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  • 1.
    Eriksson, Göran
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Östman, Johan
    National Agency for Special Needs Educaction & Schools, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cooperative or Adversarial?: Journalists' Enactment of the Watchdog Function in Political News Production2013Inngår i: The International Journal of Press/Politics, ISSN 1940-1612, E-ISSN 1940-1620, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 304-324Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how power relations between journalism and political actors vary across the news production process. Applying a process approach, it addresses this issue by exploring journalists' enactment of the watchdog role in two key moments of news production: the interactional phase and the news-construction phase. The study is conducted in the context of press conferences with the Swedish Government and involves data from question-and-answer sessions and published news content that was initiated by such press conferences. With a low or moderate extent of journalistic aggressiveness in the interactional phase, the results indicate that this moment is characterized by cooperativeness and can be described in accordance with an exchange model. By contrast, the analysis of the published news content demonstrates a high extent of criticism and is in line with an adversary model. Altogether, the findings contribute new evidence to suggest that the power relations between journalists and political actors vary across the moments of news production, and that journalistic autonomy increases in the later phases of the process. The differences in the extent of watchdog-role performance are discussed in terms of a strategic ritual by which news journalism promotes a favorable image of itself as a public watchdog institution.

  • 2.
    Esser, Frank
    et al.
    University of Zurich, Institute for Mass Communication and Media Research (IPMZ), Andreasstrasse 15, 8050 Zurich, Switzerland.
    de Vreese, Claes H.
    University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    van Aelst, Peter
    University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Aalberg, Toril
    NTNU, Trondheim, Norway.
    Stanyer, James
    Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.
    Lengauer, Günther
    University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Berganza, Rosa
    Rey Juan Carlos University, Madrid, Spain.
    Legnante, Guido
    University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.
    Papathanassopoulos, Stylianos
    National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Salgado, Susana
    New University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Sheafer, Tamir
    Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Reinemann, Carsten
    Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany.
    Political Information Opportunities in Europe: A Longitudinal and Comparative Study of Thirteen Television Systems2012Inngår i: The International Journal of Press/Politics, ISSN 1940-1612, E-ISSN 1940-1620, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 247-274Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the supply of political information programming across thirteen European broadcast systems over three decades. The cross-national and cross-temporal design traces the composition and development of political information environments with regard to the amount and placement of news and current affairs programs on the largest public and private television channels. It finds that the televisual information environments of Israel and Norway offer the most advantageous opportunity structure for informed citizenship because of their high levels of airtime and a diverse scheduling strategy. The study contributes to political communication research by establishing "political information environments" as a theoretically and empirically grounded concept that informs and supplements the comparison of "media systems." If developed further, it could provide an information-rich, easy-to-measure macro-unit for future comparative research. © The Author(s) 2012.

  • 3. Hameleers, Michael
    et al.
    Bos, Linda
    Fawzi, Nayla
    Reinemann, Carsten
    Andreadis, Ioannis
    Corbu, Nicoleta
    Schemer, Christian
    Schulz, Anne
    Sheafer, Tamir
    Aalberg, Toril
    Axelsson, Sofia
    Berganza, Rosa
    Universidad Rey Juan Carlos.
    Cremonesi, Cristina
    Dahlberg, Stefan
    de Vreese, Claes H.
    Hess, Agnieszka
    Kartsounidou, Evangelina
    Kasprowicz, Dominika
    Matthes, Jörg
    Negrea-Busuioc, Elena
    Ringdal, Signe
    Salgado, Susana
    Sanders, Karen
    Schmuck, Desirée
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Suiter, Jane
    Boomgaarden, Hajo G.
    Tenenboim-Weinblatt, Keren
    Weiss-Yaniv, Naama
    Start Spreading the News: A Comparative Experiment on the Effects of Populist Communication on Political Engagement in Sixteen European Countries2018Inngår i: The International Journal of Press/Politics, ISSN 1940-1612, E-ISSN 1940-1620, Vol. 23, nr 4, s. 517-538Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although populist communication has become pervasive throughout Europe, many important questions on its political consequences remain unanswered. First, previous research has neglected the differential effects of populist communication on the Left and Right. Second, internationally comparative studies are missing. Finally, previous research mostly studied attitudinal outcomes, neglecting behavioral effects. To address these key issues, this paper draws on a unique, extensive, and comparative experiment in sixteen European countries (N = 15,412) to test the effects of populist communication on political engagement. The findings show that anti-elitist populism has the strongest mobilizing effects, and anti-immigrant messages have the strongest demobilizing effects. Moreover, national conditions such as the level of unemployment and the electoral success of the populist Left and Right condition the impact of populist communication. These findings provide important insights into the persuasiveness of populist messages spread throughout the European continent.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Lindholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Crismart/Swedish National Defence College, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Crisis Communication as a Multilevel Game: The Muhammad Cartoons from a Crisis Diplomacy Perspective2011Inngår i: The International Journal of Press/Politics, ISSN 1940-1612, E-ISSN 1940-1620, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 254-271Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Muhammad cartoon crisis in 2005 provides an illustrative example of how crises travel across geographical boundaries, in this case, from a national newspaper into a full-fledged public diplomacy crisis at the international level. From a crisis management perspective, a multilevel setting poses a real challenge to actors trying to contain the situation at hand. Likewise, the multilevel nature of a crisis poses a challenge to crisis communication theories, which have traditionally focused on rhetorical strategies in single organizational crises. As a response, this article proposes a framework for examining crisis communication based on how actors’ framing impact the perceptions of arenas, stakeholders, and communication strategies.

  • 5.
    Lindholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholms centrum för forskning om offentlig sektor (SCORE).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Crisis Communication as a Multilevel Game: The Muhammad Cartoons from a Crisis Diplomacy Perspective2011Inngår i: The International Journal of Press/Politics, ISSN 1940-1612, E-ISSN 1940-1620, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 254-271Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Muhammad cartoon crisis in 2005 provides an illustrative example of how crises travel across geographical boundaries, in this case, from a national newspaper into a full-fledged public diplomacy crisis at the international level. From a crisis management perspective, a multilevel setting poses a real challenge to actors trying to contain the situation at hand. Likewise, the multilevel nature of a crisis poses a challenge to crisis communication theories, which have traditionally focused on rhetorical strategies in single organizational crises. As a response, this article proposes a framework for examining crisis communication based on how actors’ framing impact the perceptions of arenas, stakeholders, and communication strategies.

  • 6.
    Lindholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Crisis Communication as a Multilevel Game: The Muhammad Cartoons from a Crisis Diplomacy Perspective2011Inngår i: The International Journal of Press/Politics, ISSN 1940-1612, E-ISSN 1940-1620, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 254-271Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Muhammad cartoon crisis in 2005 provides an illustrative example of how crises travel across geographical boundaries, in this case, from a national newspaper into a full-fledged public diplomacy crisis at the international level. From a crisis management perspective, a multilevel setting poses a real challenge to actors trying to contain the situation at hand. Likewise, the multilevel nature of a crisis poses a challenge to crisis communication theories, which have traditionally focused on rhetorical strategies in single organizational crises. As a response, this article proposes a framework for examining crisis communication based on how actors’ framing impact the perceptions of arenas, stakeholders, and communication strategies.

  • 7.
    Robertson, Alexa
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier, JMK.
    Connecting in Crisis: 'Old' and 'New' Media and the Arab Spring2013Inngår i: The International Journal of Press/Politics, ISSN 1940-1612, E-ISSN 1940-1620, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 325-341Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When political unrest spread from Tunisia to neighbouring countries early in 2011, established global broadcasters were quick to provide commentary on the part played by social media in mobilizing dissent, exploiting the same technology in their own reporting of the protests as they did so. In this article, the relation of ‘old’ to ‘new’ media is explored in a comparison of televised coverage of the Arab Spring in Al Jazeera English, Russia Today,  CNN International and BBC World news. Building on notions of mediapolis and connectivity and mediatized crisis, it seeks to map the shared communicative space opened up by global broadcasters, and how established media actors are adapting to new media ecologies. The empirical analysis shows that social media do not play the prominent role in global television discourse one might expect, and that their prominence and deployment varies from one channel to the other.

  • 8.
    Shehata, Adam
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Not (Yet) a New Era of Minimal Effects: A Study of Agenda Setting at the Aggregate and Individual Levels2013Inngår i: The International Journal of Press/Politics, ISSN 1940-1612, E-ISSN 1940-1620, Vol. 18, nr 2, s. 234-255Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, profound media environmental changes have sparked a controversy regarding whether we are entering a new era of minimal effects. Focusing on one of the most important media effect theories, agenda setting, this study combines a panel survey and a media content analysis to test three claims derived from the new era of minimal effects discussion: (1) that recent media environmental changes have reduced the agenda setting influence of traditional news media to non-significance, (2) that increased opportunities for media choice have made partisan selective exposure the key mechanism behind media effects, and (3) that the availability of alternative online news sources reduces susceptibility to agenda setting effects from the traditional news media. Among other things, the results show that traditional news media still exert agenda-setting influence on both the aggregate and individual levels, but that these effects are weakened by use of multiple online news media. Overall, the results suggest that a generalized “we” have not (yet) entered a new era of minimal effects, and that certain media system characteristics are likely to condition the pace of any potential transition to a new minimal effects era.

  • 9.
    Skovsgaard, Morten
    et al.
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Shehata, Adam
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Opportunity Structures for Selective Exposure: Investigating Selective Exposure and Learning in Swedish Election Campaigns Using Panel Survey Data2016Inngår i: The International Journal of Press/Politics, ISSN 1940-1612, E-ISSN 1940-1620, Vol. 21, nr 4, s. 527-546Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition from low-choice to high-choice media environments has raised new concerns about selective exposure. In this context, two types of selective media exposure are relevant. One is selectivity based on political ideological preferences, the other selectivity based on political interest. Evidence for both has been found primarily in an American context, while there is less research on European countries. This is problematic, as the opportunity structures for different forms of selectivity vary across media environments. Against this background, the purpose of this study is to investigate the two types of selective exposure in a country—Sweden—where the opportunity structures for selective exposure differ from the American context. This study investigates both types of selective exposure in relation to televised party-leader interviews. Based on panel survey data, the findings show that selective exposure based on political interest is substantially more important than selective exposure based on ideological preferences in explaining exposure to party-leader interviews. To substantiate this finding, the results are replicated with partisan learning as the dependent variable.

  • 10.
    Stetka, Vaclav
    et al.
    University of Oxford.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Investigative journalism in Central and Eastern Europe: Autonomy, Business Models, and Democratic Roles2013Inngår i: The International Journal of Press/Politics, ISSN 1940-1612, E-ISSN 1940-1620, Vol. 18, nr 4, s. 413-435Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a comparative overview of investigative journalism in eight countries in the Central and Eastern European region (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia). The purpose is both descriptive and analytical. Descriptively, the article charts the presence and provision of investigative journalism across the region and inventories and assesses the various funding forms that exist against the background of the recent (2008-09) financial crisis. Analytically, the article focuses on assessing the relative autonomy (defined as autonomy from external actors) and effects (defined as the removal from office and sentencing of political actors revealed to be engaged in legal and moral transgressions, commonly various forms of corruption). The article finds investigative journalism across the region in general to be weak in terms of autonomy and effects, but stronger in countries that have had more stable and richer media markets (notably Estonia, Poland, and the Czech Republic). The article further finds that alternative news sources online in some countries (notably Romania and Bulgaria) play an important role as providers of investigative journalism.

  • 11.
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Shehata, Adam
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    A Question of Time?: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Relationship between News Media Consumption and Political Trust.2016Inngår i: The International Journal of Press/Politics, ISSN 1940-1612, E-ISSN 1940-1620, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 88-110Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there is plenty of research investigating the linkages between news media use and political distrust, virtually all of these studies focus on the impact of media use on political distrust at a particular point in time. At the same time, the transition from low-choice to high-choice media environments suggests that the relationship might not be stable across time. Whatever the linkages between news media use and political distrust were in the 1980s, 1990s, or 2000s, it cannot a priori be assumed that those linkages are the same or of equal strength today. Against this background, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the changing relationship between news media use and political trust across time. Among other things, the results show that there is a positive linkage between news media use and political trust but also that for some media, this relationship weakens across time.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Four Phases of Mediatization: An Analysis of the Mediatization of Politics2008Inngår i: The International Journal of Press/Politics, ISSN 1940-1612, E-ISSN 1940-1620, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. 228-246Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two concepts that have been used to describe the changes with regards to media and politics during the last fifty years are the concepts of mediationand mediatiza- tion. However, both these concepts are used more often than they are properly defined.Moreover,there is a lack of analysis of the processof mediatization,although the concept as such denotes a process.Thus the purpose of this article is to ana- lyze the concepts of mediated and mediatized politics from a process-oriented per- spective.The article argues that mediatization is a multidimensional and inherently process-oriented concept and that it is possible to make a distinction between four phases of mediatization. Each of these phases is analyzed.The conclusion is that as politics becomes increasingly mediatized, the important question no longer is related to the independence of the media from politics and society.The important question becomes the independence of politics and society from the media.

  • 13.
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Dimitrova, Daniela V.
    Iowa State Univ, Greenlee Sch Journalism & Commun, Ames, IA, USA.
    Mediatization and Media Interventionism: A Comparative Analysis of Sweden and the United States2011Inngår i: The International Journal of Press/Politics, ISSN 1940-1612, E-ISSN 1940-1620, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 30-49Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although mediatization as a term is commonly used in the academic literature, it is rarely defined well and there are almost no studies that explicitly seek to investigate the mediatization of politics. Drawing on the literature on mediatization, media interventionism, political news journalism and related areas, the purpose of this article is to develop indicators of the degree to which news content is mediatized, and test these in a comparative content analysis of how Swedish and US television news covered the 2006 Swedish and 2008 US election campaigns. The results show that election news on US television is more mediatized than that on Swedish television, as expected. However, few differences were found across commercial and public service television news within Sweden. The study also suggests that the mediatization of news content may be moderated by national journalism cultures, political news cultures and political communication cultures.

  • 14.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Clientelism, Elites and the Media in Central and Eastern Europe2012Inngår i: The International Journal of Press/Politics, ISSN 1940-1612, E-ISSN 1940-1620, Vol. 17, nr 4, s. 497-515Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues that the traditional political science definition of clientelism is insufficient for explaining how the media fit in with clientelistic systems in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). It is suggested that a broader understanding of clientelism, looking in particular at how media are used as elite-to-elite communication tools as well as elite-to-mass communication tools, better explains the place of the media in the clientelistic systems of the CEE nations. Empirically, it is based on a set of 272 elite and expert interviews conducted across ten CEE countries (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia) in 2010 and 2011. The article presents some general findings on the nature and character of the linkages between political elites and the media, and the extent to which such linkages can be considered clientelistic. Then follows a discussion of specific practices of media instrumentalization, charting the many ways in which the media can function as a resource in conflicts and negotiations between clientelistic elite networks, directly as well as indirectly. Particular attention is given to the phenomena of advertorials and kompromat.

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