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  • 1.
    Abdullah, Abu Sayeed Md.
    et al.
    Centre for Injury Prevention and Research Bangladesh (CIPRB), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Halim, Abdul
    Centre for Injury Prevention and Research Bangladesh (CIPRB), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Rahman, A. K. M. Fazlur
    Centre for Injury Prevention and Research Bangladesh (CIPRB), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Biswas, Animesh
    Centre for Injury Prevention and Research Bangladesh (CIPRB), Dhaka, Bangladesh; Örebro University, Örebro.
    Effects of climate change and maternal morality: Perspective from case studies in the rural area of Bangladesh2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 23, article id 4594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored the community perception of maternal deaths influenced by natural disaster (flood), and the practice of maternal complications during natural disaster among the rural population in Bangladesh. It also explored the challenges faced by the community for providing healthcare and referring the pregnant women experiencing complications during flood disaster. Three focus group discussions (FGDs) and eight in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted in the marginalized rural communities in the flood-prone Khaliajhuri sub-district, Netrakona district, Bangladesh. Flood is one of the major risk factors for influencing maternal death. Pregnant women seriously suffer from maternal complications, lack of antenatal checkup, and lack of doctors during flooding. During the time of delivery, it is difficult to find a skilled attendant, and referring the patient with delivery complications to the healthcare facility. Boats are the only mode of transport. The majority of maternal deaths occur on the boats during transfer from the community to the hospital. Rural people feel that the maternal deaths influenced by natural disaster are natural phenomena. Pre-preparation is needed to support pregnant women during disasters. There is unawareness of maternal health, related care, and complications during disasters among local health service providers and volunteers. 

  • 2. Ahlbom, Anders
    et al.
    Feychting, Maria
    Holmberg, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Johansson, Lars Age
    Mathiesen, Tiit
    Pettersson, David
    Schüz, Joachim
    Talbäck, Mats
    Comments on Hardell and Carlberg Increasing Rates of Brain Tumors in the Swedish National Inpatient Register and the Causes of Death Register. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 3793-3813.2015In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 12, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Bohman, Hannes
    Poor Family Relationships in Adolescence and the Risk of Premature Death: Findings from the Stockholm Birth Cohort Study2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 10, article id 1690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poor family relationships during childhood have been shown to have long-term negative effects on an offspring’s health. However, few studies have followed the offspring to retirement age, and relatedly, knowledge about the link between poor family relationships and premature death is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the association between poor family relationships in adolescence and the risk of premature death, even when considering other adverse childhood conditions. Prospective data from the Stockholm Birth Cohort study were used, with 2636 individuals born in 1953 who were followed up until age 65. Information on family relations was based on interviews with the participants’ mothers in 1968. Information on mortality was retrieved from administrative register data from 1969–2018. Cox proportional hazards regressions showed that poor family relationships in adolescence were associated with an increased risk of premature death, even when adjusting for childhood conditions in terms of household social class, household economic poverty, contact with the child services, parental alcohol abuse, and parental mental illness (Hazard Ratio (HR), 2.08, 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.40–3.09). The findings show that poor family relationships in adolescence can have severe and long-lasting health consequences, highlighting the importance of early interventions.

  • 4.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Swedish Inst Social Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Laftman, Sara Brolin
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Ctr Hlth Equity Studies CHESS, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bohman, Hannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, S-10422 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Poor Family Relationships in Adolescence and the Risk of Premature Death: Findings from the Stockholm Birth Cohort Study2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 10, article id 1690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poor family relationships during childhood have been shown to have long-term negative effects on an offspring's health. However, few studies have followed the offspring to retirement age, and relatedly, knowledge about the link between poor family relationships and premature death is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the association between poor family relationships in adolescence and the risk of premature death, even when considering other adverse childhood conditions. Prospective data from the Stockholm Birth Cohort study were used, with 2636 individuals born in 1953 who were followed up until age 65. Information on family relations was based on interviews with the participants' mothers in 1968. Information on mortality was retrieved from administrative register data from 1969-2018. Cox proportional hazards regressions showed that poor family relationships in adolescence were associated with an increased risk of premature death, even when adjusting for childhood conditions in terms of household social class, household economic poverty, contact with the child services, parental alcohol abuse, and parental mental illness (Hazard Ratio (HR), 2.08, 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.40-3.09). The findings show that poor family relationships in adolescence can have severe and long-lasting health consequences, highlighting the importance of early interventions.

  • 5. Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Jackisch, Josephine
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Hammarstrom, Anne
    Prevailing over Adversity: Factors Counteracting the Long-Term Negative Health Influences of Social and Material Disadvantages in Youth2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 9, article id 1842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disadvantaged circumstances in youth tend to translate into poor health development. However, the fact that this is not always the case has been seen as indicative of differential resilience. The current study highlights factors outside the context of the family with the potential to counteract the long-term negative influences of social and material adversity in adolescence on general health status. This study was based on two waves of questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort. From the wave in 1981 (age 16), indicators of social and material conditions as well as factors related to school, peers, and spare time were derived. From the wave in 2008 (age 43), information about self-rated health was used. Ordinal logistic regression models (n = 908) showed that adversity in youth was associated with poorer self-rated health in midlife among men and women alike, net of health status at baseline. However, having an advantaged situation with regard to school, peers, or spare time appeared to protect against the detrimental influences of disadvantaged circumstances in the family context on subsequent health. This suggests that health-promoting interventions may benefit from focusing on contexts outside the family in their effort to strengthen processes of resilience among disadvantaged youths.

  • 6.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Ctr Hlth Equ Studies CHESS, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    Umeå Univ, Norrland Univ Hosp, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med Epidemiol & Global Hlth, Umeå, Sweden.
    Jackisch, Josephine
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Ctr Hlth Equ Studies CHESS, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Prevailing over Adversity: Factors Counteracting the Long-Term Negative Health Influences of Social and Material Disadvantages in Youth2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 9, article id 1842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disadvantaged circumstances in youth tend to translate into poor health development. However, the fact that this is not always the case has been seen as indicative of differential resilience. The current study highlights factors outside the context of the family with the potential to counteract the long-term negative influences of social and material adversity in adolescence on general health status. This study was based on two waves of questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort. From the wave in 1981 (age 16), indicators of social and material conditions as well as factors related to school, peers, and spare time were derived. From the wave in 2008 (age 43), information about self-rated health was used. Ordinal logistic regression models (n = 908) showed that adversity in youth was associated with poorer self-rated health in midlife among men and women alike, net of health status at baseline. However, having an advantaged situation with regard to school, peers, or spare time appeared to protect against the detrimental influences of disadvantaged circumstances in the family context on subsequent health. This suggests that health-promoting interventions may benefit from focusing on contexts outside the family in their effort to strengthen processes of resilience among disadvantaged youths.

  • 7.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    Jackisch, Josephine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Prevailing over Adversity: Factors Counteracting the Long-Term Negative Health Influences of Social and Material Disadvantages in Youth2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 9, article id 1842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disadvantaged circumstances in youth tend to translate into poor health development. However, the fact that this is not always the case has been seen as indicative of differential resilience. The current study highlights factors outside the context of the family with the potential to counteract the long-term negative influences of social and material adversity in adolescence on general health status. This study was based on two waves of questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort. From the wave in 1981 (age 16), indicators of social and material conditions as well as factors related to school, peers, and spare time were derived. From the wave in 2008 (age 43), information about self-rated health was used. Ordinal logistic regression models (n = 908) showed that adversity in youth was associated with poorer self-rated health in midlife among men and women alike, net of health status at baseline. However, having an advantaged situation with regard to school, peers, or spare time appeared to protect against the detrimental influences of disadvantaged circumstances in the family context on subsequent health. This suggests that health-promoting interventions may benefit from focusing on contexts outside the family in their effort to strengthen processes of resilience among disadvantaged youths.

  • 8.
    Alvarsson, Jesper J.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Stress Recovery during Exposure to Nature Sound and Environmental Noise2010In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 1036-1046Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research suggests that visual impressions of natural compared with urban environments facilitate recovery after psychological stress. To test whether auditory stimulation has similar effects, 40 subjects were exposed to sounds from nature or noisy environments after a stressful mental arithmetic task. Skin conductance level (SCL) was used to index sympathetic activation, and high frequency heart rate variability (HF HRV) was used to index parasympathetic activation. Although HF HRV showed no effects, SCL recovery tended to be faster during natural sound than noisy environments. These results suggest that nature sounds facilitate recovery from sympathetic activation after a psychological stressor.

  • 9. Analitis, Antonis
    et al.
    De' Donato, Francesca
    Scortichini, Matteo
    Lanki, Timo
    Basagana, Xavier
    Ballester, Ferran
    Åström, Christofer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Paldy, Anna
    Pascal, Mathilde
    Gasparrini, Antonio
    Michelozzi, Paola
    Katsouyanni, Klea
    Synergistic Effects of Ambient Temperature and Air Pollution on Health in Europe: Results from the PHASE Project2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 9, p. 1-11, article id E1856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the potential synergy between air pollution and meteorology and their impact on mortality in nine European cities with data from 2004 to 2010. We used daily series of Apparent Temperature (AT), measurements of particulate matter (PM10), ozone (O₃), and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) and total non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory deaths. We applied Poisson regression for city-specific analysis and random effects meta-analysis to combine city-specific results, separately for the warm and cold seasons. In the warm season, the percentage increase in all deaths from natural causes per °C increase in AT tended to be greater during high ozone days, although this was only significant for all ages when all causes were considered. On low ozone days, the increase in the total daily number of deaths was 1.84% (95% CI 0.87, 2.82), whilst it was 2.20% (95% CI 1.28, 3.13) in the high ozone days per 1 °C increase in AT. Interaction with PM10 was significant for cardiovascular (CVD) causes of death for all ages (2.24% on low PM10 days (95% CI 1.01, 3.47) whilst it is 2.63% (95% CI 1.57, 3.71) on high PM10 days) and for ages 75+. In days with heat waves, no consistent pattern of interaction was observed. For the cold period, no evidence for synergy was found. In conclusion, some evidence of interactive effects between hot temperature and the levels of ozone and PM10 was found, but no consistent synergy could be identified during the cold season.

  • 10.
    Anderson, Peter
    et al.
    Newcastle University, England; Maastricht University, Netherlands.
    Kaner, Eileen
    Newcastle University, England.
    Keurhorst, Myrna
    Radboud University of Nijmegen, Netherlands; Saxion University of Appl Science, Netherlands.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    van Steenkiste, Ben
    Maastricht University, Netherlands.
    Reynolds, Jillian
    IDIBAPS, Spain.
    Segura, Lidia
    Govt Catalonia, Spain.
    Wojnar, Marcin
    Medical University of Warsaw, Poland.
    Kloda, Karolina
    Pomeranian Medical University, Poland.
    Parkinson, Kathryn
    Newcastle University, England.
    Drummond, Colin
    Kings Coll London, England; Maudsley NHS Fdn Trust, England.
    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Katarzyna
    State Agency Prevent Alcohol Related Problems, Poland.
    Mierzecki, Artur
    Pomeranian Medical University, Poland.
    Laurant, Miranda
    Radboud University of Nijmegen, Netherlands; HAN University of Appl Science, Netherlands.
    Newbury-Birch, Dorothy
    University of Teesside, England.
    Gual, Antoni
    IDIBAPS, Spain.
    Attitudes and Learning through Practice Are Key to Delivering Brief Interventions for Heavy Drinking in Primary Health Care: Analyses from the ODHIN Five Country Cluster Randomized Factorial Trial2017In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 14, no 2, article id 121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we test path models that study the interrelations between primary health care provider attitudes towards working with drinkers, their screening and brief advice activity, and their receipt of training and support and financial reimbursement. Study participants were 756 primary health care providers from 120 primary health care units (PHCUs) in different locations throughout Catalonia, England, The Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. Our interventions were training and support and financial reimbursement to providers. Our design was a randomized factorial trial with baseline measurement period, 12-week implementation period, and 9-month follow-up measurement period. Our outcome measures were: attitudes of individual providers in working with drinkers as measured by the Short Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire; and the proportion of consulting adult patients (age 18+ years) who screened positive and were given advice to reduce their alcohol consumption (intervention activity). We found that more positive attitudes were associated with higher intervention activity, and higher intervention activity was then associated with more positive attitudes. Training and support was associated with both positive changes in attitudes and higher intervention activity. Financial reimbursement was associated with more positive attitudes through its impact on higher intervention activity. We conclude that improving primary health care providers screening and brief advice activity for heavy drinking requires a combination of training and support and on-the-job experience of actually delivering screening and brief advice activity.

  • 11. Astrom, Christofer
    et al.
    Astrom, Daniel Oudin
    Andersson, Camilla
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Ebi, Kristie L.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Vulnerability Reduction Needed to Maintain Current Burdens of Heat-Related Mortality in a Changing Climate-Magnitude and Determinants2017In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 14, no 7, article id 741Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12. Astrom, Christofer
    et al.
    Ebi, Kristie L.
    Langner, Joakim
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Developing a Heatwave Early Warning System for Sweden: Evaluating Sensitivity of Different Epidemiological Modelling Approaches to Forecast Temperatures2015In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 254-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last two decades a number of heatwaves have brought the need for heatwave early warning systems (HEWS) to the attention of many European governments. The HEWS in Europe are operating under the assumption that there is a high correlation between observed and forecasted temperatures. We investigated the sensitivity of different temperature mortality relationships when using forecast temperatures. We modelled mortality in Stockholm using observed temperatures and made predictions using forecast temperatures from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts to assess the sensitivity. We found that the forecast will alter the expected future risk differently for different temperature mortality relationships. The more complex models seemed more sensitive to inaccurate forecasts. Despite the difference between models, there was a high agreement between models when identifying risk-days. We find that considerations of the accuracy in temperature forecasts should be part of the design of a HEWS. Currently operating HEWS do evaluate their predictive performance; this information should also be part of the evaluation of the epidemiological models that are the foundation in the HEWS. The most accurate description of the relationship between high temperature and mortality might not be the most suitable or practical when incorporated into a HEWS.

  • 13.
    Aweko, Juliet
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    De Man, Jeroen
    Inst Trop Med, Dept Publ Hlth, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Absetz, Pilvikki
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Publ Hlth & Clin Nutr, Joensuu, Finland.
    Östenson, Claes-Göran
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Mol Med & Surg, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Peterson, Stefan Swartling
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Mölsted Alvesson, Helle
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Daivadanam, Meena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics. Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Patient and Provider Dilemmas of Type 2 Diabetes Self-Management: A Qualitative Study in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Communities in Stockholm2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 9, article id 1810Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies comparing provider and patient views and experiences of self-management within primary healthcare are particularly scarce in disadvantaged settings. In this qualitative study, patient and provider perceptions of self-management were investigated in five socio-economically disadvantaged communities in Stockholm. Twelve individual interviews and four group interviews were conducted. Semi-structured interview guides included questions on perceptions of diabetes diagnosis, diabetes care services available at primary health care centers, patient and provider interactions, and self-management support. Data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Two overarching themes were identified: adopting and maintaining new routines through practical and appropriate lifestyle choices (patients), and balancing expectations and pre-conceptions of self-management (providers). The themes were characterized by inherent dilemmas representing confusions and conflicts that patients and providers experienced in their daily life or practice. Patients found it difficult to tailor information and lifestyle advice to fit their daily life. Healthcare providers recognized that patients needed support to change behavior, but saw themselves as inadequately equipped to deal with the different cultural and social aspects of self-management. This study highlights patient and provider dilemmas that influence the interaction and collaboration between patients and providers and hinder uptake of self-management advice.

  • 14.
    B. Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Sandahl, Julia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Future Orientation among Students Exposed to School Bullying and Cyberbullying Victimization2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 4, article id 605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future orientation can be defined as an individual’s thoughts, beliefs, plans, and hopes for the future. Earlier research has shown adolescents’ future orientation to predict outcomes later in life, which makes it relevant to analyze differences in future orientation among youth. The aim of the present study was to analyze if bullying victimization was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting a pessimistic future orientation among school youth. To be able to distinguish between victims and bully-victims (i.e., students who are both bullies and victims), we also took perpetration into account. The data were derived from the Stockholm School Survey performed in 2016 among ninth grade students (ages 15–16 years) (n = 5144). Future orientation and involvement in school bullying and in cyberbullying were based on self-reports. The statistical method used was binary logistic regression. The results demonstrated that victims and bully-victims of school bullying and of cyberbullying were more likely to report a pessimistic future orientation compared with students not involved in bullying. These associations were shown also when involvement in school bullying and cyberbullying were mutually adjusted. The findings underline the importance of anti-bullying measures that target both school bullying and cyberbullying.

  • 15. Berglind, Niklas
    et al.
    Ljungman, Petter
    Möller, Jette
    Hallqvist, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Nyberg, Fredrik
    Rosenqvist, Mårten
    Pershagen, Göran
    Bellander, Tom
    Air Pollution Exposure: A Trigger for Myocardial Infarction?2010In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 1486-1499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The association between ambient air pollution exposure and hospitalization for cardiovascular events has been reported in several studies with conflicting results. A case-crossover design was used to investigate the effects of air pollution in 660 first-time myocardial infarction cases in Stockholm in 1993-1994, interviewed shortly after diagnosis using a standard protocol. Air pollution data came from central urban background monitors. No associations were observed between the risk for onset of myocardial infarction and two-hour or 24-hour air pollution exposure. No evidence of susceptible subgroups was found. This study provides no support that moderately elevated air pollution levels trigger first-time myocardial infarction.

  • 16.
    Berglund, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Andersén, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Carlsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Center for Clinical Research Dalarna.
    Gustavsson, Catharina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Center for Clinical Research Dalarna.
    Wallman, Thorne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning i Sörmland (CKFD).
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine. Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Div Insurance Med, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Multidisciplinary Intervention and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Return-to-Work and Increased Employability among Patients with Mental Illness and/or Chronic Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 11, article id 2424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: People on long-term sick leave often have a long-lasting process back to work, where the individuals may be in multiple and recurrent states; i.e., receiving different social security benefits or working, and over time they may shift between these states. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of two vocational rehabilitation programs, compared to a control, on return-to-work (RTW) or increased employability in patients on long-term sick leave due to mental illness and/or chronic pain. Methods: In this randomized controlled study, 427 women and men were allocated to either (1) multidisciplinary team management, i.e., multidisciplinary assessments and individual rehabilitation management, (2) acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), or (3) control. A positive outcome was defined as RTW or increased employability. The outcome was considered negative if the (part-time) wage was reduced or ceased, or if there was an indication of decreased employability. The outcome was measured one year after entry in the project and analyzed using binary and multinomial logistic regressions. Results: Participants in the multidisciplinary team group reported having RTW odds ratio (OR) 3.31 (95% CI 1.39-7.87) compared to the control group in adjusted models. Participants in the ACT group reported having increased employability OR 3.22 (95% CI 1.13-9.15) compared to the control group in adjusted models. Conclusions: This study of vocational rehabilitation in mainly female patients on long-term sick leave due to mental illness and/or chronic pain suggests that multidisciplinary team assessments and individually adapted rehabilitation interventions increased RTW and employability. Solely receiving the ACT intervention also increased employability.

  • 17.
    Berglund, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Active Traveling and Its Associations with Self-Rated Health, BMI and Physical Activity: A Comparative Study in the Adult Swedish Population2016In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 13, no 5, article id 455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Active traveling to a daily occupation means that an individual uses an active way of traveling between two destinations. Active travel to work or other daily occupations offers a convenient way to increase physical activity levels which is known to have positive effects on several health outcomes. Frequently used concepts in city planning and regional planning today are to create environments for active commuting and active living. Even then, little research has focused on traveling modes and subjective health outcomes such as self-rated health (SRH). This study aimed to explore and investigate associations between travel mode and health-related outcomes, such as self-rated health (SRH), body mass index (BMI) and overall physical activity, in an adult population in Sweden. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a randomly selected population-based sample (n = 1786, age 45-75 years); the respondents completed a questionnaire about their regular travel mode, demographics, lifestyle, BMI and SRH. Chi-square tests and logistic regressions found that inactive traveling was associated with poor SRH, a greater risk of obesity or being overweight and overall physical inactivity. In addition, lifestyle factors, such as choice of food and smoking habits, were associated with SRH, BMI and overall physical activity.

  • 18.
    Bergmark, Karin H.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Bergmark, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Findahl, Olle
    Extensive Internet Involvement—Addiction or Emerging Lifestyle?2011In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 8, no 12, p. 4488-4501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the discussions for the future DSM-5, the Substance-Related Disorders Work Group has been addressing “addiction-like” behavioral disorders such as “Internet addiction” to possibly be considered as potential additions for the diagnostic system. Most research aiming to specify and define the concept of Internet addiction (or: Excessive/Compulsive/Problematic Internet Use—PIU), takes its point of departure in conventional terminology for addiction, based in established DSM indicators. Still, it is obvious that the divide between characteristics of addiction and dimensions of new lifestyles built on technological progress is problematic and far from unambiguous. Some of these research areas are developing from the neurobiological doctrine of addiction as not being tied to specific substances. The concept of “behavioral addictions”, based on biological mechanisms such as the reward systems of the brain, has been launched. The problems connected to this development are in this study discussed and reflected with data from a Swedish survey on Internet use (n = 1,147). Most Swedes (85%) do use the Internet to some degree. The prevalence of excessive use parallels other similar countries. Respondents in our study spend (mean value) 9.8 hours per week online at home, only 5 percent spend more than 30 hours per week. There are both positive and negative social effects at hand. Many respondents have more social contacts due to the use of Internet, but there is a decline in face-to-face contacts. About 40% of the respondents indicate some experience of at least one problem related to Internet use, but only 1.8% marked the presence of all problems addressed. Most significant predictors for problem indicators, except for age, relate to “time” and time consuming activities such as gaming, other activities online or computer skills.

  • 19.
    Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group. Karolinska institutet.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Wallin, Peter
    HPI Health Profile Institute AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    HPI Health Profile Institute AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Söderling, Jonas
    Karolinska institutet.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Self-Reported General Health, Overall and Work-Related Stress, Loneliness, and Sleeping Problems in 335,625 Swedish Adults from 2000 to 2016.2020In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 2, article id E511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of poor health, in particular stress-related mental ill-health, is increasing over time and birth cohorts. As rapid societal changes have occurred in the last decade and still are occurring, there is an interest in investigating the trends in health-related factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate trends in self-reported general health, overall stress, work-related stress, feelings of loneliness, and sleeping problems in 335,625 Swedish adults across categories of gender, geographic regions, length of education, and age from 2000 to 2016. On population level, sleeping problems and poor general health have increased markedly and significantly, while experiences of work stress decreased between 2000 and 2016 (p < 0.05). Overall stress and level of loneliness were unchanged (p > 0.05). The risk of having ≥3 symptoms (any of poor or very poor general health, often or very often perceived overall stress, loneliness, or sleeping problems) has increased significantly from 2000 to 2016 (ß = 1034 (1027-1040)). This increase was significantly higher in young (ß = 1052 (1038-1065)) and individuals with lower education (ß = 1056 (1037-1076)) compared to older and high length of education.

  • 20.
    Bobaker, Aiman M.
    et al.
    Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Benghazi, Benghazi, Libya .
    Alakili, Intisar
    Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Benghazi, Benghazi, Libya .
    Sarmani, Sukiman B.
    School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bandar Baru Bangi, Malaysia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yaseen, Zaher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Determination and Assessment of the Toxic Heavy Metal Elements Abstracted from the Traditional Plant Cosmetics and Medical Remedies: Case Study of Libya2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 11, p. 1-14, article id 1957Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Henna and walnut tree bark are widely used by Libyan women as cosmetics. They may contain lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As), which, in turn, pose a high risk to their health. This study aims to determine the levels of Pb, Cd and As in henna and walnut tree bark products sold in Libyan markets. The products were analyzed for their Pb, Cd and As content by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after a microwave acid digestion. The results showed a significant difference between the henna and walnut tree bark samples in terms of their heavy metals content (p < 0.05). The highest heavy metal concentrations were observed in the walnut tree bark samples whereas the lowest was observed in the henna samples. In addition, 60% of the henna and 90% of the walnut tree bark samples contained Pb levels and approximately 80% of the henna and 90% the walnut tree bark samples contained Cd levels, which are much higher than the tolerance limit. However, As concentrations in all the samples were lower. The results indicated that such cosmetics expose consumers to high levels of Pb and Cd and hence, to potential health risks. Thus, studying the sources and effects of heavy metals in such cosmetics is strongly recommended.

  • 21.
    Bojsen-Møller, Emil
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    Relationships between Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour and Cognitive Functions in Office Workers.2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 23, article id E4721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing evidence from animal experiments suggests that physical activity (PA) promotes neuroplasticity and learning. For humans, most research on the relationship between PA, sedentary behaviour (SB), and cognitive function has relied on self-reported measures of behaviour. Office work is characterised by high durations of SB combined with high work demands. While previous studies have shown that fitter office workers outperform their less fit colleagues in cognitive tests, the importance of PA and SB remains unknown. This study investigated associations between objectively measured PA and SB, using hip-worn accelerometers, and cognitive functions in 334 office workers. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was not associated with any cognitive outcome. However, time spent in SB tended to be positively associated with words recalled in free recall (β = 0.125). For the least fit participants, the average length of MVPA bouts was favourably related to Stroop performance (β = -0.211), while for the fitter individuals, a longer average length of MVPA bouts was related to worse recognition (β = -0.216). While our findings indicate that the length of MVPA bouts was associated with better Stroop performance in the least fit participants, our findings do not support the notion that more time spent in MVPA or less time in SB is associated with better cognitive function.

  • 22.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Choi, H
    Schmidbauer, N
    Spengler, J
    Sundell, J
    Sources of propylene glycol and glycol ethers in air at home2010In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 7, no 12, p. 4213-4237Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Boström, Maria
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Björklund, Christina
    Karolinska institutet.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Karolinska institutet.
    Nybergh, Lotta
    Karolinska institutet.
    Schäfer Elinder, Liselotte
    Karolinska institutet.
    Stigmar, Kjerstin
    Lunds universitet.
    Wåhlin, Charlotte
    Karolinska institutet; Linköpings universitet.
    Jensen, Irene
    Karolinska institutet.
    Kwak, Lydia
    Karolinska institutet.
    Health and work environment among female and male Swedish elementary school teachers - A cross-sectional study2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 1, article id E227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Changes in teachers' work situation in Sweden since the 1990s may have contributed to an increase in common mental disorders (CMDs) and burnout. However, there is a lack of research in this field. The aim was to describe how Swedish elementary school teachers experience their health, organizational and social work environment, and the psychosocial safety climate at the workplace, and especially differences and similarities between female and male teachers.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected with the COPSOQ, OLBI, UWES and PSC-12 from 478 elementary teachers, 81.0% of them women, from twenty schools. The response rate was 96.4%.

    RESULTS: Teachers reported relatively good general health but experienced high stress, high work pace and emotional demands, low influence at work and a poor psychosocial safety climate. These factors were especially prominent among female teachers. Both women and men experienced good development possibilities and high work engagement.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study can help us to develop a more sustainable work environment for female and male teachers. A more sustainable work environment might attract more people to the profession and incentivize existing teachers to remain in the profession.

  • 24.
    Boström, Maria
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björklund, Christina
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Nybergh, Lotta
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schäfer Elinder, Liselotte
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stigmar, Kjerstin
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Wåhlin, Charlotte
    Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jensen, Irene
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kwak, Lydia
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Health and Work Environment among Female and Male Swedish Elementary School Teachers: A Cross-Sectional Study2020In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 1, article id E227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Changes in teachers' work situation in Sweden since the 1990s may have contributed to an increase in common mental disorders (CMDs) and burnout. However, there is a lack of research in this field. The aim was to describe how Swedish elementary school teachers experience their health, organizational and social work environment, and the psychosocial safety climate at the workplace, and especially differences and similarities between female and male teachers.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected with the COPSOQ, OLBI, UWES and PSC-12 from 478 elementary teachers, 81.0% of them women, from twenty schools. The response rate was 96.4%.

    RESULTS: Teachers reported relatively good general health but experienced high stress, high work pace and emotional demands, low influence at work and a poor psychosocial safety climate. These factors were especially prominent among female teachers. Both women and men experienced good development possibilities and high work engagement.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study can help us to develop a more sustainable work environment for female and male teachers. A more sustainable work environment might attract more people to the profession and incentivize existing teachers to remain in the profession.

  • 25.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Peer Victimization among Classmates—Associations with Students’ Internalizing Problems, Self-Esteem, and Life Satisfaction2017In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 14, no 10, article id 1218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bullying is a major problem in schools and a large number of studies have demonstrated that victims have a high excess risk of poor mental health. It may however also affect those who are not directly victimized by peers. The present study investigates whether peer victimization among classmates is linked to internalizing problems, self-esteem, and life satisfaction at the individual level, when the student's own victimization has been taken into account. The data were derived from the first wave of the Swedish part of Youth in Europe Study (YES!), including information on 4319 students in grade 8 (14-15 years of age) distributed across 242 classes. Results from multilevel analyses show a significant association between classes with a high proportion of students being victimized and higher levels of internalizing problems, lower self-esteem, and lower life satisfaction at the student level. This association holds when the student's own victimization has been taken into account. This suggests that peer victimization negatively affects those who are directly exposed, as well as their classmates. We conclude that efficient methods and interventions to reduce bullying in school are likely to benefit not only those who are victimized, but all students.

  • 26.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Ramberg, Joacim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    School Ethos and Recurring Sickness Absence: A Multilevel Study of Ninth-Grade Students in Stockholm2020In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 3, article id 745Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    School absence has been identified as a severe problem in Sweden, both at the individual level and for society as a whole. Despite the multitude and complexity of reasons behind school absence, health-related problems are likely to be one important determinant. This indicates that knowledge about factors that may contribute to preventing health-related absence among students is relevant. The aim was to investigate whether a higher level of teacher-reported school ethos was associated with less recurring sickness absence among students. Data from four cross-sectional surveys performed in 2014 and 2016 were combined. The Stockholm School Survey was carried out among 9482 ninth-grade students (ages 15–16 years) in 150 school units, and the Stockholm Teacher Survey was performed among 2090 teachers in the same units. School ethos was operationalised by an index of 12 teacher-reported items that was aggregated to the school-level. Recurring student sickness absence was captured by self-reports and defined as absence on >10 occasions during the current school year. Two-level logistic regressions were performed. The results show that about 9.5% of the students reported recurring sickness absence. Students attending schools with higher levels of teacher-rated school ethos were less likely to reporting recurring sickness absence than those attending schools with lower levels of ethos, even when adjusting for potential confounders (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65–0.97). In conclusion, recurring sickness absence was less common among students attending schools with higher levels of teacher-rated ethos. The findings suggest that schools may contribute to promoting student health.

  • 27.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    School Leadership and Cyberbullying: A Multilevel Analysis2017In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 14, no 10, article id 1226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyberbullying is a relatively new form of bullying, with both similarities and differences to traditional bullying. While earlier research has examined associations between school-contextual characteristics and traditional bullying, fewer studies have focused on the links to students’ involvement in cyberbullying behavior. The aim of the present study is to assess whether school-contextual conditions in terms of teachers’ ratings of the school leadership are associated with the occurrence of cyberbullying victimization and perpetration among students. The data are derived from two separate data collections performed in 2016: The Stockholm School Survey conducted among students in the second grade of upper secondary school (ages 17–18 years) in Stockholm municipality, and the Stockholm Teacher Survey which was carried out among teachers in the same schools. The data include information from 6067 students distributed across 58 schools, linked with school-contextual information based on reports from 1251 teachers. Cyberbullying victimization and perpetration are measured by students’ self-reports. Teachers’ ratings of the school leadership are captured by an index based on 10 items; the mean value of this index was aggregated to the school level. Results from binary logistic multilevel regression models show that high teacher ratings of the school leadership are associated with less cyberbullying victimization and perpetration. We conclude that a strong school leadership potentially prevents cyberbullying behavior among students.

  • 28.
    Bälter, O.
    et al.
    Department of Media Technology and Interaction Design, KTH—Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hedin, B.
    Department of Media Technology and Interaction Design, KTH—Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tobiasson, H.
    Department of Media Technology and Interaction Design, KTH—Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Walking outdoors during seminars improved perceived seminar quality and sense of well-being among participants2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 2, article id 303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour are a growing health problem globally. Physical inactivity is associated with increased risk of numerous ailments, cardiovascular disease and mortality. Our primary aim was to perform a feasibility study on how to incorporate physical activity among students and teachers in regular teaching activities. The second aim was to investigate how students and teachers perceived the differences between outdoor walking seminars and regular indoor seminars. By transforming an on-campus course into a blended course, we were able to conduct seminars outdoors in nearby nature while walking. These walking seminars were evaluated among 131 students and nine teachers leading the walking seminars. The responses to the student survey and teacher interviews indicate that discussions, sense of well-being and the general quality of the seminar improved, regardless of how physically active participants were the rest of the time. The study shows one way to increase physical activity with small means; in our case, a reorganization of how we prepared for the seminars which allowed for walking discussions.

  • 29.
    Bälter, Olle
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Hedin, Björn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Helena, Tobiasson
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Mälardalen University.
    Walking Outdoors during Seminars Improved Perceived Seminar Quality and Sense of Well-Being among Participants2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour are a growing health problem globally. Physical inactivity is associated with increased risk of numerous ailments, cardiovascular disease and mortality. Our primary aim was to perform a feasibility study on how to incorporate physical activity among students and teachers in regular teaching activities. The second aim was to investigate how students and teachers perceived the differences between outdoor walking seminars and regular indoor seminars. By transforming an on-campus course into a blended course, we were able to conduct seminars outdoors in nearby nature while walking. These walking seminars were evaluated among 131 students and nine teachers leading the walking seminars. The responses to the student survey and teacher interviews indicate that discussions, sense of well-being and the general quality of the seminar improved, regardless of how physically active participants were the rest of the time. The study shows one way to increase physical activity with small means; in our case, a reorganization of how we prepared for the seminars which allowed for walking discussions.

  • 30.
    Carlberg, Michael
    et al.
    Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Örebro University Hospital. Department of Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Decreased Survival of Glioma Patients with Astrocytoma Grade IV (Glioblastoma Multiforme) Associated with Long-Term Use of Mobile and Cordless Phones2014In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 11, no 10, p. 10790-10805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On 31 May 2011 the WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) categorised radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) from mobile phones, and from other devices that emit similar non-ionising electromagnetic fields, as a Group 2B, i.e., a "possible", human carcinogen. A causal association would be strengthened if it could be shown that the use of wireless phones has an impact on the survival of glioma patients. We analysed survival of 1678 glioma patients in our 1997-2003 and 2007-2009 case-control studies. Use of wireless phones in the >20 years latency group (time since first use) yielded an increased hazard ratio (HR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-2.3 for glioma. For astrocytoma grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme; n = 926) mobile phone use yielded HR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.4-2.9 and cordless phone use HR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.04-11 in the same latency category. The hazard ratio for astrocytoma grade IV increased statistically significant per year of latency for wireless phones, HR = 1.020, 95% CI = 1.007-1.033, but not per 100 h cumulative use, HR = 1.002, 95% CI = 0.999-1.005. HR was not statistically significant increased for other types of glioma. Due to the relationship with survival the classification of IARC is strengthened and RF-EMF should be regarded as human carcinogen requiring urgent revision of current exposure guidelines.

  • 31.
    Carlsen, Hanne Krage
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg; Centre of Public Health, University of Iceland, Reykjavík 101, Iceland.
    Boman, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Björ, Bodil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Olin, Anna-Carin
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Coarse Fraction Particle Matter and Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Non-Asthmatic Children2016In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 13, no 6, article id 621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coarse particle matter, PMcoarse, is associated with increased respiratory morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between short-term changes in PMcoarse and sub-clininal airway inflammation in children. Healthy children aged 11 years from two northern Swedish elementary schools underwent fraction of exhaled nitrogen oxide (FENO) measurements to determine levels of airway inflammation twice weekly during the study period from 11 April-6 June 2011. Daily exposure to PMcoarse, PM2.5, NO2, NOx, NO and O-3 and birch pollen was estimated. Multiple linear regression was used. Personal covariates were included as fixed effects and subjects were included as a random effect. In total, 95 children participated in the study, and in all 493 FENO measurements were made. The mean level of PMcoarse was 16.1 mu g/m(3) (range 4.1-42.3), and that of O-3 was 75.0 mu g/m(3) (range: 51.3-106.3). That of NO2 was 17.0 mu g/m(3) (range: 4.7-31.3), NOx was 82.1 mu g/m(3) (range: 13.3-165.3), and NO was 65 mu g/m(3) (range: 8.7-138.4) during the study period. In multi-pollutant models an interquartile range increase in 24 h PMcoarse was associated with increases in FENO by between 6.9 ppb (95% confidence interval 0.0-14) and 7.3 ppb (95% confidence interval 0.4-14.9). PMcoarse was associated with an increase in FENO, indicating sub-clinical airway inflammation in healthy children.

  • 32.
    Carlsen, Hanne Krage
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Gislason, T
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Meister, Kadri
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Thorsteinsson, T
    Jóhannsson, T
    Finnbjornsdottir, R
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Emergency Hospital Visits in Association with Volcanic Ash, Dust Storms and Other Sources of Ambient Particles: A Time-Series Study in Reykjavik, Iceland2015In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 4047-4059Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Volcanic ash contributed significantly to particulate matter (PM) in Iceland following the eruptions in Eyjafjallajökull 2010 and Grímsvötn 2011. This study aimed to investigate the association between different PM sources and emergency hospital visits for cardiorespiratory causes from 2007 to 2012. Indicators of PM10 sources; “volcanic ash”, “dust storms”, or “other sources” (traffic, fireworks, and re-suspension) on days when PM10 exceeded the daily air quality guideline value of 50 µg/m3 were entered into generalized additive models, adjusted for weather, time trend and co-pollutants. The average number of daily emergency hospital visits was 10.5. PM10 exceeded the air quality guideline value 115 out of 2191 days; 20 days due to volcanic ash, 14 due to dust storms (two days had both dust storm and ash contribution) and 83 due to other sources. High PM10 levels from volcanic ash tended to be significantly associated with the emergency hospital visits; estimates ranged from 4.8% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.6, 9.2%) per day of exposure in unadjusted models to 7.3% (95% CI: −0.4, 15.5%) in adjusted models. Dust storms were not consistently associated with daily emergency hospital visits and other sources tended to show a negative association. We found some evidence indicating that volcanic ash particles were more harmful than particles from other sources, but the results were inconclusive and should be interpreted with caution.

  • 33.
    Carlsen, Hanne Krage
    et al.
    Psykiatri Affektiva, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, 416 50 Gothenburg, Sweden. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Gothenburg University, 40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, 223 63 Lund, Sweden..
    Steingrimsson, Steinn
    Psykiatri Affektiva, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, 416 50 Gothenburg, Sweden. Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Oudin Åström, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Ambient Temperature and Associations with Daily Visits to a Psychiatric Emergency Unit in Sweden2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 2, article id E286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High or low ambient temperatures pose a risk factor for the worsening or onset of psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between ambient temperature and psychiatric emergency visits in an urban region in a temperate climate. The daily number of visits to a psychiatric emergency room (PEVs) at Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden and the daily mean temperature were extracted for the study period 1 July 2012 to 31 December 2017. Case-crossover analysis with distributed lag non-linear models was used to analyse the data by season. The warm season was defined as May to August and the cold season as November to February. Shorter lags periods were used for the warm season than the cold season. In the analysis, temperatures at the 95th percentile was associated with 14% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2%, 28%) increase in PEVs at lag 0⁻3 and 22% (95%CI: 6%, 40%) for lags 0⁻14 during the warm season, relative to the seasonal minimum effect temperature (MET). During the cold season temperatures at the 5th percentile were associated with 25% (95% CI: -8%, 13%) and 18% (95% CI: -30%, 98%) increase in PEVs at lags 0⁻14 and 0⁻21 respectively. We observed an increased number of PEVs at high and low temperatures; however, not to a statistically significant extent for low temperatures. Our findings are similar to what has been found for somatic diseases and in studies of other mental health outcomes in regions with more extreme climates. This merits the inclusion of individuals with psychiatric disorders in awareness planning for climate warning systems.

  • 34.
    Chapman, David
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Larsson, Agneta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation.
    Toward an Integrated Model for Soft-Mobility2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 19, article id 3669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key urban design challenge is to create built environments that encourage outdoor activityall year round. This study explores a new model for soft-mobility that places the interaction betweenthe urban form, the seasonal climate and climate change, and the individual at the center of people’ssoft-mobility choices, or in more general, their modal choice. The research methods used werecomparative studies of documents, surveys, mental mapping, and photo elicitation. These studieswere undertaken to research people’s outdoor activity in the built environment during the winterseason of a cold climate settlement. The results were analyzed against the three-dimensions of themodel. In the discussion it is argued that in places with significant climate variation, the interactionbetween the urban form, the season, and the individual together influence soft-mobility choices. Inturn, these interactions influence people’s level of outdoor activity and the individual health benefitssuch activity can aord. In conclusion, it is highlighted that all three dimensions of the model are in aconstant state of change and evolution, especially in relation to planning and development processesand climate change.

  • 35.
    Chapman, David
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nilsson, Kristina L.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Rizzo, Agatino
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Larsson, Agneta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation.
    Winter City Urbanism: Enabling All Year Connectivity for Soft Mobility2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 10, article id 1820Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores connectivity for soft mobility in the winter season. Working with residents from the sub-arctic city of Luleå, Sweden, the research examines how the interaction between the built environment and winter season affects people’s use of the outdoor environment. The research questions for this study are, 1) how do residents perceive the effects of winter on an areas spatial structure and pattern of streets and pathways? and 2) what enablers and barriers impact resident soft mobility choices and use of the public realm in winter? Methods used were mental mapping and photo elicitation exercises. These were used to gain a better understanding of people’s perception of soft mobility in winter. The results were analysed to identify how soft mobility is influenced by the winter season. The discussion highlights that at the neighbourhood scale, residents perceive that the winter alters an areas spatial structure and pattern of streets and pathways. It was also seen to reduce ease of understanding of the public realm and townscape. In conclusion, it is argued that new and re-tooled town planning strategies, such as extending blue/ green infrastructure planning to include white space could help better enable all year outdoor activity in winter cities.

  • 36.
    Comasco, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Todkar, Aniruddha
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Granholm, Linnea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nylander, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Alpha 2a-Adrenoceptor Gene Expression and Early Life Stress-Mediated Propensity to Alcohol Drinking in Outbred Rats2015In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 12, no 7, p. 7154-7171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stressful events early in life, later high alcohol consumption and vulnerability to alcohol use disorder (AUD) are tightly linked. Norepinephrine is highly involved in the stress response and the alpha 2A-adrenoceptor, which is an important regulator of norepinephrine signalling, is a putative target in pharmacotherapy of AUD. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of early-life stress and adult voluntary alcohol drinking on the alpha 2A-adrenoceptor. The relative expression and promoter DNA methylation of the Adra2a gene were measured in the hypothalamus, a key brain region in stress regulation. A well-characterized animal model of early-life stress was used in combination with an episodic voluntary drinking in adulthood. Alcohol drinking rats with a history of early-life stress had lower Adra2a expression than drinking rats not exposed to stress. Alcohol intake and Adra2a gene expression were negatively correlated in high-drinking animals, which were predominantly rats subjected to early-life stress. The results provide support for a link between early-life stress, susceptibility for high alcohol consumption, and low Adra2a expression in the hypothalamus. These findings can increase our understanding of the neurobiological basis for vulnerability to initiate risk alcohol consumption and individual differences in the response to 2A-adrenoceptor agonists.

  • 37. de' Donato, Francesca K.
    et al.
    Leone, Michela
    Scortichini, Matteo
    De Sario, Manuela
    Katsouyanni, Klea
    Lanki, Timo
    Basagaña, Xavier
    Ballester, Ferran
    Åström, Christofer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Paldy, Anna
    Pascal, Mathilde
    Gasparrini, Antonio
    Menne, Bettina
    Michelozzi, Paola
    Changes in the effect of heat on mortality in the last 20 years in nine European cities: results from the PHASE project2015In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 12, no 12, p. 15567-15583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European project PHASE aims to evaluate patterns of change in the temperature–mortality relationship and in the number of deaths attributable to heat in nine European cities in two periods, before and after summer 2003 (1996–2002 and 2004–2010). We performed age-specific Poisson regression models separately in the two periods, controlling for seasonality, air pollution and time trends. Distributed lag non-linear models were used to estimate the Relative Risks of daily mortality for increases in mean temperature from the 75th to 99th percentile of the summer distribution for each city. In the recent period, a reduction in the mortality risk associated to heat was observed only in Athens, Rome and Paris, especially among the elderly. Furthermore, in terms of heat-attributable mortality, 985, 787 and 623 fewer deaths were estimated, respectively, in the three cities. In Helsinki and Stockholm, there is a suggestion of increased heat effect. Noteworthy is that an effect of heat was still present in the recent years in all cities, ranging from +11% to +35%. In Europe, considering the warming observed in recent decades and population ageing, effective intervention measures should be promoted across countries, especially targeting vulnerable subgroups of the population with lower adaptive resources.

  • 38.
    Dragioti, Elena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Larsson, Britt
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Longitudinal Associations between Anatomical Regions of Pain and Work Conditions: A Study from The SwePain Cohort2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 12, article id 2167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the time-based associations between workload (physical and mechanical), psychosocial work stressors (demands, control, and support), and the number of anatomical regions with pain (ARP). This population-based study with a two-year follow-up included 11,386 responders (5125 men, 6261 women; mean age: 48.8 years; SD: 18.5) living in south-eastern Sweden. Predictive associations were assessed through generalised linear models, and changes over time were examined using a generalised estimating equation. The results of both models were reported as parameter estimates (B) with 95% confidence interval (CIs). Mean changes in the number of ARP, workload, and psychosocial work stressors were stable over time. High mechanical workload and job demands were likely associated with the number of ARP at the two-year follow-up. In the reverse prospective model, we found that the number of ARP was also associated with high physical and mechanical workload and low job control and support. In the two time-based models of changes, we found a reciprocal association between number of ARP and mechanical workload. Our results add epidemiological evidence to the associations between work conditions and the extent of pain on the body. Components of work conditions, including job demands and mechanical strain, must be considered when organisations and health policy makers plan and employ ergonomic evaluations to minimise workplace hazards in the general population.

  • 39.
    Dunlavy, Andrea C.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Health Inequalities among Workers with a Foreign Background in Sweden: Do Working Conditions Matter?2013In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 10, no 7, p. 2871-2887Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Employment and working conditions are key social determinants of health, yet current information is lacking regarding relationships between foreign background status, working conditions and health among workers in Sweden. This study utilized cross-sectional data from the 2010 Swedish Level of Living Survey (LNU) and the Level of Living Survey for Foreign Born Persons and their Children (LNU-UFB) to assess whether or not health inequalities exist between native Swedish and foreign background workers and if exposure to adverse psychosocial and physical working conditions contributes to the risk for poor health among foreign background workers. A sub-sample of 4,021 employed individuals aged 18–65 was analyzed using logistic regression. Eastern European, Latin American and Other Non-Western workers had an increased risk of both poor self-rated health and mental distress compared to native Swedish workers. Exposure to adverse working conditions only minimally influenced the risk of poor health. Further research should examine workers who are less integrated or who have less secure labor market attachments and also investigate how additional working conditions may influence associations between health and foreign background status.

  • 40. Dupont, Diane
    et al.
    Waldner, Cheryl
    Bharadwaj, Lalita
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Carter, Blair
    Cave, Kate
    Zagozewski, Rebecca
    Drinking Water Management: Health Risk Perceptions and Choices in First Nations and Non-First Nations Communities in Canada2014In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 5889-5903Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between tap water and health has been a topic of public concern and calls for better management in Canada since well-publicized contamination events in two provinces (Ontario and Saskatchewan) in 2000-2001. This study reports the perspectives on health risks from tap water and corresponding use of, and spending on, bottled water in a number of different communities in Canada. In 2009-2010, four First Nations communities (three from Ontario and one from Saskatchewan) and a geographically diverse sample of non-First Nations Canadians were surveyed about their beliefs concerning health risks from tap water and their spending practices for bottled water as a substitute. Responses to five identical questions were examined, revealing that survey respondents from Ontario First Nations communities were more likely than non-First Nations Canadians to believe bottled water is safer than tap water (OR 1.6); more likely to report someone became ill from tap water (OR 3.6); more likely to express water and health concerns related to tap water consumption (OR 2.4); and more likely to spend more on bottled water (OR 4.9). On the other hand, participants from one Saskatchewan First Nations community were less likely than non-First Nations Canadians to believe that someone had become ill from drinking tap water (OR 3.8), less likely to believe bottled water is safer than tap (OR 2.0), and less likely to have health concerns with tap water (OR 1.5). These differences, however, did not translate into differences in the likelihood of high bottled water expenditures or being a 100% bottled water consumer. The paper discusses how the differences observed may be related to water supply and regulation, trust, perceived control, cultural background, location, and past experience.

  • 41.
    Durkee, Tony
    et al.
    The National Swedish Prevention of Suicide and Mental Ill-Health (NASP), Karolinska instituter .
    Hadlaczky, Gergo
    The National Swedish Prevention of Suicide and Mental Ill-Health (NASP), Karolinska instituter .
    Westerlund, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMK).
    Carli, Vladimir
    The National Swedish Prevention of Suicide and Mental Ill-Health (NASP), Karolinska instituter .
    Internet pathways in suicidality: A review of the evidence2011In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 8, no 10, p. 3938-3952Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim of this study was to review the scientific literature concerning the Internet and suicidality and to examine the different pathways by which suicidal risks and prevention efforts are facilitated through the Internet. An online literature search was conducted using the MEDLINE and Google Scholar databases. The main themes that were investigated included pathological Internet use and suicidality, pro-suicide websites, suicide pacts on the Internet, and suicide prevention via the Internet. Articles were screened based on the titles and abstracts reporting on the themes of interest. Thereafter, articles were selected based on scientific relevance of the study, and included for full text assessment. The results illustrated that specific Internet pathways increased the risk for suicidal behaviours, particularly in adolescents and young people. Several studies found significant correlations between pathological Internet use and suicidal ideation and non-suicidal self-injury. Pro-suicide websites and online suicide pacts were observed as high-risk factors for facilitating suicidal behaviours, particularly among isolated and susceptible individuals. Conversely, the evidence also showed that the Internet could be an effective tool for suicide prevention, especially for socially-isolated and vulnerable individuals, who might otherwise be unreachable. It is this paradox that accentuates the need for further research in this field.

  • 42.
    Egondi, Thaddaeus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Kyobutungi, Catherine
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Muindi, Kanyiva
    Oti, Samuel
    van de Vijver, Steven
    Ettarh, Remare
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Community perceptions of air pollution and related health risks in Nairobi slums2013In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 10, no 10, p. 4851-4868Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Air pollution is among the leading global risks for mortality and responsible for increasing risk for chronic diseases. Community perceptions on exposure are critical in determining people's response and acceptance of related policies. Therefore, understanding people' perception is critical in informing the design of appropriate intervention measures. The aim of this paper was to establish levels and associations between perceived pollution and health risk perception among slum residents. A cross-sectional study of 5,317 individuals aged 35+ years was conducted in two slums of Nairobi. Association of perceived score and individual characteristics was assessed using linear regression. Spatial variation in the perceived levels was determined through hot spot analysis using ArcGIS. The average perceived air pollution level was higher among residents in Viwandani compared to those in Korogocho. Perceived air pollution level was positively associated with perceived health risks. The majority of respondents were exposed to air pollution in their place of work with 66% exposed to at least two sources of air pollution. Less than 20% of the respondents in both areas mentioned sources related to indoor pollution. The perceived air pollution level and related health risks in the study community were low among the residents indicating the need for promoting awareness on air pollution sources and related health risks.

  • 43.
    Egondi, Thaddaeus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. African Populat & Hlth Res Ctr, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Kyobutungi, Catherine
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Temperature variation and heat wave and cold spell impacts on years of life lost among the urban poor population of Nairobi, Kenya2015In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 2735-2748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Weather extremes are associated with adverse health outcomes, including mortality. Studies have investigated the mortality risk of temperature in terms of excess mortality, however, this risk estimate may not be appealing to policy makers assessing the benefits expected for any interventions to be adopted. To provide further evidence of the burden of extreme temperatures, we analyzed the effect of temperature on years of life lost (YLL) due to all-cause mortality among the population in two urban informal settlements. YLL was generated based on the life expectancy of the population during the study period by applying a survival analysis approach. Association between daily maximum temperature and YLL was assessed using a distributed lag nonlinear model. In addition, cold spell and heat wave effects, as defined according to different percentiles, were investigated. The exposure-response curve between temperature and YLL was J-shaped, with the minimum mortality temperature (MMT) of 26 °C. An average temperature of 21 °C compared to the MMT was associated with an increase of 27.4 YLL per day (95% CI, 2.7-52.0 years). However, there was no additional effect for extended periods of cold spells, nor did we find significant associations between YLL to heat or heat waves. Overall, increased YLL from all-causes were associated with cold spells indicating the need for initiating measure for reducing health burdens.

  • 44.
    Ehn, Maria
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Johansson, Ann-Christin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Åsa, Revenäs
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Region Västmanland.
    Technology-Based Motivation Support for Seniors' Physical Activity-A Qualitative Study on Seniors' and Health Care Professionals' Views2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates seniors' and health care professionals' (HCPs) perceptions on needed contributions and qualities of digital technology-based motivation support for seniors' physical activity (PA). Seniors and HCPs expressed their views in focus groups, which were analyzed separately by inductive content analysis. Similarities and differences in seniors' and HCPs' views were identified through thematic analysis of qualitative results from both focus groups. This article's main findings are that both seniors and HCPs believed digital technology should support and make PA more enjoyable in ways to strengthen seniors' control and well-being. However, seniors emphasized support for social interaction, while HCPs also requested support for increasing seniors' insight into PA and for facilitating their dialogue with seniors. Conclusions to be drawn are that seniors and HPCs shared overall views on digital technology's main contributions but had different perspectives on how those contributions could be obtained. This highlights the importance of the early identification of user groups and exploration of their different needs when developing new solutions. Moreover, seniors' and HCPs' perceptions included aspects relevant for personal motivation, technology acceptance, and PA behavioral change according to self-determination theory, unified theory of acceptance and use of technology, and behavioral change techniques for increasing PA.

  • 45.
    Ekblom, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Börjesson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg.
    Bergström, Göran
    University of Gothenburg.
    Jern, Christina
    University of Gothenburg.
    Wallin, Anders
    University of Gothenburg.
    Device-Measured Sedentary Behavior, Physical Activity and Aerobic Fitness Are Independent Correlates of Cognitive Performance in Healthy Middle-Aged Adults-Results from the SCAPIS Pilot Study.2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 24, article id E5136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High aerobic fitness, more moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and less sedentary behavior (SED) have all been suggested to promote cognitive functions, but it is unclear whether they are independent predictors of specific cognitive domains. This study aimed to investigate to what extent aerobic fitness MVPA and SED are independently associated with cognitive performance among middle-aged Swedish adults. We acquired device-based measures of aerobic fitness, cognitive performance and percent daily time spent in MVPA and SED in Swedish adults (n = 216; 54-66 years old). Aerobic fitness was associated with better performance at one out of two tests of speed/attention and one out of four tests of executive attention, and with worse performance at one of seven tests of memory. Increasing %MVPA was associated with better performance at one out of seven tests of memory and two out of three tests of verbal ability, whereas increasing %SED was associated with better performance at all four tests of executive attention and four out of seven tests of memory. These findings suggest that aerobic fitness, %MVPA and %SED are partly independent correlates of cognitive performance. To fully understand the association between SED and performance at several tests of cognitive function, future investigations might attempt to investigate intellectually engaging SED (such as reading books) separately from mentally undemanding SED (such as watching TV).

  • 46.
    Engdahl, Barbro
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Nilsen, Per
    Receiving an Alcohol Enquiry from a Physician in Routine Health Care in Sweden: A Population-Based Study of Gender Differences and Predictors2011In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 1296-1307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that the provision of brief interventions in the health care system is effective for reducing hazardous drinking. Using a telephone-administered questionnaire, this study provides a population-based investigation on the extent to which physicians address patients' alcohol habits in the Swedish health care system, whether there are gender differences in the extent to which patients receive questions about alcohol, and predictors for receiving such questions. Data were obtained from monthly telephone surveys with around 72,000 people in 2006-2009. Having received an alcohol enquiry was defined as having been asked about one's drinking habits by a physician in any health care visit in the last 12 months. Fourteen percent of the total population had received an alcohol enquiry, but there were considerable gender differences: for hazardous drinkers, 13% of the women and 17% of the men had received an alcohol enquiry; among those with sensible alcohol consumption, 10% of women and 15% of men had received an alcohol enquiry. Patients were more likely to have received an alcohol enquiry if they had self-reported alcohol-related problems, were hazardous drinkers and/or daily smokers. Some of the alcohol enquiry predictors differed by gender; social class was an important predictor for women but not for men.

  • 47.
    Eustachio Colombo, Patricia
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Patterson, Emma
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Schäfer Elinder, Liselotte
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Lindroos, Anna Karin
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Darmon, Nicole
    University of Montpellier, France.
    Parlesak, Alexandr
    University College Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Optimizing School Food Supply: Integrating Environmental, Health, Economic, and Cultural Dimensions of Diet Sustainability with Linear Programming2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 17, article id 3019Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is great potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) from public-sector meals. This paper aimed to develop a strategy for reducing GHGE in the Swedish school food supply while ensuring nutritional adequacy, affordability, and cultural acceptability. Amounts, prices and GHGE-values for all foods and drinks supplied to three schools over one year were gathered. The amounts were optimized by linear programming. Four nutritionally adequate models were developed: Model 1 minimized GHGE while constraining the relative deviation (RD) from the observed food supply, Model 2 minimized total RD while imposing stepwise GHGE reductions, Model 3 additionally constrained RD for individual foods to an upper and lower limit, and Model 4 further controlled how pair-wise ratios of 15 food groups could deviate. Models 1 and 2 reduced GHGE by up to 95% but omitted entire food categories or increased the supply of some individual foods by more than 800% and were deemed unfeasible. Model 3 reduced GHGE by up to 60%, excluded no foods, avoided high RDs of individual foods, but resulted in large changes in food-group ratios. Model 4 limited the changes in food-group ratios but resulted in a higher number of foods deviating from the observed supply and limited the potential of reducing GHGE in one school to 20%. Cost was reduced in almost all solutions. An omnivorous, nutritionally adequate, and affordable school food supply with considerably lower GHGE is achievable with moderate changes to the observed food supply; i.e., with Models 3 and 4. Trade-offs will always have to be made between achieving GHGE reductions and preserving similarity to the current supply.

  • 48.
    Fang, X.
    et al.
    Unit of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Li, R.
    College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Xu, Q.
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Basic Medicine Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.
    Bottai, M.
    Unit of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fang, F.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cao, Yang
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics; Unit of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A Two-Stage Method to Estimate the Contribution of Road Traffic to PM(2).(5) Concentrations in Beijing, China2016In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 13, no 1, article id E124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Fine particulate matters with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5) have been a critical environmental problem in China due to the rapid road vehicle growth in recent years. To date, most methods available to estimate traffic contributions to ambient PM2.5 concentration are often hampered by the need for collecting data on traffic volume, vehicle type and emission profile.

    Objective: To develop a simplified and indirect method to estimate the contribution of traffic to PM2.5 concentration in Beijing, China.

    Methods: Hourly PM2.5 concentration data, daily meteorological data and geographic information were collected at 35 air quality monitoring (AQM) stations in Beijing between 2013 and 2014. Based on the PM2.5 concentrations of different AQM station types, a two-stage method comprising a dispersion model and generalized additive mixed model (GAMM) was developed to estimate separately the traffic and non-traffic contributions to daily PM2.5 concentration. The geographical trend of PM2.5 concentrations was investigated using generalized linear mixed model. The temporal trend of PM2.5 and non-linear relationship between PM2.5 and meteorological conditions were assessed using GAMM.

    Results: The medians of daily PM2.5 concentrations during 2013-2014 at 35 AQM stations in Beijing ranged from 40 to 92 mug/m(3). There was a significant increasing trend of PM2.5 concentration from north to south. The contributions of road traffic to daily PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 17.2% to 37.3% with an average 30%. The greatest contribution was found at AQM stations near busy roads. On average, the contribution of road traffic at urban stations was 14% higher than that at rural stations.

    Conclusions: Traffic emissions account for a substantial share of daily total PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing. Our two-stage method is a useful and convenient tool in ecological and epidemiological studies to estimate the traffic contribution to PM2.5 concentrations when there is limited information on vehicle number and types and emission profile.

  • 49.
    Fang, Xin
    et al.
    Unit of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fang, Bo
    Division of Vital Statistics, Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China.
    Wang, Chunfang
    Division of Vital Statistics, Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China.
    Xia, Tian
    Institute of Health Information, Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China.
    Bottai, Matteo
    Unit of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fang, Fang
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cao, Yang
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital.
    Comparison of Frequentist and Bayesian Generalized Additive Models for Assessing the Association between Daily Exposure to Fine Particles and Respiratory Mortality: A Simulation Study2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 5, article id 746Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To compare the performance of frequentist and Bayesian generalized additive models (GAMs) in terms of accuracy and precision for assessing the association between daily exposure to fine particles and respiratory mortality using simulated data based on a real time-series study.

    Methods: In our study, we examined the estimates from a fully Bayesian GAM using simulated data based on a genuine time-series study on fine particles with a diameter of 2.5 m or less (PM2.5) and respiratory deaths conducted in Shanghai, China. The simulation was performed by multiplying the observed daily death with a random error. The underlying priors for Bayesian analysis are estimated using the real world time-series data. We also examined the sensitivity of Bayesian GAM to the choice of priors and to true parameter.

    Results: The frequentist GAM and Bayesian GAM show similar means and variances of the estimates of the parameters of interest. However, the estimates from Bayesian GAM show relatively more fluctuation, which to some extent reflects the uncertainty inherent in Bayesian estimation.

    Conclusions: Although computationally intensive, Bayesian GAM would be a better solution to avoid potentially over-confident inferences. With the increasing computing power of computers and statistical packages available, fully Bayesian methods for decision making may become more widely applied in the future.

  • 50.
    Fonseca Rodriguez, Osvaldo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Sheridan, Scott C
    Department of Geography, Kent State University, Kent, OH 4242, USA.
    Schumann, Barbara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Association between Weather Types based on the Spatial Synoptic Classification and All-Cause Mortality in Sweden, 1991⁻20142019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 10, article id 1696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much is known about the adverse health impact of high and low temperatures. The Spatial Synoptic Classification is a useful tool for assessing weather effects on health because it considers the combined effect of meteorological factors rather than temperature only. The aim of this study was to assess the association between oppressive weather types and daily total mortality in Sweden. Time-series Poisson regression with distributed lags was used to assess the relationship between oppressive weather (Dry Polar, Dry Tropical, Moist Polar, and Moist Tropical) and daily deaths over 14 days in the extended summer (May to September), and 28 days during the extended winter (November to March), from 1991 to 2014. Days not classified as oppressive weather served as the reference category. We computed relative risks with 95% confidence intervals, adjusting for trends and seasonality. Results of the southern (Skåne and Stockholm) and northern (Jämtland and Västerbotten) locations were pooled using meta-analysis for regional-level estimates. Analyses were performed using the dlnm and mvmeta packages in R. During summer, in the South, the Moist Tropical and Dry Tropical weather types increased the mortality at lag 0 through lag 3 and lag 6, respectively. Moist Polar weather was associated with mortality at longer lags. In the North, Dry Tropical weather increased the mortality at shorter lags. During winter, in the South, Dry Polar and Moist Polar weather increased mortality from lag 6 to lag 10 and from lag 19 to lag 26, respectively. No effect of oppressive weather was found in the North. The effect of oppressive weather types in Sweden varies across seasons and regions. In the North, a small study sample reduces precision of estimates, while in the South, the effect of oppressive weather types is more evident in both seasons.

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