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  • 1. Abada, A.
    et al.
    Ekelöf, Tord
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Zurita, J.
    FCC-ee: The Lepton Collider: Future Circular Collider Conceptual Design Report Volume 22019Ingår i: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, ISSN 1951-6355, E-ISSN 1951-6401, Vol. 228, nr 2, s. 261-623Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to the 2013 Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the Future Circular Collider (FCC) study was launched, as an international collaboration hosted by CERN. This study covers a highest-luminosity high-energy lepton collider (FCC-ee) and an energy-frontier hadron collider (FCC-hh), which could, successively, be installed in the same 100 km tunnel. The scientific capabilities of the integrated FCC programme would serve the worldwide community throughout the 21st century. The FCC study also investigates an LHC energy upgrade, using FCC-hh technology. This document constitutes the second volume of the FCC Conceptual Design Report, devoted to the electron-positron collider FCC-ee. After summarizing the physics discovery opportunities, it presents the accelerator design, performance reach, a staged operation scenario, the underlying technologies, civil engineering, technical infrastructure, and an implementation plan. FCC-ee can be built with today's technology. Most of the FCC-ee infrastructure could be reused for FCC-hh. Combining concepts from past and present lepton colliders and adding a few novel elements, the FCC-ee design promises outstandingly high luminosity. This will make the FCC-ee a unique precision instrument to study the heaviest known particles (Z, W and H bosons and the top quark), offering great direct and indirect sensitivity to new physics.

  • 2. Abada, A.
    et al.
    Ekelöf, Tord
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Zurita, J.
    FCC-hh: The Hadron Collider: Future Circular Collider Conceptual Design Report Volume 32019Ingår i: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, ISSN 1951-6355, E-ISSN 1951-6401, Vol. 228, nr 4, s. 755-1107Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to the 2013 Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics (EPPSU), the Future Circular Collider (FCC) study was launched as a world-wide international collaboration hosted by CERN. The FCC study covered an energy-frontier hadron collider (FCC-hh), a highest-luminosity high-energy lepton collider (FCC-ee), the corresponding 100km tunnel infrastructure, as well as the physics opportunities of these two colliders, and a high-energy LHC, based on FCC-hh technology. This document constitutes the third volume of the FCC Conceptual Design Report, devoted to the hadron collider FCC-hh. It summarizes the FCC-hh physics discovery opportunities, presents the FCC-hh accelerator design, performance reach, and staged operation plan, discusses the underlying technologies, the civil engineering and technical infrastructure, and also sketches a possible implementation. Combining ingredients from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the high-luminosity LHC upgrade and adding novel technologies and approaches, the FCC-hh design aims at significantly extending the energy frontier to 100TeV. Its unprecedented centre of-mass collision energy will make the FCC-hh a unique instrument to explore physics beyond the Standard Model, offering great direct sensitivity to new physics and discoveries.

  • 3. Abada, A.
    et al.
    Ekelöf, Tord
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Zurita, J.
    HE-LHC: The High-Energy Large Hadron Collider Future Circular Collider Conceptual Design Report Volume 42019Ingår i: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, ISSN 1951-6355, E-ISSN 1951-6401, Vol. 228, nr 5, s. 1109-1382Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to the 2013 Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics (EPPSU), the Future Circular Collider (FCC) study was launched as a world-wide international collaboration hosted by CERN. The FCC study covered an energy-frontier hadron collider (FCC-hh), a highest-luminosity high-energy lepton collider (FCC-ee), the corresponding 100 km tunnel infrastructure, as well as the physics opportunities of these two colliders, and a high-energy LHC, based on FCC-hh technology. This document constitutes the third volume of the FCC Conceptual Design Report, devoted to the hadron collider FCC-hh. It summarizes the FCC-hh physics discovery opportunities, presents the FCC-hh accelerator design, performance reach, and staged operation plan, discusses the underlying technologies, the civil engineering and technical infrastructure, and also sketches a possible implementation. Combining ingredients from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the high-luminosity LHC upgrade and adding novel technologies and approaches, the FCC-hh design aims at significantly extending the energy frontier to 100 TeV. Its unprecedented centre-of-mass collision energy will make the FCC-hh a unique instrument to explore physics beyond the Standard Model, offering great direct sensitivity to new physics and discoveries.

  • 4.
    Baladron, Carlos
    et al.
    Univ Valladolid, Spain.
    Khrennikov, Andrei
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för matematik (MA). Natl Res Univ Informat Technol Mech & Opt ITMO, Russia.
    Bell inequality violation in the framework of a Darwinian approach to quantum mechanics2019Ingår i: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, ISSN 1951-6355, E-ISSN 1951-6401, Vol. 227, nr 15-16, s. 2119-2132Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental particle in physical space subject to conservation of momentum and energy, and characterized by its average mass and its position is methodologically supplemented with an information processor - a classical Turing machine - and a randomizer both defined on an information space localized on every particle. In this way the particle can be considered a generalized Darwinian system on which natural selection could act steering the evolution on the information space of the algorithms that govern the behaviour of the particles, giving rise plausibly to emergent quantum behaviour from initial randomness. This theory is applied to an EPR-Bohm experiment for electrons in order to analyse Bell inequality violation. A model for the entanglement of two particles has been considered. The model includes shared randomness - each particle stores its own randomizer and that of its partner - and the mutual transfer of their algorithms - sharing programs - that contain their respective anticipation modules. This fact enables every particle to anticipate not only the possible future configurations of its surrounding systems, but also those of the surrounding systems of its entangled partner. Thus, while preserving locality and realism, this theory implies outcome dependence - through shared randomness - and parameter dependence - through shared anticipation - for entangled states and, as a consequence, the violation of the Bell inequality in an EPR-Bohm experiment.

  • 5.
    Belonoshko, Anatoly B.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teoretisk fysik, Kondenserade materiens teori.
    Lukinov, Timofei
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teoretisk fysik, Kondenserade materiens teori.
    Burakovsky, Leonid
    Preston, Dean L.
    Rosengren, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teoretisk fysik, Kondenserade materiens teori.
    Melting of a polycrystalline material2013Ingår i: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, ISSN 1951-6355, E-ISSN 1951-6401, Vol. 216, nr 1, s. 199-204Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Calculating the melting temperature of a solid with a known model of interaction between atoms is nowadays a comparatively simple task. However, when one simulates a single crystal by molecular dynamics method, it does not normally melt at the melting temperature. Instead, one has to significantly overheat it. Yet, a real material melts at the melting point. Here we investigate the impact of the defects and the grain boundaries on melting. We demonstrate that defects and grain boundaries have similar impact and make it possible to simulate melting in close vicinity of thermodynamic melting temperature. We also show that the Z method might be non-applicable in discriminating a stable submelting phase.

  • 6.
    Cayao, Jorge
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Materialteori.
    Black-Schaffer, Annica M.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Materialteori.
    Finite length effect on supercurrents between trivial and topological superconductors2018Ingår i: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, ISSN 1951-6355, E-ISSN 1951-6401, Vol. 227, nr 12, s. 1387-1396Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We numerically analyze the effect of finite length of the superconducting regions on the low-energy spectrum, current-phase curves, and critical currents in junctions between trivial and topological superconductors. Such junctions are assumed to arise in nanowires with strong spin-orbit coupling under external magnetic fields and proximity-induced superconductivity. We show that all these quantities exhibit a strong dependence on the length of the topological sector in the topological phase and serve as indicators of the topological phase and thus the emergence of Majorana bound states at the end of the topological superconductor.

  • 7.
    Cirillo, Emilio N.M.
    et al.
    Sapienza Universit`a di Roma, Italy.
    Colangeli, Matteo
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013).
    Muntean, Adrian
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Muntean, Stela Andrea
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013).
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper (from 2013).
    A lattice model approach to the morphology formation from ternary mixtures during the evaporation of one component2019Ingår i: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, ISSN 1951-6355, E-ISSN 1951-6401, Vol. 228, nr 1, s. 55-68Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Stimulated by experimental evidence in the field of solution-born thin films, we study the morphology formation in a three state lattice system subjected to the evaporation of one component. The practical problem that we address is the understanding of the parameters that govern morphology formation from a ternary mixture upon evaporation, as is the case in the fabrication of thin films from solution for organic photovoltaics. We use, as a tool, a generalized version of the Potts and Blume-Capel models in 2D, with the Monte Carlo Kawasaki-Metropolis algorithm, to simulate the phase behaviour of a ternary mixture upon evaporation of one of its components. The components with spin 1, −1 and 0 in the Blume-Capel dynamics correspond to the electron-acceptor, electron-donor and solvent molecules, respectively, in a ternary mixture used in the preparation of the active layer films in an organic solar cell. Furthermore, we introduce parameters that account for the relative composition of the mixture, temperature, and interaction between the species in the system. We identify the parameter regions that are prone to facilitate the phase separation. Furthermore, we study qualitatively the types of formed configurations. We show that even a relatively simple model, as the present one, can generate key morphological features, similar to those observed in experiments, which proves the method valuable for the study of complex systems.

  • 8.
    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nature as a Network of Morphological Infocomputational Processes for Cognitive Agents2017Ingår i: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, ISSN 1951-6355, E-ISSN 1951-6401, Vol. 226, nr 2, s. 181-195Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a view of nature as a network of infocomputational agents organized in a dynamical hierarchy of levels. It provides a framework for unification of currently disparate understandings of natural, formal, technical, behavioral and social phenomena based on information as a structure, differences in one system that cause the differences in another system, and computation as its dynamics, i.e. physical process of morphological change in the informational structure. We address some of the frequent misunderstandings regarding the natural/morphological computational models and their relationships to physical systems, especially cognitive systems such as living beings. Natural morphological infocomputation as a conceptual framework necessitates generalization of models of computation beyond the traditional Turing machine model presenting symbol manipulation, and requires agent-based concurrent resource-sensitive models of computation in order to be able to cover the whole range of phenomena from physics to cognition. The central role of agency, particularly material vs. cognitive agency is highlighted.

  • 9.
    Donges, Jonathan F.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Germany.
    Schleussner, C. -F.
    Siegmund, J. F.
    Donner, R. V.
    Event coincidence analysis for quantifying statistical interrelationships between event time series2016Ingår i: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, ISSN 1951-6355, E-ISSN 1951-6401, Vol. 225, nr 3, s. 471-487Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Studying event time series is a powerful approach for analyzing the dynamics of complex dynamical systems in many fields of science. In this paper, we describe the method of event coincidence analysis to provide a framework for quantifying the strength, directionality and time lag of statistical interrelationships between event series. Event coincidence analysis allows to formulate and test null hypotheses on the origin of the observed interrelationships including tests based on Poisson processes or, more generally, stochastic point processes with a prescribed inter-event time distribution and other higher-order properties. Applying the framework to country-level observational data yields evidence that flood events have acted as triggers of epidemic outbreaks globally since the 1950s. Facing projected future changes in the statistics of climatic extreme events, statistical techniques such as event coincidence analysis will be relevant for investigating the impacts of anthropogenic climate change on human societies and ecosystems worldwide.

  • 10.
    Duong, M. H.
    et al.
    University of Warwick, UK.
    Muntean, Adrian
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Richardson, Omar
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Discrete and continuum links to a nonlinear coupled transport problem of interacting populations2017Ingår i: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, ISSN 1951-6355, E-ISSN 1951-6401, Vol. 226, nr 10, s. 2345-2357Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We are interested in exploring interacting particle systemsthat can be seen as microscopic models for a particular structure ofcoupled transport flux arising when different populations are jointlyevolving. The scenarios we have in mind are inspired by the dynamicsof pedestrian flows in open spaces and are intimately connectedto cross-diffusion and thermo-diffusion problems holding a variationalstructure. The tools we use include a suitable structure of the relativeentropy controlling TV-norms, the construction of Lyapunov functionalsand particular closed-form solutions to nonlinear transport equations,a hydrodynamics limiting procedure due to Philipowski, as wellas the construction of numerical approximates to both the continuumlimit problem in 2D and to the original interacting particle systems.

  • 11. Echtermeyer, T. J.
    et al.
    Lemme, Max C.
    AMO GmbH, AMICA, Aachen, Germany.
    Bolten, J.
    Baus, M.
    Ramsteiner, M.
    Kurz, H.
    Graphene field-effect devices2007Ingår i: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, ISSN 1951-6355, E-ISSN 1951-6401, Vol. 148, nr 1, s. 19-26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, graphene is investigated with respect to its electronic properties when introduced into field effect devices ( FED). With the exception of manual graphene deposition, conventional top-down CMOS-compatible processes are applied. Few and monolayer graphene sheets are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The electrical properties of monolayer graphene sandwiched between two silicon dioxide films are studied. Carrier mobilities in graphene pseudo-MOS structures are compared to those obtained from double-gated Graphene-FEDs and silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors ( MOSFETs).

  • 12. Elber, R.
    et al.
    Ruymgaart, A. P.
    Hess, Berk
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teoretisk fysik, Beräkningsbiofysik.
    SHAKE parallelization2011Ingår i: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, ISSN 1951-6355, E-ISSN 1951-6401, Vol. 200, nr 1, s. 211-223Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    SHAKE is a widely used algorithm to impose general holonomic constraints during molecular simulations. By imposing constraints on stiff degrees of freedom that require integration with small time steps (without the constraints) we are able to calculate trajectories with time steps larger by approximately a factor of two. The larger time step makes it possible to run longer simulations. Another approach to extend the scope of Molecular Dynamics is parallelization. Parallelization speeds up the calculation of the forces between the atoms and makes it possible to compute longer trajectories with better statistics for thermodynamic and kinetic averages. A combination of SHAKE and parallelism is therefore highly desired. Unfortunately, the most widely used SHAKE algorithm (of bond relaxation) is inappropriate for parallelization and alternatives are needed. The alternatives must minimize communication, lead to good load balancing, and offer significantly better performance than the bond relaxation approach. The algorithm should also scale with the number of processors. We describe the theory behind different implementations of constrained dynamics on parallel systems, and their implementation on common architectures.

  • 13. Grieser, M.
    et al.
    Litvinov, Yu. A.
    Raabe, R.
    Blaum, K.
    Blumenfeld, Y.
    Butler, P. A.
    Wenander, F.
    Woods, P. J.
    Aliotta, M.
    Andreyev, A.
    Artemyev, A.
    Atanasov, D.
    Aumann, T.
    Balabanski, D.
    Barzakh, A.
    Batist, L.
    Bernardes, A. -P
    Bernhardt, D.
    Billowes, J.
    Bishop, S.
    Borge, M.
    Borzov, I.
    Bosch, F.
    Boston, A. J.
    Brandau, C.
    Catford, W.
    Catherall, R.
    Cederkall, J.
    Cullen, D.
    Davinson, T.
    Dillmann, I.
    Dimopoulou, C.
    Dracoulis, G.
    Duellmann, Ch. E.
    Egelhof, P.
    Estrade, A.
    Fischer, D.
    Flanagan, K.
    Fraile, L.
    Fraser, M. A.
    Freeman, S. J.
    Geissel, H.
    Gerl, J.
    Greenlees, P.
    Grisenti, R. E.
    Habs, D.
    von Hahn, R.
    Hagmann, S.
    Hausmann, M.
    He, J. J.
    Heil, M.
    Huyse, M.
    Jenkins, D.
    Jokinen, A.
    Jonson, B.
    Joss, D. T.
    Kadi, Y.
    Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.
    Kay, B. P.
    Kiselev, O.
    Kluge, H. -J
    Kowalska, M.
    Kozhuharov, C.
    Kreim, S.
    Kroell, T.
    Kurcewicz, J.
    Labiche, M.
    Lemmon, R. C.
    Lestinsky, M.
    Lotay, G.
    Ma, X. W.
    Marta, M.
    Meng, J.
    Muecher, D.
    Mukha, I.
    Mueller, A.
    Murphy, A. St J.
    Neyens, G.
    Nilsson, T.
    Nociforo, C.
    Noertershaeuser, W.
    Page, R. D.
    Pasini, M.
    Petridis, N.
    Pietralla, N.
    Pfuetzner, M.
    Podolyak, Z.
    Regan, P.
    Reed, M. W.
    Reifarth, R.
    Reiter, P.
    Repnow, R.
    Riisager, K.
    Rubio, B.
    Sanjari, M. S.
    Savin, D. W.
    Scheidenberger, C.
    Schippers, S.
    Schneider, D.
    Schuch, Reinhold
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Schwalm, D.
    Schweikhard, L.
    Shubina, D.
    Siesling, E.
    Simon, H.
    Simpson, J.
    Smith, J.
    Sonnabend, K.
    Steck, M.
    Stora, T.
    Stoehlker, T.
    Sun, B.
    Surzhykov, A.
    Suzaki, F.
    Tarasov, O.
    Trotsenko, S.
    Tu, X. L.
    Van Duppen, P.
    Volpe, C.
    Voulot, D.
    Walker, P. M.
    Wildner, E.
    Winckler, N.
    Winters, D. F. A.
    Wolf, A.
    Xu, H. S.
    Yakushev, A.
    Yamaguchi, T.
    Yuan, Y. J.
    Zhang, Y. H.
    Zuber, K.
    Storage ring at HIE-ISOLDE Technical design report2012Ingår i: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, ISSN 1951-6355, E-ISSN 1951-6401, Vol. 207, nr 1, s. 1-117Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose to install a storage ring at an ISOL-type radioactive beam facility for the first time. Specifically, we intend to setup the heavy-ion, low-energy ring TSR at the HIE-ISOLDE facility in CERN, Geneva. Such a facility will provide a capability for experiments with stored secondary beams that is unique in the world. The envisaged physics programme is rich and varied, spanning from investigations of nuclear ground-state properties and reaction studies of astrophysical relevance, to investigations with highly-charged ions and pure isomeric beams. The TSR might also be employed for removal of isobaric contaminants from stored ion beams and for systematic studies within the neutrino beam programme. In addition to experiments performed using beams recirculating within the ring, cooled beams can also be extracted and exploited by external spectrometers for high-precision measurements. The existing TSR, which is presently in operation at the Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, is well-suited and can be employed for this purpose. The physics cases as well as technical details of the existing ring facility and of the beam and infrastructure requirements at HIE-ISOLDE are discussed in the present technical design report.

  • 14.
    Khrennikov, Andrei
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för matematik (MA). Natl Res Univ Informat Technol Mech & Opt ITMO, Russia.
    Toffano, Zeno
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Dubois, Francois
    Univ Paris Sud, France.
    Concept of information laser: from quantum theory to behavioural dynamics2019Ingår i: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, ISSN 1951-6355, E-ISSN 1951-6401, Vol. 227, nr 15-16, s. 2133-2153Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the methods of quantum theory, especially quantum information, started to be widely applied outside of physics: in cognitive, social sciences, economics, finance, decision making and biology. We propose a quantum-like model: the information laser. The basic assumption is the discrete structure of state spaces related to the quantization of information. The information field acts in the form of indistinguishable quanta of social energy analogue to photons. The massive flow of information acts as a laser pump. In this framework, an information selection process by agents under constant pressure of massive repeated information leads to collective resonance effects in analogy with laser cavity and stimulated emission. In order to make operational parallels between physical lasers and the information laser we identify the essential features of laser operation. An application to the analysis of recent disruptive social events (colour revolutions) is discussed. Social analogues to the laser are also considered through the model of Echo Chambers induced by the Internet and Adam Smith's invisible hand.

  • 15. Lee, Sang Hoon
    et al.
    Holme, Petter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    A greedy-navigator approach to navigable city plans2013Ingår i: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, ISSN 1951-6355, E-ISSN 1951-6401, Vol. 215, nr 1, s. 135-144Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a set of four theoretical navigability indices for street maps to investigate the shape of the resulting street networks, if they are grown by optimizing these indices. The indices compare the performance of simulated navigators (having a partial information about the surroundings, like humans in many real situations) to the performance of optimally navigating individuals. We show that our simple greedy shortcut construction strategy generates the emerging structures that are different from real road network, but not inconceivable. The resulting city plans, for all navigation indices, share common qualitative properties such as the tendency for triangular blocks to appear, while the more quantitative features, such as degree distributions and clustering, are characteristically different depending on the type of metrics and routing strategies. We show that it is the type of metrics used which determines the overall shapes characterized by structural heterogeneity, but the routing schemes contribute to more subtle details of locality, which is more emphasized in case of unrestricted connections when the edge crossing is allowed.

  • 16.
    Lee, Sang Hoon
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Holme, Petter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    A greedy-navigator approach to navigable city plans2013Ingår i: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, ISSN 1951-6355, E-ISSN 1951-6401, Vol. 215, nr 1, s. 135-144Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a set of four theoretical navigability indices for street maps to investigate the shape of the resulting street networks, if they are grown by optimizing these indices. The indices compare the performance of simulated navigators (having a partial information about the surroundings, like humans in many real situations) to the performance of optimally navigating individuals. We show that our simple greedy shortcut construction strategy generates the emerging structures that are different from real road network, but not inconceivable. The resulting city plans, for all navigation indices, share common qualitative properties such as the tendency for triangular blocks to appear, while the more quantitative features, such as degree distributions and clustering, are characteristically different depending on the type of metrics and routing strategies. We show that it is the type of metrics used which determines the overall shapes characterized by structural heterogeneity, but the routing schemes contribute to more subtle details of locality, which is more emphasized in case of unrestricted connections when the edge crossing is allowed.

  • 17. Lestinsky, M.
    et al.
    Andrianov, V.
    Aurand, B.
    Bagnoud, V.
    Bernhardt, D.
    Beyer, H.
    Bishop, S.
    Blaum, K.
    Bleile, A.
    Borovik, At.
    Bosch, F.
    Bostock, C. J.
    Brandau, C.
    Braeuning-Demian, A.
    Bray, I.
    Davinson, T.
    Ebinger, B.
    Echler, A.
    Egelhof, P.
    Ehresmann, A.
    Engström, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Enss, C.
    Ferreira, N.
    Fischer, D.
    Fleischmann, A.
    Foerster, E.
    Fritzsche, S.
    Geithner, R.
    Geyer, S.
    Glorius, J.
    Goebel, K.
    Gorda, O.
    Goullon, J.
    Grabitz, P.
    Grisenti, R.
    Gumberidze, A.
    Hagmann, S.
    Heil, M.
    Heinz, A.
    Herfurth, F.
    Hess, R.
    Hillenbrand, P. -M.
    Hubele, R.
    Indelicato, P.
    Källberg, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Kester, O.
    Kiselev, O.
    Knie, A.
    Kozhuharov, C.
    Kraft-Bermuth, S.
    Kuehl, T.
    Lane, G.
    Litvinov, Yu. A.
    Liesen, D.
    Ma, X. W.
    Maertin, R.
    Moshammer, R.
    Mueller, A.
    Namba, S.
    Neumeyer, P.
    Nilsson, T.
    Noertershaeuser, W.
    Paulus, G.
    Petridis, N.
    Reed, M.
    Reifarth, R.
    Reiss, P.
    Rothhardt, J.
    Sanchez, R.
    Sanjari, M. S.
    Schippers, S.
    Schmidt, Henning T.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Schneider, D.
    Scholz, P.
    Schuch, Reinhold
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Schulz, M.
    Shabaev, V.
    Simonsson, Ansgar
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Sjöholm, Johannes
    Skeppstedt, Örjan
    Stockholm Univ, Fysikum, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sonnabend, K.
    Spillmann, U.
    Stiebing, K.
    Steck, M.
    Stohlker, T.
    Surzhykov, A.
    Torilov, S.
    Trabert, E.
    Trassinelli, M.
    Trotsenko, S.
    Tu, X. L.
    Uschmann, I.
    Walker, P. M.
    Weber, G.
    Winters, D. F. A.
    Woods, P. J.
    Zhao, H. Y.
    Zhang, Y. H.
    Physics book: CRYRING@ESR2016Ingår i: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, ISSN 1951-6355, E-ISSN 1951-6401, Vol. 225, nr 5, s. 797-882Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The exploration of the unique properties of stored and cooled beams of highly-charged ions as provided by heavy-ion storage rings has opened novel and fascinating research opportunities in the realm of atomic and nuclear physics research. Since the late 1980s, pioneering work has been performed at the CRYRING at Stockholm (Abrahamsson et al. 1993) and at the Test Storage Ring (TSR) at Heidelberg (Baumann et al. 1988). For the heaviest ions in the highest charge-states, a real quantum jump was achieved in the early 1990s by the commissioning of the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt (Franzke 1987) where challenging experiments on the electron dynamics in the strong field regime as well as nuclear physics studies on exotic nuclei and at the borderline to atomic physics were performed. Meanwhile also at Lanzhou a heavy-ion storage ring has been taken in operation, exploiting the unique research opportunities in particular for medium-heavy ions and exotic nuclei (Xia et al. 2002).

  • 18. Metzler, R.
    et al.
    Sanders, L.
    Lomholt, M. A.
    Lizana, Ludvig
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Fogelmark, K.
    Ambjörnsson, Tobias
    Ageing single file motion2014Ingår i: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, ISSN 1951-6355, E-ISSN 1951-6401, Vol. 223, nr 14, s. 3287-3293Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The mean squared displacement of a tracer particle in a single file of identical particles with excluded volume interactions shows the famed Harris scaling aEurox (2)(t)aEuro parts per thousand a parts per thousand integral K (1/2) t (1/2) as function of time. Here we study what happens to this law when each particle of the single file interacts with the environment such that it is transiently immobilised for times tau with a power-law distribution psi(tau) a parts per thousand integral (tau(a similar to...))(alpha), and different ranges of the exponent alpha are considered. We find a dramatic slow-down of the motion of a tracer particle from Harris' law to an ultraslow, logarithmic time evolution aEurox (2)(t)aEuro parts per thousand a parts per thousand integral K (0) log (1/2)(t) when 0 < alpha < 1. In the intermediate case 1 < alpha < 2, we observe a power-law form for the mean squared displacement, with a modified scaling exponent as compared to Harris' law. Once alpha is larger than two, the Brownian single file behaviour and thus Harris' law are restored. We also point out that this process is weakly non-ergodic in the sense that the time and ensemble averaged mean squared displacements are disparate.

  • 19.
    Paolucci, M.
    et al.
    ISTC-CNR, Italy.
    Kossman, D.
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Conte, R.
    ISTC-CNR, Italy.
    Lukowicz, P.
    DFKI, Germany.
    Argyrakis, P.
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Blandford, A.
    UCL, UK.
    Bonelli, G.
    ISTC-CNR, Italy.
    Anderson, S.
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    de Freitas, S.
    Coventry University, UK.
    Edmonds, B.
    CPM, Manchester Metropolitan University, UK.
    Gilbert, N.
    CRESS, University of Surrey, UK.
    Gross, M.
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Kohlhammer, J.
    Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics Research (IGD), Germany.
    Koumoutsakos, P
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Krause, A.
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Linnér, Björn-Ola
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Slusallek, P
    DFKI, Germany.
    Sorkine, O.
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Sumner, R. W.
    Disney Research Zurich, Switzerland.
    Helbing, D.
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Towards a living earth simulator2012Ingår i: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, ISSN 1951-6355, E-ISSN 1951-6401, Vol. 214, nr 1, s. 77-108Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Living Earth Simulator (LES) is one of the core components

    of the FuturICT architecture. It will work as a federation of

    methods, tools, techniques and facilities supporting all of the FuturICT

    simulation-related activities to allow and encourage interactive exploration

    and understanding of societal issues. Society-relevant problems

    will be targeted by leaning on approaches based on complex systems

    theories and data science in tight interaction with the other components

    of FuturICT. The LES will evaluate and provide answers to realworld

    questions by taking into account multiple scenarios. It will build

    on present approaches such as agent-based simulation and modeling,

    multiscale modelling, statistical inference, and data mining, moving

    beyond disciplinary borders to achieve a new perspective on complex

    social systems.

  • 20.
    Piancastelli, Maria Novella
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Molekyl- och kondenserade materiens fysik.
    K-shell double core-hole spectroscopy in molecules2013Ingår i: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, ISSN 1951-6355, E-ISSN 1951-6401, Vol. 222, nr 9, s. 2035-2055Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A great deal of attention has been devoted in the last few years to photoionization processes in isolated molecules leading to the formation of double core-hole (DCH) states. There are two main experimental avenues to induce such processes, namely single-photon absorption followed by the simultaneous ejection of two core electrons, and x-ray-induced multiphoton processes leading to the production of DCH states via the sequential absorption of two soft x- ray photons on a time scale on the order of the molecular Auger lifetime (4-8 femtoseconds for light elements). The formation of molecular two-site (ts) DCH states, in particular, shows great potential as a powerful tool for chemical analysis. A compelling motivation for the study of ts-DCH states is their ability to probe the local chemical environment more sensitively than either single core-hole (SCH) or single-site (ss) DCH states. The enhanced sensitivity originates from the fact that the double ionization potential (DIP) of ts-DCH states is directly coupled to induced changes in the valence charge distribution at the two different atomic sites. Here a review of the recent literature is presented on both types of experiments, and on the related theoretical work.

  • 21. Rodriguez, D.
    et al.
    Blaum, K.
    Noertershaeuser, W.
    Ahammed, M.
    Algora, A.
    Audi, G.
    Aysto, J.
    Beck, D.
    Bender, M.
    Billowes, J.
    Block, M.
    Boehm, C.
    Bollen, G.
    Brodeur, M.
    Brunner, T.
    Bushaw, B. A.
    Cakirli, R. B.
    Campbell, P.
    Cano-Ott, D.
    Cortes, G.
    Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J. R.
    Das, P.
    Dax, A.
    De, A.
    Delheij, P.
    Dickel, T.
    Dilling, J.
    Eberhardt, K.
    Eliseev, S.
    Ettenauer, S.
    Flanagan, K. T.
    Ferrer, R.
    Garcia-Ramos, J. -E
    Gartzke, E.
    Geissel, H.
    George, S.
    Geppert, C.
    Gomez-Hornillos, M. B.
    Gusev, Y.
    Habs, D.
    Heenen, P. -H
    Heinz, S.
    Herfurth, F.
    Herlert, A.
    Hobein, Matthias
    Stockholms universitet, Fysikum.
    Huber, G.
    Huyse, M.
    Jesch, C.
    Jokinen, A.
    Kester, O.
    Ketelaer, J.
    Kolhinen, V.
    Koudriavtsev, I.
    Kowalska, M.
    Kraemer, J.
    Kreim, S.
    Krieger, A.
    Kuehl, T.
    Lallena, A. M.
    Lapierre, A.
    Le Blanc, F.
    Litvinov, Y. A.
    Lunney, D.
    Martinez, T.
    Marx, G.
    Matos, M.
    Minaya-Ramirez, E.
    Moore, I.
    Nagy, S.
    Naimi, S.
    Neidherr, D.
    Nesterenko, D.
    Neyens, G.
    Novikov, Y. N.
    Petrick, M.
    Plass, W. R.
    Popov, A.
    Quint, W.
    Ray, A.
    Reinhard, P. -G
    Repp, J.
    Roux, C.
    Rubio, B.
    Sanchez, R.
    Schabinger, B.
    Scheidenberger, C.
    Schneider, D.
    Schuch, Reinhold
    Stockholms universitet, Fysikum.
    Schwarz, S.
    Schweikhard, L.
    Seliverstov, M.
    Solders, Andreas
    Stockholms universitet, Fysikum.
    Suhonen, Markus
    Stockholms universitet, Fysikum.
    Szerypo, J.
    Tain, J. L.
    Thirolf, P. G.
    Ullrich, J.
    Van Duppen, P.
    Vasiliev, A.
    Vorobjev, G.
    Weber, C.
    Wendt, K.
    Winkler, M.
    Yordanov, D.
    Ziegler, F.
    MATS and LaSpec: High-precision experiments using ion traps and lasers at FAIR2010Ingår i: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, ISSN 1951-6355, E-ISSN 1951-6401, Vol. 183, s. 1-123Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nuclear ground state properties including mass, charge radii, spins and moments can be determined by applying atomic physics techniques such as Penning-trap based mass spectrometry and laser spectroscopy. The MATS and LaSpec setups at the low-energy beamline at FAIR will allow us to extend the knowledge of these properties further into the region far from stability. The mass and its inherent connection with the nuclear binding energy is a fundamental property of a nuclide, a unique ""fingerprint"". Thus, precise mass values are important for a variety of applications, ranging from nuclear-structure studies like the investigation of shell closures and the onset of deformation, tests of nuclear mass models and mass formulas, to tests of the weak interaction and of the Standard Model. The required relative accuracy ranges from 10(-5) to below 10(-8) for radionuclides, which most often have half-lives well below 1 s. Substantial progress in Penning trap mass spectrometry has made this method a prime choice for precision measurements on rare isotopes. The technique has the potential to provide high accuracy and sensitivity even for very short-lived nuclides. Furthermore, ion traps can be used for precision decay studies and offer advantages over existing methods. With MATS (Precision Measurements of very short-lived nuclei using an Advanced Trapping System for highly-charged ions) at FAIR we aim to apply several techniques to very short-lived radionuclides: High-accuracy mass measurements, in-trap conversion electron and alpha spectroscopy, and trap-assisted spectroscopy. The experimental setup of MATS is a unique combination of an electron beam ion trap for charge breeding, ion traps for beam preparation, and a high-precision Penning trap system for mass measurements and decay studies. For the mass measurements, MATS offers both a high accuracy and a high sensitivity. A relative mass uncertainty of 10(-9) can be reached by employing highly-charged ions and a non-destructive Fourier-Transform Ion-Cyclotron-Resonance (FT-ICR) detection technique on single stored ions. This accuracy limit is important for fundamental interaction tests, but also allows for the study of the fine structure of the nuclear mass surface with unprecedented accuracy, whenever required. The use of the FT-ICR technique provides true single ion sensitivity. This is essential to access isotopes that are produced with minimum rates which are very often the most interesting ones. Instead of pushing for highest accuracy, the high charge state of the ions can also be used to reduce the storage time of the ions, hence making measurements on even shorter-lived isotopes possible. Decay studies in ion traps will become possible with MATS. Novel spectroscopic tools for in-trap high-resolution conversion-electron and charged-particle spectroscopy from carrier-free sources will be developed, aiming e. g. at the measurements of quadrupole moments and E0 strengths. With the possibility of both high-accuracy mass measurements of the shortest-lived isotopes and decay studies, the high sensitivity and accuracy potential of MATS is ideally suited for the study of very exotic nuclides that will only be produced at the FAIR facility. Laser spectroscopy of radioactive isotopes and isomers is an efficient and model-independent approach for the determination of nuclear ground and isomeric state properties. Hyperfine structures and isotope shifts in electronic transitions exhibit readily accessible information on the nuclear spin, magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments as well as root-mean-square charge radii. The dependencies of the hyperfine splitting and isotope shift on the nuclear moments and mean square nuclear charge radii are well known and the theoretical framework for the extraction of nuclear parameters is well established. These extracted parameters provide fundamental information on the structure of nuclei at the limits of stability. Vital information on both bulk and valence nuclear properties are derived and an exceptional sensitivity to changes in nuclear deformation is achieved. Laser spectroscopy provides the only mechanism for such studies in exotic systems and uniquely facilitates these studies in a model-independent manner. The accuracy of laser-spectroscopic-determined nuclear properties is very high. Requirements concerning production rates are moderate; collinear spectroscopy has been performed with production rates as few as 100 ions per second and laser-desorption resonance ionization mass spectroscopy (combined with beta-delayed neutron detection) has been achieved with rates of only a few atoms per second. This Technical Design Report describes a new Penning trap mass spectrometry setup as well as a number of complementary experimental devices for laser spectroscopy, which will provide a complete system with respect to the physics and isotopes that can be studied. Since MATS and LaSpec require high-quality low-energy beams, the two collaborations have a common beamline to stop the radioactive beam of in-flight produced isotopes and prepare them in a suitable way for transfer to the MATS and LaSpec setups, respectively.

  • 22. Romanczuk, P.
    et al.
    Romensky, Maxym
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Matematiska institutionen, Tillämpad matematik och statistik.
    Scholz, D.
    Lobaskin, V.
    Schimansky-Geier, L.
    Motion of Euglena gracilis: Active fluctuations and velocity distribution2015Ingår i: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, ISSN 1951-6355, E-ISSN 1951-6401, Vol. 224, nr 7, s. 1215-1229Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the velocity distribution of unicellular swimming algae Euglena gracilis using optical microscopy and active Brownian particle theory. To characterize a peculiar feature of the experimentally observed distribution at small velocities we use the concept of active fluctuations, which was recently proposed for the description of stochastically self-propelled particles [Romanczuk, P. and Schimansky-Geier, L., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 230601 (2011)]. In this concept, the fluctuating forces arise due to internal random performance of the propulsive motor. The fluctuating forces are directed in parallel to the heading direction, in which the propulsion acts. In the theory, we introduce the active motion via the depot model [Schweitzer, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(23), 5044 (1998)]. We demonstrate that the theoretical predictions based on the depot model with active fluctuations are consistent with the experimentally observed velocity distributions. In addition to the model with additive active noise, we obtain theoretical results for a constant propulsion with multiplicative noise.

  • 23.
    Romensky, Maxym
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Matematiska institutionen, Tillämpad matematik och statistik.
    Lobaskin, V.
    Orientational hysteresis in swarms of active particles in external field2015Ingår i: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, ISSN 1951-6355, E-ISSN 1951-6401, Vol. 224, nr 7, s. 1359-1376Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Structure and ordering in swarms of active particles have much in common with condensed matter systems like magnets or liquid crystals. A number of important characteristics of such materials can be obtained via dynamic tests such as hysteresis. In this work, we show that dynamic hysteresis can be observed also in swarms of active particles and possesses similar properties to the counterparts in magnetic materials. To study the swarm dynamics, we use computer simulations of the active Brownian particle model with dissipative interactions. The swarm is confined to a narrow linear channel and the one-dimensional polar order parameter is measured. In an oscillating external field, the order parameter demonstrates dynamic hysteresis with the shape of the loop and its area varying with the amplitude and frequency of the applied field, swarm density and the noise intensity. We measure the scaling exponents for the hysteresis loop area, which can be associated with the controllability of the swarm. Although the exponents are non-universal and depend on the system's parameters, their limiting values can be predicted using a generic model of dynamic hysteresis. We also discuss similarities and differences between the swarm ordering dynamics and two-dimensional magnets.

  • 24.
    Rosvall, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Axelsson, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Bergstrom, Carl T
    Department of Biology, University of Washington.
    The map equation2009Ingår i: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, ISSN 1951-6355, E-ISSN 1951-6401, ISSN 1951-6401, Vol. 178, nr 1, s. 13-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many real-world networks are so large that we must simplify their structure before we can extract useful information about the systems they represent. As the tools for doing these simplifications proliferate within the network literature, researchers would benefit from some guidelines about which of the so-called community detection algorithms are most appropriate for the structures they are studying and the questions they are asking. Here we show that different methods highlight different aspects of a network's structure and that the the sort of information that we seek to extract about the system must guide us in our decision. For example, many community detection algorithms, including the popular modularity maximization approach, infer module assignments from an underlying model of the network formation process. However, we are not always as interested in how a system's network structure was formed, as we are in how a network's extant structure influences the system's behavior. To see how structure influences current behavior, we will recognize that links in a network induce movement across the network and result in system-wide interdependence. In doing so, we explicitly acknowledge that most networks carry flow. To highlight and simplify the network structure with respect to this flow, we use the map equation. We present an intuitive derivation of this flow-based and information-theoretic method and provide an interactive on-line application that anyone can use to explore the mechanics of the map equation. We also describe an algorithm and provide source code to efficiently decompose large weighted and directed networks based on the map equation.

  • 25. Singh, B. S. Nara
    et al.
    Steer, A. N.
    Jenkins, D. G.
    Wadsworth, R.
    Davies, P. J.
    Glover, R.
    Pattabiraman, N. S.
    Grahn, T.
    Greenlees, P. T.
    Jones, P.
    Julin, R.
    Leino, M.
    Nyman, M.
    Pakarinen, J.
    Rahkila, P.
    Scholey, C.
    Sorri, J.
    Uusitalo, J.
    Butler, P. A.
    Dimmock, M.
    Joss, D. T.
    Thomson, J.
    Lister, C. J.
    Cederwall, Bo
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Kärnfysik.
    Hadinia, Baharak
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Kärnfysik.
    Sandzelius, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Kärnfysik.
    Recoil Beta Tagging: Application to the study of odd-odd near proton drip line nuclei, Rb-74 and Y-782007Ingår i: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, ISSN 1951-6355, E-ISSN 1951-6401, Vol. 150, s. 147-148Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a study of low-spin states in Rb-74 and Y-78 using the new technique of Recoil Beta Tagging. This yielded new information on Rb-74 and has provided the first evidence for non-isomeric T = 1 states in Y-78.

  • 26.
    Strömbom, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Matematiska institutionen.
    Siljestam, Mattias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Park, Jinha
    Sumpter, David J. T.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Matematiska institutionen.
    The shape and dynamics of local attraction2015Ingår i: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, ISSN 1951-6355, E-ISSN 1951-6401, Vol. 224, nr 17-18, s. 3311-3323Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Moving animal groups, such as flocks of birds or schools of fish, exhibit complex internal dynamics while moving cohesively in the same direction. This kind of flocking behavior has been studied using self-propelled particle models, in which the `particles' interact with their nearest neighbors through repulsion, attraction and alignment responses. Recently, it has been shown that models based on attraction alone can generate a range of dynamic patterns. Here we investigate the conditions under which attraction-based models are able to reproduce the three dimensional, complex, dynamical patterns seen in natural animal groups. We provide a phase diagram of how attraction strength and blind angle determine the pattern generated in this model. We show that adding repulsion to the model changes the shapes produced, making them look more like natural flocking patterns. We compare our simulations to observations of surf scoters, starlings, moving and rotating fish schools and other flocks. Our results suggest that many biological instances of collective motion might be explained without animals explicitly responding to each others direction. Instead, complex collective motion is explained by the interplay of attraction and repulsion forces.

  • 27.
    Strömqvist, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Experimentell biomolekylär fysik.
    Nardo, L.
    Broekmans, O.
    Kohn, J.
    Lamperti, M.
    Santamato, A.
    Shalaby, M.
    Sharma, G.
    Di Trapani, P.
    Bondani, M.
    Rigler, R.
    Binding of Biotin to Streptavidin: A combined fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence study2011Ingår i: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, ISSN 1951-6355, E-ISSN 1951-6401, Vol. 199, nr 1, s. 181-194Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Biotin-Streptavidin complex is a widely studied system in biology and biophysics, because of its extremely strong non-covalent binding affinity. The latter is often exploited to link molecules to substrates or to one another. However, the details of the Biotin-Streptavidin binding have not been fully elucidated so far. Particularly, the role of cooperative effects in enhancing the binding affinity has not been clarified. Our long-term aim is to investigate this point by implementing two complementary approaches, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and time-correlated single-photon counting. As both methods rely on the analysis of fluorescence signals, biotin labeled with Atto-550-dye was used. In this work, in order to get a first overview of the system, we analyzed solutions in three paradigmatic ranges of Biotin-to-Streptavidin concentration ratio. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy measurements allowed us to extract diffusion times of free biotin and of biotin-Streptavidin complexes, and also to gain information about the dynamics of the intersystem crossing between the first excited triplet and the first excited singlet states. Time-correlated single-photon counting made it possible to derive the lifetimes of the different species in solution, as well as to deduce relevant information about the relative abundance of Streptavidin-complexed and free Biotin.

  • 28. Zhusubaliyev, Zhanybai T.
    et al.
    Mosekilde, Erik
    Churilov, Alexander N.
    Medvedev, Alexander
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för systemteknik. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Reglerteknik.
    Multistability and hidden attractors in an impulsive Goodwin oscillator with time delay2015Ingår i: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, ISSN 1951-6355, E-ISSN 1951-6401, Vol. 224, nr 8, s. 1519-1539Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The release of luteinizing hormone (LH) is driven by intermittent bursts of activity in the hypothalamic nerve centers of the brain. Luteinizing hormone again stimulates release of the male sex hormone testosterone (Te) and, via the circulating concentration of Te, the hypothalamic nerve centers are subject to a negative feedback regulation that is capable of modifying the intermittent bursts into more regular pulse trains. Bifurcation analysis of a hybrid model that attempts to integrate the intermittent bursting activity with a continuous hormone secretion has recently demonstrated a number of interesting nonlinear dynamic phenomena, including bistability and deterministic chaos. The present paper focuses on the additional complexity that arises when the time delay in the continuous part of the model exceeds the typical bursting interval of the feedback. Under these conditions, the hybrid model is capable of displaying quasiperiodicity and border collisions as well as multistability and hidden attractors.

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