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  • 1.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Groundwater Directorate of Sulaimani, Kurdistan,Iraq.
    Ali, Salahalddin S.
    Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani,Kurdistan, Iraq. Komar University of Science and Technology, Iraqi Kurdistan , Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hydrogeochemical Evaluation of Groundwater and Its Suitability for Domestic Uses in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation of the hydrogeochemical characteristics and groundwater suitability for domestic use was conducted in the Halabja Saidsadiq Basin in the northeastern part of Iraq. The total studied area is about 1278 km 2 with a specific Mediterranean-type continental interior climate, which is cold in winter and hot in summer. To conduct the required laboratory chemical analysis for groundwater samples in the studied basin, 78 groundwater samples, in total, were collected from 39 water wells in the dry and wet seasons in 2014 and analyzed for major cations and anions, and the results were compared with the permitted limits for drinking water. An examination of the chemical concentrations of the World Health Organization drinking water norms demonstrate that a large portion of the groundwater samples is suitable for drinking, and a preponderance of groundwater samples situated in the class of hard and very hard water types for both seasons. Suitability of groundwater for drinking use was additionally assessed according to the water quality index classification. This showed that more than 98% of groundwater samples have good water quality in the dry and wet seasons. Conversely, the classification of groundwater samples based on Piper’s diagram designates that the groundwater type is alkaline water, with existing bicarbonate along with sulfate and chloride. However, water–ock exchange processes and groundwater flow have been responsible for the dominant water type of Ca–g–CO3.

  • 2. Aich, Valentin
    et al.
    Liersch, Stefan
    Vetter, Tobias
    Andersson, Jafet
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Mueller, Eva N.
    Hattermann, Fred F.
    Climate or Land Use?-Attribution of Changes in River Flooding in the Sahel Zone2015In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 2796-2820Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study intends to contribute to the ongoing discussion on whether land use and land cover changes (LULC) or climate trends have the major influence on the observed increase of flood magnitudes in the Sahel. A simulation-based approach is used for attributing the observed trends to the postulated drivers. For this purpose, the ecohydrological model SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model) with a new, dynamic LULC module was set up for the Sahelian part of the Niger River until Niamey, including the main tributaries Sirba and Goroul. The model was driven with observed, reanalyzed climate and LULC data for the years 1950-2009. In order to quantify the shares of influence, one simulation was carried out with constant land cover as of 1950, and one including LULC. As quantitative measure, the gradients of the simulated trends were compared to the observed trend. The modeling studies showed that for the Sirba River only the simulation which included LULC was able to reproduce the observed trend. The simulation without LULC showed a positive trend for flood magnitudes, but underestimated the trend significantly. For the Goroul River and the local flood of the Niger River at Niamey, the simulations were only partly able to reproduce the observed trend. In conclusion, the new LULC module enabled some first quantitative insights into the relative influence of LULC and climatic changes. For the Sirba catchment, the results imply that LULC and climatic changes contribute in roughly equal shares to the observed increase in flooding. For the other parts of the subcatchment, the results are less clear but show, that climatic changes and LULC are drivers for the flood increase; however their shares cannot be quantified. Based on these modeling results, we argue for a two-pillar adaptation strategy to reduce current and future flood risk: Flood mitigation for reducing LULC-induced flood increase, and flood adaptation for a general reduction of flood vulnerability.

  • 3.
    Alavaisha, Edmond
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. The Nature Conservancy, USA.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Assessment of Water Quality Across Irrigation Schemes: A Case Study of Wetland Agriculture Impacts in Kilombero Valley, Tanzania2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coupled change in land and water use due to increased farming intensity is a main factor affecting water quality and quantity, ecological functions and biodiversity globally. Prolonging growing seasons and increasing productivity in wetlands through irrigation have been targeted for increasing food security, particularly in developing countries. Nevertheless, irrigation and drainage have often been associated with degradation of water quality through increased agrochemical and fertiliser runoff and leaching at local scales. In this study, we investigated water quality in streams used for irrigation in a wetland area in Kilombero Valley, Tanzania. We measured physical-chemical water parameters and collected macroinvertebrates with different sensitivity to water quality across several small irrigation schemes covering various conditions. Turbidity, temperature, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N were significantly higher at sampling sites downstream of irrigation compared to upstream. Macroinvertebrate diversity, richness and average score per taxa (ASPT) were higher in general in sampling sites upstream of irrigation, with more sensitive macroinvertebrates decreasing in abundance downstream. There was a positive correlation between physical-chemical parameters and macroinvertebrate indices across the sites. We demonstrate that macroinvertebrate indices can be used as a quick assessment of water quality in response to irrigation schemes in small-scale farming systems of Tanzania. This in turn can allow us to track changes affecting wetland ecosystem function and biodiversity at higher trophic levels and across larger scales, thereby providing useful early warnings to help avoid widespread degradation under widespread agricultural intensification.

  • 4.
    Al-Madhlom, Qais
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. College of Engineering/Al-Musaib, University of Babylon, Hillah, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Hussain, Hussain Musa
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq.
    Site Selection of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Systems in Shallow Groundwater Conditions2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 7, article id 1393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Underground thermal energy storage (UTES) systems are widely used around the world, due to their relations to heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) applications [1]. To achieve the required objectives of these systems, the best design of these systems should be accessed first. The process of determining the best design for any UTES system has two stages, the type selection stage and the site selection stage. In the type selection stage, the best sort of UTES system is determined. There are six kinds of UTES systems, they are: boreholes, aquifer, bit, tank, tubes in clay, and cavern [2–5]. The selection of a particular type depends on three groups of parameters. They are: Site specific, design, and operation parameters (Figure 1). Apart from site specific parameters, the other two types can be changed through the life time of the system. The site specific parameters, e.g., geological, hydrogeological, and metrological, cannot be changed during the service period of the  ystem. Therefore, the design of the best type should depend, at first consideration, on site specific parameters.

  • 5.
    Ameen, Ameen Mohammed Salih
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur .
    Ibrahim, Zainah
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur .
    Othman, Faridah
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Minimizing the Principle Stresses of Powerhoused Rock-Fill Dams Using Control Turbine Running Units: Application of Finite Element Method2018In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, no 9, article id 1138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on improving the safety of embankment dams by considering theeffects of vibration due to powerhouse operation on the dam body. The study contains two ainparts. In the first part, ANSYS-CFX is used to create the three-dimensional (3D) Finite Volume (FV)model of one vertical Francis turbine unit. The 3D model is run by considering various reservoirconditions and the dimensions of units. The Re-Normalization Group (RNG) k-𝜀𝜀 turbulence modelis employed, and the physical properties of water and the flow haracteristics are defined in theturbine model. In the second phases, a 3D finite element (FE) numerical model for a rock-fill dam iscreated by using ANSYS®, considering the dam connection with its powerhouse represented by fourvertical Francis turbines, foundation, and the upstream reservoir. Changing the upstream watertable minimum and maximum water levels, standers earth gravity, fluid-solid interface, hydrostaticpressure, and the soil properties are onsidered. The dam model runs to cover all possibilities forturbines operating in accordance with the reservoir discharge ranges. In order to minimize stressesin the dam body and increase dam safety, this study optimizes the turbine operating system byintegrating turbine and dam models.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Robin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Hellström, J. Gunnar I.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Andreasson, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics. Vattenfall AB Research and Development, Älvkarleby Laboratory, Älvkarleby.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Numerical investigation of a hydropower tunnel: Estimating localised head-loss using the manning equation2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 8, article id 1562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fluid dynamics within a water tunnel is investigated numerically using a RANS approach with the k-ε turbulence model. The computational model is based on a laser scan of a hydropower tunnel located in Gävunda, Sweden. The tunnel has a typical height of 6.9 m and a width of 7.2 m. While the average cross-sectional shape of the tunnel is smooth the local deviations are significant, where some roughness elements may be in the size of 5 m implying a large variation of the hydraulic radius. The results indicate that the Manning equation can successfully be used to study the localised pressure variations by taking into account the varying hydraulic radius and cross-sectional area of the tunnel. This indicates a dominant effect of the tunnel roughness in connection with the flow, which has the potential to be used in the future evaluation of tunnel durability. ANSYS-CFX was used for the simulations along with ICEM-CFD for building the mesh. 

  • 7.
    Arheimer, Berit
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Nilsson, Johanna
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Experimenting with Coupled Hydro-Ecological Models to Explore Measure Plans and Water Quality Goals in a Semi-Enclosed Swedish Bay2015In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 7, no 7, p. 3906-3924Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measure plans are currently being developed for the Water Framework Directive (WFD) by European water authorities. In Sweden, such plans include measures for good ecological status in the coastal ecosystem. However, the effect of suggested measures is not yet known. We therefore experimented with different nutrient reduction measures on land and in the sea, using a model system of two coupled dynamic models for a semi-enclosed bay and its catchment. The science question was whether it is worthwhile to implement measures in the local catchment area to reach local environmental goals, or if the status of the Bay is more governed by the water exchange with the Sea. The results indicate that by combining several measures in the catchment, the nutrient load can be reduced by 15%-20%. To reach the same effect on nutrient concentrations in the Bay, the concentrations of the sea must be reduced by 80%. Hence, in this case, local measures have a stronger impact on coastal water quality. The experiment also show that the present targets for good ecological status set up by the Swedish water authorities may be unrealistic for this Bay. Finally, we discuss when and how to use hydro-ecological models for societal needs.

  • 8. Baird, Julia
    et al.
    Dzyundzyak, Angela
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Bullock, Ryan
    Dupont, Diane
    Jollineau, Marilyne
    Kubik, Wendee
    Pickering, Gary
    Vasseur, Liette
    Ecosystem Perceptions in Flood Prone Areas: A Typology and Its Relationship to Preferences for Governance2016In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 8, no 5, article id 191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A shift appears to be occurring in thinking about flooding, from a resistance-based approach to one of resilience. Accordingly, how stakeholders in flood-prone regions perceive the system and its governance are salient questions. This study queried stakeholders' internal representations of ecosystems (resistance- or resilience-based), preferences for governance actors and mechanisms for flooding, and the relationship between them in five different regions of the world. The influence of personal experience on these variables was also assessed. Most respondents aligned themselves with a resilience-based approach in relation to system connectedness and response to disturbance; however, respondents were almost evenly split between resistance- and resilience-based approaches when considering system management. Responses generally were considered to hold for other disturbances as well. There was no clear relationship between internal representations and preferences for governance actors or mechanisms. Respondents generally favoured actor combinations that included governments and mechanism combinations that included regulations and policies. Those who had personal experience with flooding tended to align themselves with a resilience-based internal representation of system management, but personal experience showed no clear relationship with governance preferences. The findings support an evolutionary perspective of flood management where emerging paradigms enhance preceding ones, and prompt a critical discussion about the universality of resilience as a framing construct.

  • 9. Baird, Julia
    et al.
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Bullock, Ryan
    Dupont, Diane
    Heinmiller, Tim
    Jollineau, Marilyne
    Kubik, Wendee
    Renzetti, Steven
    Vasseur, Liette
    Contemporary Water Governance: Navigating Crisis Response and Institutional Constraints through Pragmatism2016In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 8, no 6, article id 224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water has often been the source of crises and their frequency will intensify due to climate change impacts. The Niagara River Watershed provides an ideal case to study water crises as it is an international transboundary system (Canada-United States) and has both historical and current challenges associated with water quantity and quality, which resonates broadly in water basins throughout the world. The aim of this study was to understand how stakeholders perceive ecosystems and the relationship with preferences for governance approaches in the context of water governance. An online survey instrument was employed to assess perceptions of the system in terms of resilience (engineering, ecological, social-ecological, or epistemic), preferences for governance approaches (state, citizen, market, and hybrid forms), and the most pressing issues in the watershed. Responses showed that, despite demographic differences and adherence to different resilience perspectives, support was strongest for governance approaches that focused on state or state-citizen hybrid forms. The validity of the resilience typology as a grouping variable is discussed. The roles of institutional constraints, pragmatism in governance approach preferences, and the influence of multiple crises are explored in relation to the context of the study site, as well as to water governance scholarship more broadly.

  • 10.
    Bhagat, Suraj Kumar
    et al.
    Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Technology, Ambo University, Ambo, Ethiopia.
    Tiyasha, Tiyasha
    Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Technology, Ambo University, Ambo, Ethiopia.
    Welde, Wakjira
    Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Technology, Ambo University, Ambo, Ethiopia.
    Tesfaye, Olana
    Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Technology, Ambo University, Ambo, Ethiopia.
    Tung, Tran Minh
    Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Salih, Sinan Q.
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Evaluating Physical and Fiscal Water Leakage in Water Distribution System2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 10, article id 2091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing population, the need for research ideas on the field of reducing wastage of water can save a big amount of water, money, time, and energy. Water leakage (WL) is an essential problem in the field of water supply field. This research is focused on real water loss in the water distribution system located in Ethiopia. Top-down and bursts and background estimates (BABE) methodology is performed to assess the data and the calibration process of the WL variables. The top-down method assists to quantify the water loss by the record and observation throughout the distribution network. In addition, the BABE approach gives a specific water leakage and burst information. The geometrical mean method is used to forecast the population up to 2023 along with their fiscal value by the uniform tariff method. With respect to the revenue lost, 42575 Br and 42664 Br or in 1562$ and 1566$ were lost in 2017 and 2018, respectively. The next five-year population was forecasted to estimate the possible amount of water to be saved, which was about 549,627 m3 and revenue 65,111$ to make the system more efficient. The results suggested that the majority of losses were due to several components of the distribution system including pipe-joint failure, relatively older age pipes, poor repairing and maintenance of water taps, pipe joints and shower taps, negligence of the consumer and unreliable water supply. As per the research findings, recommendations were proposed on minimizing water leakage.

  • 11.
    Bin Asad, S M Sayeed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Andersson, Anders G.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Hellström, J. Gunnar I.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Leonardsson, Kjell
    Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wall shear stress measurement on curve objects with PIV in connection to benthic fauna in regulated rivers2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow characteristics in the vicinity of a set of half-cylinders of different sizes simulating benthic objects were studied experimentally using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The cylinders were mounted on the bottom of an open channel, and the influence of the flow speed on the distribution of the shear stress along the bottom geometry was investigated. Of special interest was how the shear stress changes close to the wall as a function of the flow speed and cylinder arrangement. It was found that the shear stress varies significantly as a function of position. This implies habitat heterogeneity allowing benthic invertebrates with different shear stress tolerance exists when the bottom consists of differently sized stones. It was also shown that direct measurements of near wall velocity gradients are necessary to accurately calculate the wall shear stress for more complex geometries.

  • 12.
    Chen, Yuanying
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Scenarios of Nutrient-Related Solute Loading and Transport Fate from Different Land Catchments and Coasts into the Baltic Sea2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 7, article id 1407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses controlled numerical experimentation to comparatively simulate and investigate solute transport and concentration responses and patterns in the Baltic Sea for various solute releases from the land through two different coastal cases. These cases are the Swedish Kalmar County coast and the Polish coast of the Vistula River outlet. For equivalent solute releases, the coastal flow conditions and their interactions with main marine currents determine the local coastal solute spreading, while the overall spreading over the Baltic Sea is similar for the two coastal cases, despite their large local differences. For nutrient-proportional solute release scenarios, the highly-populated Vistula catchment yields much greater total, but smaller per-capita nutrient impacts, in the Baltic Sea than the Kalmar County catchment. To be as low as from the Vistula catchment, the per-capita nutrient contribution from Kalmar County would have to be reduced much more than required on average per Swedish inhabitant by the Baltic Sea Action Plan. This highlights an unfairness issue in the per-capita distribution of nutrient load allowance among the Baltic countries, which needs to be considered and handled in further research and international efforts aimed to combat the Baltic Sea eutrophication.

  • 13.
    Chen, Yuanying
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Scenarios of Nutrient-Related Solute Loading and Transport Fate from Different Land Catchments and Coasts into the Baltic Sea2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 7, article id 1407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses controlled numerical experimentation to comparatively simulate and investigate solute transport and concentration responses and patterns in the Baltic Sea for various solute releases from the land through two different coastal cases. These cases are the Swedish Kalmar County coast and the Polish coast of the Vistula River outlet. For equivalent solute releases, the coastal flow conditions and their interactions with main marine currents determine the local coastal solute spreading, while the overall spreading over the Baltic Sea is similar for the two coastal cases, despite their large local differences. For nutrient-proportional solute release scenarios, the highly-populated Vistula catchment yields much greater total, but smaller per-capita nutrient impacts, in the Baltic Sea than the Kalmar County catchment. To be as low as from the Vistula catchment, the per-capita nutrient contribution from Kalmar County would have to be reduced much more than required on average per Swedish inhabitant by the Baltic Sea Action Plan. This highlights an unfairness issue in the per-capita distribution of nutrient load allowance among the Baltic countries, which needs to be considered and handled in further research and international efforts aimed to combat the Baltic Sea eutrophication.

  • 14.
    Chen, Yuanying
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Vigouroux, Guillaume
    Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Dept Phys Geog, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bring, Arvid
    Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Dept Phys Geog, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Dept Phys Geog, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Dominant Hydro-Climatic Drivers of Water Temperature, Salinity, and Flow Variability for the Large-Scale System of the Baltic Coastal Wetlands2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the large-scale coastal wetland system of the Baltic Sea, this study develops a methodology for investigating if and to what degree the variability and changes in certain hydro-climatic drivers control key coastal-marine physical conditions. The studied physical conditions include: (a) water temperature, (b) water salinity, and (c) flow structures (magnitudes and directions of flows between marine basins and the associated coastal zones and wetlands). We use numerical simulations of three hydro-climatically distinct cases to investigate the variations in hydro-climatic drivers and the resulting physical conditions (a-c) among the cases. The studied hydro-climatic forcing variables are: net surface heat flux, wind conditions, saltwater influx from the North Sea, and freshwater runoff from land. For these variables, the available observation-based data show that the total runoff from land is significantly and positively correlated with precipitation on the sea itself, and negatively correlated with saltwater influx from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea. Overall, the physical condition (a-c) variability in the Baltic Sea and its coastal zones is found to be pairwise well-explained by simulation case differences as follows: (a) Net heat flux is a main control of sea water temperature. (b) Runoff from land, along with the correlated salt water influx from the North Sea, controls average sea salinity; with the variability of local river discharges shifting some coastal zones to deviate from the average sea condition. (c) Wind variability and change control the Baltic Sea flow structure, primarily in terms of flow magnitude and less so in terms of flow direction. For specific coastal wetland zones, considerable salinity differences from average Baltic Sea conditions (due to variability in local river discharges) are found for the coasts of Finland and Estonia, while the coastal wetland zones of south-eastern Sweden, and of Estonia and Latvia, emerge as particularly sensitive to wind shifts.

  • 15.
    Chen, Yuanying
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    Vigouroux, Guillaume
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Bring, Arvid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Dominant Hydro-Climatic Drivers of Water Temperature, Salinity, and Flow Variability for the Large-Scale System of the Baltic Coastal Wetlands2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the large-scale coastal wetland system of the Baltic Sea, this study develops a methodology for investigating if and to what degree the variability and changes in certain hydro-climatic drivers control key coastal-marine physical conditions. The studied physical conditions include: (a) water temperature, (b) water salinity, and (c) flow structures (magnitudes and directions of flows between marine basins and the associated coastal zones and wetlands). We use numerical simulations of three hydro-climatically distinct cases to investigate the variations in hydro-climatic drivers and the resulting physical conditions (a-c) among the cases. The studied hydro-climatic forcing variables are: net surface heat flux, wind conditions, saltwater influx from the North Sea, and freshwater runoff from land. For these variables, the available observation-based data show that the total runoff from land is significantly and positively correlated with precipitation on the sea itself, and negatively correlated with saltwater influx from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea. Overall, the physical condition (a-c) variability in the Baltic Sea and its coastal zones is found to be pairwise well-explained by simulation case differences as follows: (a) Net heat flux is a main control of sea water temperature. (b) Runoff from land, along with the correlated salt water influx from the North Sea, controls average sea salinity; with the variability of local river discharges shifting some coastal zones to deviate from the average sea condition. (c) Wind variability and change control the Baltic Sea flow structure, primarily in terms of flow magnitude and less so in terms of flow direction. For specific coastal wetland zones, considerable salinity differences from average Baltic Sea conditions (due to variability in local river discharges) are found for the coasts of Finland and Estonia, while the coastal wetland zones of south-eastern Sweden, and of Estonia and Latvia, emerge as particularly sensitive to wind shifts.

  • 16.
    Dahlke, Helen E.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. University of California System .
    Easton, Zachary M.
    Fuka, Daniel R.
    Walter, M. Todd
    Steenhuis, Tammo S.
    Real-Time Forecast of Hydrologically Sensitive Areas in the Salmon Creek Watershed, New York State, Using an Online Prediction Tool2013In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 917-944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the northeastern United States (U.S.), watersheds and ecosystems are impacted by nonpoint source pollution (NPS) from agricultural activity. Where agricultural fields coincide with runoff-producing areas-so called hydrologically sensitive areas (HSA)-there is a potential risk of NPS contaminant transport to streams during rainfall events. Although improvements have been made, water management practices implemented to reduce NPS pollution generally do not account for the highly variable, spatiotemporal dynamics of HSAs and the associated dynamics in NPS pollution risks. This paper presents a prototype for a web-based HSA prediction tool developed for the Salmon Creek watershed in upstate New York to assist producers and planners in quickly identifying areas at high risk of generating storm runoff. These predictions can be used to prioritize potentially polluting activities to parts of the landscape with low risks of generating storm runoff. The tool uses real-time measured data and 24-48 h weather forecasts so that locations and the timing of storm runoff generation are accurately predicted based on present-day and future moisture conditions. Analysis of HSA predictions in Salmon Creek show that 71% of the largest storm events between 2006 and 2009 were correctly predicted based on 48 h forecasted weather data. Real-time forecast of HSAs represents an important paradigm shift for the management of NPS in the northeastern U.S.

  • 17.
    de Strasser, Lucia
    et al.
    KTH.
    Lipponen, Annukka
    Howells, Mark
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Stec, Stephen
    Brethaut, Christian
    A Methodology to Assess the Water Energy Food Ecosystems Nexus in Transboundary River Basins2016In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 8, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Destouni, Georgia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Robust Assessment of Uncertain Freshwater Changes: The Case of Greece with Large Irrigation-and Climate-Driven Runoff Decrease2018In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 1645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a data-driven approach to robustly assess freshwater changes due to climate change and/or human irrigation developments by use of the overarching constraints of catchment water balance. This is applied to and tested in the high-uncertainty case of Greece for five nested catchments of different scales across the country and for freshwater changes from an early period (1930-1949) with small human influences on climate and irrigation to a recent period (1990-2009) with expected greater such influences. The results show more or less equal contributions from climatic decrease in precipitation and from human irrigation development to a considerable total decrease in runoff (R) over Greece. This is on average -75 +/- 10 mm/year and is greatest for the Ionian catchment in the west (-119 +/- 18 mm/year) and the Peloponnese catchment in the south (-91 +/- 16 mm/year). For evapotranspiration (ET), a climate-driven decrease component and an irrigation-driven increase component have led to a net total increase of ET over Greece. This is on average 26 +/- 7 mm/year and is greatest for the Mainland catchment (29 +/- 7 mm/year) and the Aegean catchment in the east (28 +/- 6 mm/year). Overall, the resulting uncertainties in the water-balance constrained estimates of R and ET changes are smaller than the input data uncertainties.

  • 19.
    Driessen, Peter P. J.
    et al.
    Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Hegger, Dries L.T.
    Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.
    Institute for Agricultural and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznań, Poland. Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany.
    van Rijswick, Helena F. M. W.
    Utrecht Centre for Water, Oceans and Sustainability Law, Utrecht University School of Law, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Crabbé, Ann
    Research Group Environment & Society, Sociology Department, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Larrue, Corinne
    Paris School of Planning, Lab’Urba, Paris Est University, Marne La Vallée, France.
    Matczak, Piotr
    Institute of Sociology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Priest, Sally
    Flood Hazard Research Centre, Middlesex University, London, UK.
    Suykens, Cathy
    Utrecht Centre for Water, Oceans and Sustainability Law, Utrecht University School of Law, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Institute for Environmental and Energy Law, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Raadgever, Gerrit Thomas
    Sweco Netherlands, The Netherlands.
    Wiering, Mark
    Institute for Management Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Governance Strategies for Improving Flood Resilience in the Face of Climate Change2018In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 1595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flooding is the most common of all natural disasters and accounts for large numbers of casualties and a high amount of economic damage worldwide. To be ‘flood resilient’, countries should have sufficient capacity to resist, the capacity to absorb and recover, and the capacity to transform and adapt. Based on international comparative research, we conclude that six key governance strategies will enhance ‘flood resilience’ and will secure the necessary capacities. These strategies pertain to: (i) the diversification of flood risk management approaches; (ii) the alignment of flood risk management approaches to overcome fragmentation; (iii) the involvement, cooperation, and alignment of both public and private actors in flood risk management; (iv) the presence of adequate formal rules that balance legal certainty and flexibility; (v) the assurance of sufficient financial and other types of resources; (vi) the adoption of normative principles that adequately deal with distributional effects. These governance strategies appear to be relevant across different physical and institutional contexts. The findings may also hold valuable lessons for the governance of climate adaptation more generally.

  • 20.
    Eriksson, M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Ebert, Karin
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Stockholm University.
    Jarsjö, J.
    Stockholm University.
    Well salinization risk and effects of Baltic Sea level rise on the groundwater-dependent Island of Öland, Sweden2018In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we estimate baseline conditions in terms of the current risk of well salinization on the Baltic Sea island of öland, Sweden, and assess the effects of future sea level rise on the land area, infrastructure and cultural values. We use a multicriterion geographical information systems (GIS) approach. Geomorphological and physical parameters affect the risk of saltwater intrusion into freshwater aquifers, including their hydrology, geomorphology, and climatology; the spatial distribution of the current risk of salinization is mapped in this study. In the event of a future 2 m sea level rise, a total land area of 67 km2 will be inundated on öland, corresponding to approximately 5% of the island's land surface. Inundation includes urban areas, nature reserves, and animal protection areas, implying the loss of environmental and socioeconomic values. A future 2 m sea level rise will also cause direct inundation of 3% of all wells on the island. Currently, 17.5% of all wells are at a high risk of becoming saltwater contaminated. More generally, the present results add evidence showing a relatively high vulnerability of major Baltic Sea islands and their infrastructure to future sea level rise. The approach used here and related results, including salinization risk maps, may prove useful for decision-makers in the planning of infrastructure. Drilling of new wells could for instance preferably be done in areas with identified lower risk-index values, which would facilitate an overall higher freshwater withdrawal in the interest of the entire island. © 2018 by the authors.

  • 21.
    Eriksson, Marcus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Ebert, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Södertörn University, Sweden; .
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Well Salinization Risk and Effects of Baltic Sea Level Rise on the Groundwater-Dependent Island of Oland, Sweden2018In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we estimate baseline conditions in terms of the current risk of well salinization on the Baltic Sea island of Oland, Sweden, and assess the effects of future sea level rise on the land area, infrastructure and cultural values. We use a multicriterion geographical information systems (GIS) approach. Geomorphological and physical parameters affect the risk of saltwater intrusion into freshwater aquifers, including their hydrology, geomorphology, and climatology; the spatial distribution of the current risk of salinization is mapped in this study. In the event of a future 2 m sea level rise, a total land area of 67 km(2) will be inundated on Oland, corresponding to approximately 5% of the island's land surface. Inundation includes urban areas, nature reserves, and animal protection areas, implying the loss of environmental and socioeconomic values. A future 2 m sea level rise will also cause direct inundation of 3% of all wells on the island. Currently, 17.5% of all wells are at a high risk of becoming saltwater contaminated. More generally, the present results add evidence showing a relatively high vulnerability of major Baltic Sea islands and their infrastructure to future sea level rise. The approach used here and related results, including salinization risk maps, may prove useful for decision-makers in the planning of infrastructure. Drilling of new wells could for instance preferably be done in areas with identified lower risk-index values, which would facilitate an overall higher freshwater withdrawal in the interest of the entire island.

  • 22.
    Ewaid, Salam Hussein
    et al.
    Technical Institute of Shatra, Southern Technical University, Diwaniyah, Iraq.
    Abed, Salwan Ali
    Department of Environment, College of Science, University of Al Qadisiyah, Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Crop Water Requirements and Irrigation Schedules for Some Major Crops in Southern Iraq2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The climate of Iraq is of the subtropical semi-dry type; however, the country was rich in water resources until a few decades ago. Climate change and the construction of many dams on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in the neighboring countries have caused water shortages and poor water quality. Now, there is a need to decrease consumption, improve management of water resources, and determine the water requirements of the major crops because agriculture is the first consumer of water in Iraq. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) CROPWAT 8.0 simulation software and the CLIMWAT 2.0 tool attached to it have been used in this research for Dhi-Qar Province in southern Iraq to find the crop water requirements (CWRs) and irrigation schedules for some major crops. The CROPWAT Penman–Monteith method was used to calculate the reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) soil conservation (S.C.) method was used to estimate the effective rainfall. The study results showed that ET0 varied from 2.18 to 10.5 mm/day and the effective rainfall varied from 0.0 to 23.1 mm. The irrigation requirements were 1142, 203.2, 844.8, and 1180 mm/dec for wheat, barley, white corn, and tomatoes, respectively. There is a higher water demand for crops during the dry seasons (summer and autumn) and a lower demand during the wet seasons (winter and spring). The total gross irrigation and the total net irrigation were 343.8 mm and 240.7 mm for wheat, 175.2 mm and 122.6 mm for barley, 343.8 mm and 240.7 mm for white corn, and 203.3 mm and 142.3 mm for tomatoes. This study proved that the CROPWAT model is useful for calculating the crop irrigation needs for the proper management of water resources.

  • 23.
    Ewaid, Salam Hussein
    et al.
    Technical Institute of Shatra, Southern Technical University, Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq.
    Abed, Salwan Ali
    Department of Environment, College of Science, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Water Footprint of Wheat in Iraq2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The water footprint (WF) is an indicator of indirect and direct fresh water use. In respect of

    facilitating decision-making processes,WF gives an excellent perspective on how and where fresh water is used in the supply chain. More than 39million people live in Iraq and,with a growing population, there is a water shortage and a rising demand for food that cannot be met in the future. In this study, theWF of wheat production is estimated for the year 2016–2017 for 15 Iraqi provinces. TheWF was calculated using the method ofMekonnen and Hoekstra (2011) and the CROPWAT and CLIMWAT softwares’ crop water requirement option. It was found that theWF in m 3/ton was 1876 m3/ton. The 15 provinces showed variations inWFs, which can be ascribed to the difference in climate and production values. The highest

    wheat WF was found in Nineveh province, followed by Muthanna, Anbar, and Basra. The last three provinces produce little and have a highWF so, in these provinces, wheat can be replaced with crops that need less water and provide more economic benefit. There is an opportunity to reduce the greenWF by increasing production from the 4 rain-fed provinces, which will reduce the need for production from the irrigated provinces and, therefore, reduce the use of blue water.

  • 24.
    Ezz-Aldeen, Mohammad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hassan, Rebwar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Ali, Ammar
    Department of Water Resources Engineering, Baghdad Universi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Watershed Sediment and Its Effect on Storage Capacity: Case Study of Dokan Dam Reservoir2018In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, no 7, article id 858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dokan is a multipurpose dam located on the Lesser Zab River in the Iraq/Kurdistan region. The dam has operated since 1959, and it drains an area of 11,690 km2. All reservoirs in the world suffer from sediment deposition. It is one of the main problems for reservoir life sustainability. Sustainable reservoir sediment-management practices enable the reservoir to function for a longer period of time by reducing reservoir sedimentation. This study aims to assess the annual runoff and sediment loads of the Dokan Dam watershed using the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model to evaluate the relative contributions in comparison with the total values delivered from both watershed and Lesser Zab River and to identify the basins with a high sediment load per unit area. These help in the process of developing a plan and strategy to manage sediment inflow and deposition. The SUFI-2 program was applied for a model calibrated based on the available field measurements of the adjacent Derbendekhan Dam watershed, which has similar geological formations, characteristics and weather. For the calibration period (1961–1968), the considered statistical criteria of determination coefficients and Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency were 0.75 and 0.64 for runoff while the coefficients were 0.65 and 0.63 for sediment load, respectively. The regionalization technique for parameter transformation from Derbendekhan to Dokan watershed was applied. Furthermore, the model was validated based on transformed parameters and the available observed flow at the Dokan watershed for the period (1961–1964); they gave reasonable results for the determination coefficients and Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency, which were 0.68 and 0.64, respectively. The results of SWAT project simulation for Dokan watershed for the period (1959–2014) indicated that the average annual runoff volume which entered the reservoir was about 2100 million cubic meters (MCM). The total sediment delivered to the reservoir was about 72 MCM over the 56 years of dam life, which is equivalent to 10% of the reservoir dead storage. Two regression formulas were presented to correlate the annual runoff volume and sediment load with annual rain depth for the studied area. In addition, a spatial distribution of average annual sediment load was constructed to identify the sub basin of the high contribution of sediment load.

  • 25.
    Ferdous, Md Ruknul
    et al.
    IHE Delft Inst Water Educ, Dept Integrated Water Syst & Governance, NL-2611 AX Delft, Netherlands.;Univ Amsterdam, Fac Social & Behav Sci, NL-1012 WX Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Wesselink, Anna
    IHE Delft Inst Water Educ, Dept Integrated Water Syst & Governance, NL-2611 AX Delft, Netherlands..
    Brandimarte, Luigia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Slager, Kymo
    Deltares, NL-2600 MH Delft, Netherlands..
    Zwarteveen, Margreet
    IHE Delft Inst Water Educ, Dept Integrated Water Syst & Governance, NL-2611 AX Delft, Netherlands.;Univ Amsterdam, Fac Social & Behav Sci, NL-1012 WX Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano
    IHE Delft Inst Water Educ, Dept Integrated Water Syst & Governance, NL-2611 AX Delft, Netherlands.;Uppsala Univ, Dept Earth Sci, SE-75236 Uppsala, Sweden.;CNDS, Ctr Nat Hazards & Disaster Sci, SE-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
    The Costs of Living with Floods in the Jamuna Floodplain in Bangladesh2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 1238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bangladeshi people use multiple strategies to live with flooding events and associated riverbank erosion. They relocate, evacuate their homes temporarily, change cropping patterns, and supplement their income from migrating household members. In this way, they can reduce the negative impact of floods on their livelihoods. However, these societal responses also have negative outcomes, such as impoverishment. This research collects quantitative household data and analyzes changes of livelihood conditions over recent decades in a large floodplain area in north-west Bangladesh. It is found that while residents cope with flooding events, they do not achieve successful adaptation. With every flooding, people lose income and assets, which they can only partially recover. As such, they are getting poorer, and therefore less able to make structural adjustments that would allow adaptation in the longer term.

  • 26.
    Ferdous, Md Ruknul
    et al.
    IHE Delft Inst Water Educ, Dept Integrated Water Syst & Governance, NL-2611 AX Delft, Netherlands;Univ Amsterdam, Fac Social & Behav Sci, NL-1012 WX Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Wesselink, Anna
    IHE Delft Inst Water Educ, Dept Integrated Water Syst & Governance, NL-2611 AX Delft, Netherlands.
    Brandimarte, Luigia
    KTH, Dept Sustainable Dev Environm Sci & Engn, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Slager, Kymo
    Deltares, NL-2600 MH Delft, Netherlands.
    Zwarteveen, Margreet
    IHE Delft Inst Water Educ, Dept Integrated Water Syst & Governance, NL-2611 AX Delft, Netherlands;Univ Amsterdam, Fac Social & Behav Sci, NL-1012 WX Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. IHE Delft Inst Water Educ, Dept Integrated Water Syst & Governance, NL-2611 AX Delft, Netherlands;CNDS, Ctr Nat Hazards & Disaster Sci, SE-75236 Uppsala, Sweden.
    The Costs of Living with Floods in the Jamuna Floodplain in Bangladesh2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 1238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bangladeshi people use multiple strategies to live with flooding events and associated riverbank erosion. They relocate, evacuate their homes temporarily, change cropping patterns, and supplement their income from migrating household members. In this way, they can reduce the negative impact of floods on their livelihoods. However, these societal responses also have negative outcomes, such as impoverishment. This research collects quantitative household data and analyzes changes of livelihood conditions over recent decades in a large floodplain area in north-west Bangladesh. It is found that while residents cope with flooding events, they do not achieve successful adaptation. With every flooding, people lose income and assets, which they can only partially recover. As such, they are getting poorer, and therefore less able to make structural adjustments that would allow adaptation in the longer term.

  • 27. Ferrero, G.
    et al.
    Bichai, F.
    Rusca, Maria
    King’s College London, Department of Geography, The Strand, London UK.
    Experiential learning through role-playing: Enhancing stakeholder collaboration in water safety plans2018In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 227Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Glaas, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Jonsson, Robert
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Centre for Municipality Studies – CKS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Conditions Influencing Municipal Strategy-Making for Sustainable Urban Water Management: Assessment of Three Swedish Municipalities2018In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 1-22, article id 1102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategy-making is key for realizing sustainable urban water management. Though general barriers and factors for change have been identified, fewer studies have assessed how different conditions influence municipalities’ strategy-making ability and, thus, how to plan strategically given these conditions. Healey’s strategy-making notion was applied to delimit a study of how size, finances, development path, and water organization influence Swedish municipalities’ strategy-making ability for urban water. Three municipalities, Laxå, Norrköping, and Skellefteå, with different, yet overlapping, institutional and socio-economic conditions were analyzed using semi-structured interviews, a stakeholder workshop, and document analyses. The study finds that even though key events have filtered urban water issues into the political agenda, this has not induced systemic change, except where the role of water management in urban development has been specified, i.e., has aligned dispersed planning processes. Organizational setup influences the strategy-making ability by prescribing not only when water issues are raised, but also what system perspective should be applied and what actors that should be enrolled. Judging from the three cases, size, finances, and development path do matter for strategy-making ability, but they appear to be less important than the organizational setup. Departures for improving strategy-making under different conditions are discussed.

  • 29.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    The Recovery of Two Polluted Subarctic Lakes—Towards Nutrient Management or a Pristine State?2012In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 793-814Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two small subarctic lakes were eutrophicated due to wastewater discharge from 1964. In 1975, a wastewater treatment plant was built and a recovery process started. This paper will: (1) compile the 1972–1974, 1978–1980 and 1985–1988 investigation data regarding phosphorous and microalgae for one of the lakes; (2) complement with unpublished data from 1985 and 2003; and (3) introduce a discussion regarding three alternatives for future development of the lakes in their last phase of recovery. In the latest investigation, 2003, the lakes were assessed as almost recovered. They had returned to an oligotrophic state, but not fully to a pre-sewage situation. In the upper lake, more heavily polluted, the total phosphorous levels had decreased from an average of 168 µg P/L in 1972–1974 to an average of 12 µg P/L in 2003. The phytoplankton biomass had decreased twentyfold during the same period, from 11.2 mg/L to 0.6 mg/L. The Secchi depth had increased from 1.3 m to 2.8 m. The low oxygen level in late winter was still not recovered, thereby profoundly affecting residential organisms in the lakes. The low winter oxygen is assumed to remain so for a long time due to phosphorus release from sediments in the lakes.

  • 30.
    Hamisi, Rajabu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Renman, Agnieszka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Wörman, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Modelling phosphorus sorption kinetics and the longevity of reactive filter materials used for on-sitewastewater treatment2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 811Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Use of reactive filter media (RFM) is an emerging technology in small-scale wastewater treatment to improve phosphorus (P) removal and filter material longevity for making this technology sustainable. In this study, long-term sorption kinetics and the spatial dynamics of sorbed P distribution were simulated in replaceable P-filter bags filled with 700 L of reactive material and used in real on-site treatment systems. The input data for model calibration were obtained in laboratory trials with Filtralite P®, Polonite® and Top16. The P concentration breakthrough threshold value was set at an effluent/influent (C/C 0 ) ratio of 1 and simulations were performed with P concentrations varying from 1 to 25 mg L -1 . The simulation results showed that influent P concentration was important for the breakthrough and longevity, and that Polonite performed best, followed by Top16 and Filtralite P. A 100-day break in simulated intermittent flow allowed the materials to recover, which for Polonite involved slight retardation of P saturation. The simulated spatial distribution of P accumulated in the filter bags showed large differences between the filter materials. The modelling insights from this study can be applied in design and operation of on-site treatment systems using reactive filter materials.

  • 31. Hankin, Barry
    et al.
    Strömqvist, Johan
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Burgess, Chris
    Pers, Charlotta
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Bielby, Sally
    Revilla-Romero, Beatriz
    Pope, Linda
    A New National Water Quality Model to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Catchment Management Measures in England2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 8, article id 1612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation reports on a new national model to evaluate the effectiveness of catchment sensitive farming in England, and how pollution mitigation measures have improved water quality between 2006 and 2016. An adapted HYPE (HYdrological Predictions for the Environment) model was written to use accurate farm emissions data so that the pathway impact could be accounted for in the land phase of transport. Farm emissions were apportioned into different runoff fractions simulated in surface and soil layers, and travel time and losses were taken into account. These were derived from the regulator's catchment change matrix' and converted to monthly load time series, combined with extensive point source load datasets. Very large flow and water quality monitoring datasets were used to calibrate the model nationally for flow, nitrogen, phosphorus, suspended sediments and faecal indicator organisms. The model was simulated with and without estimated changes to farm emissions resulting from catchment measures, and spatial and temporal changes to water quality concentrations were then assessed.

  • 32.
    Hasselquist, Eliza Maher
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Polvi, Lina E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Kahlert, Maria
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Sandberg, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Mckie, Brendan G.
    Contrasting Responses among Aquatic Organism Groups to Changes in Geomorphic Complexity Along a Gradient of Stream Habitat Restoration: Implications for Restoration Planning and Assessment2018In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, no 10, article id 1465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many stream restoration projects aim to increase geomorphic complexity, assuming that this increases habitat heterogeneity and, thus, biodiversity. However, empirical data supporting these linkages remain scant. Previous assessments of stream restoration suffer from incomplete quantification of habitat complexity, or a narrow focus on only one organism group and/or one restoration measure, limiting learning. Based on a comprehensive quantification of geomorphic complexity in 20 stream reaches in northern Sweden, ranging from streams channelized for timber floating to restored and reference reaches, we investigated responses of macroinvertebrates, diatoms, and macrophytes to multiple geomorphic metrics. Sediment size heterogeneity, which was generally improved in restored sites, favored macroinvertebrate and diatom diversity and macroinvertebrate abundance. In contrast, macrophyte diversity responded to increased variation along the longitudinal stream profile (e.g., step-pools), which was not consistently improved by the restoration. Our analyses highlight the value of learning across multiple restoration projects, both in identifying which aspects of restoration have succeeded, and pinpointing other measures that might be targeted during adaptive management or future restoration. Given our results, a combination of restoration measures targeting not only sediment size heterogeneity, but also features such as step-pools and instream wood, is most likely to benefit benthic biota in streams.

  • 33.
    Hoff, Holger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Bonzi, C.
    Joyce, Brian
    Stockholm Environment Institute, US.
    Tielbörger, K.
    A water resources planning tool for the Jordan River basin2011In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 718-736Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Jager, Nicolas W.
    et al.
    Univ Luneburg, Res Grp Governance Participat & Sustainabil, D-21335 Luneburg, Germany..
    Challies, Edward
    Univ Luneburg, Res Grp Governance Participat & Sustainabil, D-21335 Luneburg, Germany..
    Kochskaemper, Elisa
    Univ Luneburg, Res Grp Governance Participat & Sustainabil, D-21335 Luneburg, Germany..
    Newig, Jens
    Univ Luneburg, Res Grp Governance Participat & Sustainabil, D-21335 Luneburg, Germany..
    Benson, David
    Univ Exeter, Environm & Sustainabil Inst, Penryn TR10 9FE, Cornwall, England..
    Blackstock, Kirsty
    James Hutton Inst, Social Econ & Geog Sci Grp, Aberdeen AB15 8QH, Scotland..
    Collins, Kevin
    Open Univ, Appl Syst Thinking Practice Res Grp, Engn & Innovat Dept, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, Bucks, England..
    Ernst, Anna
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Inst Energy & Climate Res Syst Anal & Technol, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Evers, Mariele
    Univ Bonn, Inst Geog, D-53113 Bonn, Germany..
    Feichtinger, Judith
    CSI, A-1150 Vienna, Austria..
    Fritsch, Oliver
    Univ Leeds, Sch Geog & Water Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Gooch, Geoffrey
    DelPar Environm, S-58752 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Grund, Wiebke
    Univ Luneburg, D-21335 Luneburg, Germany..
    Hedelin, Beatrice
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Hernandez-Mora, Nuria
    Univ Seville, Dept Geog Humana, Seville 41004, Spain..
    Hueesker, Frank
    TU Kaiserslautern, Fachgebiet Siedlungswasserwirtschaft, D-67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany..
    Huitema, Dave
    Open Univ Netherlands, Fac Management Sci & Technol, NL-6419 AT Heerlen, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Inst Environm Studies IVM, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Irvine, Kenneth
    Univ Dublin, Trinity Coll, Sch Nat Sci, Dublin 2, Ireland.;UNESCO Inst Water Educ, NL-2611 AX Delft, Netherlands..
    Klinke, Andreas
    Mem Univ Newfoundland, Environm Policy Inst, Corner Brook, NF A2H 5G4, Canada..
    Lange, Leonie
    Univ Luneburg, D-21335 Luneburg, Germany..
    Loupsans, Delphine
    French Natl Agcy Water & Aquat Environm, ONEMA, F-94300 Vincennes, France..
    Lubell, Mark
    Univ Calif Davis, Dept Environm Sci & Policy, Davis, CA 95616 USA..
    Maganda, Carmen
    AC INECOL, Inst Ecol, Xalapa Enriquez 91070, Ver, Mexico..
    Matczak, Piotr
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Inst Sociol, PL-61712 Poznan, Poland..
    Pares, Marc
    Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Inst Govern &Polit Publ, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Saarikoski, Heli
    Environm Policy Ctr, Finnish Environm Inst, POB 140, Helsinki 00251, Finland..
    Slavikova, Lenka
    Univ Jana Evangelisty Purkyne & Usti nad Labem, IEEP, Usti Nad Labem Mesto 40096, Czech Republic..
    van der Arend, Sonja
    SenF Serious Fict, NL-6703 AP Wageningen, Netherlands..
    von Korff, Yorck
    Flow Ing, F-34980 Montferrier Sur Lez, France..
    Transforming European Water Governance?: Participation and River Basin Management under the EU Water Framework Directive in 13 Member States2016In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 8, no 4, article id 156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires EU member states to produce and implement river basin management plans, which are to be designed and updated via participatory processes that inform, consult with, and actively involve all interested stakeholders. The assumption of the European Commission is that stakeholder participation, and institutional adaptation and procedural innovation to facilitate it, are essential to the effectiveness of river basin planning and, ultimately, the environmental impact of the Directive. We analyzed official documents and the WFD literature to compare implementation of the Directive in EU member states in the initial WFD planning phase (2000-2009). Examining the development of participatory approaches to river basin management planning, we consider the extent of transformation in EU water governance over the period. Employing a mixed quantitative and qualitative approach, we map the implementation "trajectories" of 13 member states, and then provide a detailed examination of shifts in river basin planning and participation in four member states (Germany, Sweden, Poland and France) to illustrate the diversity of institutional approaches observed. We identify a general tendency towards increased, yet circumscribed, stakeholder participation in river basin management in the member states examined, alongside clear continuities in terms of their respective pre-WFD institutional and procedural arrangements. Overall, the WFD has driven a highly uneven shift to river basin-level planning among the member states, and instigated a range of efforts to institutionalize stakeholder involvement-often through the establishment of advisory groups to bring organized stakeholders into the planning process.

  • 35.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Univ, Stockholm Resilience Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Univ, Balt Sea Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Desormeaux, Amanda
    Univ Florida, Soil & Water Sci Dept, McCarty Hall, Gainesville, FL, USA.
    Hedlund, Johanna
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm Resilience Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jawitz, James W.
    Univ Florida, Soil & Water Sci Dept, McCarty Hall, Gainesville, FL, USA.
    Clerici, Nicola
    Univ Rosario, Fac Nat Sci & Math, Biol Program, , Bogota, Colombia.
    Piemontese, Luigi
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm Resilience Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Alexandra Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Jenny
    Inst Invest Marinas & Costeras Colombia Jose Beni, Santa Marta, Colombia.
    Adolfo Anaya, Jesus
    Univ Medellin, Fac Ingn, Carrera, Medellin, Colombia.
    Blanco-Libreros, Juan F.
    Univ Antioquia, Inst Biol, Medellin, Colombia.
    Borja, Sonia
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Celi, Jorge
    Univ Reg Amazon IKIAM, Grp Invest Recursos Hidricos & Acuat, Atacapi, Ecuador.
    Chalov, Sergey
    Lomonosov Moscow State Univ, Fac Geogr, Moscow, Russia; Kazimierz Wielki Univ, Inst Geog, Bydgoszcz, Poland.
    Chun, Kwok Pan
    Hong Kong Baptist Univ, Dept Geog, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Cresso, Matilda
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dessu, Shimelis Behailu
    Florida Int Univ, Southeast Environm Res Ctr, Miami, FL, USA.
    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Downing, Andrea
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm Resilience Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Espinosa, Luisa
    Inst Invest Marinas & Costeras Colombia Jose Beni, Santa Marta, Colombia.
    Ghajarnia, Navid
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Girard, Pierre
    Univ Fed Mato Grosso UFMT, Dept Botan & Ecol, Cuiaba, MT, Brazil; Ctr Pesquisa Pantanal, Cuiaba, MT, Brazil.
    Gutierrez, Alvaro G.
    Univ Chile, Fac Ciencias Agron, Dept Ciencias Ambient & Recursos Nat Renovables, Santiago, Chile.
    Hansen, Amy
    Univ Kansas, Civil Environm & Architectural Engn Dept, Lawrence, KS, USA.
    Hu, Tengfei
    Nanjing Hydraul Res Inst, Hydrol & Water Resources Dept, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China.
    Jarsjo, Jerker
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kalantary, Zahra
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Labbaci, Adnane
    Ibn Zohr Univ, Fac Sci, Agadir, Morocco.
    Licero-Villanueva, Lucia
    Inst Invest Marinas & Costeras Colombia Jose Beni, Santa Marta, Colombia.
    Livsey, John
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Machotka, Ewa
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Asian Middle Eastern & Turkish Studies, Stockholm, Sweden.
    McCurley, Kathryn
    Univ Florida, Soil & Water Sci Dept, Gainesville, FL, USA.
    Palomino-Angel, Sebastian
    Univ Medellin, Fac Ingn, Carrera, Medellin, Colombia.
    Pietron, Jan
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Price, Rene
    Florida Int Univ, Southeast Environm Res Ctr, Miami, FL, USA.
    Ramchunder, Sorain J.
    Natl Univ Singapore, Geog Dept, Singapore, Singapore.
    Ricaurte-Villota, Constanza
    Inst Invest Marinas & Costeras Colombia Jose Beni, Santa Marta, Colombia.
    Ricaurte, Luisa Fernanda
    Independent consultant, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Dahir, Lula
    Independent consultant, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rodriguez, Erasmo
    Univ Nacl Colombia, Civil & Agr Dept, Bogota, Colombia.
    Salgado, Jorge
    Univ Los Andes, Dept Ciencias Biol, Grp Palinol & Paleoecol Trop, Bogota, Colombia; Univ Catolica Colombia, Bogota, Colombia.
    Sannel, A. Britta K.
    Univ Florida, Soil & Water Sci Dept, McCarty Hall, Gainesville, FL, USA.
    Carolina Santos, Ana
    Inst Invest Recursos Biol Alexander von Humboldt, Bogota, Colombia.
    Seifollahi-Aghmiuni, Samaneh
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjoberg, Ylva
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sun, Lian
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijing Normal Univ, Sch Environm, State Key Lab Water Environm Simulat, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Thorslund, Josefin
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vigouroux, Guillaume
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wang-Erlandsson, Lan
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm Resilience Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Xu, Diandian
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden; Hohai Univ, Coll Water Conservancy & Hydropower Engn, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China.
    Zamora, David
    Univ Nacl Colombia, Civil & Agr Dept, Bogota, Colombia.
    Ziegler, Alan D.
    Natl Univ Singapore, Geog Dept, Singapore, Singapore.
    Ahlen, Imenne
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Priorities and Interactions of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with Focus on Wetlands2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wetlands are often vital physical and social components of a country’s natural capital, as well as providers of ecosystem services to local and national communities. We performed a network analysis to prioritize Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets for sustainable development in iconic wetlands and wetlandscapes around the world. The analysis was based on the information and perceptions on 45 wetlandscapes worldwide by 49 wetland researchers of the Global Wetland Ecohydrological Network (GWEN). We identified three 2030 Agenda targets of high priority across the wetlandscapes needed to achieve sustainable development: Target 6.3—“Improve water quality”; 2.4—“Sustainable food production”; and 12.2—“Sustainable management of resources”. Moreover, we found specific feedback mechanisms and synergies between SDG targets in the context of wetlands. The most consistent reinforcing interactions were the influence of Target 12.2 on 8.4—“Efficient resource consumption”; and that of Target 6.3 on 12.2. The wetlandscapes could be differentiated in four bundles of distinctive priority SDG-targets: “Basic human needs”, “Sustainable tourism”, “Environmental impact in urban wetlands”, and “Improving and conserving environment”. In general, we find that the SDG groups, targets, and interactions stress that maintaining good water quality and a “wise use” of wetlandscapes are vital to attaining sustainable development within these sensitive ecosystems.

  • 36.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Desormeaux, Amanda
    Hedlund, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Jawitz, James W.
    Clerici, Nicola
    Piemontese, Luigi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Alexandra Rodríguez-Rodriguez, Jenny
    Adolfo Anaya, Jesús
    Blanco-Libreros, Juan F.
    Borja, Sonia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Celi, Jorge
    Chalov, Sergey
    Chun, Kwok Pan
    Cresso, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Dessu, Shimelis Behailu
    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano
    Downing, Andrea
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Espinosa, Luisa
    Ghajarnia, Navid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Girard, Pierre
    Gutiérrez, Álvaro G.
    Hansen, Amy
    Hu, Tengfei
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Kalantary, Zahra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Labbaci, Adnane
    Licero-Villanueva, Lucia
    Livsey, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Machotka, Ewa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Asian, Middle Eastern and Turkish Studies.
    McCurley, Kathryn
    Palomino-Ángel, Sebastián
    Pietron, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Price, René
    Ramchunder, Sorain J.
    Ricaurte-Villota, Constanza
    Ricaurte, Luisa Fernanda
    Dahir, Lula
    Rodríguez, Erasmo
    Salgado, Jorge
    Sannel, A. Britta K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Carolina Santos, Ana
    Seifollahi-Aghmiuni, Samaneh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Sjöberg, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Sun, Lian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Beijing Normal University, China.
    Thorslund, Josefin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Vigouroux, Guillaume
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Wang-Erlandsson, Lan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Xu, Diandian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Hohai University, China.
    Zamora, David
    Ziegler, Alan D.
    Åhlén, Imenne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Priorities and Interactions of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with Focus on Wetlands2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wetlands are often vital physical and social components of a country's natural capital, as well as providers of ecosystem services to local and national communities. We performed a network analysis to prioritize Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets for sustainable development in iconic wetlands and wetlandscapes around the world. The analysis was based on the information and perceptions on 45 wetlandscapes worldwide by 49 wetland researchers of the Global Wetland Ecohydrological Network (GWEN). We identified three 2030 Agenda targets of high priority across the wetlandscapes needed to achieve sustainable development: Target 6.3-Improve water quality; 2.4-Sustainable food production; and 12.2-Sustainable management of resources. Moreover, we found specific feedback mechanisms and synergies between SDG targets in the context of wetlands. The most consistent reinforcing interactions were the influence of Target 12.2 on 8.4-Efficient resource consumption; and that of Target 6.3 on 12.2. The wetlandscapes could be differentiated in four bundles of distinctive priority SDG-targets: Basic human needs, Sustainable tourism, Environmental impact in urban wetlands, and Improving and conserving environment. In general, we find that the SDG groups, targets, and interactions stress that maintaining good water quality and a wise use of wetlandscapes are vital to attaining sustainable development within these sensitive ecosystems.

  • 37. Jose Perez-Palazon, Maria
    et al.
    Pimentel, Rafael
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Jose Polo, Maria
    Climate Trends Impact on the Snowfall Regime in Mediterranean Mountain Areas: Future Scenario Assessment in Sierra Nevada (Spain)2018In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, no 6, article id 720Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Karczmarczyk, Agnieszka
    et al.
    Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Phosphorus Accumulation Pattern in a Subsurface Constructed Wetland Treating Residential Wastewater2011In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 146-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland was investigated after eight years of residential wastewater discharge (150 person equivalents). Twenty core samples distributed over the entire wetland were taken from the soil matrix. The distribution pattern of phosphorus (P) accumulation in the substrate of the wetland was determined using kriging technique and P sorption was related to the content of aluminum (Al), calcium (Ca) and iron (Fe). The correlations found between Al, Ca and Fe content and P accumulation in the bed substrate were weak: R2 = 0.09, R2 = 0.21 and R2 = 0.28, respectively. Great heterogeneity was observed in the distribution of Ca, P and organic matter in the superficial and deeper layers of the bed. Hydraulic problems associated with wastewater discharge and conductivity of the bed substrate were suggested to have negative effects on the wetland performance.

  • 39.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Actors' Perceptions of Issues in the Implementation of the First Round of the Water Framework Directive: Examples from the Water Management and Forestry Sectors in Southern Sweden2015In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 2202-2213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU Water Framework Directive exerts a major impact on water management structure and aims, and water use activities in the member states. This paper reviews the perceptions of the early WFD implementation in a case study area in southern Sweden. The focus is on the perceptions of both water management and forestry actors, the latter as a potential diffuse source impact on water quality. This study highlights the considerable complexity of reorienting or rescaling governance given the complex existing systems particular to the area, the multi-interpretable early policies on implementation and the complexity of interpreting the regionally-focused WFD approach in the largely locally-focused Swedish system. While the first phase of implementation is now long past, conclusions on the complexity of reorienting systems remain relevant, particularly with regard to non-point sources.

  • 40. Koutroulis, Aristeidis G.
    et al.
    Papadimitriou, Lamprini V.
    Grillakis, Manolis G.
    Tsanis, Ioannis K.
    Wyser, Klaus
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Caesar, John
    Betts, Richard A.
    Simulating Hydrological Impacts under Climate Change: Implications from Methodological Differences of a Pan European Assessment2018In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, no 10, article id 1331Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Li, Jing
    et al.
    Business School, Lanzhou City University, Lanzhou, China.
    Ameen, Ameen Mohammed Salih
    Department of Water Resources, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Mohammad, Thamer Ahmad
    Department of Water Resources, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yaseen, Zaher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    A Systematic Operation Program of a Hydropower Plant Based on Minimizing the Principal Stress: Haditha Dam Case Study2018In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, no 1270, p. 2-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dam operation and management have become more complex recently because of the need for considering hydraulic structure sustainability and environmental protect on. An Earthfill dam that includes a powerhouse system is considered as a significant multipurpose hydraulic structure. Understanding the effects of running hydropower plant turbines on the dam body is one of the major safety concerns for earthfill dams. In this research, dynamic analysis of earthfill dam, integrated with a hydropower plant system containing six vertical Kaplan turbines (i.e., Haditha dam), is investigated.In the first stage of the study, ANSYS-CFX was used to represent one vertical Kaplan turbine unit by designing a three-dimensional (3-D) finite element (FE) model. This model was used to differentiate between the effect of turbine units’ operation on dam stability in accordance to maximum and minimum reservoir upstream water levels, and the varying flowrates in a fully open gate condition. In the second stage of the analysis, an ANSYS-static modeling approach was used to develop a 3-D FE earthfill dam model. The water pressure pattern determined on the boundary of the running turbine model is transformed into the pressure at the common area of the dam body with turbines. The model is inspected for maximum and minimum upstream water levels. Findings indicate that the water stress fluctuations on the dam body are proportional to the inverse distance from the turbine region. Also, it was found that the cone and outlet of the hydropower turbine system are the most affected regions when turbine is running. Based on the attained results, a systematic operation program was proposed in order to control the running hydropower plant with minimized principal stress atselected nodes on the dam model and the six turbines.

  • 42.
    Lin, Chang
    et al.
    Natl Chung Hsing Univ, Dept Civil Engn, Taichung 40227, Taiwan..
    Wong, Wei-Ying
    Natl Chung Hsing Univ, Dept Civil Engn, Taichung 40227, Taiwan..
    Kao, Ming-Jer
    Natl Chung Hsing Univ, Dept Civil Engn, Taichung 40227, Taiwan..
    Yang, James
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures. Älvkarleby Lab, Vattenfall AB Res & Dev, SE-81426 Älvkarleby, Sweden..
    Raikar, Rajkumar V.
    KLE Dr MS Sheshgiri Coll Engn & Technol, Dept Civil Engn, Angol Main Rd, Belgaum 590008, Karnataka, India..
    Yuan, Juan-Ming
    Providence Univ, Dept Data Sci & Big Data Analyt, Taichung 43301, Taiwan..
    Hydrodynamic Features of an Undular Bore Traveling on a 1:20 Sloping Beach2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 8, article id 1556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hydrodynamic characteristics, including local and convective accelerations as well as pressure gradient in the horizontal direction, of the external stream of an undular bore propagating on a 1:20 sloping beach are experimentally studied. A bore with the water depth ratio of 1.70 was generated downstream of a suddenly lifted gate. A high-speed particle image velocimetry was employed to measure the velocity fields during the run-up and run-down motions. The time series of free surface elevation and velocity field/profile of the generated bore, comprising a pure bore accompanied by a series of dispersive leading waves, are first demonstrated. Based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and inverse FFT (IFFT) techniques, the free surface elevation of leading waves and the counterpart of pure bore are acquired separately at a specified measuring section (SMS), together with the uniform horizontal velocity of the pure bore. The effect of leading-wave-induced velocity shift on the velocity profiles of the generated bore are then evaluated at the SMS. To understand the calculation procedure of accelerations and pressure gradient, three tabulated forms are provided as illustrative examples. Accordingly, the relationships among the partially depth-averaged values of the non-dimensional local acceleration, convective acceleration, total acceleration and pressure gradient of the generated/pure bore acquired at the SMS versus the non-dimensional time are elucidated. The trends in the non-dimensional accelerations and pressure gradient of the external stream of generated bore are compared with those of the pure bore. During the run-up motion from the instant of arrival of the bore front to the moment of the peak level at the SMS, continuous decrease in the onshore uniform horizontal velocity, and successive deceleration of the pure bore in the onshore direction are evidenced, exhibiting the pure bore under the adverse pressure gradient with decreasing magnitude. However, the pure bore once ridden by the leading waves is decelerated/accelerated spatially and accelerated/decelerated temporally in the onshore direction during the rising/descending free surface of each leading wave. This fact highlights the effect of pre-passing/post-passing of the leading wave crest on the velocity distribution of generated bore. It is also found that, although the leading waves have minor contribution on the power spectrum of the free surface elevation as compared with that of the pure bore, the leading waves do play an important role on the magnitudes of both accelerations and pressure gradient. The largest magnitude of the acceleration contributed by the leading waves is around 26 times the counterpart contributed by the pure bore. Further, during the run-down motion right after the moment for the peak level of the bore, a linear increase in the magnitude of the offshore uniform horizontal velocity and a constant local acceleration with increasing time are both identified. The partially depth-averaged value of the non-dimensional pressure gradient is equal to a small negative constant (-0.0115) in the offshore direction, indicating that the bore is subject to a constant favorable pressure gradient.

  • 43.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Nathanson, Marcus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lam, Norris
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Dahlke, Helen E.
    Rutzinger, Martin
    Kean, Jason W.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Can Low-Resolution Airborne Laser Scanning Data Be Used to Model Stream Rating Curves?2015In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 1324-1339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This pilot study explores the potential of using low-resolution (0.2 points/m(2)) airborne laser scanning (ALS)-derived elevation data to model stream rating curves. Rating curves, which allow the functional translation of stream water depth into discharge, making them integral to water resource monitoring efforts, were modeled using a physics-based approach that captures basic geometric measurements to establish flow resistance due to implicit channel roughness. We tested synthetically thinned high-resolution (more than 2 points/m(2)) ALS data as a proxy for low-resolution data at a point density equivalent to that obtained within most national-scale ALS strategies. Our results show that the errors incurred due to the effect of low-resolution versus high-resolution ALS data were less than those due to flow measurement and empirical rating curve fitting uncertainties. As such, although there likely are scale and technical limitations to consider, it is theoretically possible to generate rating curves in a river network from ALS data of the resolution anticipated within national-scale ALS schemes (at least for rivers with relatively simple geometries). This is promising, since generating rating curves from ALS scans would greatly enhance our ability to monitor streamflow by simplifying the overall effort required.

  • 44.
    Malik, Anurag
    et al.
    Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, College of Technology, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India.
    Kumar, Anil
    Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, College of Technology, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India.
    Kushwaha, Daniel Prakash
    Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, College of Technology, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India.
    Kisi, Ozgur
    School of Business, Technology and Education, Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia.
    Salih, Sinan Q.
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yaseen, Zaher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    The Implementation of a Hybrid Model for Hilly Sub-Watershed Prioritization Using Morphometric Variables: Case Study in India2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 1-19, article id 1138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among several components of watershed prioritization, morphometric parameters are considered to be essential elements for appropriate water resource planning and anagement. In the current study, nine hilly sub-watersheds are prioritized using novel hybrid model ased on morphometric variables analysis at Bino Watershed (BW) located in the upper Ramganga basin, India. The proposed model is based on the hybridization of principal component analysis (PCA) with weighted-sum approach (WSA), presenting a single-frame methodology (PCWSA) for sub-watershed prioritization. The prioritization process was conducted based on several morphometric parameters including linear, areal, and shape. The PCA was performed to identify the significant correlated factor-loading matrix whereas WSA was established to provide the weights for the morphometric parameters and fix their priority ranking (PR) to be categorized based on compound factor value. The findings showed that 37.81% of total area is under highly susceptible zone sub-watersheds (SW-6 and SW-7). This is verifying the necessity for appropriate soil and water conservation measures for the area. The proposed hybrid methodology demonstrated a reliable approach for water resource planning and management, agriculture, and irrigation activities in the study region.

  • 45.
    Maneas, Giorgos
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Navarino Environmental Observatory, Greece.
    Makopoulou, Eirini
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Bousbouras, Dimitris
    Berg, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Manzoni, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Anthropogenic Changes in a Mediterranean Coastal Wetland during the Last CenturyThe Case of Gialova Lagoon, Messinia, Greece2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 350Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human interventions during the last 70 years have altered the characteristics of the Gialova Lagoon, a coastal wetland that is part of a wider Natura 2000 site. In this study, we explore how human interventions and climate altered the wetland's hydrological conditions and habitats, leading to changing wetland functions over time. Our interpretations are based on a mixed methodological approach combining conceptual hydrologic models, analysis of aerial photographs, local knowledge, field observations, and GIS (Geographic Information System) analyses. The results show that the combined effects of human interventions and climate have led to increased salinity in the wetland over time. As a result, the fresh and brackish water marshes have gradually been turned into open water or replaced by halophytic vegetation with profound ecological implications. Furthermore, current human activities inside the Natura 2000 area and in the surrounding areas could further impact on the water quantity and quality in the wetland, and on its sensitive ecosystems. We suggest that a more holistic understanding of the broader socio-ecological system is needed to understand the dynamics of the wetland and to achieve sustainable long-term management and conservation strategies.

  • 46.
    Mbanguka, René P.
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Holmgren, Karin
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Urban & Rural Dev, Box 7012, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Girons Lopez, Marc
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Water Balance and Level Change of Lake Babati, Tanzania: Sensitivity to Hydroclimatic Forcings2016In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 8, no 12, article id 572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop and present a novel integrated water balance model that accounts for lake watergroundwater interactions, and apply it to the semi-closed freshwater Lake Babati system, Northern Tanzania, East Africa. The model was calibrated and used to evaluate the lake level sensitivity to changes in key hydro-climatic variables such as temperature, precipitation, humidity and cloudiness. The lake response to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5) output on possible future climate outcomes was evaluated, an essential basis in understanding future water security and flooding risk in the region. Results show high lake level sensitivity to cloudiness. Increased focus on cloud fraction measurement and interpretation could likely improve projections of lake levels and surface water availability. Modelled divergent results on the future (21st century) development of Lake Babati can be explained by the precipitation output variability of CMIP5 models being comparable to the precipitation change needed to drive the water balance model from lake dry-out to overflow; this condition is likely shared with many other East African lake systems. The developed methodology could be useful in investigations on change-driving processes in complex climatedrainage basinlake systems, which are needed to support sustainable water resource planning in data scarce tropical Africa.

  • 47.
    Mbanguka, René P.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Holmgren, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Lopez, Marc Girons
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Water Balance and Level Change of Lake Babati, Tanzania: Sensitivity to Hydroclimatic Forcings2016In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 8, no 12, article id 572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop and present a novel integrated water balance model that accounts for lake watergroundwater interactions, and apply it to the semi-closed freshwater Lake Babati system, Northern Tanzania, East Africa. The model was calibrated and used to evaluate the lake level sensitivity to changes in key hydro-climatic variables such as temperature, precipitation, humidity and cloudiness. The lake response to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5) output on possible future climate outcomes was evaluated, an essential basis in understanding future water security and flooding risk in the region. Results show high lake level sensitivity to cloudiness. Increased focus on cloud fraction measurement and interpretation could likely improve projections of lake levels and surface water availability. Modelled divergent results on the future (21st century) development of Lake Babati can be explained by the precipitation output variability of CMIP5 models being comparable to the precipitation change needed to drive the water balance model from lake dry-out to overflow; this condition is likely shared with many other East African lake systems. The developed methodology could be useful in investigations on change-driving processes in complex climatedrainage basinlake systems, which are needed to support sustainable water resource planning in data scarce tropical Africa.

  • 48. Melo Zurita, Maria de Lourdes
    et al.
    Thomsen, Dana C.
    Holbrook, Neil J.
    Smith, Timothy F.
    Lyth, Anna
    Munro, Paul G.
    de Bruin, Annemarieke
    Seddaiu, Giovanna
    Roggero, Pier Paolo
    Baird, Julia
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of the Sunshine Coast, Australia; Brock University, Canada.
    Bullock, Ryan
    Collins, Kevin
    Powell, Neil
    Global Water Governance and Climate Change: Identifying Innovative Arrangements for Adaptive Transformation2018In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 29Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A convoluted network of different water governance systems exists around the world. Collectively, these systems provide insight into how to build sustainable regimes of water use and management. We argue that the challenge is not to make the system less convoluted, but rather to support positive and promising trends in governance, creating a vision for future environmental outcomes. In this paper, we analyse nine water case studies from around the world to help identify potential innovative arrangements' for addressing existing dilemmas. We argue that such arrangements can be used as a catalyst for crafting new global water governance futures. The nine case studies were selected for their diversity in terms of location, scale and water dilemma, and through an examination of their contexts, structures and processes we identify key themes to consider in the milieu of adaptive transformation. These themes include the importance of acknowledging socio-ecological entanglements, understanding the political dimensions of environmental dilemmas, the recognition of different constructions of the dillema, and the importance of democratized processes.

  • 49.
    Melo Zurita, Maria de Lourdes
    et al.
    Univ Sydney, Sch Geosci, Camperdown, NSW, Australia.
    Thomsen, Dana C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, SWEDESD - The Swedish International Centre of Education for Sustainable Development. Univ Sunshine Coast, Sustainabil Res Ctr, Sippy Downs, Qld, Australia; Brock Univ, Environm Sustainabil Res Ctr, St Catharines, ON, Canada.
    Holbrook, Neil J.
    Univ Tasmania, Inst Marine & Antarctic Studies, Battery Point , Australia.
    Smith, Timothy F.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, SWEDESD - The Swedish International Centre of Education for Sustainable Development. Univ Sunshine Coast, Sustainabil Res Ctr, Sippy Downs, Qld, Australia; Brock Univ, Environm Sustainabil Res Ctr, St Catharines, ON, Canada.
    Lyth, Anna
    Univ Sunshine Coast, Sustainabil Res Ctr, Sippy Downs, Qld, Australia.
    Munro, Paul G.
    Univ New South Wales, Sch Humanities & Languages, Kensington, NSW , Australia.
    de Bruin, Annemarieke
    Univ York, Stockholm Environm Inst, York YO10 5NG, N Yorkshire, England..
    Seddaiu, Giovanna
    Univ Sassari, Desertificat Res Ctr, Viale Italia 39, I-07100 Sassari, Italy.;Univ Sassari, Dept Agr Sci, Viale Italia 39, I-07100 Sassari, Italy..
    Roggero, Pier Paolo
    Univ Sassari, Desertificat Res Ctr, Viale Italia 39, I-07100 Sassari, Italy.;Univ Sassari, Dept Agr Sci, Viale Italia 39, I-07100 Sassari, Italy..
    Baird, Julia
    Brock Univ, Environm Sustainabil Res Ctr, St Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada..
    Plummer, Ryan
    Univ Sunshine Coast, Sustainabil Res Ctr, Sippy Downs, Qld 4556, Australia.;Brock Univ, Environm Sustainabil Res Ctr, St Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada.;Stockholm Univ, Stockholm Resilience Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bullock, Ryan
    Univ Winnipeg, Dept Environm Studies & Sci, Winnipeg, MB R3B 2E9, Canada..
    Collins, Kevin
    Open Univ, Dept Engn & Innovat, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, Bucks, England.
    Powell, Neil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, SWEDESD - The Swedish International Centre of Education for Sustainable Development. Univ Sunshine Coast, Sustainabil Res Ctr, Sippy Downs, Qld 4556, Australia.
    Global Water Governance and Climate Change: Identifying Innovative Arrangements for Adaptive Transformation2018In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 29Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A convoluted network of different water governance systems exists around the world. Collectively, these systems provide insight into how to build sustainable regimes of water use and management. We argue that the challenge is not to make the system less convoluted, but rather to support positive and promising trends in governance, creating a vision for future environmental outcomes. In this paper, we analyse nine water case studies from around the world to help identify potential innovative arrangements' for addressing existing dilemmas. We argue that such arrangements can be used as a catalyst for crafting new global water governance futures. The nine case studies were selected for their diversity in terms of location, scale and water dilemma, and through an examination of their contexts, structures and processes we identify key themes to consider in the milieu of adaptive transformation. These themes include the importance of acknowledging socio-ecological entanglements, understanding the political dimensions of environmental dilemmas, the recognition of different constructions of the dillema, and the importance of democratized processes.

  • 50.
    Mojarrad, Babak Brian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Betterle, Andrea
    EAWAG Swiss Fed Inst Aquat Sci & Technol, Dept Water Resources & Drinking Water, CH-8600 Dubendorf, Switzerland.;Univ Padua, Dept ICEA, I-35100 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Int Ctr Hydrol Dino Tonini, I-35100 Padua, Italy..
    Singh, Tanu
    Univ Birmingham, Sch Geog Earth & Environm Sci, Birmingham B45 0AJ, W Midlands, England..
    Olid, Carolina
    Umea Univ, Climate Impacts Res Ctr, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, S-98107 Abisko, Sweden..
    Wörman, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    The Effect of Stream Discharge on Hyporheic Exchange2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 7, article id 1436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Streambed morphology, streamflow dynamics, and the heterogeneity of streambed sediments critically controls the interaction between surface water and groundwater. The present study investigated the impact of different flow regimes on hyporheic exchange in a boreal stream in northern Sweden using experimental and numerical approaches. Low-, base-, and high-flow discharges were simulated by regulating the streamflow upstream in the study area, and temperature was used as the natural tracer to monitor the impact of the different flow discharges on hyporheic exchange fluxes in stretches of stream featuring gaining and losing conditions. A numerical model was developed using geomorphological and hydrological properties of the stream and was then used to perform a detailed analysis of the subsurface water flow. Additionally, the impact of heterogeneity in sediment permeability on hyporheic exchange fluxes was investigated. Both the experimental and modelling results show that temporally increasing flow resulted in a larger (deeper) extent of the hyporheic zone as well as longer hyporheic flow residence times. However, the result of the numerical analysis is strongly controlled by heterogeneity in sediment permeability. In particular, for homogeneous sediments, the fragmentation of upwelling length substantially varies with streamflow dynamics due to the contribution of deeper fluxes.

12 1 - 50 of 85
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