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  • 1.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Technological Educational Institute of Larissa, Greece.
    Gellerich, A
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany.
    Mantanis, G
    Technological Educational Institute of Larissa, Greece.
    Kalaitzi, T
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Militz, H
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany.
    Resistance of Pinus leucodermis heartwood and sapwood against the brown-rot fungus Coniophora puteana2012In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 242-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study assessed the decay resistance of Pinus leucodermis wood to the brown-rot fungus Coniophora puteana. Based upon the median weight losses of 30.65% for heartwood and of 34.68% for sapwood obtained in the biological tests, both the heartwood and sapwood material examined was classified as not durable (durability class 5) according to the CEN/TS 15083-1 classification. Total extractives were low, 3.93% in heartwood and 1.00% in sapwood, while lignin content was 22.60% and 25.41% in heartwoodand sapwood, respectively. It is highly recommended to use protective treatments before using P.leucodermis wood in outdoor conditions.

  • 2.
    Ah Shenga, Pedro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Bomark, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Log sawing positioning optimization and log bucking of tropical hardwood species to increase the volume yield2017In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 257-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sawmill industry is a very important link in the Mozambique forest products value chain, but the industry is characterized by undeveloped processing technology and high-volume export of almost unrefined logs. The low volume yield of sawn timber has been identified as a critical gap in the technological development of the industry. To improve the profitability of the industry, there is thus a need to develop methods and techniques that improve the yield. In this paper, different positioning of logs prior to sawing and the possibility of increasing the volume yield of crooked logs by bucking the logs before sawing have been studied. A computer simulation was used to study the cant-sawing and through-and-through sawing of the logs to determine the volume yield of sawn timber from the jambirre (Millettia stuhlmannii Taub.) and umbila (Pterocarpus angolensis DC.) species. The optimal position, i.e. the position of the log before sawing that gives the highest volume yield of sawn timber for a given sawing pattern when the positioning parameters, offset, skew and rotation, are considered gave a considerable higher volume yield than the horns-down position. By bucking very crooked logs and using the horns-down positioning before sawing, the volume yield can be of the same magnitude as that obtained by optimal positioning on full-length (un-bucked) logs. The bucking reduces the crook of the logs and hence increases the volume yield of sawn timber.

  • 3.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    et al.
    Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Norway.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Postia placenta decay of acetic anhydride modified wood – effect of leaching2014In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 162-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that acetylation of wood by the use of acetic anhydride is able to impart a significant degree of decay resistance. The aim of this work was to study how a standardized leaching procedure with water (EN 84) affected the degradation of acetic anhydride modified samples by the brown rot fungi Postia placenta compared to no leaching prior to incubation. Three different levels (low, medium, and high) of acetic anhydride modified Southern yellow pine (SYP; Pinus spp.) were tested. The samples were harvested after 4 and 28 weeks. Wecompared changes in mass loss, wood moisture content, fungal DNA, and gene expression from five genes. If leaching changes the acetylated samples and makes them more susceptible for fungal deterioration, the expected effect would be higher levels of these parameters. Generally, leaching resulted in few differences between leached and nonleached samples at low levels of acetylation, while no changes were found for the highest acetylation level. No differences were found in gene expressions after 28 weeks. The possible protection of acetylated wood against oxidative fungal degradation is suggested to be interpreted in combination with the lowered wood moisture content.

  • 4.
    Altgen, Michael
    et al.
    University of Göttingen, Germany.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    University of Göttingen, Germany.
    Militz, Holger
    University of Göttingen, Germany.
    Wood defects during industrial-scale production of thermally modified Norway spruce and Scots pine2017In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 14-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research investigates wood defects, particularly the formation of surface cracks, during the production of thermally modified wood and its exposure to cyclic moisture changes. Boards of Norway spruce and Scots pine originating from different steps within the production of ThermoWood® were collected and wood defects were investigated at macroscopic and microscopic scale. Subsequently, the wood was exposed to capillary wetting cycles to record its sensitivity towards cracking. After the modification process, typical anatomical defects of conventional kiln-drying became more frequent and severe, with the magnitude being to some extent depending on the presence of defects in the raw material. At microscopic scale, damages to ray parenchyma and epithelial cells as well as longitudinal cracks within the cell walls of earlywood tracheids were evident in thermally modified wood. Despite a lower water uptake and higher dimensional stability, thermally modified wood was more sensitive to surface cracking during wetting cycles than unmodified wood, i.e. at the outside face of outer boards (near bark). For limiting surface cracking of thermally modified wood during service life, the use of high-quality raw material, the exposure of the inside face of the boards (near pith) and the application of a surface coating are considered beneficial.

  • 5.
    Antti, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Finell, Michael
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Arshadi, Mehrdad
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lestander, Torbjörn A.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Effects of microwave drying on biomass fatty acid composition and fuel pellet quality2011In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 6, no 1-2, p. 34-40Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Axelsson, Ann
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Effect of planing on warp in Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris)2012In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 154-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    If a sawn board or plank that is warped after drying is being planed, the feed rollers and the pressure elements will more or less straighten the wood during planing. However, when the pressure is released, some degree of warp will recur since the wood will spring back. With a large amount of straightening, only the cross-sectional dimensions of the wood should be affected by the planing operation, leaving warp unchanged, while a small amount of straightening should have a larger impact on warp. The objective of this study was to evaluate how warp is affected by planing in an industrial planer with standard configuration. A total of 20 pine planks with the dry target dimension 50 mm×150 mm were selected, of which half were severely warped. The worst twist, crook and bow per two metres and maximum cup were measured both before and after planing.The planer in the experiment had different impacts on the different warp types. For the individual planks, twist was reduced by 25% and crook was reduced by about 20% on average. Although bow decreased for half of the planks, the total average change for individual planks was a slight increase. Cupping practically vanished.

  • 7.
    Axelsson, Ann
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Rectangularity of planed Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) planks2013In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 145-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with how warp affects the cross-sectional shape of planed planks. A total of 20 planks with dry target cross-sectional dimensions of 50×150 mm were planed to 45×145 mm. The rectangularity of five cross sections of every plank was measured before and after planing. The cutting depths were measured in 10 positions in the cross sections, and the angles between the planks and the cutters were calculated. Also, the warp, that is, twist, bow, crook, and cup, was measured before and after planing. All the studied properties pointed in the same direction. In terms of both rectangularity and angles of cut, the problems were larger in the top and butt ends of the investigated planks than in the intermediate parts, and the main reason for deviations from the desired result after planing was twist.

  • 8.
    Axelsson, Ann
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Potential for increasing volume yield by reducing planing allowance2017In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 301-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    About half the volume of sawlogs ends up as sawn and planed timber. The rest is lost due to drying shrinkage or is turned into by products. As the raw material is a major expense for a sawmill, it is important to reduce waste.

    To investigate how much the volume yield in the production of sawn and planed timber could be increased by reducing the target dimensions in the sawing stage in a sawmill, two groups of sawn timber were planed under similar conditions. One group consisted of sawn Scots pine timber with a large variation in twist. The other group consisted of sawn Norway spruce timber planed under different pressure settings. Using X-ray images, the minimum dimension for avoiding planer misses was calculated for each board, to find the smallest green target dimension. This was compared to actual measured dimensions.

    It was found that most sawn timber had unnecessarily large dimensions, and it was also found that a reduction in the target dimensions could increase the volume yield for sawn and planed timber by more than 3 percentage points. Boards with large twist would however need a higher planing allowance. The effect of the planer pressure setting was negligible.

  • 9.
    Bader, Thomas K.
    et al.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Eberhardsteiner, Josef
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    de Borst, Karin
    University of Glasgow, UK.
    Shear stiffness and its relation to the microstructure of 10 European and tropical hardwood species2017In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 82-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, shear stiffness properties of 10 different hardwood species and their relation to the corresponding species-specific microstructure are investigated. For this purpose, shear stiffness of 10 different hardwood species is experimentally measured by means of ultrasonic testing. In addition, a micromechanical model for hardwood is applied in order to illustrate the influence of certain microstructural characteristics such as mass density and volume fractions of vessels and ray cells on the shear stiffness. Comprehensive microstructural and mechanical data from previous investigations of the same hardwood material support the interpretation of the microstructure–shear stiffness relationships. Mass density was confirmed to be the dominant microstructural characteristic for shear stiffness. Also, ultrasound shear wave propagation velocity increases with density, particularly in the radial-tangential (RT) plane. In addition to density, comparably higher shear stiffness GLR can be explained by comparably higher ray content and lower vessel content. As for GLT, a ring porous structure seems to lead to higher shear stiffness as compared to a diffuse porous structure. For this shear stiffness, vessel and ray content were found to have a less impact. Also, the rolling shear stiffness GRT was found to be higher for a diffuse porous structure than for a ring porous one. Moreover, the data supports that ray cells act as reinforcements in the RT plane and lead to higher GRT

  • 10.
    Bader, Thomas K.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology. Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Schweigler, Michael
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Hochreiner, Georg
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Serrano, Erik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Enquist, Bertil
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Dorn, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Dowel deformations in multi-dowel LVL-connections under moment loading2015In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 216-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the experimental study presented herein is the assessment and quantification of the behavior of individual dowels in multi-dowel connections loaded by a bending moment. For this purpose, double-shear, steel-to-timber connections with nine steel dowels arranged in different patterns and with different dowel diameters were tested in four-point bending. In order to achieve a ductile behavior with up to 7° relative rotation, the connections were partly reinforced with self-tapping screws. The reinforcement did not influence the global load–deformation behavior, neither for dowel diameters of 12 mm nor for 20 mm, as long as cracking was not decisive. The deformation of the individual dowels was studied by means of a non-contact deformation measurement system. Thus, the crushing deformation, that is, the deformation at the steel plate, and the bending deformation of the dowels could be quantified. In the case of 12 mm dowels, the bending deformation was larger than the crushing deformation, while it was smaller in the case of 20 mm dowels. Moreover, dowels loaded parallel to the grain showed larger bending deformations than dowels loaded perpendicular to the grain. This indicates that the loading of the individual dowels in the connection differs depending on their location.

  • 11.
    Bastani, Alireza
    et al.
    University of Göttingen, Germany.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Militz, Holger
    University of Göttingen, Germany.
    Shear strength of furfurylated, N-methylol melamine and thermally modified wood bonded with three conventional adhesives2017In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 236-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shear strength of furfurylated, N-methylol melamine (NMM) and thermally modified wood bonded with emulsion polymer isocyanate, polyvinyl acetate (PVAc), and polyurethane (PU) adhesives was examined. Furfurylation and NMM modification of Scots pine had a significant negative effect on the bonding strength with all adhesives irrespective of the treatment intensity. The obtained low-shear strength values were related to the brittle nature of the wood after modifications rather to the failure of the bondline. PVAc showed a better bonding performance with both furfurylated and NMM modified wood while the combination of furfurylated wood and PU gave the highest reduction in bonding strength (47–51%). Shear strength also decreased significantly after thermal modification in both Scots pine (36–56%) and beech (34–48%) with all adhesives. With the exception of thermally modified beech samples bonded with PU, bondline was found to be the weakest link in thermally modified wood as it was revealed by the wood failure surfaces. Bondline thickness and effective penetration of adhesives did not relate to the shear strength of all modified wood materials. The lower shear strength of modified wood could be attributed to other factors, such as the reduced chemical bonding or mechanical interlocking of adhesives, and the reduced strength of brittle modified wood substrate.

  • 12.
    Berg, Sven
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Ekevad, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Vaziri, Mojgan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Crack influence on load-bearing capacity of glued laminated timber using extended finite element modelling2015In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 335-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the cracks are caused by changes in temperature and relative humidity which lead to shrinkage and swelling of the wood and thereby induce stresses in the structure. How these cracks influence the strength of the wooden structure, especially the shear strength, is not well understood. However, it is reasonable to expect that cracks have an impact on the shear strength as they preferably run along the beams in the direction of grain and bond lines. The purpose of this study was to investigate the load-bearing capacity of cracked glulam beams and to find a model that could predict the failure load of the beams due to the cracks. Three-point bending tests were used on glulam beams of different sizes with pre-manufactured cracks. An orthotropic elastic model and extended finite element method was used to model the behaviour of the cracked beams and to estimate the load-bearing capacity. The conclusions were validated by numerical simulations of the mechanical behaviour of three-point bending of glulam beams with different crack locations. The crack initiation load was recorded as the failure load and compared to the experimental failure load. The results of the compaction simulations agree well with the experimental results

  • 13.
    Berg, Sven
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Turesson, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Ekevad, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Huber, Johannes Albert Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Finite element analysis of bending stiffness for cross-laminated timber with varying board width2019In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 392-403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ross laminated timber (CLT) is a wood panelling building system that is used in construction, e.g. for floors, walls and beams. Because of the increased use of CLT, it is important to have accurate simulation models. CLT systems are simulated with one-dimensional and two-dimensional (2D) methods because they are fast and deliver practical results. However, because non-edge-glued panels cannot be modelled under 2D, these results may differ from more accurate calculations in three dimensions (3D). In this investigation, CLT panels with different width-to-thickness ratios for the boards have been simulated using the finite element method. The size of the CLT-panels was 3.0 m × 3.9 m and they had three and five laminate layers oriented 0°–90°–0° and 0°–90°–0°–90°–0°. The thicknesses of the boards were 33.33, 40.0, and 46.5 mm. The CLT panel deformation was compared by using a distributed out-of-plane load. Results showed that panels with narrow boards were less stiff than wide boards for the four-sided support setup. The results also showed that 2D models underestimate the displacement when compared to 3D models. By adjusting the stiffness factor k88, the 2D model displacement became more comparable to the 3D model.

  • 14.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Dahlquist, Simon
    SP Trä.
    Grönlund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Detection of saw mismatch in double arbor saw machines using laser triangulation2013In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 219-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the sawing process of a sawmill, not only are the target sizes of great importance. The saw mismatch that may occur in double arbor saw machines is also an essential parameter that affects the planing allowance, as well as the quality of the sawn products. In this study, a newly developed measurement equipment for detecting saw mismatch in the green sorting line of a sawmill has been evaluated in an initial experimental test. The obtained data has been compared to manual measurements of saw mismatch with good results. Also, based on a small sample, 75 – 95% of the boards with a maximal saw mismatch exceeding 0.5 mm are detected. The rate of detection depends on the number of cameras used.

  • 15. Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Dahlquist, Simon
    SP - Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Grönlund, Anders
    Detection of saw mismatch in double-arbor saw machines using laser triangulation2013In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 219-225Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Blom, Åsa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Sivrikaya, Hüseyin
    Some factors influencing susceptibility to discoloring fungi and water uptake of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Oriental spruce (Picea orientalis) 2012In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 139-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The heartwood and sapwood from Scots pine (PS), Norway spruce (PA), and Oriental spruce (PO) were tested for susceptibility to discoloring fungi and water uptake. In addition, annual ring width and density were measured. The methods used were Mycologg for testing growth of fungi and a modified version of EN 927-5 to investigate water uptake. For pine, the heartwood showed a lower water uptake and no discoloring fungi growing in the tests. The heartwood had a significantly higher density and smaller annual ring width than the sapwood. In PA the heartwood had significantly lower discoloration than sapwood. The total water uptake in g/m2 was significantly higher in sapwood, but not the calculated moisture content. As for wood properties, the density was significantly higher in sapwood compared to heartwood, although there were no differences in annual ring width. Regarding PO, differences in water uptake could be seen between sapwood and heartwood although the densities were similar. These results show that susceptibility to discoloring fungi and water uptake is hard to correlate to a single inherent property when looking at different wood species.

  • 17.
    Blom, Åsa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Thörnqvist, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Live storage and drying of storm-felled Norwayspruce (Picea abies, L. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinussylvestris L.) trees2014In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 209-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Storm-felled trees left in the forest for a shorter or longer period, affect the quality of the logs. The change in quality ismainly because of attack of fungi and insects, which in turn depends on the moisture content (MC) of the sapwood. Thepurpose of this study was to receive more knowledge about drying of storm-felled trees by investigating how fast winterstorm-felled Norway spruce and Scots pine dried when left in the forest. Sixteen storm-felled spruces with part of the rootsstill in ground contact were selected from three stands and in addition to 10 pines from one of the stands. The trees wereexamined for MC in the sapwood until 21 months after the storm. This study indicates that wind-thrown trees with rootsstill connected to the soil can survive one summer without any value loss caused by draught, fungi and insects. The standconditions can be of importance as the storm-felled trees in the stand, with scattered windthrow, were in best condition afterone year, as they were shadowed by the trees still standing. Comparing spruces and pines with the stand with scatteredwindthrow, pines were more sensitive to drought and reached critical MC earlier.

  • 18.
    Blom, Åsa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Thörnqvist, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Bergström, Mikael
    Outdoor exposure of untreated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) wood samples2010In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 5, no 3-4, p. 204-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Untreated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) samples were exposed above ground in a durability test for six years. The samples consisted of three pieces of wood, 22x95x500 mm, screwed together; two pieces lengthwise with a third piece overlapping. Weight was measured, to calculate moisture content (MC), and samples checked regularly for cracks and fungal growth. Parameters investigated were heartwood/sapwood (pine), annual ring orientation (spruce), stand site, annual ring width and density.

    Stand site, annual ring width or density had no influence on MC or fungal growth for neither pine nor spruce. Spruce samples with vertical annual rings had lesser amounts of cracks than samples with horizontal annual rings.

    Regarding pine sapwood samples, they showed high MC and large amount of rot fungi, while heartwood had lower MC and no rot. Most spruce samples were similar to pine heartwood, except from a few samples that had high MC and fungal growth. Those were all sawn from the outer part of the log. Therefore, it can be stated that spruce sawn from the inner part has almost the same properties as pine heartwood while spruce from the outer part of the log has properties similar to pine sapwood.

  • 19.
    Blom, Åsa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Thörnqvist, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Bergström, Mikael
    Presence of longitudinal cracks in planks from storm-felled pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.)2012In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 237-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After the severe storm Gudrun in southern Sweden in 2005, a quantitative study was done in order to investigate the presence of lengthwise crack on planks taken from storm-felled trees in southern Sweden, compared to planks from standing trees not subjected to this storm (central Sweden). The main yield from each log was examined. In total, 1087 pine (Pinus sylvestris) planks and 3626 spruce (Picea abies) planks from the storm-struck area were investigated and compared to 1953 spruce and 2000 pine planks from trees outside the storm-struck area. The examination of cracks was done visually on dried planks. For pine, 51.7% of the planks from storm-felled trees had a total length longer than 0.5 m, compared to 7.3% for the reference material. As for spruce, 11.0% of the planks from storm-felled trees had a total crack length of more than 0.5 m, compared to the reference material where 2.2% had cracks longer than 0.5 m. The results show that the storm-felled trees had more longitudinal cracks than the reference material and that pine was more likely to develop storm-related cracks than spruce.

  • 20.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Shape stability of laminated veneer products: an experimental study of the influence on distortion of some material and process parameters2013In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 198-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A shortcoming of the laminated bending process is that the products may become distorted after moulding and during use. In this study, we have examined the influence of different UF-adhesive systems, adhesive distribution, and veneer properties such as species, moisture content, and fibre orientation. Two different species were studied: beech (Fagus silvatica L.) and birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.). Distortion was determined directly after moulding and after storage in a changing relative humidity. The aim of the work was to study how the above-mentioned material and process parameters influence the distortion. The results show that the material and process parameters and the storage in a changing relative humidity had a clear impact on distortion. Fibre orientation, differences in moisture content between veneers, and the moisture gradient in the final product are identified in this study as being the most important parameters influencing the distortion and shape stability of laminated veneer products

  • 21.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Shape stability of laminated veneer products: an experimental study of the influence on distortion of some material and process parameters2013In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 198-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laminated bending of veneers is a common used and important process for manufacture of components primarily for furniture and interior purposes. According to the use, such products are in general very sensitive to variations in the intended shape, i.e. distortion can be of great problem and more or less destroy the use of the final product. The most critical mode of distortion is twist, but also other changes in shape may be of interest to keep low. The causes to distortion of laminated bended veneer products can be of material (veneer, adhesive and the combination of these), design, processes and climate nature and there is a challenge to know which parameters which are of major importance for distortion, both directly after moulding and when the products are in use.

    In this study, the influence of type of UF-adhesive hardener, i.e. liquid or powder, water content of adhesive, adhesive distribution, variation of moisture content of glued veneers, and fibre orientation of veneers, on twist and position for a 3D-veneer construction (a chair seat shell) has been studied. Distortion, i.e. twist and position, has been determined directly after moulding and after moisture cycling. The moisture cycling was to simulate and accelerate conditions that the shells are subjected in use. The aim of the work is to study how the above mentioned material and process parameters influence the shape stability of the products.

    The results show that the climate, i.e. how a certain level of temperature and relative humidity influence the moisture content of the moulded product, has a clear impact on the distortion of the product in use. An increase in moisture content results in a significant increase in distortion and vice versa. The level to which the moulded products distort during climate variation can be controlled through controlling material, design and process parameter during moulding. Of the studied parameter mentioned above, a deviation in fibre orientation of the veneers in the moulded assembly is the most critical parameter to have under control to minimize distortion. The fibre deviation mainly results in an increase in twist. A high moisture content of a veneer vis-à-vis the rest of the veneers in the assembly before moulding, will result in increased position and twist of the moulded product in use. The difference of moisture content between veneers and the position of veneers with high moisture content in the assembly will influence the level of distortion. Other studied parameter also influences the distortion to a lesser extent and can in these cases be related to the moisture distribution in the mouldings.

  • 22.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Forest and Wood Technology, Linnæus University.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnæus University, Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Influence of veneer orientation on shape stability of plane laminated veneer products2014In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 224-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most important quality aspects of a laminated veneer product is its shape stability under changing relative humidity (RH). This study aimed to establish an understanding of how the orientation of individual veneers in the laminate, i.e., orientation according to fibre orientation and orientation of the loose (the side with ‘lathe checks’) or tight side of the veneer, affects the shape stability. Three-ply laminates from peeled veneers of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) were studied. The four types of laminate were the following: loose sides of all veneers in the same direction (cross and parallel centre ply) and loose sides of the outer veneers facing inward (cross and parallel centre ply). Four replicates of each type yielded 16 samples. The samples were exposed to RH cycling at 20% and 85% RH at 20°C, and the shapes of the samples were determined. The shape stability was influenced by the veneer orientation. Laminations with the middle veneer perpendicular to the top and bottom veneer (cross-laminated) showed the best shape stability, especially when the loose sides of the veneers were oriented the same direction. In parallel-laminated veneers, the laminates with opposite directions of the loose sides in the two outermost veneers showed the best shape stability. The major explanation of the behaviour of the laminates is that the loose side expanded more than the tight side from the dry to the humid climate, which was shown by optical 3D deformation analysis (ARAMISTM). After RH cycling, the laminates with cross plies showed visible surface checks only when the tight side was facing outwards.

  • 23.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå University of Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Influence of veneer orientation on shape stability of plane laminated veneer products2014In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 224-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most important quality aspects of a laminated veneer product is its shape stability under changing relative humidity (RH). This study aimed to establish an understanding of how the orientation of individual veneers in the laminate, i.e., orientation according to fibre orientation and orientation of the loose (the side with ‘lathe checks’) or tight side of the veneer, affects the shape stability. Three-ply laminates from peeled veneers of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) were studied. The four types of laminate were the following: loose sides of all veneers in the same direction (cross and parallel centre ply) and loose sides of the outer veneers facing inward (cross and parallel centre ply). Four replicates of each type yielded 16 samples. The samples were exposed to RH cycling at 20% and 85% RH at 20°C, and the shapes of the samples were determined. The shape stability was influenced by the veneer orientation. Laminations with the middle veneer perpendicular to the top and bottom veneer (cross-laminated) showed the best shape stability, especially when the loose sides of the veneers were oriented the same direction. In parallel-laminated veneers, the laminates with opposite directions of the loose sides in the two outermost veneers showed the best shape stability. The major explanation of the behaviour of the laminates is that the loose side expanded more than the tight side from the dry to the humid climate, which was shown by optical 3D deformation analysis (ARAMISTM). After RH cycling, the laminates with cross plies showed visible surface checks only when the tight side was facing outwards.

  • 24.
    Bolmsvik, Åsa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Damping elastomers for wooden constructions: Dynamic properties2015In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 245-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elastomers are commonly used to decrease the sound transmission between apartments in timber framed houses. Inprevious studies, different types of connections have been evaluated. However, the frequency dependent dynamic propertiesin different directions of a connection including elastomers are not fully investigated yet. Previous studies have actuallyshown that elastomers cause the vibrations to increase in the direction perpendicular to the applied load within the lowfrequency span. The properties of the elastomers are needed in order to model the dynamic behaviour and thereby be ableto predict sound and vibration transmissions in wooden houses in the future. With known properties, the elastomerconnections can be modelled using springs and dashpots. In this study, dynamic experiments have been made on elastomerstrips half embedded. The test setup has been subjected to various loads using an electromagnetic shaker. The responseshave been measured and evaluated using modal analysis. With different loads, non-linear characteristics of the elastomers’behaviour have been obtained. The elastomers have also been tested quasi-statically, to obtain a load-deflection curve.Finally, the estimated properties of the elastomers have been included in an FE model using springs and the analyticalresults are compared with the experimental results.

  • 25.
    Breinig, Lorenz
    et al.
    Forest Research Institute of Baden-Württemberg, 79100 Freiburg.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Brüchert, Franka
    Forest Research Institute of Baden-Württemberg, 79100 Freiburg.
    Becker, Gero
    Institute of Forest Sciences, University of Freiburg.
    Optimization potential for perception-oriented appearance classification by simulated sawing of computed tomography-scanned logs of Norway spruce2015In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 319-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood, as a natural material, has favourable properties in both technical and aesthetic aspects. Due to its inherent variability,production of high-quality sawn timber demands adequate control of log conversion, which is feasible with computedtomography (CT) log scanning. Existing appearance grading rules for sawn timber might not fully reflect people’s visualperception of wood surfaces, and therefore, an alternative, more perception-oriented appearance classification could bebeneficial. An appearance classification of sawn timber based on partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) ofknot-pattern variables was developed and tested. Knot-pattern variables derived from images of board faces were used intraining PLS-DA models against an initial classification of the board faces previously established by aid of cluster analysis.Virtual board faces obtained from simulated breakdown of 57 CT-scanned Norway spruce logs were graded according tothe developed classification. Visual assessment of the grading results indicated that the classification was largely consistentwith human perception of board appearance. An initial estimation of the potential to optimize log rotation, based on CTdata, for the established appearance grades was derived from the simulations. Considerable potential to increase the yield ofa desired appearance grade, compared to conventional log positioning, was observed.

  • 26.
    Broman, Olof
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Wood material features and technical defects that affect yield in a finger joint production process2012In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 167-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A cost efficient process is the goal of all production, and each manufacturing step affects the material utilization and cost efficiency. There is high diversity in the inherent features of wood, and manufacturing steps must be able to handle this. The overall objective was to study the potential and problems in manufacturing production processes in terms of material utilization efficiency. The production of finger jointed bed sides was chosen as a study case, where the chain of production units are the sawmill, finger joint plant and furniture plant. This article describes the impact of raw material and wood defects that could affect the total yield. A total of 177 logs of three types were tested: butt, intermediate and fresh knot logs. The test material quality was detected and measured through all steps in the manufacturing chain. The results show differences between log types in down-grade causes, reject volume and final yield. Also, the test material showed high levels of defective components with process-related defects, which suggested the need for technical improvement in the manufacturing process. The intermediate log group showed the overall best result.

  • 27.
    Butylina, Svetlana
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lappeenranta University of Technology.
    Martikka, Ossi
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lappeenranta University of Technology.
    Kärki, Timo
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lappeenranta University of Technology.
    Comparison of water absorption and mechanical properties of wood-plastic composites made from polypropylene and polylactic acid2010In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 5, no 3-4, p. 220-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the water absorption and mechanical properties of composites made from softwood sawdust and plastics, such as virgin and recycled polypropylene and polylactic acid (PLA). The composites were processed by extrusion, and their properties were investigated by a water immersion test, mechanical tests and a cyclic test for moisture resistance. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the morphology of the fracture surfaces of the composites. The composites made with recycled polypropylene had the lowest water absorption and thickness swelling of the studied composites. The PLA composites made with heat-treated sawdust showed the highest flexural strength. Of the polypropylene based composites, virgin polypropylene resulted in composites with higher flexural strength. The Charpy impact strength of the composites was found to have an inverse trend compared to flexural strength. Cyclic treatment of the studied composites resulted in 20-60% loss of flexural strength, depending on type of composite.

  • 28.
    Caprolu, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Källsner, Bo
    School of Engineering, Linnæus University, Växjö, Linnéuniversitetet, Linnaeus University, Växjö.
    Analytical models for splitting capacity of bottom rails in partially anchored timber frame shear walls based on fracture mechanics2017In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 165-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastic design methods can be used for determining the load-carrying capacity of partially anchored shear walls. For such walls, the leading stud is not fully anchored against uplift and tying down forces are developed in the sheathing-to-framing joints and the bottom rail will be subjected to crosswise bending, leading to possible splitting failure of the rail. In order to use these plastic design methods, a ductile behaviour of the sheathing-to-framing joints must be ensured. In two earlier experimental programmes, the splitting failure capacity of the bottom rail has been studied. Two brittle failure modes occurred during testing: (1) a crack opening from the bottom surface of the bottom rail and (2) a crack opening from the side surface of the bottom rail. In this article, a fracture mechanics approach for the two failure modes is used to evaluate the experimental results. The comparison shows a good agreement between the experimental and analytical results. The failure mode is largely dependent on the distance between the edge of the washer and the loaded edge of the bottom rail. The fracture mechanics models seem to capture the essential behaviour of the splitting modes and to include the decisive parameters. 

  • 29.
    Caprolu, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Analytical models for splitting capacity of bottom rails in partially anchored timber frame shear walls based on fracture mechanics2017In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 165-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastic design methods can be used for determining the load-carrying capacity of partially anchored shear walls. For such walls, the leading stud is not fully anchored against uplift and tying down forces are developed in the sheathing-to-framing joints and the bottom rail will be subjected to crosswise bending, leading to possible splitting failure of the rail. In order to use these plastic design methods, a ductile behaviour of the sheathing-to-framing joints must be ensured. In two earlier experimental programmes, the splitting failure capacity of the bottom rail has been studied. Two brittle failure modes occurred during testing: (1) a crack opening from the bottom surface of the bottom rail and (2) a crack opening from the side surface of the bottom rail. In this article, a fracture mechanics approach for the two failure modes is used to evaluate the experimental results. The comparison shows a good agreement between the experimental and analytical results. The failure mode is largely dependent on the distance between the edge of the washer and the loaded edge of the bottom rail. The fracture mechanics models seem to capture the essential behaviour of the splitting modes and to include the decisive parameters.

  • 30.
    Couceiro, José
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Lindgren, Owe
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Hansson, Lars
    Department of Ocean Operations and Civil Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Ålesund, Norway.
    Söderström, Ove
    c Professor Emeritus of Building Materials, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Real-time wood moisture-content determination using dual-energy X-ray computed tomography scanning2019In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 437-444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The estimation of the pixel-wise distribution of the moisture content (MC) in wood using X-ray computed tomography (CT) requires two scans of the same wood specimen at different MCs, one of which is known. Image-processing algorithms are needed to compensate for the anisotropic distortion that wood undergoes as it dries. An alternative technique based on dual-energy CT (DECT) to determine MC in wood has been suggested by several authors. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the hypothesis that DECT can be used for the determination of MC in real time. A method based on the use of the quotient between the linear attenuation coefficients (μ) at different acceleration voltages (the so-called quotient method) was used. A statistical model was created to estimate the MC in solid sapwood of Scots pine, Norway spruce and brittle willow. The results show a regression model with R2 > 0.97 that can predict the MC in these species with a RMSE of prediction of 0.07, 0.04 and 0.11 (MC in decimal format) respectively and at MC levels ranging from the green to the totally dry condition. Individual measurements of MC show an uncertainty of up to ±0.4. It is concluded that under the conditions prevailing in this study, and in studies referred to in this paper, it is not possible to measure MC with DECT.

  • 31.
    Cristescu, Carmen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Ekevad, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Influence of pressing parameters on mechanical and physical properties of self-bonded laminated beech boards2015In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 205-214Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32. Cristovao, Luis
    et al.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Grönlund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Ekevad, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Sitoe, Rui
    Main cutting force models for two species of tropical wood2012In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 143-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the main cutting force for two species of tropical Mozambican wood and to develop predictive models. Cutting these hardwoods is difficult. Determination of cutting parameters is required to optimize cutting processes, machines and tools in the cutting operations. This determination would enable the forestry and wood sector to achieve higher financial results. Samples of a lesser-known wood species Pseudolachnostylis maprounaefolia (ntholo) and a well-known wood species Swartzia madagascariensis (ironwood) were machined in a test apparatus. A standard single saw tooth mounted on a piezoelectric load cell was used to evaluate the main cutting force. Data were captured using an A/D converter integrated with National Instruments LabVIEW software. The measured signals were recorded at a sampling frequency of 25 kHz. The experimental set-up used response surface methodology for developing predictive models. The experimental clearly determined the relationship between the main cutting force and edge radius, wood density, rake angle, chip thickness, moisture content (MC) and cutting direction (CD). Among the studied variables, chip thickness and CD had the highest effect on the main cutting force level while wood density, MC and rake angle had the lowest effect.

  • 33. Cristovao, Luis
    et al.
    Lhate, Imacio
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Grönlund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Ekevad, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Sitoe, Rui
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo.
    Tool wear for lesser known tropical wood species2011In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 155-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the relationship between tool wear and some chemical and physical properties for four different Mozambican lesser known tropical species,: Pseudolachnostylis maprounaefolia (ntholo), Sterculia appendiculata (metil), Acacia nigrescens (namuno) and Pericopsis angolensis (muanga). Tool wear is an important aspect for sawmilling and for the woodworking industry. For Mozambique, the utilization of available lesser known wood species will help to increase domestic industry and the economic usage viability of sustainable forest management. A set of experiments was performed on a shaper with a mechanical feed mechanism. Tools of a cemented carbide grade for woodworking were used, and the cutting parameters were fixed. Edge recession and tool wear radius were measured for monitoring tool wear. The wear mechanism was investigated using a scanning electron microscope. The experimental results showed that the chemical properties of the wood species have a great effect on tool wear. Wood silica content was the most important factor affecting tool wear. Wood density and extractives had a low influence on tool wear. The highest tool wear was observed in ntholo, which also had the highest ash and silica contents. A single parameter for evaluation of tool wear was not sufficient to describe the amount of total tool wear

  • 34.
    Dagbro, Ola
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Torniainen, Petteri
    Department of Forest Products, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Morén, Tom
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Colour responses from wood, thermally modified in superheated steam and pressurized steam atmospheres2010In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 211-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, two different methods were used to produce thermally modified wood. One was carried out in a typical kiln drying chamber using superheated steam (SS) and the other used pressurized steam in an autoclave cylinder (PS). Overall, both processes followed the same principles and the wood was not treated with any chemicals. Two wood species were studied, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies). Treatments in the autoclave were carried out under pressure using temperatures of 160°C, 170°C and 180°C. Temperatures of 190°C and 212°C were used in treatments in the chamber at normal air pressure. The colour was measured using L*C*H colour space. Results for both species showed that similar L* (lightness) can be reached at lower (20-308C) temperatures using PS compared with SS treatment. The hue angle of PS-treated wood was smaller than that of SS-treated wood. No significant difference in C* (chroma) was detected. The difference in E value between PS- and SS-treated wood was smaller for Norway spruce than for Scots pine. The residual moisture content was about 10% higher in wood treated by the PS process compared with the SS process

  • 35.
    Dagbro, Ola
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration. Linnéuniversitetet.
    Torniainen, Petteri
    Department of Forest Products, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Träteknik.
    Morén, Tom
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Träteknik.
    Colour responses from wood, thermally modified in superheated steam and pressurized steam atmospheres2010In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 211-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, two different methods were used to produce thermally modified wood. One was carried out in a typical kiln drying chamber using superheated steam (SS) and the other used pressurized steam in an autoclave cylinder (PS). Overall, both processes followed the same principles and the wood was not treated with any chemicals. Two wood species were studied, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies). Treatments in the autoclave were carried out under pressure using temperatures of 160°C, 170°C and 180°C. Temperatures of 190°C and 212°C were used in treatments in the chamber at normal air pressure. The colour was measured using L*C*H colour space. Results for both species showed that similar L* (lightness) can be reached at lower (20-308C) temperatures using PS compared with SS treatment. The hue angle of PS-treated wood was smaller than that of SS-treated wood. No significant difference in C* (chroma) was detected. The difference in E value between PS- and SS-treated wood was smaller for Norway spruce than for Scots pine. The residual moisture content was about 10% higher in wood treated by the PS process compared with the SS process

  • 36. De Vetter, Liesbeth
    et al.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Treu, Andreas
    Westin, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Van Acker, Joris
    Combined evaluation of durability and ecotoxicity: A case study on furfurylated wood2009In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 4, no 1-2, p. 30-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modified wood is commercially available and merchandized as a new, environmentally friendly and durable wood species. However, there are no standards focusing on the evaluation of modified wood. Combining resistance against fungal decay and good ecotoxicological properties may be a start. In this study softwood and hardwood species were furfurylated using different treatment processes and treating solutions. The durability was determined by exposing the treated wood to a range of Basidiomycetes and the ecotoxicity was studied on two aquatic organisms. It was the purpose to come to a strategy and how to unite efficacy and ecotoxicity, since this is important in product development. The results show that the selection of fungus used for mass loss determination and the choice of ecotoxicity method is decisive, confirming that a combination of methods is valuable. A tiered approach to find the optimal treatment seems the best option. First, adequate protection against wood-rotting fungi should be attained, followed by ecotoxicity evaluation of the wood leachates. If necessary, the optimization process should be repeated until both durability and ecotoxicity are within satisfactory limits. This process could be extended with other evaluation criteria, e.g. dimensional stability of the modified wood or a risk analysis of its leachate.

  • 37.
    Dvinskikh, Sergey
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Physical Chemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Industrial NMR Centre.
    Furó, István
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Physical Chemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Industrial NMR Centre.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Linnæus University, School of Engineering.
    Söderström, Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology.
    Moisture content profiles and uptake kinetics in wood cladding materials evaluated by a portable nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer2011In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 119-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the capability of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology based on small portable magnets for in situ studies of the local moisture content in wood. Low-field and low-resolution [1H]NMR with a unilateral permanent magnet was used to monitor and map the moisture content of wood cladding materials of various types in a spatially resolved manner. The results show that portable NMR equipment based on small open-access permanent magnets can be successfully used for non-invasive monitoring of the moisture content in various extended wood specimens. The moisture content was measured with a depth resolution of 0.2 mm and a maximum penetration depth of 3 mm. This makes the technique suitable for in situ local moisture content measurements beneath a coating layer in the cladding, for example, and it is also possible to relate the moisture level to specific properties of the wood material.

  • 38. Dvinskikh, Sergey V.
    et al.
    Furó, István
    Sandberg, Dick
    Söderström, Ove
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Moisture content profiles and uptake kinetics in wood cladding materials evaluated by a portable nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer2011In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 119-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the capability of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology based on small portable magnets for in situ studies of the local moisture content in wood. Low-field and low-resolution [1H]NMR with a unilateral permanent magnet was used to monitor and map the moisture content of wood cladding materials of various types in a spatially resolved manner. The results show that portable NMR equipment based on small open-access permanent magnets can be successfully used for non-invasive monitoring of the moisture content in various extended wood specimens. The moisture content was measured with a depth resolution of 0.2 mm and a maximum penetration depth of 3 mm. This makes the technique suitable for in situ local moisture content measurements beneath a coating layer in the cladding, for example, and it is also possible to relate the moisture level to specific properties of the wood material.

  • 39.
    Dvinskikh, Sergey V.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology KTH, Division of Physical Chemistry and Industrial NMR Centre, SE-100 44 STOCKHOLM, .
    Furó, István
    Royal Institute of Technology KTH, Division of Physical Chemistry and Industrial NMR Centre, SE-100 44 STOCKHOLM, .
    Sandberg, Dick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Söderström, Ove
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Moisture content profiles and uptake kinetics in wood cladding materials evaluated by a portable nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer2011In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 119-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have evaluated the capability of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology based on small portable magnets for in situ studies of the local moisture content in wood. Low field and low resolution 1H NMR with a unilateral permanent magnet was used to monitor and map the moisture content of wood cladding materials of various types in a spatially resolved manner. The results show that portable NMR equipment based on small open-access permanent magnets can be successfully used for non-invasive monitoring of the moisture content in various extended wood specimens. The moisture content was measured with a depth resolution of 0.2 mm and a maximum penetration depth of 3 mm. This makes the technique suitable for e.g. in situ local moisture content measurements beneath a coating layer in the claddings and it is also possible to relate the moisture level to specific properties of the wood material.

  • 40.
    Ekevad, Mats
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Cristovao, Luis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Marklund, Birger
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Lateral cutting forces for different tooth geometries and cutting directions2012In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 126-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lateral (sideways) cutting forces were measured for 6 different tooth geometries when cutting green spruce and pine heartwood. The teeth were intended for use on circular saw blades for the rip sawing of logs. The 6 tooth geometries were designated straight, pointed, bevelled, rounded, trapezoidal and hollowed out. Cutting speed was 15 m/s, feed per tooth was 0.3 mm and the cutting directions were 90°–90° (rip sawing) and 90°–0° (milling), with two different variants of growth ring angles for each direction. The tools were tested in sharp conditions, in dull conditions and in a dull condition with a corner broken off. All lateral forces were small when cutting with sharp teeth, except for the rounded and bevelled teeth. Lateral forces increased with wear, except for a period of initial wear where the lateral forces were reduced. High wear resulted in greater lateral forces, most probably due to unsymmetrical wear. Growth ring direction did not generally affect lateral forces. The teeth with acute corners, which were the straight and hollowed out tooth, were most sensitive to a broken off corner. The lateral forces in the cases of wood cutting at 90°–90° increased less with wear compared to the 90°–0° cases.

  • 41.
    Ekevad, Mats
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Cristovao, Luis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Marklund, Birger
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Wear of teeth of circular saw blades2012In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 150-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measured wear data is presented for three different carbide grades. The data were collected during rip sawing wood with a double arbour saw. The purpose of the test was to determine the suitability of different grades for sawing frozen timber. A set of circular saw blades of diameter 350 mm was equipped with teeth comprised of three different cemented carbide grades, denoted A, B and C. The double arbour saw was equipped with six saw blades for cutting two centre boards and two side boards. The six saw blades with different teeth were mounted in a mixed manner on the arbours, and after sawing a number of logs the wear of teeth was measured. The thickness of boards was also measured and the standard deviation was calculated. The results showed that grade A had the highest wear and grades B and C the lowest wear. There was no significant edge damage during the tests. Grade C did not suffer problems of chipping from cutting edges and was found to be suitable for sawing frozen timber. The thickness standard deviations were constant at about 0.2 mm, and not a function of the number of logs sawn.

  • 42.
    Ekevad, Mats
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Guo, Xiaolei
    Nanjing Forestry University, Faculty of Material Science & Engneering, Nanjing Forestry University.
    Li, Rongrong
    Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing Forestry University, Faculty of Material Science & Engneering.
    Öhman, Micael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Curve sawing effects on board dimensions when rip-sawing with a circular saw blade2016In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 135-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Curve sawing means advantages for yield and quality of sawn boards. However, for circular saw machinery deviations of saw kerfs give losses of valuable board volume. Deviations give thinner boards but also slight cupping of the cross sections. Theoretical calculations show that even with moderate (large) curve radii, these saw kerf deviations are typically 0.2–0.6 mm for normal circular saw machinery and Swedish log material. The test sawing reported here was made in order to give experimental values that can be compared to theoretical values. Fifty normal logs and 50 curved with top diameter 236–248 mm were cut with sawing pattern 3X with center boards 51 × 149 mm. The average curve radius of the curved cants that were cut in the resaw was 132 m (bow height 19 mm) and the theoretical saw kerf deviation for this radius is 0.31 mm. The experimental results show that the thickness reduction at the measuring points for curve sawn boards compared to straight sawn boards was in average 0.19 mm to be compared with the theoretical value of 0.20 mm. Cupping was more difficult to measure but results seem to agree well between theory and experiments.

  • 43. Ekevad, Mats
    et al.
    Lundgren, Nils
    Flodin, Jens
    SP- Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Drying shrinkage of sawn timber of Norway spruce (Picea abies): Industrial measurements and finite element simulations2011In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 6, no 1-2, p. 41-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial measurements of green and dry cross-section dimensions were performed for 189 Norway spruce (Picea abies) centre-yield boards with dry dimensions 51 × 149 mm. Two, three or four boards were sawn from each log, depending on log size. Different approaches were used for simulations of cross-section shrinkage during drying. An analytical model, an elastic, an elastic– mechanosorptive and an elastic– plastic finite element simulation model were tested. Thickness and width shrinkage and deformation were simulated. Shrinkage results were compared with each other and with the experimental results. All simulation models gave roughly the same degree of agreement with experimental results except for the centre board from the three-board sawing pattern. For the other boards, the analytical model was not generally better or worse than the results from the finite element models. Shrinkage deformations in finite element models that included mechanosorption or plasticity were nearly the same as for the elastic finite element model except for the centre board of the three-board sawing pattern. The mechanosorptive model was the best model for the shrinkage of the centre board of this sawing pattern except for mid-thickness shrinkage. Comparison between the different finite element simulation models of stresses in the centre board revealed large differences.

  • 44.
    Ekevad, Mats
    et al.
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet, Avdelning för Träteknik.
    Lundgren, Nils
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet, Avdelning för Träteknik.
    Flodin, Jens
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Wood Technology, Skeria 2, Skellefteå, Sweden.
    Drying shrinkage of sawn timber of Norway spruce (Picea abies): industrial measurements and finite element simulations2011In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 41-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial measurements of green and dry cross-section dimensions were performed for 189 Norway spruce (Picea abies) centre-yield boards with dry dimensions 51x49 mm. Two, three or four boards were sawn from each log, depending on log size. Different approaches were used for simulations of cross-section shrinkage during drying. An analytical model, an elastic, an elastic mechanosorptive and an elastic plastic finite element simulation model were tested. Thickness and width shrinkage and deformation were simulated. Shrinkage results were compared with each other and with the experimental results. All simulation models gave roughly the same degree of agreement with experimental results except for the centre board from the three-board sawing pattern. For the other boards, the analytical model was not generally better or worse than the results from the finite element models. Shrinkage deformations in finite element models that included mechanosorption or plasticity were nearly the same as for the elastic finite element model except for the centre board of the three-board sawing pattern. The mechanosorptive model was the best model for the shrinkage of the centre board of this sawing pattern except for mid-thickness shrinkage. Comparison between the different finite element simulation models of stresses in the centre board revealed large differences.

  • 45.
    Ekevad, Mats
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Lundgren, Nils
    Flodin, Jens
    Drying shrinkage of sawn timber of Norway spruce (Picea abies): industrial measurements and finite element simulations2011In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 6, no 1-2, p. 41-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial measurements of green and dry cross-section dimensions were performed for 189 Norway spruce (Picea abies) centre-yield boards with dry dimensions 51 times 149 mm. Two, three or four boards were sawn from each log, depending on log size. Different approaches were used for simulations of cross-section shrinkage during drying. An analytical model, an elastic, an elastic- mechanosorptive and an elastic- plastic finite element simulation model were tested. Thickness and width shrinkage and deformation were simulated. Shrinkage results were compared with each other and with the experimental results. All simulation models gave roughly the same degree of agreement with experimental results except for the centre board from the three-board sawing pattern. For the other boards, the analytical model was not generally better or worse than the results from the finite element models. Shrinkage deformations in finite element models that included mechanosorption or plasticity were nearly the same as for the elastic finite element model except for the centre board of the three-board sawing pattern. The mechanosorptive model was the best model for the shrinkage of the centre board of this sawing pattern except for mid-thickness shrinkage. Comparison between the different finite element simulation models of stresses in the centre board revealed large differences.

  • 46.
    Ekevad, Mats
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Marklund, Birger
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Gren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Wood-chip formation in circular saw blades studied by high-speed photography2012In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 115-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Films of wood-chip formation were captured with a high-speed camera during rip sawing of wood with a circular saw blade. The saw blade diameter was 400 mm and the rotational speed was 3250 rpm. The saw blade had four teeth with rake angles of 0°, 10°, 20° and 30° to ascertain the influence of different rake angles. Wooden boards were cut along the side so that the camera could record the cutting sequence without any interference from material between the cutting teeth and the camera. Tests were made for green, dry and frozen green pine boards, for both counter-cutting and climb-cutting cases. In addition, some Mozambican wood species were cut. The films, recorded at 40,000 frames s−1, show the cutting sequence along the trajectory of the tooth in question and the creation of the wood chip. Details such as the compression of the wood chip in the gullet, the movement of the wood chip inwards and outwards in the gullet and finally the exit from the gullet are visible. The chip size and chip movement depend strongly on the rake angle and on whether the wood is green, dry, frozen or unfrozen.

  • 47.
    Ekevad, Mats
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Salin, Jarl-Gunnar
    Grundberg, Stig
    Nyström, Jan
    Grönlund, Anders
    Modelling of adequate pretwist for obtaining straight timber2006In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 76-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood in general and wooden studs in particular are often distorted owing to uneven shrinkage during the drying process in the sawmill. Twist is often the most detrimental of all types of distortion, and it is caused by spiral grain in combination with variations in moisture content. For sawmills, the objective is to produce dried, straight boards, and one method of dealing with boards with excessive spiral grain is to sort them out and then dry them in a pretwisted position to obtain straight boards after drying. A model using the finite element (FE) method for the simulation of drying twist distortions was first calibrated against laboratory experiments in which boards were dried with and without restraints and pretwists. After the calibration, the FE results were compared with industrial test results for boards that were dried without restraints or with restraints with zero pretwist, i.e. straight restraints. The FE model used an elastic-ideally plastic material model to obtain permanent deformations. The calibration was to set the yield stresses so that there was a good match between FE results and results from the laboratory experiments. The comparison between the industrial test results and the FE results showed that the FE model is capable of realistic simulations of drying boards with and without restraints and presumably also pretwists

  • 48.
    Eliasson, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Quality deficiencies regarding softwood in the pre-fabrication industry for single-family timber houses2012In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 53-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The members of the pre-fabricated single-family house industry perceive problems securing the quality of incoming material. Thus the implication is that they need to carry out a quality inspection and adjust the softwood timber as it arrives at their facilities in order to fit the production. Furthermore, due to the intense competition among companies in the pre-fabrication industry, there is a focus on reducing non-value-adding activities such as deficiencies. Consequently, the purpose of this study is to propose a number of propositions regarding quality deficiencies in softwood timber for the pre-fabrication of single-family houses. This study, conducted through interviews based on the theoretical aspects of properties, quality inspection and quality deficiency formulates seven fundamental propositions regarding quality deficiencies in this industry. The main differences among the companies studied are their purchased volume and extent of information and communication technology support in production. This fundamental description of quality deficiencies regarding softwood for the pre-fabrication of single-family houses will enable companies to focus on quality issues with their raw-material suppliers and thereby increase the competitiveness of softwood timber as a construction material in the industry.

  • 49.
    Eliasson, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    A case-study of single-family timber housing in Sweden and its wood material processing costIn: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50. Elustondo, Diego
    Lumber quality model: The theory2010In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 5, no 3-4, p. 162-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new model for predicting moisture content, distortion and shrinkage distribution after lumber drying has been designed, implemented and tested. The model was implemented using Monte Carlo simulation, and it involves three empirical equations that were developed on the basis of experimental data. The model is referred as the Lumber Quality Model, and it is designed to be calibrated by knowing the initial and final moisture content, distortion and shrinkage distribution for a reference drying run. After calibration, the model can be used to predict the same information for other hypothetical drying scenarios. The present study explains the theoretical aspects of the model and the methodology for implementation. The model was validated with experimental data measured in a laboratory kiln. A full-scale industrial validation will be reported in a future paper.

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