a prerequisite for CD development) cannot fully explain who will or who will not develop CD. Potential risk factors for CD include perinatal events and infant feeding practice. With the exception that children who are breastfed at and beyond gluten introduction into the diet probably may be at a lower risk of developing CD, and that heavy gluten load early in life may increase the risk of future CD, data on the impact of infant feeding are inconsistent.

  • 44. Magnusdottir, O. K.
    et al.
    Landberg, R.
    Gunnarsdottir, I.
    Cloetens, L.
    Akesson, B.
    Onning, G.
    Jonsdottir, S. E.
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Schwab, U.
    Herzig, K. H.
    Savolainen, M. J.
    Brader, L.
    Hermansen, K.
    Kolehmainen, M.
    Poutanen, K.
    Uusitupa, M.
    Thorsdottir, I.
    Riserus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Alkylresorcinols And A-Carotene In Plasma As Dietary Biomarkers For Healthy Nordic Diet2013In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 63, no Suppl. 1, p. 459-459Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 45. Mansoor, M Azam
    et al.
    Stea, Tonje Holte
    Schneede, Jörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Reine, Andreas
    Early biochemical and hematological response to intramuscular cyanocobalamin therapy in vitamin B-12-deficient patients2013In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 347-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Data on early biochemical and hematological responses to cobalamin therapy in vitamin B-12-deficient patients are scarce. Therefore, we investigated whether cobalamin injections would include prompt biochemical and hematological responses in vitamin B-12-deficient patients.

    Subjects and Methods: Seven female patients (mean age: 69.4 years, range: 61-78) with a mean serum cobalamin level of 104 +/- 38 pmol/l mean +/- SD and 7 male patients (mean age: 67.0 years, range: 53-78) with a mean serum cobalamin level of 84 +/- 40 (+/- SD) participated in the study. They were administered 1 mg i.m. cyanocobalamin per week for 3 weeks. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after cobalamin injection. The concentrations of plasma aminothiols and serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, respectively, and hematological parameters were determined with a hematological analyzer.

    Results: Already 1 day after intramuscular Cobalamin injections, the concentrations of serum vitamin B-12 and plasma total cysteine were significantly increased while the concentrations of serum folate, plasma total homocysteine and serum MMA were decreased. Mean cell volume was also significantly decreased first after 14 days of therapy.

    Conclusion: Intramuscular cobalamin administration causes swift and significant changes in plasma aminothiols, whereas the first change in hematological parameters was detected only after 14 days. Copyright (C) 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel

  • 46.
    Marklund, Matti
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Leander, Karin
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Cardiovasc Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Vikstrom, Max
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Cardiovasc Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Laguzzi, Federica
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Cardiovasc Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gigante, Bruna
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Cardiovasc Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Danderyd Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci, Div Cardiovasc Med, Danderyds, Sweden..
    Sjögren, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    de Faire, Ulf
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Cardiovasc Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Cardiol Unit, Solna, Sweden..
    Hellenius, Mai-Lis
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Cardiol Unit, Solna, Sweden..
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Serum Pentadecanoic Acid, A Biomarker Of Dairy Fat Intake, Is Associated With Lower Risk Of Incident Cardiovascular Disease And All-Cause Mortality In Swedish Men And Women2017In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 71, p. 322-323Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Marklund, Matti
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Pingel, Ronnie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Lindroos, Anna Karin
    Natl Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden;Univ Gothenburg, Dept Internal Med & Clin Nutr, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical diabetology and metabolism.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    AstraZeneca Gothenburg, Molndal, Sweden.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Interrelationships Between Fatty Acid Composition in Plasma Cholesterol Esters and Phospholipids in Men and Women: A Pooled Analysis2017In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 71, p. 372-372Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Moller, E.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Galeone, C.
    Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Dept Epidemiol 1, Milan, Italy.;Univ Milan, Sect Med Stat Giulio A Maccacaro, Dept Occupat Hlth Luigi Devoto, Milan, Italy..
    Bellocco, R.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Dept Stat, Milan, Italy..
    Adolfsson, J.
    Karolinska Inst, Oncol Ctr, Dept Clin Innovat & Technol CLINTEC, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gronberg, H.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Adami, H.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden.;Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    La Vecchia, C.
    Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Dept Epidemiol 1, Milan, Italy.;Univ Milan, Sect Med Stat Giulio A Maccacaro, Dept Occupat Hlth Luigi Devoto, Milan, Italy..
    Mucci, L.
    Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Brigham & Womens Hosp, Channing Lab, Dept Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Bälter, Katarina
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nordic nutrition recommendations and mediterranean diet in relation to prostate cancer risk in Sweden2011In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 58, p. 273-274Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 49. Nettleton, Joyce A.
    et al.
    Jebb, Susan
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Koletzko, Berthold
    Fleming, Jennifer
    Role of Dietary Fats in the Prevention and Treatment of the Metabolic Syndrome2014In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 167-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A symposium on the health significance of dietary fat in the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) was held at the 20th International Congress of Nutrition in Granada, Spain, on September 19, 2013. Four nutrition experts addressed the topics of dietary fat and obesity, effects of dietary fat quality in obesity and insulin resistance, influence of early nutrition on the later risk of MetS and the relative merits of high- or low-fat diets in counteracting MetS. Participants agreed that preventing weight gain and achieving weight loss in overweight and obese patients were key strategies for reducing MetS. Both low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets are associated with weight loss, but adherence to the diet is the most important factor in achieving success. Avoidance of high saturated fats contributes to lower health risks among obese, MetS and diabetic patients. Further, healthy maternal weight at conception and in pregnancy is more important that weight gain during pregnancy for reducing the risk of obesity in the offspring. The effects of different polyunsaturated fatty acids on MetS and weight loss require clarification. (C) 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  • 50.
    Olang, Beheshteh
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dorosty, Ahmad Reza
    NNFTRI, Tehran, Iran.
    Palesh, Mohammad
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Azadnyia, Ebrahim
    NNFTRI, Tehran, Iran.
    Hellstrand, Sophie
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Strandvik, Birgitta
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Polyunsaturated n-3 and 6 fatty acids differ significantly in colostrum in relation to fish intake during pregnancy2009In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 55, p. 323-323Article in journal (Other academic)
12 1 - 50 of 86
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