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  • 1.
    Adolfsson, Peter
    et al.
    Göteborg Pediatric Growth Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden; The Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ornhagen, Hans
    Swedish Sports Diving Federation, Idrottshuset, Farsta, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Bengt M.
    Hyperbaric Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gautham, Raghavendhar
    Medtronic Diabetes, Northridge CA, USA.
    Jendle, Johan
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Endocrine and Diabetes Center, Karlstad Hospital, Karlstad, Sweden.
    In-vitro performance of the Enlite sensor in various glucose concentrations during hypobaric and hyperbaric conditions2012In: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, E-ISSN 1932-2968, Vol. 6, no 6, p. 1375-1382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a need for reliable methods of glucose measurement in different environmental conditions. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the performance of the Enlite® Sensor when connected to either the iPro™ Continuous Glucose Monitor recording device or the Guardian® REAL-Time transmitting device, in hypobaric and hyperbaric conditions.

    Methods: Sixteen sensors connected to eight iPro devices and eight Guardian REAL-Time devices were immersed in three beakers containing separate glucose concentrations: 52, 88, and 207 mg/dl (2.9, 4.9, and 11.3 mmol/liter). Two different pressure tests were conducted: a hypobaric test, corresponding to maximum 18000 ft/5500 m height, and a hyperbaric test, corresponding to maximum 100 ft/30 m depth. The linearity of the sensor signals in the different conditions was evaluated.

    Results: The sensors worked continuously, and the sensor signals were collected without interruption at all pressures tested. When comparing the input signals for glucose (ISIGs) and the different glucose concentrations during altered pressure, linearity (R(2)) of 0.98 was found. During the hypobaric test, significant differences (p < .005) were seen when comparing the ISIGs during varying pressure at two of the glucose concentrations (52 and 207 mg/dl), whereas no difference was seen at the 88 mg/dl glucose concentration. During the hyperbaric test, no differences were found.

    Conclusions: The Enlite Sensors connected to either the iPro or the Guardian REAL-Time device provided values continuously. In hyperbaric conditions, no significant differences were seen during changes in ambient pressure; however, during hypobaric conditions, the ISIG was significantly different in the low and high glucose concentrations.

  • 2.
    Adolfsson, Peter
    et al.
    Gothenburg Pediatric Growth Research Centre, Department of Pediatrics, Institute for the Health of Women and Children, the Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Örnhagen, Hans
    Swedish Sportsdiving Federation, Farsta, Sweden.
    Jendle, Johan
    Endocrine and Diabetes Center, Karlstad Hospital, Karlstad, Sweden; Department of Clinical Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    The benefits of continuous glucose monitoring and a glucose monitoring schedule in individuals with type 1 diabetes during recreational diving2008In: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, E-ISSN 1932-2968, Vol. 2, no 5, p. 778-784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Our objective is to evaluate the Medtronic CGMS continuous glucose monitoring system and plasma glucose (PG) measurement performed in a monitoring schedule as tools to identify individuals with type 1 diabetes at risk when diving.

    METHODS: We studied 24 adults, 12 type 1 diabetes subjects and 12 controls, during 5 recreational scuba dives performed on 3 consecutive days. The CGMS was used by all participants on all the days and all the dives. Comparisons were made between PG performed in a monitoring schedule during the days of diving, self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) performed 2 weeks prior to diving, and the CGMS during the study.

    RESULTS: One hundred seventeen dives were performed. Hypoglycemia (<70 mg/dl) was found in six individuals and on nine occasions. However, no symptoms of hypoglycemia were present during or immediately postdiving. In one case, repetitive hypoglycemia prediving gave rise to a decision not to dive. None of the dives were aborted. The number of hypoglycemic episodes, 10 min prediving or immediately postdiving, were related to the duration of diabetes, r = 0.83 and p =0.01, and the percentage of SMBG values below target (<72 mg/dl), r = 0.65 and p =0.02. Moreover, the number of hypoglycemic episodes was also related to the total duration below low limit (<70 mg/dl), measured by the CGMS, r =0.74 and p =0.006.

    CONCLUSION: Safe dives are possible to achieve by well-informed, well-controlled individuals with type 1 diabetes. Using downloaded SMBG, CGMS, and repetitive PG in a monitoring schedule, it is possible to identify those subjects who are suitable for diving.

  • 3.
    Andelin, M.
    et al.
    Department of Medicine, NU Hospital Group, Uddevalla, Sweden..
    Kropff, J.
    Department of Endocrinology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Matuleviciene, V.
    Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Joseph, J.I.
    Department of Anaesthesiology, Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA..
    Attvall, S.
    Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Theodorsson, Elvar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Hirsch, I.B.
    University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Imberg, H.
    Statistiska Konsultgruppen, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Dahlqvist, S.
    Department of Medicine, NU Hospital Group, Uddevalla, Sweden.
    Klonoff, D.
    Diabetes Research Institute, Mills-Peninsula Health Services, San Mateo, CA, USA..
    Haraldsson, B.
    Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    DeVries, J.H.
    Department of Endocrinology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Lind, M.
    Department of Medicine, NU Hospital Group, Uddevalla, Sweden Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden lind.marcus@telia.com..
    Assessing the Accuracy of Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) Calibrated With Capillary Values Using Capillary or Venous Glucose Levels as a Reference.2016In: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, E-ISSN 1932-2968, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 876-884Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Using the standard venous reference for the evaluation of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems could possibly negatively affect measured CGM accuracy since CGM are generally calibrated with capillary glucose and venous and capillary glucose concentrations differ. We therefore aimed to quantify the effect of using capillary versus venous glucose reference samples on estimated accuracy in capillary calibrated CGM.less thanbr /greater thanMethods: We evaluated 41 individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) using the Dexcom G4 CGM system over 6 days. Patients calibrated their CGM devices with capillary glucose by means of the HemoCue system. During 2 visits, capillary and venous samples were simultaneously measured by HemoCue and compared to concomitantly obtained CGM readings. The mean absolute relative difference (MARD) was calculated using capillary and venous reference samples.less thanbr /greater thanResults: Venous glucose values were 0.83 mmol/L (15.0 mg/dl) lower than capillary values over all glycemic ranges, P less than .0001. Below 4 mmol/l (72 mg/dl), the difference was 1.25 mmol/l (22.5 mg/dl), P = .0001, at 4-10 mmol/l (72-180 mg/dl), 0.67 mmol/l (12.0 mg/dl), P less than .0001 and above 10 mmol/l (180 mg/dl), 0.95 mmol/l (17.1 mg/dl), P less than .0001. MARD was 11.7% using capillary values as reference compared to 13.7% using venous samples, P = .037. Below 4 mmol/l (72 mg/dl) MARD was 16.6% and 31.8%, P = .048, at 4-10 mmol/l (72-180 mg/dl) 12.1% and 12.6%, P = .32, above 10 mmol/l (180 mg/dl) 8.7% and 9.2%, P = .82.less thanbr /greater thanConclusion: Using capillary glucose concentrations as reference to evaluate the accuracy of CGM calibrated with capillary samples is associated with a lower MARD than using venous glucose as the reference. Capillary glucose concentrations were significantly higher than venous in all glycemic ranges.less thanbr /greater than (© 2016 Diabetes Technology Society.)

  • 4.
    Garcia-Gabin, Winston
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Jacobsen, Elling W.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Combining high-level glucose models with intracellular insulin signaling models for improved glucose controlIn: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, E-ISSN 1932-2968Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Garcia-Gabin, Winston
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Jacobsen, Elling W.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Multilevel Model of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Patients for Model-Based Glucose Controllers2013In: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, E-ISSN 1932-2968, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 193-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glucose homeostasis is the result of complex interactions across different biological levels. This multilevel characteristic should be considered when analyzing and designing closed-loop glucose control algorithms. Classic control schemes use only a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) perspective to describe the gluco-regulatory system. A multilevel model combining a PKPD model with an insulin signaling model is proposed for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus T1DM (T1DM). The PKPD Dalla Man model for T1DM is expanded to include an intracellular level involving insulin signaling to control glucose uptake through glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) translocation. A model-based controller is then designed and used as an example to illustrate the feasibility of the proposal. Two significant results were obtained for the controller explicitly utilizing multilevel information. No hypo-glycemic events were registered and an excellent performance for interpatient variability was achieved. Controller performance was evaluated using two indexes. The glucose was kept inside the range (70-180) mg/dl more than 99% of the time, and the intrapatient variability measured using control variability grid analysis was solid with 90% of the population inside the target zone. Multilevel models open new possibilities for designing glucose control algorithms. They allow controllers to take into account variables that have a strong influence on glucose homeostasis. A model-based controller was used for demonstrating how improved knowledge of the multilevel nature of diabetes increases the robustness and performance of glucose control algorithms. Using the proposed multi-level approach, a reduction of the hypoglycemic risk and robust behaviour for intrapatient variability was demonstrated.

  • 6.
    Holmström, Inger
    Uppsala university.
    Diabetes telehealth and computerized decision support systems: a sound system with a human touch is needed2010In: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, E-ISSN 1932-2968, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 1012-1015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Telehealth holds the promise of improved consistency and fast and equal access to care, and will have great impact on future care. To enhance its quality and safety, computerized decision support systems (CDSS) have been launched. This commentary focuses specifically on the impact of telehealth and CDSS on diabetes patient management. Ideally, clinical information should be linked to evidence based recommendations and guidelines in the CDSS to provide tailored recommendations at the moment of care. However, technical support such as CDSS is not enough. The human touch is essential. A named healthcare provider with access to telehealth and CDSS seems to promise a way of providing both patient-centered and evidence-based care.

  • 7. Hultström, M.
    et al.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Nordquist, L.
    Intradermal insulin delivery: A promising future for diabetes management2014In: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, E-ISSN 1932-2968, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 453-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The incidence of insulinopenic diabetes mellitus is constantly increasing, and in addition, approximately a third of all hyperinsulinemic diabetic patients develop insulinopenia. Optimal glycemic control is essential to minimize the risk for diabetes-induced complications, but the majority of diabetic patients fail to achieve proper long-term glucose levels even in clinical trials, and even more so in clinical practice. Compliance with a treatment regimen is likely to be higher if the procedure is simple, painless, and discreet. Thus, insulin has been suggested for nasal, gastrointestinal, and inhalation therapy, but so far with considerable downsides in effect, side effects, or patient acceptance. The stratum corneum is the main barrier preventing convenient drug administration without the drawbacks of subcutaneous injections. Recently, devices with miniaturized needles have been developed that combine the simplicity and discretion of patch-based treatments, but with the potential of peptide and protein administration. As this review describes, initial comparisons with subcutaneous administration now suggest microneedle patches for active insulin delivery are efficient in maintaining glycemic control. Hollow microneedle technology could also prove to be efficient in systemic as well as local delivery of other macromolecular drugs, such as vaccines.

  • 8.
    Hultström, Michael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    Nordquist, Lina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    Intradermal Insulin Delivery: A Promising Future for Diabetes Management2014In: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, E-ISSN 1932-2968, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 453-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The incidence of insulinopenic diabetes mellitus is constantly increasing, and in addition, approximately a third of all hyperinsulinemic diabetic patients develop insulinopenia. Optimal glycemic control is essential to minimize the risk for diabetes-induced complications, but the majority of diabetic patients fail to achieve proper long-term glucose levels even in clinical trials, and even more so in clinical practice. Compliance with a treatment regimen is likely to be higher if the procedure is simple, painless, and discreet. Thus, insulin has been suggested for nasal, gastrointestinal, and inhalation therapy, but so far with considerable downsides in effect, side effects, or patient acceptance. The stratum corneum is the main barrier preventing convenient drug administration without the drawbacks of subcutaneous injections. Recently, devices with miniaturized needles have been developed that combine the simplicity and discretion of patch-based treatments, but with the potential of peptide and protein administration. As this review describes, initial comparisons with subcutaneous administration now suggest microneedle patches for active insulin delivery are efficient in maintaining glycemic control. Hollow microneedle technology could also prove to be efficient in systemic as well as local delivery of other macromolecular drugs, such as vaccines.

  • 9.
    Jendle, Johan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Adolfsson, Peter
    Department of Pediatrics, Hospital of Halland, Kungsbacka, Sweden; Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Continuous Glucose Monitoring Diving and Diabetes: An Update of the Swedish Recommendations2019In: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, E-ISSN 1932-2968Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Divers travel to different countries to explore various diving sites worldwide. In 2005, the Divers Alert Network (DAN) published their guidelines for recreational diving and diabetes mellitus. However, although years have passed, there is still no consensus in the form of international guidelines on diabetes and diving. Large differences are noted with regard to the regulations in different countries. Furthermore, the diabetes technology has evolved rapidly and is not reflected in current international guidelines. This is potentially both a medical and an insurance problem for a diver with diabetes. We present a short summary of the recently updated Swedish recommendations for recreational divers with type 1 diabetes mellitus, focusing on the use of continuous glucose monitoring and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion during such circumstances.

  • 10.
    Jendle, Johan
    et al.
    Endocrine and Diabetes Center, Karlstad Hospital, Karlstad, Sweden; Department of Medicine and Health, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Peter
    Pediatric Growth Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Institute for the Health of Women and Children, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Impact of high altitudes on glucose control2011In: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, E-ISSN 1932-2968, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 1621-1622Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Jendle, Johan H.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Rawshani, Araz
    Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; National Diabetes Register, Centre of Registers, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svensson, Ann-Marie
    Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; National Diabetes Register, Centre of Registers, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Avdic, Tarik
    National Diabetes Register, Centre of Registers, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gudbjörnsdóttir, Soffia
    Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; National Diabetes Register, Centre of Registers, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Indications for Insulin Pump Therapy in Type 1 Diabetes and Associations With Glycemic Control2016In: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, E-ISSN 1932-2968, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 1027-1033Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Real-world data regarding indications for use of insulin pump remain sparse. We investigated characteristics among individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in relation to indication for use of insulin pump (CSII). Comparison was made with T1D subjects using multiple daily injections (MDI).

    Methods: We included all individuals with T1D who had at least 1 registration in the National Diabetes Register during 2014-2015. Among 46 874 individuals, we excluded 2350 due to missing data. We examined 35 725 on MDI and 8799 on CSII regarding characteristics in relation to insulin delivery method, as well as association between insulin delivery and glycemic control (HbA1c) and presence of albuminuria.

    Results: Unadjusted mean (SD) HbA1c was 63.84 (15.07) mmol/mol (7.99 [1.38]%) and 63.75 (13.19) mmol/mol (7.99 [1.21]%) in the MDI and CSII group, respectively. MDI and CSII users were on average 48.8 and 41.5 years old, respectively. MDI users were on average 26 years old and CSII users 17 years old at the time of diabetes diagnosis. Overall, a higher proportion of CSII users were females (53.5%). As compared with MDI, use of CSII was associated with up to 7.84 mmol/mol (0.72%) lower HbA1c in a multivariable adjusted model. Use of CSII was, however, not associated with risk of having albuminuria.

    Conclusions: CSII was used more frequently in younger individuals, early-onset diabetes, and problematic glycemic control. The use of CSII was associated with lower HbA1c among CSII users except from those who started CSII due to high HbA1c.

  • 12.
    Jendle, Johan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Rinnert, Kurt
    Stadt Köln, Köln, Germany.
    Westman, Anton
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Heinemann, Lutz
    Science & Co, Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Pilots and Diabetes Technology: Functional Health2017In: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, E-ISSN 1932-2968, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 191-194Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    The role of immunomodulation therapy in autoimmune diabetes2009In: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, E-ISSN 1932-2968, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 320-330Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is characterized by loss of virtually all endogenous insulin secretion. If residual insulin secretion is preserved, this will lead to improved metabolic balance, less acute and late complications, improved quality of life, and, in case of pronounced improvement of residual insulin secretion, complete remission and even cure of the disease. Immune suppression or immune modulation have been demonstrated as a proof of principle to stop/decrease the destructive process and thereby preserve beta-cell function. Several methods to save residual beta-cell function have been tried for more than three decades with little or no evidence of efficacy. Positive effects have been seen mainly in adult patients but have been minimal or absent in children with diabetes. Furthermore, the safety of these immune interventions and/or their benefit to risk relationships have not been found to justify clinical use. More specific immune modulation with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies has resulted in more encouraging postponement of C-peptide decline, but with frequent and serious adverse effects. Still more promising are the autoantigen therapies, of which glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) vaccination has shown significant preservation of residual insulin secretion in 10-18-year-old type 1 diabetes patients with recent onset. Efficacy was most impressive in the subgroup of patients with diabetes of short duration (less than3 months). The treatment was simple, well tolerated, and showed no treatment-related adverse events. If these results can be confirmed, there is a realistic hope that GAD vaccination, perhaps in combination with vaccinations with other autoantigens and/or other therapies, will result in remission for some patients. The prospects of cure and prevention of T1DM will become less remote.

  • 14. Rostami, Elham
    Monitoring of glucose in brain, adipose tissue, and peripheral blood in patients with traumatic brain injury: a microdialysis study.2011In: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, E-ISSN 1932-2968, Vol. 5, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15. Rostami, Elham
    et al.
    Bellander, Bo-Michael
    Monitoring of glucose in brain, adipose tissue, and peripheral blood in patients with traumatic brain injury: a microdialysis study.2011In: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, E-ISSN 1932-2968, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 596-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Episodes of hyperglycemia are considered to be a secondary insult in traumatically brain-injured patients and have been shown to be associated with impaired outcome. Intensive insulin therapy to maintain a strict glucose level has been suggested to decrease morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients but this aggressive insulin treatment has been challenged. One aspect of strict glucose control is the risk of developing hypoglycemia. Extracellular intracerebral hypoglycemia monitored by intracerebral microdialysis has been shown to correlate with poor outcome. Monitoring of blood glucose during neurointensive care is important because adequate glucose supply from the systemic circulation is crucial to maintain the brain's glucose demand after brain injury. This study investigates the correlation of glucose levels in peripheral blood, subcutaneous (SC) fat, and extracellular intracerebral tissue in patients with severe traumatic brain injury during neurointensive care.

    METHODS: In this study, we included 12 patients with severe traumatic brain injury. All patients received one microdialysis catheter each, with a membrane length of 10 mm (CMA 70, CMA Microdialysis AB) in the injured hemisphere of the brain and in the noninjured hemisphere of the brain. An additional microdialysis catheter with a membrane length of 30 mm (CMA 60, CMA Microdialysis AB) was placed in the periumbilical subcutaneous adipose tissue. We studied the correlation among levels of glucose measured in peripheral blood, adipose tissue, and the noninjured hemisphere of the brain during the first 12 hours and during 3 consecutive days in neurointensive care.

    RESULTS: We found a significant positive correlation between levels of glucose in peripheral blood, SC fat, and the noninjured brain during the initial 12 hours but not in injured brain. However, the result varied between the patients during the 3-day measurements. In 7 patients, there was a significant positive correlation between glucose in blood and noninjured brain, while in 4 patients this correlation was poor. In 4 patients, there was a significant positive correlation in injured brain and blood. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between brain and adipose tissue glucose during the 3-day measurements in 11 out of 12 patients.

    CONCLUSION: This study indicates that there is a good correlation between blood glucose and adipose tissue during initial and later time points in the neurointensive care unit whereas the correlation between blood and brain seems to be more individualized among patients. This emphasizes the importance of using intracerebral microdialysis to ensure adequate intracerebral levels of glucose in patients suffering from severe traumatic brain injury and to detect hypoglycemia in the brain despite normal levels of blood glucose.

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