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  • 1.
    Almoosawi, Suzana
    et al.
    Brain Performance & Nutrition Research Centre, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Tyne and Wear, UK.
    Palla, Luigi
    Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Walshe, Ian
    Department of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Tyne and Wear, UK.
    Vingeliene, Snieguole
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Ellis, Jason G.
    Northumbria Sleep Research Laboratory, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Tyne and Wear, UK.
    Long Sleep Duration and Social Jetlag Are Associated Inversely with a Healthy Dietary Pattern in Adults: Results from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme Y1-42018In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 10, no 9, article id 1131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Limited observational studies have described the relationship between sleep duration and overall diet. The present study investigated the association between sleep duration on weekdays or social jetlag and empirically derived dietary patterns in a nationally representative sample of UK adults, aged 19-64 years old, participating in the 2008-2012 UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme. Survey members completed between three to four days of dietary records. Sleep duration on weekdays was categorized into tertiles to reflect short, normal, and long sleep duration. Social jetlag was calculated as the difference between sleep duration on weekends and weekdays. The association between sleep duration/social jetlag and dietary patterns, derived by principal components analysis, was assessed by regressing diet on sleep, whilst accounting for the complex survey design and adjusting for relevant confounders. Survey members in the highest tertile of sleep duration had on average a 0.45 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) -0.78, -0.12) lower healthy dietary pattern score, compared to middle tertile (p = 0.007). There was an inverted u-shaped association between social jetlag and the healthy dietary pattern, such that when sleep on weekends exceeded weekday sleep by 1 h 45 min, scores for indicating a healthy dietary pattern declined (p = 0.005). In conclusion, long sleep duration on weekdays and an increased social jetlag are associated with a lower healthy dietary pattern score. Further research is required to address factors influencing dietary patterns in long sleepers.

  • 2. Barman, Malin
    et al.
    Nilsson, Staffan
    Torinsson Naluai, Åsa
    Sandin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Wold, Agnes E
    Sandberg, Ann-Sofie
    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the FADS Gene Cluster but not the ELOVL2 Gene are Associated with Serum Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition and Development of Allergy (in a Swedish Birth Cohort)2015In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 7, no 12, p. 10100-10115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) influences immune function and may affect the risk of allergy development. Long chain PUFAs are produced from dietary precursors catalyzed by desaturases and elongases encoded by FADS and ELOVL genes. In 211 subjects, we investigated whether polymorphisms in the FADS gene cluster and the ELOVL2 gene were associated with allergy or PUFA composition in serum phospholipids in a Swedish birth-cohort sampled at birth and at 13 years of age; allergy was diagnosed at 13 years of age. Minor allele carriers of rs102275 and rs174448 (FADS gene cluster) had decreased proportions of 20:4 n-6 in cord and adolescent serum and increased proportions of 20:3 n-6 in cord serum as well as a nominally reduced risk of developing atopic eczema, but not respiratory allergy, at 13 years of age. Minor allele carriers of rs17606561 in the ELOVL2 gene had nominally decreased proportions of 20:4 n-6 in cord serum but ELOVL polymorphisms (rs2236212 and rs17606561) were not associated with allergy development. Thus, reduced capacity to desaturase n-6 PUFAs due to FADS polymorphisms was nominally associated with reduced risk for eczema development, which could indicate a pathogenic role for long-chain PUFAs in allergy development.

  • 3.
    Berhane, Hanna Y
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition. Addis Continental Inst Publ Hlth, Addis Ababa 267511000, Ethiopia.
    Ekström, Eva-Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition.
    Jirström, Magnus
    Lund Univ, Dept Human Geog, S-22362 Lund, Sweden.
    Berhane, Yemane
    Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, 26751/1000 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Turner, Christopher
    Lund Univ, Dept Human Geog, S-22362 Lund, Sweden;London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London WC1E 7HT, England.
    Alsanius, Beatrix W
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Biosyst & Technol, S-23053 Alnarp, Sweden.
    Trenholm, Jill E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Maternal and Reproductive Health and Migration.
    What Influences Urban Mothers' Decisions on What to Feed Their Children Aged Under Five-The Case of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia2018In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 10, no 9, article id 1142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mothers carry the prime responsibility for childcare and feeding in low-income countries. Understanding their experiences in providing food for their children is paramount to informing efforts to improve the nutritional status of children. Such information is lacking in Sub-Saharan Africa. To understand what influences urban mothers' food acquisition and their motivations for selecting food for their children, 36 in-depth interviews were carried out with mothers having children under five years of age. Interviews were conducted in the local language, audio-recorded, transcribed, and translated into English. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis which led to the identification of four major themes: mothers give-in to a child-driven diet; quick-fix versus the privilege of planning; keen awareness on food safety, nutrition, and diet diversity; and social, familial, and cultural influences. The findings indicate that child feeding practices are influenced by interlinked social and environmental factors. Hence, nutrition education campaigns should focus on targeting not only families but also their children. Attention should also be given to food safety regulations, as well as to the much-needed support of mothers who are struggling to ensure their children's survival in low-income countries.

  • 4.
    Brodin, Ola
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Eksborg, Staffan
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Wallenberg, Marita
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Asker-Hagelberg, Charlotte
    Medical Prod Agency, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Larsen, Erik H.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mohlkert, Dag
    Karolinska University Hospital Sodersjukhuset, Sweden.
    Lenneby-Helleday, Clara
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Hans
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Linder, Stig
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Misra, Sougat
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Bjornstedt, Mikael
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Pharmacokinetics and Toxicity of Sodium Selenite in the Treatment of Patients with Carcinoma in a Phase I Clinical Trial: The SECAR Study2015In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 4978-4994Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sodium selenite at high dose exerts antitumor effects and increases efficacy of cytostatic drugs in multiple preclinical malignancy models. We assessed the safety and efficacy of intravenous administered sodium selenite in cancer patients refractory to cytostatic drugs in a phase I trial. Patients received first line of chemotherapy following selenite treatment to investigate altered sensitivity to these drugs and preliminary assessment of any clinical benefits. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four patients with different therapy resistant tumors received iv sodium selenite daily for consecutive five days either for two weeks or four weeks. Each cohort consisted of at least three patients who received the same daily dose of selenite throughout the whole treatment. If 0/3 patients had dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), the study proceeded to the next dose-level. If 2/3 had DLT, the dose was considered too high and if 1/3 had DLT, three more patients were included. Dose-escalation continued until the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was reached. MTD was defined as the highest dose-level on which 0/3 or 1/6 patients experienced DLT. The primary endpoint was safety, dose-limiting toxic effects and the MTD of sodium selenite. The secondary endpoint was primary response evaluation. Results and Conclusion: MTD was defined as 10.2 mg/m(2), with a calculated median plasma half-life of 18.25 h. The maximum plasma concentration of selenium from a single dose of selenite increased in a nonlinear pattern. The most common adverse events were fatigue, nausea, and cramps in fingers and legs. DLTs were acute, of short duration and reversible. Biomarkers for organ functions indicated no major systemic toxicity. In conclusion, sodium selenite is safe and tolerable when administered up to 10.2 mg/m(2) under current protocol. Further development of the study is underway to determine if prolonged infusions might be a more effective treatment strategy.

  • 5. Bruun, Signe
    et al.
    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Husby, Steffen
    Jacobsen, Lotte Neergaard
    Michaelsen, Kim F.
    Fowler, Christopher J
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Zachariassen, Gitte
    Satiety Factors Oleoylethanolamide, Stearoylethanolamide, and Palmitoylethanolamide in Mother's Milk Are Strongly Associated with Infant Weight at Four Months of Age: data from the Odense Child Cohort2018In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 1747Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regulation of appetite and food intake is partly regulated by N-acylethanolamine lipids oleoylethanolamide (OEA), stearoylethanolamide (SEA), and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), which induce satiety through endogenous formation in the small intestine upon feeding, but also when orally or systemic administered. OEA, SEA, and PEA are present in human milk, and we hypothesized that the content of OEA, SEA, and PEA in mother's milk differed for infants being heavy (high weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ)) or light (low WAZ) at time of milk sample collection. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine the concentration of OEA, SEA, and PEA in milk samples collected four months postpartum from mothers to high (n = 50) or low (n = 50) WAZ infants. Associations between OEA, SEA, and PEA concentration and infant anthropometry at four months of age as well as growth from birth were investigated using linear and logistic regression analyses, adjusted for birth weight, early infant formula supplementation, and maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index. Mean OEA, SEA, and PEA concentrations were lower in the high compared to the low WAZ group (all p < 0.02), and a higher concentration of SEA was associated with lower anthropometric measures, e.g., triceps skinfold thickness (mm) (β = -2.235, 95% CI = -4.04, -0.43, p = 0.016), and weight gain per day since birth (g) (β = -8.169, 95% CI = -15.26, -1.08, p = 0.024). This raises the possibility, that the content of satiety factors OEA, SEA, and PEA in human milk may affect infant growth.

  • 6.
    Cai, Demin
    et al.
    Nanjing Agr Univ, Key Lab Anim Physiol & Biochem, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Yuan, Mengjie
    Nanjing Agr Univ, Key Lab Anim Physiol & Biochem, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Liu, Haoyu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Pan, Shifeng
    Nanjing Agr Univ, Key Lab Anim Physiol & Biochem, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Ma, Wenqiang
    Nanjing Agr Univ, Key Lab Anim Physiol & Biochem, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Hong, Jian
    Nanjing Agr Univ, Key Lab Anim Physiol & Biochem, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Zhao, Ruqian
    Nanjing Agr Univ, Key Lab Anim Physiol & Biochem, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu, Peoples R China.;Jiangsu Collaborat Innovat Ctr Meat Prod & Proc Q, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Maternal Betaine Supplementation throughout Gestation and Lactation Modifies Hepatic Cholesterol Metabolic Genes in Weaning Piglets via AMPK/LXR-Mediated Pathway and Histone Modification2016In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 8, no 10, article id 646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Betaine serves as an animal and human nutrient which has been heavily investigated in glucose and lipid metabolic regulation, yet the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. In this study, feeding sows with betaine-supplemented diets during pregnancy and lactation increased cholesterol content and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) gene expression, but decreasing bile acids content and cholesterol-7a-hydroxylase (CYP7a1) expression in the liver of weaning piglets. This was associated with the significantly elevated serum betaine and methionine levels and hepatic S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) content. Concurrently, the hepatic nuclear transcription factor liver X receptor LXR was downregulated along with activated signal protein AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Moreover, a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed lower LXR binding on CYP7a1 gene promoter and more enriched activation histone marker H3K4me3 on LDLR and SR-BI promoters. These results suggest that gestational and lactational betaine supplementation modulates hepatic gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism via an AMPK/LXR pathway and histone modification in the weaning offspring.

  • 7.
    Carlsson, Martin
    et al.
    County Hospital Kalmar, Sweden; Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Wanby, Pär
    County Hospital Kalmar, Sweden.
    Brudin, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. County Hospital, Sweden.
    Lexne, Erik
    County Hospital Kalmar, Sweden.
    Mathold, Karin
    County Hospital Kalmar, Sweden.
    Nobin, Rebecca
    County Hospital Kalmar, Sweden.
    Ericson, Lisa
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Nordqvist, Ola
    Kalmar County Council, Sweden.
    Petersson, Goran
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Older Swedish Adults with High Self-Perceived Health Show Optimal 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels Whereas Vitamin D Status Is Low in Patients with High Disease Burden2016In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 8, no 11, article id 717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Controversy pervades the definition of adequate and optimal vitamin D status. The Institutes of Medicine have recommended serum 25(OH) D levels above 50 nmol/L based upon evidence related to bone health, but some experts, including the Endocrine Society and International Osteoporosis Foundation, suggest a minimum serum 25(OH) D level of 75 nmol/L to reduce the risk of falls and fractures in older adults. In a cross-sectional study, we compared vitamin D status in people amp;gt;= 75 years selected from four groups with a frailty phenotype, combined with a control group free from serious illness, and who considered themselves completely healthy. Only 13% of the 169 controls were vitamin D deficient (S-25(OH) D) amp;lt; 50 nmol/L), in contrast with 49% of orthopedic patients with hip fractures (n = 133), 31% of stroke patients (n = 122), 39% of patients visiting the hospitals emergency department amp;gt;= 4 times a year (n = 81), and 75% of homebound adult residents in long-term care nursing homes (n = 51). The mean vitamin D concentration of the healthy control group (74 nmol/L) was similar to a suggested optimal level based on physiological data and mortality studies, and much higher than that of many officially recommended cut-off levels for vitamin D deficiency (amp;lt; 50 nmol/L). The present study provides a basis for planning and implementing public guidelines for the screening of vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D treatment for frail elderly patients.

  • 8.
    Carlsson, Martin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Kalmar County Hospital.
    Wanby, Pär
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Brudin, Lars
    Linköping University;Kalmar County Hospital.
    Lexne, Erik
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Mathold, Karin
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Nobin, Rebecca
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Ericson, Lisa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Nordqvist, Ola
    Kalmar County Council.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Older Swedish Adults with High Self-Perceived Health Show Optimal 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels Whereas Vitamin D Status Is Low in Patients with High Disease Burden2016In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 8, no 11, article id 717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Controversy pervades the definition of adequate and optimal vitamin D status. The Institutes of Medicine have recommended serum 25(OH) D levels above 50 nmol/L based upon evidence related to bone health, but some experts, including the Endocrine Society and International Osteoporosis Foundation, suggest a minimum serum 25(OH) D level of 75 nmol/L to reduce the risk of falls and fractures in older adults. In a cross-sectional study, we compared vitamin D status in people >= 75 years selected from four groups with a frailty phenotype, combined with a control group free from serious illness, and who considered themselves completely healthy. Only 13% of the 169 controls were vitamin D deficient (S-25(OH) D) < 50 nmol/L), in contrast with 49% of orthopedic patients with hip fractures (n = 133), 31% of stroke patients (n = 122), 39% of patients visiting the hospital's emergency department >= 4 times a year (n = 81), and 75% of homebound adult residents in long-term care nursing homes (n = 51). The mean vitamin D concentration of the healthy control group (74 nmol/L) was similar to a suggested optimal level based on physiological data and mortality studies, and much higher than that of many officially recommended cut-off levels for vitamin D deficiency (< 50 nmol/L). The present study provides a basis for planning and implementing public guidelines for the screening of vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D treatment for frail elderly patients.

  • 9. Chandyo, Ram K.
    et al.
    Ulak, Manjeswori
    Sommerfelt, Halvor
    Schneede, Jørn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Ueland, Per M.
    Strand, Tor A.
    Nutritional Intake and Status of Cobalamin and Folate among Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age in Bhaktapur, Nepal2016In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 8, no 6, article id 375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cobalamin and folate are especially important for women of childbearing age due to their ubiquitous role in fetal growth and development. Population-based data on cobalamin and folate status are lacking from Nepal, where diets are mostly vegetarian. The objectives of the study were to investigate cobalamin and folate intake and status, and to explore associations with socio-demographics, anthropometrics, anemia, and dietary habits. Following a random selection of geographical clusters, we collected blood samples from 500 non-pregnant women and 24-h dietary recalls and food frequency questionnaires from a subsample of 379 women. Twenty percent of the women did not consume any food containing cobalamin during the days recalled, and in 72% nutritional cobalamin intake was <1 mu g/day. Eighty-four percent of the women had cobalamin intake lower than the estimated average requirement (EAR) (< 2 mu g/day). In contrast, only 12% of the women had a folate intake less than 100 mu g per day, whereas 62% had intake between 100 and 320 mu g. Low plasma cobalamin (< 150 pmol/L) was found in 42% of the women, most of whom (88%) also had elevated levels of methylmalonic acid. Our results indicated a high prevalence of nutritional cobalamin deficiency, while folate deficiency was uncommon.

  • 10.
    Delisle Nystrom, Christine
    et al.
    Novum, Sweden.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Henriksson, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Larsson, Christel
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Maddison, Ralph
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Center for Public Health.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Novum, Sweden.
    A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls2016In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 50-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 +/- 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 +/- 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 +/- 680kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (r = 0.665-0.896, p &lt; 0.001). In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  • 11.
    Delisle Nystrom, Christine
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. PROmoting FITness and Health Phys Actv Research Grp PROFIT, Spain.
    Alexandrou, Christina
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    The Tanita SC-240 to Assess Body Composition in Pre-School Children: An Evaluation against the Three Component Model2016In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 371-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quick, easy-to-use, and valid body composition measurement options for young children are needed. Therefore, we evaluated the ability of the bioelectrical impedance (BIA) device, Tanita SC-240, to measure fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM) and body fatness (BF%) in 40 healthy, Swedish 5.5 years old children against the three component model (3C model). Average BF%, FM, and FFM for BIA were: 19.4% +/- 3.9%, 4.1 +/- 1.9 kg, and 16.4 +/- 2.4 kg and were all significantly different (p amp;lt; 0.001) from corresponding values for the 3C model (25.1% +/- 5.5%, 5.3 +/- 2.5 kg, and 15.2 +/- 2.0 kg). Bland and Altman plots had wide limits of agreement for all body composition variables. Significant correlations ranging from 0.81 to 0.96 (p amp;lt; 0.001) were found for BF%, FM, and FFM between BIA and the 3C model. When dividing the children into tertiles for BF%, 60% of children were classified correctly by means of BIA. In conclusion, the Tanita SC-240 underestimated BF% in comparison to the 3C model and had wide limits of agreement. Further work is needed in order to find accurate and easy-to-use methods for assessing body composition in pre-school children.

  • 12. Demmelmair, Hans
    et al.
    Prell, Christine
    Timby, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Lönnerdal, Bo
    Benefits of Lactoferrin, Osteopontin and Milk Fat Globule Membranes for Infants2017In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 9, no 8, article id 817Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The provision of essential and non-essential amino acids for breast-fed infants is the major function of milk proteins. In addition, breast-fed infants might benefit from bioactivities of milk proteins, which are exhibited in the intestine during the digestive phase and by absorption of intact proteins or derived peptides. For lactoferrin, osteopontin and milk fat globule membrane proteins/lipids, which have not until recently been included in substantial amounts in infant formulas, in vitro experiments and animal models provide a convincing base of evidence for bioactivities, which contribute to the protection of the infant from pathogens, improve nutrient absorption, support the development of the immune system and provide components for optimal neurodevelopment. Technologies have become available to obtain these compounds from cow's milk and the bovine compounds also exhibit bioactivities in humans. Randomized clinical trials with experimental infant formulas incorporating lactoferrin, osteopontin, or milk fat globule membranes have already provided some evidence for clinical benefits. This review aims to compare findings from laboratory and animal experiments with outcomes of clinical studies. There is good justification from basic science and there are promising results from clinical studies for beneficial effects of lactoferrin, osteopontin and the milk fat globule membrane complex of proteins and lipids. Further studies should ideally be adequately powered to investigate effects on clinically relevant endpoints in healthy term infants.

  • 13.
    El Ansari, Walid
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar / College of Medicine, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar / Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Gloucestershire, Gloucester, United Kingdom.
    Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele
    Unit for Health Promotion Research, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark.
    Country and Gender-Specific Achievement of Healthy Nutrition and Physical Activity Guidelines: Latent Class Analysis of 6266 University Students in Egypt, Libya, and Palestine2017In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 9, no 7, p. 1-12, article id 738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on healthy behaviour such as physical activity and healthy nutrition and their combination is lacking among university students in Arab countries. The current survey assessed healthy nutrition, and moderate/vigorous physical activity (PA) of 6266 students in Egypt, Libya, and Palestine. We computed a nutrition guideline achievement index using WHO recommendation, as well as the achievement of PA recommendations using guidelines for adults of the American Heart Association guidelines. Latent class regression analysis identified homogenous groups of male and female students, based on their achievements of both guidelines. We examined associations between group membership and achievement of guidelines. A three-class solution model best fitted the data, generating three student Groups: "Healthy Eaters" (7.7% of females, 10.8% of males), "Physically Active" (21.7% of females, 25.8% of males), and "Low Healthy Behaviour" (70.6% of females, 63.4% of males). We did not observe a latent class that exhibited combined healthy behaviours (physically active and healthy eaters), and there were no major differences between countries. We observed a very low rate of healthy nutrition (approximate to 10% of students achieved greater than four of the eight nutrition guidelines), with little gender differences across the countries. About 18-47% of students achieved the PA guidelines, depending on country and gender, more often among males. Few females achieved the PA guidelines, particularly in Libya and Palestine. Culturally adapted multi-behavioural interventions need to encourage healthy lifestyles, nutrition and PA behaviours. National policies need to promote active living while addressing cultural, geographic, and other barriers to young adults' engagement in PA.

  • 14.
    El Ansari, Walid
    et al.
    Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Gloucestershire, Gloucester, United Kingdom.
    Suominen, Sakari
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland.
    Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele
    Unit for Health Promotion Research, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark.
    Is Healthier Nutrition Behaviour Associated with Better Self-Reported Health and Less Health Complaints?: Evidence from Turku, Finland2015In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 7, no 10, p. 8478-8490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined nutrition behaviour, self-reported health and 20 health complaints of undergraduates in Finland. Students at the University of Turku in Finland participated in a cross-sectional online survey (N = 1189). For nutrition behaviour, we computed two composite food intake pattern scores (sweets, cakes and snacks; and fruits and vegetables), a dietary guideline adherence index and the subjective importance of healthy eating. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the association of students' nutrition behaviour with three levels of self-reported health, controlling for many potential confounders (age, sex, living with partner, economic situation, moderate physical activity, Faculty and BMI). Factor analysis of the 20 health complaints revealed three components (psychological, pains/aches and circulatory/breathing symptoms). Multiple linear regression tested the association of students' eating habits with the three components of health complaints, controlling for the same confounders. Fruits and raw and cooked vegetable consumption, dietary guideline adherence index and subjective importance of healthy eating were highest among students with excellent/very good self-reported health, exhibiting a decreasing trend for those individuals with poor/fair self-reported health. High levels of psychological symptoms were associated with decreased consumption of fruits and vegetables, less dietary guideline adherence and less subjective importance of healthy eating. Pain/aches symptoms were associated with a higher consumption of sweets, cookies and snacks and a lower adherence to dietary guidelines. More healthy nutrition behaviour was consistently associated with better self-reported health and less health complaints. Of the four nutrition behaviour indicators we employed, the dietary guideline adherence index was the best indicator and exhibited the most consistent associations with self-reported health and health complaints.

  • 15. Eneroth, Hanna
    et al.
    Wallin, Stina
    Leander, Karin
    Nilsson Sommar, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Åkesson, Agneta
    Risks and Benefits of Increased Nut Consumption: Cardiovascular Health Benefits Outweigh the Burden of Carcinogenic Effects Attributed to Aflatoxin B1 Exposure2017In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 9, no 12, article id 1355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nuts are rich in nutrients and mounting evidence shows that consumption reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence. Nuts may also be a major source of aflatoxin B₁, a potent liver carcinogen and the risk/benefit balance is unknown. Based on national statistics and data from the PREDIMED intervention trial, we estimated the potential CVD-reduction if Swedes aged 55-79 consumed 30 g nuts/day, instead of the current national average of five grams per day. We also assessed the reduction in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. We estimated the aflatoxin B₁ exposure from nuts and calculated the margin of exposure. The approximation that one nanogram aflatoxin B₁/kg body weight/day results in one additional liver cancer case/10 million person-years was used to estimate the number of liver cancer cases. The increased nut consumption scenario prevented more than 7000 CVDs in 2013 (306/100,000 person-years) and contributed to about 55,000 saved DALYs for stroke and 22,000 for MI. The concomitant increase in aflatoxin B₁ exposure caused an estimated zero to three additional cases of liver cancer, corresponding to 159 DALYs spent, emphasizing the associated risks. Increased nut consumption, as part of a varied healthy diet, is warranted even when aflatoxin B₁ exposure is taken into account. However, efforts to reduce aflatoxin exposure from food are essential.

  • 16.
    Eriksson, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Esberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Haworth, Simon
    Lif Holgerson, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Allelic Variation in Taste Genes Is Associated with Taste and Diet Preferences and Dental Caries2019In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 11, no 7, article id 1491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Taste and diet preferences are complex and influenced by both environmental and host traits while affecting both food selection and associated health outcomes. The present study genotyped 94 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in previously reported taste and food intake related genes and assessed associations with taste threshold (TT) and preferred intensity (PT) of sweet, sour and bitter, food preferences, habitual diet intake, and caries status in healthy young Swedish men and women (n = 127). Polymorphisms in the GNAT3, SLC2A4, TAS1R1 and TAS1R2 genes were associated with variation in TT and PT for sweet taste as well as sweet food intake. Increasing PT for sweet was associated with increasing preference and intake of sugary foods. Similarly, increasing TT for sour was associated with increasing intake of sour foods, whereas the associations between food preference/intake and TT/PT for bitter was weak in this study group. Finally, allelic variation in the GNAT3, SLC2A2, SLC2A4, TAS1R1 and TAS1R2 genes was associated with caries status, whereas TT, PT and food preferences were not. It was concluded that variations in taste receptor, glucose transporter and gustducin encoding genes are related to taste perception, food preference and intake as well as the sugar-dependent caries disease.

  • 17.
    Fang, X.
    et al.
    Unit of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Han, H.
    Department of Health Statistics, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.
    Li, M.
    Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.
    Liang, C.
    Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.
    Fan, Z.
    Department of Cardiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Aaseth, J.
    Kongsvinger Hospital Division, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Kongsvinger, Norway; Kongsvinger Hospital Division, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Kongsvinger, Norway.
    He, J.
    Department of Health Statistics, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.
    Montgomery, Scott
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK.
    Cao, Yang
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Unit of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dose-Response Relationship between Dietary Magnesium Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies2016In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 8, no 11, article id 739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The epidemiological evidence for a dose-response relationship between magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is sparse. The aim of the study was to summarize the evidence for the association of dietary magnesium intake with risk of T2D and evaluate the dose-response relationship. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies that reported dietary magnesium intake and risk of incident T2D. We identified relevant studies by searching major scientific literature databases and grey literature resources from their inception to February 2016. We included cohort studies that provided risk ratios, i.e., relative risks (RRs), odds ratios (ORs) or hazard ratios (HRs), for T2D. Linear dose-response relationships were assessed using random-effects meta-regression. Potential nonlinear associations were evaluated using restricted cubic splines. A total of 25 studies met the eligibility criteria. These studies comprised 637,922 individuals including 26,828 with a T2D diagnosis. Compared with the lowest magnesium consumption group in the population, the risk of T2D was reduced by 17% across all the studies; 19% in women and 16% in men. A statistically significant linear dose-response relationship was found between incremental magnesium intake and T2D risk. After adjusting for age and body mass index, the risk of T2D incidence was reduced by 8%-13% for per 100 mg/day increment in dietary magnesium intake. There was no evidence to support a nonlinear dose-response relationship between dietary magnesium intake and T2D risk. The combined data supports a role for magnesium in reducing risk of T2D, with a statistically significant linear dose-response pattern within the reference dose range of dietary intake among Asian and US populations. The evidence from Europe and black people is limited and more prospective studies are needed for the two subgroups.

  • 18. Fedirko, Veronika
    et al.
    Jenab, Mazda
    Meplan, Catherine
    Jones, Jeb S.
    Zhu, Wanzhe
    Schomburg, Lutz
    Siddiq, Afshan
    Hybsier, Sandra
    Overvad, Kim
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Omichessan, Hanane
    Perduca, Vittorio
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Kuehn, Tilman
    Katzke, Verena
    Aleksandrova, Krasimira
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Karakatsani, Anna
    Kotanidou, Anastasia
    Tumino, Rosario
    Panico, Salvatore
    Masala, Giovanna
    Agnoli, Claudia
    Naccarati, Alessio
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Vermeulen, Roel C. H.
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Skeie, Guri
    Nost, Therese Haugdahl
    Lujan-Barroso, Leila
    Ramon Quiros, J.
    Maria Huerta, Jose
    Rodriguez-Barranco, Miguel
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Gylling, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Harlid, Sophia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Bradbury, Kathryn E.
    Wareham, Nick
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Gunter, Marc
    Murphy, Neil
    Freisling, Heinz
    Tsilidis, Kostas
    Aune, Dagfinn
    Riboli, Elio
    Hesketh, John E.
    Hughes, David J.
    Association of Selenoprotein and Selenium Pathway Genotypes with Risk of Colorectal Cancer and Interaction with Selenium Status2019In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 935Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selenoprotein genetic variations and suboptimal selenium (Se) levels may contribute to the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) development. We examined the association between CRC risk and genotype for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in selenoprotein and Se metabolic pathway genes. Illumina Goldengateassays were designed and resulted in the genotyping of 1040 variants in 154 genes from 1420 cases and 1421 controls within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Multivariable logistic regression revealed an association of 144 individual SNPs from 63 Se pathway genes with CRC risk. However, regarding the selenoprotein genes, only TXNRD1 rs11111979 retained borderline statistical significance after adjustment for correlated tests (PACT = 0.10; PACT significance threshold was P < 0.1). SNPs in Wingless/Integrated (Wnt) and Transforming growth factor (TGF) beta-signaling genes (FRZB, SMAD3, SMAD7) from pathways affected by Se intake were also associated with CRC risk after multiple testing adjustments. Interactions with Se status (using existing serum Se and Selenoprotein P data) were tested at the SNP, gene, and pathway levels. Pathway analyses using the modified Adaptive Rank Truncated Product method suggested that genes and gene x Se status interactions in antioxidant, apoptosis, and TGF-beta signaling pathways may be associated with CRC risk. This study suggests that SNPs in the Se pathway alone or in combination with suboptimal Se status may contribute to CRC development.

  • 19.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Novum, Sweden.
    The Two-Component Model for Calculating Total Body Fat from Body Density: An Evaluation in Healthy Women before, during and after Pregnancy2014In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 6, no 12, p. 5888-5899Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A possibility to assess body composition during pregnancy is often important. Estimating body density (D-B) and use the two-component model (2CM) to calculate total body fat (TBF) represents an option. However, this approach has been insufficiently evaluated during pregnancy. We evaluated the 2CM, and estimated fat-free mass (FFM) density and variability in 17 healthy women before pregnancy, in gestational weeks 14 and 32, and 2 weeks postpartum based on D-B (underwater weighing), total body water (deuterium dilution) and body weight, assessed on these four occasions. TBF, calculated using the 2CM and published FFM density (TBF2CM), was compared to reference estimates obtained using the three-component model (TBF3CM). TBF2CM minus TBF3CM (mean +/- 2SD) was -1.63 +/- 5.67 (p = 0.031), -1.39 +/- 7.75 (p = 0.16), -0.38 +/- 4.44 (p = 0.49) and -1.39 +/- 5.22 (p = 0.043) % before pregnancy, in gestational weeks 14 and 32 and 2 weeks postpartum, respectively. The effect of pregnancy on the variability of FFM density was larger in gestational week 14 than in gestational week 32. The 2CM, based on D-B and published FFM density, assessed body composition as accurately in gestational week 32 as in non-pregnant adults. Corresponding values in gestational week 14 were slightly less accurate than those obtained before pregnancy.

  • 20.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Olhager, Elisabeth
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Törnqvist, Caroline
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    An Evaluation of the Pea Pod System for Assessing Body Composition of Moderately Premature Infants2016In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 238-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    (1) Background: Assessing the quality of growth in premature infants is important in order to be able to provide them with optimal nutrition. The Pea Pod device, based on air displacement plethysmography, is able to assess body composition of infants. However, this method has not been sufficiently evaluated in premature infants; (2) Methods: In 14 infants in an age range of 3-7 days, born after 32-35 completed weeks of gestation, body weight, body volume, fat-free mass density (predicted by the Pea Pod software), and total body water (isotope dilution) were assessed. Reference estimates of fat-free mass density and body composition were obtained using a three-component model; (3) Results: Fat-free mass density values, predicted using Pea Pod, were biased but not significantly (p &gt; 0.05) different from reference estimates. Body fat (%), assessed using Pea Pod, was not significantly different from reference estimates. The biological variability of fat-free mass density was 0.55% of the average value (1.0627 g/mL); (4) Conclusion: The results indicate that the Pea Pod system is accurate for groups of newborn, moderately premature infants. However, more studies where this system is used for premature infants are needed, and we provide suggestions regarding how to develop this area.

  • 21.
    Francisco, Francisco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Sundberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Detection of Visual Signatures of Marine Mammals and Fish within Marine Renewable Energy Farms Using Multibeam Imaging Sonar2019In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 7, no 2, article id 22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Techniques for marine monitoring have evolved greatly over the past decades, making the acquisition of environment data safer, reliable and more efficient. On the other hand, the exploration of marine renewable energy introduced dissimilar ways of exploring the oceans and with that arises the need for new techniques for environmental data acquisition, processing and analysis. Marine energy is mostly harvested in murky and high energetic places where conventional data acquisition techniques are impractical. Modern sonar systems, operating at high frequencies, can acquire detailed images of the underwater environment. Variables such as occurrence, size, class and behaviour of a variety of aquatic species of fish, birds, mammals, coexisting within marine energy sites can be gathered using imaging sonar systems. Although sonar images can provide high level of details, still in most of the cases they are difficult to decipher. Therefore, to facilitate the classification of targets through sonar images, this study introduces a framework of extracting visual features of marine targets that would serve as unique signatures. The acoustic measure of visibility (AVM) is here introduced as an indirect technique of identification and classification of targets by comparing the observed size with a standard value. This information can be used to instruct manual and automatic algorithms for identification and classification of underwater targets using imaging sonar systems. Using image processing algorithms embedded in Proviwer4 and FIJI software, this study found that acoustic images can be effectively used to classify cod, harbour and grey seals, and orcas through their size, shape and swimming behaviour. Data showed that cod occurred as bright, 0.9 m long, ellipsoidal targets shoaling in groups of up to 50 individuals. Harbour seals occurred as bright torpedo-like fast moving target, whereas grey seals occurred as bulky-ellipsoidal targets with serpentine movement. Orca or larger marine mammals occurred with relatively low visibility on the acoustic images compared to their body size which measured between 4 m and 7 m. This framework provide a new window of performing qualitative and quantitative observations of underwater targets, and with further improvements, this method can be useful for environmental studies within marine renewable energy farms and for other purposes.

  • 22.
    Garcia-Larsen, Vanessa
    et al.
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Int Hlth, Program Human Nutr, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA..
    Thawer, Narjis
    Imperial Coll London, Natl Heart & Lung Inst, Resp Epidemiol & Publ Hlth Grp, London SW7 1BU, England..
    Charles, David
    Imperial Coll London, Natl Heart & Lung Inst, Resp Epidemiol & Publ Hlth Grp, London SW7 1BU, England.;Queen Mary Univ London, Barts & London Sch Med, London E1 1BZ, England..
    Cassidy, Aedin
    Univ East Anglia, Norwich Med Sch, Dept Nutr, Norwich NR4 7TJ, Norfolk, England..
    van Zele, Thibaut
    Univ Ghent, Upper Airway Res Lab, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Thilsing, Trine
    Univ Southern Denmark, Dept Publ Hlth, Res Unit Gen Practice, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark..
    Ahlström, Matti
    Helsinki Univ Hosp, Skin & Allergy Hosp, Hus Helsinki 00029, Finland..
    Haahtela, Tari
    Helsinki Univ Hosp, Skin & Allergy Hosp, Hus Helsinki 00029, Finland..
    Keil, Thomas
    Charite, Dept Pediat, D-10117 Berlin, Germany.;Charite, Inst Social Med Epidemiol & Hlth Econ, D-10117 Berlin, Germany..
    Matricardi, Paolo M.
    Wurzburg Univ, Inst Clin Epidemiol & Biometry, D-97070 Wurzburg, Germany..
    Brozek, Grzegorz
    Med Univ Silesia, Coll Med, Dept Epidemiol, PL-40752 Katowice, Poland..
    Kowalski, Marek L.
    Med Univ Lodz, Dept Immunol Rheumatol & Allergy, PL-90647 Lodz, Poland..
    Makowska, Joanna
    Med Univ Lodz, Dept Immunol Rheumatol & Allergy, PL-90647 Lodz, Poland..
    Nizankowska-Mogilnicka, Ewa
    Jagiellonian Univ, Sch Med, PL-31008 Krakow, Poland..
    Rymarczyk, Barbara
    Med Univ Silesia, Clin Dept Internal Dis Allergol & Clin Immunol, PL-40055 Katowice, Poland..
    Loureiro, Carlos
    Coimbra Univ Hosp, Dept Immunoallergol, P-3000075 Coimbra, Portugal..
    Bom, Ana Todo
    Coimbra Univ Hosp, Dept Immunoallergol, P-3000075 Coimbra, Portugal..
    Bachert, Claus
    Karolinska Inst, Div ENT Dis, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Div Occupat & Environm Med, S-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Janson, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Lung- allergy- and sleep research.
    Toren, Kjell
    Univ Gothenburg, Sect Occupat & Environm Med, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Potts, James F.
    Imperial Coll London, Natl Heart & Lung Inst, Resp Epidemiol & Publ Hlth Grp, London SW7 1BU, England..
    Burney, Peter G. J.
    Imperial Coll London, Natl Heart & Lung Inst, Resp Epidemiol & Publ Hlth Grp, London SW7 1BU, England..
    Dietary Intake of Flavonoids and Ventilatory Function in European Adults: A GA(2)LEN Study2018In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Flavonoids exert anti-inflammatory properties and modulate oxidative stress in vitro, suggesting a protective effect on lung function, but epidemiological studies examining this association are scarce. Methods: A stratified random sample was drawn from the GA(2)LEN screening survey, in which 55,000 adults aged 15 to 75 answered a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms. Post-bronchodilator spirometry was obtained from 2850 subjects. Forced vital capacity (FVC), the ratio between the forced exhaled volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FVC (FEV1/FVC), FVC below lower limit of normal (FVC < LLN), and FEV1/FVC < LLN were calculated. Intake of the six main subclasses of flavonoids was estimated using the GA(2)LEN Food Frequency Questionnaire. Adjusted associations between outcomes and each subclass of flavonoids were examined with multivariate regressions. Simes' procedure was used to test for multiple comparisons. Results: A total of 2599 subjects had valid lung function and dietary data. A lower prevalence of FVC < LLN (airway restriction) was observed in those with higher total flavonoid (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), higher vs. lowest quintile intake 0.58; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.36, 0.94), and pro-anthocyanidin intakes (aOR 0.47; 95% CI 0.27, 0.81). A higher FEV1/FVC was associated with higher intakes of total flavonoids and pro-anthocyanidins (adjusted correlation coefficient (a -coeff 0.33; 0.10, 0.57 and a -coeff 0.44; 95% CI 0.19, 0.69, respectively). After Simes' procedure, the statistical significance of each of these associations was attenuated but remained below 0.05, with the exception of total flavonoids and airway restriction. Conclusions: This population-based study in European adults provides cross-sectional evidence of a positive association of total flavonoid intake and pro-anthocyanidins and ventilatory function, and a negative association with spirometric restriction in European adults.

  • 23. Garcia-Larsen, Vanessa
    et al.
    Thawer, Narjis
    Charles, David
    Cassidy, Aedin
    van Zele, Thibaut
    Thilsing, Trine
    Ahlström, Matti
    Haahtela, Tari
    Keil, Thomas
    Matricardi, Paolo M.
    Brożek, Grzegorz
    Kowalski, Marek L.
    Makowska, Joanna
    Niżankowska-Mogilnicka, Ewa
    Rymarczyk, Barbara
    Loureiro, Carlos
    Todo Bom, Ana
    Bachert, Claus
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Janson, Christer
    Torén, Kjell
    Potts, James F.
    Burney, Peter G. J.
    Dietary intake of flavonoids and ventilatory function in European adults: a GA²LEN study2018In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Flavonoids exert anti-inflammatory properties and modulate oxidative stress in vitro, suggesting a protective effect on lung function, but epidemiological studies examining this association are scarce.

    METHODS: A stratified random sample was drawn from the GA²LEN screening survey, in which 55,000 adults aged 15 to 75 answered a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms. Post-bronchodilator spirometry was obtained from 2850 subjects. Forced vital capacity (FVC), the ratio between the forced exhaled volume in 1 second (FEV₁) and FVC (FEV₁/FVC), FVC below lower limit of normal (FVC < LLN), and FEV₁/FVC < LLN were calculated. Intake of the six main subclasses of flavonoids was estimated using the GA²LEN Food Frequency Questionnaire. Adjusted associations between outcomes and each subclass of flavonoids were examined with multivariate regressions. Simes' procedure was used to test for multiple comparisons.

    RESULTS: A total of 2599 subjects had valid lung function and dietary data. A lower prevalence of FVC < LLN (airway restriction) was observed in those with higher total flavonoid (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), higher vs. lowest quintile intake 0.58; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.36, 0.94), and pro-anthocyanidin intakes (aOR 0.47; 95% CI 0.27, 0.81). A higher FEV₁/FVC was associated with higher intakes of total flavonoids and pro-anthocyanidins (adjusted correlation coefficient (a β-coeff 0.33; 0.10, 0.57 and a β-coeff 0.44; 95% CI 0.19, 0.69, respectively). After Simes' procedure, the statistical significance of each of these associations was attenuated but remained below 0.05, with the exception of total flavonoids and airway restriction.

    CONCLUSIONS: This population-based study in European adults provides cross-sectional evidence of a positive association of total flavonoid intake and pro-anthocyanidins and ventilatory function, and a negative association with spirometric restriction in European adults.

  • 24.
    Glover, Marewa
    et al.
    Massey Univ, Coll Hlth, Sch Hlth Sci, Auckland 0632, New Zealand.
    Wong, Sally F.
    Massey Univ, Coll Hlth, Sch Hlth Sci, Auckland 0632, New Zealand.
    Taylor, Rachael W.
    Univ Otago, Dunedin Sch Med, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand.
    Derraik, Jose G. B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. Univ Auckland, Liggins Inst, Auckland 1142, New Zealand.
    Fa'alili-Fidow, Jacinta
    Univ Auckland, Sch Populat Hlth, Auckland 1142, New Zealand.
    Morton, Susan M.
    Univ Auckland, Sch Populat Hlth, Auckland 1142, New Zealand;Univ Auckland, Ctr Longitudinal Res He Ara Ki Mua, Auckland 1142, New Zealand.
    Cutfield, Wayne S.
    Univ Auckland, Liggins Inst, Auckland 1142, New Zealand.
    The Complexity of Food Provisioning Decisions by Mori Caregivers to Ensure the Happiness and Health of Their Children2019In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 11, no 5, article id 994Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Obesity in children is a global health concern. In New Zealand, one in three school entrant children are overweight or obese. Mori, the indigenous people, are disproportionately represented among the lowest economic group and have a disproportionately high incidence of obesity. This study explored Mori parents' and caregivers' views of the relative importance of weight to health, and the facilitators and barriers to a healthy weight in children aged 6 months to 5 years. Using a grounded qualitative method, in-depth information was collected in focus groups with mostly urban parents and other caregivers. A general inductive thematic analysis (content driven) was used. Insufficient money was an overriding food provisioning factor, but cost interacted with the lack of time, the number of people to feed, their appetites, and allergies. Other factors included ideologies about healthy food, cultural values relating to food selection, serving, and eating, nutrition literacy, availability of food, cooking skills, and lack of help. Childhood obesity was not a priority concern for participants, though they supported interventions providing education on how to grow vegetables, how to plan and cook cheaper meals. Holistic interventions to reduce the negative effects of the economic and social determinants on child health more broadly were recommended.

  • 25. Gustafsson, Anna
    et al.
    Granström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Stecksén-Blicks, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    West, Christina E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Silfverdal, Sven-Arne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    The antisecretory factor in plasma and breast milk in breastfeeding mothers: a prospective cohort study in Sweden2018In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 10, no 9, article id 1227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inflammation and infection postpartum threaten the mother and her infant. Human milk provides a defense for the infant, but inflammatory complications like mastitis may lead to the cessation of breastfeeding. Antisecretory factor (AF) has a role in the regulation of secretory processes and inflammation. The objective of the study was to describe AF-levels in plasma and breast milk, and in relation to breast complications. Breastfeeding mothers (n = 95) were consecutively recruited at a Well Baby Clinic in Umeå, Sweden. At inclusion four weeks postpartum, samples of venous blood (10 mL) and breast milk (10 mL) were collected. Active AF was analyzed with ELISA using a monoclonal antibody mAb43, and was detected in all samples of plasma and breast milk with a positive correlation (Spearman coefficient = 0.40, p < 0.001; Pearson correlation = 0.34, p < 0.01). High AF-levels in plasma correlated with high AF-levels in breast milk. The results suggest a co-regulation between active AF in plasma and breastmilk, and/or a local regulation of AF in the breast. Further studies are needed to determine the pathways for the activation of AF-levels in breast milk and plasma.

  • 26.
    Haller, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Montandon, Marie-Louise
    Univ Geneva, Fac Med, Dept Psychiat, CH-1205 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Rodriguez, Cristelle
    Univ Geneva, Fac Med, Dept Psychiat, CH-1205 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Herrmann, François R
    Univ Geneva, Fac Med, Dept Psychiat, CH-1205 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon
    Univ Geneva, Fac Med, Dept Psychiat, CH-1205 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Impact of Coffee, Wine, and Chocolate Consumption on Cognitive Outcome and MRI Parameters in Old Age2018In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 10, no 10, article id 1391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coffee, wine and chocolate are three frequently consumed substances with a significant impact on cognition. In order to define the structural and cerebral blood flow correlates of self-reported consumption of coffee, wine and chocolate in old age, we assessed cognition and brain MRI measures in 145 community-based elderly individuals with preserved cognition (69 to 86 years). Based on two neuropsychological assessments during a 3-year follow-up, individuals were classified into stable-stable (52 sCON), intermediate (61 iCON) and deteriorating-deteriorating (32 dCON). MR imaging included voxel-based morphometry (VBM), tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and arterial spin labelling (ASL). Concerning behavior, moderate consumption of caffeine was related to better cognitive outcome. In contrast, increased consumption of wine was related to an unfavorable cognitive evolution. Concerning MRI, we observed a negative correlation of wine and VBM in bilateral deep white matter (WM) regions across all individuals, indicating less WM lesions. Only in sCON individuals, we observed a similar yet weaker association with caffeine. Moreover, again only in sCON individuals, we observed a significant positive correlation between ASL and wine in overlapping left parietal WM indicating better baseline brain perfusion. In conclusion, the present observations demonstrate an inverse association of wine and coffee consumption with cognitive performances. Moreover, low consumption of wine but also moderate to heavy coffee drinking was associated with better WM preservation and cerebral blood-flow notably in cognitively stable elders.

  • 27.
    Hebestreit, Antje
    et al.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Intemann, Timm
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Siani, Alfonso
    CNR, Inst Food Sci, I-83100 Avellino, Italy.
    De Henauw, Stefaan
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Commun Med, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kourides, Yiannis A.
    Res & Educ Inst Child Hlth, CY-2035 Strovolos, Cyprus.
    Kovacs, Eva
    Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Inst Med Informat Proc & Epidemiol, Inst Biometr & Epidemiol, D-81377 Munich, Germany / Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, German Ctr Vertigo & Balance Disorders, D-81377 Munich, Germany.
    Moreno, Luis A.
    Univ Zaragoza, Ctr Investigac Biomed Red Fisiopatol Obesidad & N, IIS Aragon, Inst Agroalimentario Aragon IA2,GENUD, E-50009 Zaragoza, Spain.
    Veidebaum, Toomas
    Natl Inst Hlth Dev, Dept Chron Dis, EE-11619 Tallinn, Estonia.
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Fdn IRCCS, IRCCS Ist Nazl Tumori, Dept Prevent & Predict Med, I-20133 Milan, Italy.
    Pala, Valeria
    Fdn IRCCS, IRCCS Ist Nazl Tumori, Dept Prevent & Predict Med, I-20133 Milan, Italy.
    Bogl, Leonie H.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, D-28359 Bremen, Germany / Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland / Univ Helsinki, Finnish Inst Mol Med, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Hunsberger, Monica
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Commun Med, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Boernhorst, Claudia
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Pigeot, Iris
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Dietary Patterns of European Children and Their Parents in Association with Family Food Environment: Results from the I.Family Study2017In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 9, no 2, article id 126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine whether an association exists between children's and parental dietary patterns (DP), and whether the number of shared meals or soft drink availability during meals strengthens this association. In 2013/2014 the I. Family study cross-sectionally assessed the dietary intakes of families from eight European countries using 24-h dietary recalls. Usual energy and food intakes from six-to 16-year-old children and their parents were estimated based on the NCI Method. A total of 1662 child-mother and 789 child-father dyads were included; DP were derived using cluster analysis. We investigated the association between children's and parental DP and whether the number of shared meals or soft drink availability moderated this association using mixed effects logistic regression models. Three DP comparable in children and parents were obtained: Sweet & Fat, Refined Cereals, and Animal Products. Children were more likely to be allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP when their fathers were allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP and when they shared at least one meal per day (OR 3.18; 95% CI 1.84; 5.47). Being allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP increased when the mother or the father was allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP and when soft drinks were available (OR 2.78; 95% CI 1.80; 4.28 or OR 4.26; 95% CI 2.16; 8.41, respectively). Availability of soft drinks and negative parental role modeling are important predictors of children's dietary patterns.

  • 28.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. University of Granada, Spain.
    Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina
    University of Granada, Spain.
    Leppanen, Marja H.
    University of Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Delisle Nystrom, Christine
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ortega, Francisco B.
    University of Granada, Spain; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Pomeroy, Jeremy
    Marshfield Clin Research Fdn, WI 54449 USA.
    Ruiz, Jonatan R.
    University of Granada, Spain; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Associations of Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass with Physical Fitness in 4-Year-Old Children: Results from the MINISTOP Trial2016In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 8, no 8, p. 473-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical fitness is a powerful marker of health in youth. Studies in adolescents and adults suggest that higher fat mass is related to worse physical fitness. However, there is limited knowledge whether fat mass and fat-free mass are associated with physical fitness already in preschoolers. Baseline data from the MINISTOP (Mobile-based INtervention Intended to STop Obesity in Preschoolers) trial was utilized for this cross-sectional analysis. Body composition was assessed using air-displacement plethysmography. Fat mass index [fat mass (kg)/height(2) (m)] and fat-free mass index [fat-free mass (kg)/height(2) (m)] were used to provide height-adjusted measures of body composition. Physical fitness was measured using the PREFIT (FITness testing in PREschool children) battery, which assesses cardiorespiratory fitness, upper-body and lower-body muscular strength as well as motor fitness. In total, this study included 303 children (168 boys and 135 girls), who were on average 4.48 +/- 0.15 years old. Higher fat mass index was associated with worse cardiorespiratory fitness (standardized beta = -0.17, p = 0.002), lower-body muscular strength (beta = -0.17, p = 0.003) and motor fitness (beta = -0.21, p amp;lt; 0.001) in regression analyses adjusted for age, sex and mutually adjusted for fat-mass index and fat-free mass index. Conversely, higher fat-free mass index was associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness (beta = 0.18, p = 0.002), upper-body muscular strength (beta = 0.39, p amp;lt; 0.001), lower-body muscular strength (beta = 0.22, p amp;lt; 0.001) and motor fitness (beta = 0.17, p = 0.004). Thus, fat mass and fat-free mass in preschoolers appear to have joint but opposite associations with physical fitness, an important marker for current and future health.

  • 29.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lof, Marie
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Glucose Homeostasis Variables in Pregnancy versus Maternal and Infant Body Composition2015In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 7, no 7, p. 5615-5627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intrauterine factors influence infant size and body composition but the mechanisms involved are to a large extent unknown. We studied relationships between the body composition of pregnant women and variables related to their glucose homeostasis, i.e., glucose, HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance), hemoglobin A(1c) and IGFBP-1 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1), and related these variables to the body composition of their infants. Body composition of 209 women in gestational week 32 and of their healthy, singleton and full-term one-week-old infants was measured using air displacement plethysmography. Glucose homeostasis variables were assessed in gestational week 32. HOMA-IR was positively related to fat mass index and fat mass (r(2) = 0.32, p less than 0.001) of the women. Maternal glucose and HOMA-IR values were positively (p 0.006) associated, while IGFBP-1was negatively (p = 0.001) associated, with infant fat mass. HOMA-IR was positively associated with fat mass of daughters (p less than 0.001), but not of sons (p = 0.65) (Sex-interaction: p = 0.042). In conclusion, glucose homeostasis variables of pregnant women are related to their own body composition and to that of their infants. The results suggest that a previously identified relationship between fat mass of mothers and daughters is mediated by maternal insulin resistance.

  • 30.
    Jilani, Hannah
    et al.
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology—BIPS, Germany / Institute for Public Health and Nursing Science, University of Bremen, Germany.
    Pohlabeln, Hermann
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology—BIPS, Germany.
    De Henauw, Stefaan
    Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Belgium.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Hunsberger, Monica
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Molnar, Denes
    Department of Pediatrics, Medical School, University of Pécs, Hungary.
    Moreno, Luis A.
    GENUD (Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development) Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Zaragoza, Spain.
    Pala, Valeria
    Department of Research, Epidemiology and Prevention Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Italy.
    Russo, Paola
    Institute of Food Sciences, National Research Council, Italy.
    Solea, Antonia
    Research and Education Institute of Child Health, Cyprus.
    Veidebaum, Toomas
    Department of Chronic Diseases, National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Ahrens, Wolfgang
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology—BIPS, Germany / Institute of Statistics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Bremen, Germany.
    Hebestreit, Antje
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology—BIPS, Germany.
    Relative Validity of a Food and Beverage Preference Questionnaire to Characterize Taste Phenotypes in Children Adolescents and Adults2019In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 11, no 7, article id 1453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To assess the relative validity of our food and beverage preference questionnaire we investigated the association between sweet and fatty taste preference scores (assessed using a food and beverage preference questionnaire) and sweet and fatty food propensity scores (derived from a food frequency questionnaire). In I.Family, a large European multi-country cohort study, 12,207 participants from Cyprus, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Sweden, including 5291 adults, 3082 adolescents, and 3834 children, completed a food and beverage preference questionnaire with 63 items. Cumulative preference scores for sweet and fatty taste were calculated from the single item ranking ranging from 1 to 5. The relative consumption frequency of foods classified as sweet and fatty was used to calculate the corresponding consumption propensities, a continuous variable ranging from 0 to 100. We conducted regression analyses to investigate the association between sweet and fatty taste preference scores and sweet and fatty food propensity scores, respectively, separately for adults, adolescents >= 12 years, and for children <12 years. The overall sweet taste preference score was positively associated with the sweet food consumption propensity score (beta = 2.4, 95% CI: 2.1;2.7) and the fatty taste preference score was positively associated with the fatty food consumption propensity score (beta = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.8;2.2). After stratification for age (children <12 years, adolescents >= 12 years, and adults), the effect remained significant in all age groups and was strongest in adolescents and adults. We conclude that our food and beverage preference questionnaire is a useful instrument for epidemiological studies on sensory perception and health outcomes and for the characterization of sensory taste phenotypes.

  • 31.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Esberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Research Unit Skellefteå, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå, Sweden. .
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Winkvist, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research. Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden. .
    Dairy Product Intake and Cardiometabolic Diseases in Northern Sweden: A 33-Year Prospective Cohort Study2019In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 11, no 284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dairy products are important constituents of most diets, and their association with adverse health outcomes remains a focus. We characterized dairy food intake and examined associations with the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke among 108,065 Swedish men and women. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using the multivariable Cox proportional hazards models in a population characterized by high milk tolerance. During a mean follow-up of 14.2 years, 11,641 first-time events occurred. Non-fermented milk intake decreased, whereas butter intake increased over the period. For high intake of non-fermented milk, the HR (95% CI) for developing T2D and MI was 1.17 (1.03, 1.34) and 1.23 (1.10, 1.37), respectively, in men. A greater intake of butter, fermented milk, and cheese tended to be associated with a reduced risk of T2D and/or MI. Non-consumers and those who chose low-fat variants of the targeted dairy products had increased risk for T2D, MI, or stroke compared to those in the non-case group. Generally, effect-sizes were small. This prospective study found that non-fermented milk was associated with an increased risk for developing T2D and MI and that subjects abstaining from dairy products or choosing low-fat variants were at greater risk. However, the overall cardiometabolic risk of non-fermented milk intake was judged as low, since the effect sizes were small.

  • 32.
    Johansson, Ulrica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Venables, Michelle
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Lind, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Active Image-Assisted Food Records in Comparison to Regular Food Records: A Validation Study against Doubly Labeled Water in 12-Month-Old Infants2018In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 10, no 12, article id 1904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Overreporting of dietary intake in infants is a problem when using food records (FR), distorting possible relationships between diet and health outcomes. Image-assisted dietary assessment may improve the accuracy, but to date, evaluation in the pediatric setting is limited. The aim of the study was to compare macronutrient and energy intake by using an active image-assisted five-day FR against a regular five-day FR, and to validate image-assistance with total energy expenditure (TEE), was measured using doubly labeled water. Participants in this validation study were 22 healthy infants randomly selected from the control group of a larger, randomized intervention trial. The parents reported the infants’ dietary intake, and supplied images of main course meals taken from standardized flat-surfaced plates before and after eating episodes. Energy and nutrient intakes were calculated separately using regular FR and image-assisted FRs. The mean (± standard deviations) energy intake (EI) was 3902 ± 476 kJ/day from the regular FR, and 3905 ± 476 kJ/day from the FR using active image-assistance. The mean EI from main-course meals when image-assistance was used did not differ (1.7 ± 55 kJ, p = 0.89) compared to regular FRs nor did the intake of macronutrients. Compared to TEE, image-assisted FR overestimated EI by 10%. Without validation, commercially available software to aid in the volume estimations, food item identification, and automation of the image processing, image-assisted methods remain a more costly and burdensome alternative to regular FRs in infants. The image-assisted method did, however, identify leftovers better than did regular FR, where such information is usually not readily available. View Full-Text

  • 33.
    Johansson, Ulrica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Lönnerdal, Bo
    Lindberg, Lene
    Lind, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Protein-Reduced Complementary Foods Based on Nordic Ingredients Combined with Systematic Introduction of Taste Portions Increase Intake of Fruits and Vegetables in 9 Month Old Infants: A Randomised Controlled Trial2019In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 1255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fruits and vegetables are healthy foods but under-consumed among infants and children. Approaches to increase their intake are urgently needed. This study investigated the effects of a systematic introduction of taste portions and a novel protein-reduced complementary diet based on Nordic foods on fruit and vegetable intake, growth and iron status to 9 months of age. Healthy, term infants (n = 250) were recruited and randomly allocated to either a Nordic diet group (NG) or a conventional diet group (CG). Infants were solely breast- or formula-fed at study start. From 4 to 6 months of age, the NG followed a systematic taste portions schedule consisting of home-made purées of Nordic produce for 24 days. Subsequently, the NG was supplied with baby food products and recipes of homemade baby foods based on Nordic ingredients but with reduced protein content compared to the CG. The CG was advised to follow current Swedish recommendations on complementary foods. A total of 232 participants (93%) completed the study. The NG had significantly higher intake of fruits and vegetables than the CG at 9 months of age; 225 ± 109 g/day vs. 156 ± 77 g/day (p < 0.001), respectively. Energy intake was similar, but protein intake was significantly lower in the NG (−26%, p < 0.001) compared to the CG. This lower protein intake was compensated for by higher intake of carbohydrate from fruits and vegetables. No significant group differences in growth or iron status were observed. The intervention resulted in significantly higher consumption of fruits and vegetables in infants introduced to complementary foods based on Nordic ingredients.

  • 34.
    Jones, Alexandra
    et al.
    George Inst Global Hlth, Australia; Univ Sydney, Australia.
    Rådholm, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Ödeshög. George Inst Global Hlth, Australia.
    Neal, Bruce
    George Inst Global Hlth, Australia; Univ Sydney, Australia; Imperial Coll London, England.
    Defining Unhealthy: A Systematic Analysis of Alignment between the Australian Dietary Guidelines and the Health Star Rating System2018In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 10, no 4, article id 501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADGs) and Health Star Rating (HSR) front-of-pack labelling system are two national interventions to promote healthier diets. Our aim was to assess the degree of alignment between the two policies. Methods: Nutrition information was extracted for 65,660 packaged foods available in The George Institutes Australian FoodSwitch database. Products were classified core or discretionary based on the ADGs, and a HSR generated irrespective of whether currently displayed on pack. Apparent outliers were identified as those products classified core that received HSR amp;lt;= 2.0; and those classified discretionary that received HSR amp;gt;= 3.5. Nutrient cut-offs were applied to determine whether apparent outliers were high in salt, total sugar or saturated fat, and outlier status thereby attributed to a failure of the ADGs or HSR algorithm. Results: 47,116 products (23,460 core; 23,656 discretionary) were included. Median (Q1, Q3) HSRs were 4.0 (3.0 to 4.5) for core and 2.0 (1.0 to 3.0) for discretionary products. Overall alignment was good: 86.6% of products received a HSR aligned with their ADG classification. Among 6324 products identified as apparent outliers, 5246 (83.0%) were ultimately determined to be ADG failures, largely caused by challenges in defining foods as core or discretionary. In total, 1078 (17.0%) were determined to be true failures of the HSR algorithm. Conclusion: The scope of genuine misalignment between the ADGs and HSR algorithm is very small. We provide evidence-informed recommendations for strengthening both policies to more effectively guide Australians towards healthier choices.

  • 35. Kooltheat, Nateelak
    et al.
    Sranujit, Rungnapa Pankla
    Chumark, Pilaipark
    Potup, Pachuen
    Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Oncology.
    Usuwanthim, Kanchana
    An Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. Inhibits Human Macrophage Cytokine Production Induced by Cigarette Smoke2014In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 697-710Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO) has been reported to harbor anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory activity and useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, despite these findings there has been little work done on the effects of MO on immune cellular function. Since macrophages, TNF and related cytokines play an important pathophysiologic role in lung damage induced by cigarette smoke, we examined the effects of MO on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced cytokine production by human macrophages. An ethyl acetate fraction of MO (MOEF) was prepared from fresh leaves extract of Moringa and shown to consist of high levels of phenolic and antioxidant activities. Human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) pre-treated with varying concentrations of MOEF showed decreased production of TNF, IL-6 and IL-8 in response to both LPS and CSE. The decrease was evident at both cytokine protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, the extract inhibited the expression of RelA, a gene implicated in the NF-kappa B p65 signaling in inflammation. The findings highlight the ability of MOEF to inhibit cytokines (IL-8) which promote the infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs and others (TNF, IL-6) which mediate tissue disease and damage.

  • 36.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain / ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    Veronese, Nicola
    National Research Council, Padova, Italy / National Institute of Gastroenterology, Bari, Italy.
    Stubbs, Brendon
    South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK / King’s College London, London, UK / Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford, UK.
    Vancampfort, Davy
    KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Oh, Hans
    University of Southern California, CA, USA.
    Shin, Jae Il
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seul, Korea / Severance Children’s Hospital, Seuo, Korea.
    Jackson, Sarah
    University College London, London, UK.
    Smith, Lee
    Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK.
    Lara, Elvira
    CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain / Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Madrid, Spain.
    Food Insecurity Is Associated with Mild Cognitive Impairment among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in South Africa: Findings from a Nationally Representative Survey.2019In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 11, no 4, article id E749Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are no studies on the association between food insecurity and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Thus, cross-sectional, community-based data on individuals aged ≥50 years from the World Health Organization's Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) conducted in South Africa (2007⁻2008) were analyzed to assess this association. The definition of MCI was based on the National Institute on Ageing-Alzheimer's Association criteria. Past 12-month food insecurity was assessed with two questions on frequency of eating less and hunger due to lack of food. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted. The sample consisted of 3,672 individuals aged ≥50 years [mean (SD) age 61.4 (18.3); 56% females]. The prevalence of MCI was 8.5%, while 11.0% and 20.8% experienced moderate and severe food insecurity, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, moderate and severe food insecurity were associated with 2.82 (95%CI = 1.65⁻4.84) and 2.51 (95%CI = 1.63⁻3.87) times higher odds for MCI compared with no food insecurity, respectively. The OR for those aged ≥65 years with severe food insecurity was particularly high (OR = 3.87; 95%CI = 2.20⁻6.81). In conclusion, food insecurity was strongly associated with MCI among South African older adults. Future longitudinal research is required to assess whether addressing food insecurity may reduce risk of MCI and subsequent dementia.

  • 37. Landais, Edwige
    et al.
    Moskal, Aurelie
    Mullee, Amy
    Nicolas, Genevieve
    Gunter, Marc J.
    Huybrechts, Inge
    Overvad, Kim
    Roswall, Nina
    Affret, Aurelie
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    Mahamat-Saleh, Yahya
    Katzke, Verena
    Kuehn, Tilman
    La Vecchia, Carlo
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Valanou, Elissavet
    Saieva, Calogero
    de Magistris, Maria Santucci
    Sieri, Sabina
    Braaten, Tonje
    Skeie, Guri
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores
    Garcia, Jose Ramon
    Jakszyn, Paula
    Rodriguez-Barranco, Miguel
    Brunkwall, Louise
    Huseinovic, Ena
    Nilsson, Lena
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Wallström, Peter
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Peeters, Petra H.
    Aune, Dagfinn
    Key, Tim
    Lentjes, Marleen
    Riboli, Elio
    Slimani, Nadia
    Freisling, Heinz
    Coffee and Tea Consumption and the Contribution of Their Added Ingredients to Total Energy and Nutrient Intakes in 10 European Countries: Benchmark Data from the Late 1990s2018In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 10, no 6, article id 725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Coffee and tea are among the most commonly consumed nonalcoholic beverages worldwide, but methodological differences in assessing intake often hamper comparisons across populations. We aimed to (i) describe coffee and tea intakes and (ii) assess their contribution to intakes of selected nutrients in adults across 10 European countries.

    Method: Between 1995 and 2000, a standardized 24-h dietary recall was conducted among 36,018 men and women from 27 European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study centres. Adjusted arithmetic means of intakes were estimated in grams (=volume) per day by sex and centre. Means of intake across centres were compared by sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle factors.

    Results: In women, the mean daily intake of coffee ranged from 94 g/day (similar to 0.6 cups) in Greece to 781 g/day (similar to 4.4 cups) in Aarhus (Denmark), and tea from 14 g/day (similar to 0.1 cups) in Navarra (Spain) to 788 g/day (similar to 4.3 cups) in the UK general population. Similar geographical patterns for mean daily intakes of both coffee and tea were observed in men. Current smokers as compared with those who reported never smoking tended to drink on average up to 500 g/day more coffee and tea combined, but with substantial variation across centres. Other individuals' characteristics such as educational attainment or age were less predictive. In all centres, coffee and tea contributed to less than 10% of the energy intake. The greatest contribution to total sugar intakes was observed in Southern European centres (up to similar to 20%).

    Conclusion: Coffee and tea intake and their contribution to energy and sugar intake differed greatly among European adults. Variation in consumption was mostly driven by geographical region.

  • 38.
    Larsson, Susanna C.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Crippa, Alessio
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Biostat, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Orsini, Nicola
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Biostat, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wolk, Alicja
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Milk Consumption and Mortality from All Causes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis2015In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 7, no 9, p. 7749-7763Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from epidemiological studies of milk consumption and mortality are inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies assessing the association of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. PubMed was searched until August 2015. A two-stage, random-effects, dose-response meta-analysis was used to combine study-specific results. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed with the I-2 statistic. During follow-up periods ranging from 4.1 to 25 years, 70,743 deaths occurred among 367,505 participants. The range of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption and the shape of the associations between milk consumption and mortality differed considerably between studies. There was substantial heterogeneity among studies of non-fermented milk consumption in relation to mortality from all causes (12 studies; I-2 = 94%), cardiovascular disease (five studies; I-2 = 93%), and cancer (four studies; I-2 = 75%) as well as among studies of fermented milk consumption and all-cause mortality (seven studies; I-2 = 88%). Thus, estimating pooled hazard ratios was not appropriate. Heterogeneity among studies was observed in most subgroups defined by sex, country, and study quality. In conclusion, we observed no consistent association between milk consumption and all-cause or cause-specific mortality.

  • 39.
    Larsson, Susanna C
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Traylor, Matthew
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stroke Res Grp, Cambridge, England.
    Markus, Hugh S
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stroke Res Grp, Cambridge, England.
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Serum Parathyroid Hormone, 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, and Risk of Alzheimer's Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Study2018In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 10, no 9, article id 1243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We conducted Mendelian randomization analyses to investigate the associations of serum parathyroid hormone (S-PTH) and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25OHD) concentrations with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Five and seven single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with S-PTH and S-25OHD concentrations, respectively, were used as instrumental variables. Data for AD were acquired from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (17,008 AD cases and 37,154 controls). Genetically higher S-PTH concentrations were not associated with AD (odds ratio per standard deviation increase in S-PTH = 1.11; 95% CI 0.97-1.26; p = 0.12). In contrast, all seven 25OHD-increasing alleles were inversely associated with AD and two of the associations were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The odds ratio of AD per genetically-predicted one standard deviation increase in S-25OHD was 0.86 (95% CI 0.78-0.94; p = 0.002). This study provides evidence that vitamin D may play a role in AD but found no significant association between S-PTH and AD.

  • 40.
    Liu, Haoyu
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Waldén, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    Cai, Demin
    Univ Calif Davis, Dept Biochem & Mol Med, Sacramento, CA 95817 USA.
    Ahl, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Phillipson, Mia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    Nyman, Margareta
    Lund Univ, Dept Food Technol Engn & Nutr, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Holm, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    Dietary Fiber in Bilberry Ameliorates Pre-Obesity Events in Rats by Regulating Lipid Depot, Cecal Short-Chain Fatty Acid Formation and Microbiota Composition2019In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 1350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Obesity is linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and risk factors associated to metabolic syndrome. Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) that contains easily fermentable fiber may strengthen the intestinal barrier function, attenuate inflammation and modulate gut microbiota composition, thereby prevent obesity development. In the current study, liver lipid metabolism, fat depot, cecal and serum short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and gut microbiome were evaluated in rats fed bilberries in a high-fat (HFD + BB) or low-fat (LFD + BB) setting for 8 weeks and compared with diets containing equal amount of fiber resistant to fermentation (cellulose, HFD and LFD). HFD fed rats did not obtain an obese phenotype but underwent pre-obesity events including increased liver index, lipid accumulation and increased serum cholesterol levels. This was linked to shifts of cecal bacterial community and reduction of major SCFAs. Bilberry inclusion improved liver metabolism and serum lipid levels. Bilberry inclusion under either LFD or HFD, maintained microbiota homeostasis, stimulated interscapular-brown adipose tissue depot associated with increased mRNA expression of uncoupling protein-1; enhanced SCFAs in the cecum and circulation; and promoted butyric acid and butyrate-producing bacteria. These findings suggest that bilberry may serve as a preventative dietary measure to optimize microbiome and associated lipid metabolism during or prior to HFD.

  • 41.
    Marklund, Matti
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Univ New South Wales, George Inst Global Hlth, Sydney, NSW 2042, Australia.
    Morris, Andrew P.
    Univ Liverpool, Dept Biostat, Liverpool L69 3GL, Merseyside, England.
    Mahajan, Anubha
    Wellcome Trust Ctr Human Genet, Oxford OX3 7BN, England.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Stanford Univ, Dept Med, Div Cardiovasc Med, Sch Med, Stanford, CA 94305 USA;Stanford Univ, Stanford Cardiovasc Inst, Stanford, CA 94305 USA;Stanford Univ, Stanford Diabet Res Ctr, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Lindgren, Cecilia M.
    Wellcome Trust Ctr Human Genet, Oxford OX3 7BN, England;Univ Oxford, Big Data Inst, Ka Shing Ctr Hlth Informat & Discovery, Oxford OX3 7LF, England.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Epidemiology.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Genome-Wide Association Studies of Estimated Fatty Acid Desaturase Activity in Serum and Adipose Tissue in Elderly Individuals: Associations with Insulin Sensitivity2018In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 1791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatty acid desaturases (FADS) catalyze the formation of unsaturated fatty acids and have been related to insulin sensitivity (IS). FADS activities differ between tissues and are influenced by genetic factors that may impact the link to IS. Genome-wide association studies of delta-5-desaturase (D5D), delta-6-desaturase (D6D) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD) activities (estimated by product-to-precursor ratios of fatty acids analyzed by gas chromatography) in serum cholesterol esters (n = 1453) and adipose tissue (n = 783, all men) were performed in two Swedish population-based cohorts. Genome-wide significant associated loci were evaluated for associations with IS measured with a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (n = 554). Variants at the FADS1 were strongly associated with D5D in both cholesterol esters (p = 1.9 x 10(-70)) and adipose tissue (p = 1.1 x 10(-27)). Variants in three further loci were associated with D6D in cholesterol esters (FADS2, p = 3.0 x 10(-67); PDXDCI, p = 4.8 x 10(-8); and near MC4R, p = 3.7 x 10(-8)) but no associations with D6D in adipose tissue attained genome-wide significance. One locus was associated with SCD in adipose tissue (PKDL1, p = 2.2 x 10(-19)). Genetic variants near MC4R were associated with IS (p = 3.8 x 10(-3)). The FADS cluster was the main genetic determinant of estimated FADS activity. However, fatty acid (FA) ratios in adipose tissue and cholesterol esters represent FADS activities in separate tissues and are thus influenced by different genetic factors with potential varying effects on IS.

  • 42.
    Massad, Salwa G
    et al.
    Institute of Human Nutrition, Columbia University, New York, USA.
    Khalili, Mohammed
    United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA), Palestine.
    Karmally, Wahida
    Irving Institute for Clinical and Translational Research, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, USA.
    Abdalla, Marwah
    Institute of Human Nutrition, Columbia University, New York, USA.
    Khammash, Umaiyeh
    Juzoor for Health and Social Development, Palestine.
    Mehari, Gebre-Medhin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Paediatric Inflammation Research.
    Deckelbaum, Richard J
    Institute of Human Nutrition, Columbia University, New York, USA.
    Metabolic Syndrome among Refugee Women from the West Bank, Palestine: A Cross-Sectional Study2018In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 10, no 8, article id E1118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was carried out among Palestinian refugee women in the West Bank to provide data on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its correlates. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study of 1694 randomly selected refugee women from the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) health centers throughout the West Bank during June and July 2010. In this cohort, 30% of the refugee women were overweight, 39% were obese, and 7% were extremely obese. Based on World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, the age-adjusted prevalence of MetS was 19.8%. The results of the binary logistic regression analysis indicated that older age and younger marital age were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of MetS in the women. The high prevalence of obesity and MetS mandates the implementation of national policies for its prevention, notably by initiating large-scale community intervention programs for 5.2 million refugees in Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria, to tackle obesity and increase the age at marriage.

  • 43.
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Melhus, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical pharmacogenomics and osteoporosis.
    Larsson, Susanna C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics. Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Cardiovasc & Nutr Epidemiol, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Major Depression: A Mendelian Randomization Study2018In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 10, no 12, article id 1987Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether vitamin D insufficiency is a contributing cause of depression remains unclear. We assessed whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25OHD) concentrations, the clinical marker of vitamin D status, were associated with major depression using Mendelian randomization. We used summary statistics data for six single-nucleotide polymorphisms significantly associated with S-25OHD concentrations in the Study of Underlying Genetic Determinants of Vitamin D and Highly Related Traits (SUNLIGHT) consortium and the corresponding data for major depression (n = 59,851 cases and 113,154 controls) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Genetically predicted S-25OHD concentrations were not associated with major depression. The odds ratio per genetically predicted one standard deviation decrease in S-25OHD concentrations was 1.02 (95% confidence interval 0.97-1.08; p = 0.44). The results of this study indicate that genetically lowered S-25OHD concentrations are not associated with increased risk of developing major depression.

  • 44. Mtintsilana, Asanda
    et al.
    Micklesfield, Lisa K.
    Chorell, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Shivappa, Nitin
    Hebert, James R.
    Kengne, Andre P.
    Goedecke, Julia H.
    Adiposity Mediates the Association between the Dietary Inflammatory Index and Markers of Type 2 Diabetes Risk in Middle-Aged Black South African Women2019In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 1246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dietary inflammatory index (DII®), a validated tool used to measure the inflammatory potential of the diet, has been associated with metabolic disorders in various settings, but not in African populations. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the DII is associated with markers of type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk, and if this association is mediated by adiposity and/or low-grade inflammation, in black South Africa women. Energy-adjusted-DII (E-DII) scores were calculated in 190 women (median age, 53 years) from the Birth-to-Twenty plus cohort using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Fasting glucose, insulin, HbA1c, and inflammatory cytokines were measured, and an oral glucose tolerance test performed. Basic anthropometry and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-derived body fat, including estimate of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area, were measured. E-DII scores were associated with all markers of T2D risk, namely, fasting glucose and insulin, HbA1c, HOMA2-IR, two-hour glucose and Matsuda index (all p < 0.05). After adjusting for age, measures of adiposity, but not inflammatory cytokines, mediated the association between E-DII and markers of T2D risk (p < 0.05). Measures of central obesity had proportionally higher (range: 23.5–100%) mediation effects than total obesity (range: 10–60%). The E-DII is associated with T2D risk through obesity, in particular central obesity, among black middle-aged South African women.

  • 45.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Halvardsson, Patrik
    School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Adherence to DASH-Style Dietary Pattern Impacts on Adiponectin and Clustered Metabolic Risk in Older Women2019In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While dietary patterns are related to the age-related progression of chronic diseases, to what extent different dietary patterns influence inflammatory and metabolic risk factors in older adults remains to be elucidated. Additionally, potential moderating effects by physical activity (PA) become important to clarify. Here, we hypothesize that dietary patterns are linked to inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers and that these links are independent of PA. The present study aims to explore links between two dietary constructs and biomarkers of systemic inflammation and metabolic health in older women, while considering time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 112 community-dwelling older women (65-70 years old) was performed. Dietary constructs based on the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and the dietary inflammatory index (DII) were determined from food records. MVPA was objectively assessed using accelerometry. Metabolic outcomes (waist circumference, systolic/diastolic blood pressures and levels of glucose, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol) and inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen and adiponectin) were determined using standardized procedures and a clustered metabolic risk score was derived. Adherence to DASH-style diet was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with a lower clustered metabolic risk, where women in the highest adherence group had a significantly (p < 0.05) lower waist circumference and blood glucose level compared to those in the lowest group. Further, a significantly higher (p < 0.05) adiponectin level was observed in the high DASH adherence group compared to those with low adherence. Notably, adjustment by waist circumference did not alter links with either adiponectin or blood glucose level. Importantly, all observed links remained significant after further adjustment for time in MVPA. Finally, no significant associations were observed when the dietary pattern was defined by the DII. The findings of this study demonstrate that DASH-style diets promote a systemic anti-inflammatory environment, while also mitigating clustered metabolic risk in older women. A key finding is that favourable impacts of the DASH-style diet are independent of time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA, which further strengthens healthy eating behaviours as a key target for clinical and public health interventions designed to prevent age-related metabolic abnormalities.

  • 46.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Montiel Rojas, Diego
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Impact of Meeting Different Guidelines for Protein Intake on Muscle Mass and Physical Function in Physically Active Older Women2018In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 10, no 9, article id 1156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of dietary protein intake on muscle mass and physical function in older adults is important for the prevention of age-related physical limitations. The aim of the present study was to elucidate links between dietary protein intake and muscle mass and physical function in older women meeting current guidelines of objectively assessed physical activity. In 106 women (65 to 70 years old), protein intake was assessed using a 6-day food record and participants were classified into high and low protein intake groups using two Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) thresholds (0.8 gkg(-1) bodyweight (BW) and 1.1 gkg(-1) BW). Body composition, aerobic fitness, and quadriceps strength were determined using standardized procedures, and self-reported physical function was assessed using the SF-12 Health Survey. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometry and self-report. Women below the 0.8 gkg(-1) BW threshold had a lower muscle mass (p < 0.05) with no differences in physical function variables. When based on the higher RDA threshold (1.1 gkg(-1) BW), in addition to significant differences in muscle mass, women below the higher threshold had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher likelihood of having physical limitations. In conclusion, the present study supports the RDA threshold of 0.8 gkg(-1) BW of proteins to prevent the loss of muscle mass and emphasizes the importance of the higher RDA threshold of at least 1.1 gkg(-1) BW to infer additional benefits on constructs of physical function. Our study also supports the role of protein intake for healthy ageing, even in older adults meeting guidelines for physical activity.

  • 47.
    Nystrom, Christine Delisle
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, Novum, S-14183 Huddinge, Sweden..
    Henriksson, Hanna
    Univ Granada, PROFITH Promoting FITness & Hlth Phys Act Res Grp, Dept Phys Educ & Sports, Fac Sports Sci, E-18071 Granada, Spain..
    Alexandrou, Christina
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, Novum, S-14183 Huddinge, Sweden..
    Bergstrom, Anna
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Environm Med, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bonn, Stephanie
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bälter, Katarina
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lof, Marie
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, Novum, S-14183 Huddinge, Sweden..
    Validation of an Online Food Frequency Questionnaire against Doubly LabelledWater and 24 h Dietary Recalls in Pre-School Children2017In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of easy-to-use and accurate methods to assess the intake of energy, foods and nutrients in pre-school children is needed. KidMeal-Q is an online food frequency questionnaire developed for the LifeGene prospective cohort study in Sweden. The aims of this study were to compare: (i) energy intake (EI) obtained using KidMeal-Q to total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water and (ii) the intake of certain foods measured using KidMeal-Q to intakes acquired by means of 24 h dietary recalls in 38 children aged 5.5 years. The mean EI calculated using KidMeal-Q was statistically different (p < 0.001) from TEE (4670 +/- 1430 kJ/24 h and 6070 +/- 690 kJ/24 h, respectively). Significant correlations were observed for vegetables, fruit juice and candy between KidMeal-Q and 24 h dietary recalls. Only sweetened beverage consumption was significantly different in mean intake (p < 0.001), as measured by KidMeal-Q and 24 h dietary recalls. In conclusion, KidMeal-Q had a relatively short answering time and comparative validity to other food frequency questionnaires. However, its accuracy needs to be improved before it can be used in studies in pre-school children.

  • 48.
    Paramel Varghese, Geena
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Dalhousie Medicine New Brunswick, Saint John, Canada.
    D’Souza, K.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Dalhousie Medicine New Brunswick, Saint John, Canada.
    Kienesberger, P.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Dalhousie Medicine New Brunswick, Saint John, Canada.
    Lysophosphatidic Acid Signaling in Obesity and Insulin Resistance2018In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 10, no 4, article id 399Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although simple in structure, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a potent bioactive lipid that profoundly influences cellular signaling and function upon binding to G protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-6). The majority of circulating LPA is produced by the secreted enzyme autotaxin (ATX). Alterations in LPA signaling, in conjunction with changes in autotaxin (ATX) expression and activity, have been implicated in metabolic and inflammatory disorders including obesity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes our current understanding of the sources and metabolism of LPA with focus on the influence of diet on circulating LPA. Furthermore, we explore how the ATX-LPA pathway impacts obesity and obesity-associated disorders, including impaired glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease.

  • 49.
    Pauter, Anna M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Fischer, Alexander W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany.
    Bengtsson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Asadi, Abolfazl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Talamonti, Emanuela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Jacobsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Synergistic Effects of DHA and Sucrose on Body Weight Gain in PUFA-Deficient Elovl2-/- Mice2019In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 852Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is implicated in the regulation of both lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Thus, we questioned whether dietary DHA and low or high content of sucrose impact on metabolism in mice deficient for elongation of very long-chain fatty acids 2 (ELOVL2), an enzyme involved in the endogenous DHA synthesis. We found that Elovl2 -/- mice fed a high-sucrose DHA-enriched diet followed by the high sucrose, high fat challenge significantly increased body weight. This diet affected the triglyceride rich lipoprotein fraction of plasma lipoproteins and changed the expression of several genes involved in lipid metabolism in a white adipose tissue. Our findings suggest that lipogenesis in mammals is synergistically influenced by DHA dietary and sucrose content.

  • 50. Pisa, Pedro T.
    et al.
    Pedro, Titilola M.
    Kahn, Kathleen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2193, South Africa; INDEPTH Network: Network of Demographic Surveillance Sites-www.indepth-network.org, Accra, Ghana.
    Tollman, Stephen M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2193, South Africa; INDEPTH Network: Network of Demographic Surveillance Sites-www.indepth-network.org, Accra, Ghana.
    Pettifor, John M.
    Norris, Shane A.
    Nutrient Patterns and Their Association with Socio-Demographic, Lifestyle Factors and Obesity Risk in Rural South African Adolescents2015In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 3464-3482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to identify and describe the diversity of nutrient patterns and how they associate with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors including body mass index in rural black South African adolescents. Nutrient patterns were identified from quantified food frequency questionnaires (QFFQ) in 388 rural South African adolescents between the ages of 11-15 years from the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System (AHDSS). Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to 25 nutrients derived from QFFQs. Multiple linear regression and partial R-2 models were fitted and computed respectively for each of the retained principal component (PC) scores on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics including body mass index (BMI) for age Z scores. Four nutrient patterns explaining 79% of the total variance were identified: PCI (26%) was characterized by animal derived nutrients; PC2 (21%) by vitamins, fibre and vegetable oil nutrients; PC3 (19%) by both animal and plant derived nutrients (mixed diet driven nutrients); and PC4 (13%) by starch and folate. A positive and significant association was observed with BMI for age Z scores per 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in PC1 (0.13 (0.02; 0.24); p = 0.02) and PC4 (0.10 (-0.01; 0.21); p = 0.05) scores only. We confirmed variability in nutrient patterns that were significantly associated with various lifestyle factors including obesity.

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