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  • 1. Alexander, Jodi L.
    et al.
    Oliphant, Andrew
    Wilcockson, David C.
    Brendler-Spaeth, Timothy
    Dircksen, Heinrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Functional Morphology.
    Webster, Simon G.
    Pigment dispersing factors and their cognate receptors in a crustacean model, with new insights into distinct neurons and their functions2020In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 14, article id 595648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pigment dispersing factors (PDFs, or PDHs in crustaceans) form a structurally related group of neuropeptides found throughout the Ecdysozoa and were first discovered as pigmentary effector hormones in crustaceans. In insects PDFs fulfill crucial neuromodulatory roles, most notably as output regulators of the circadian system, underscoring their central position in physiological and behavioral organization of arthropods. Intriguingly, decapod crustaceans express multiple isoforms of PDH originating from separate genes, yet their differential functions are still to be determined. Here, we functionally define two PDH receptors in the crab Carcinus maenas and show them to be selectively activated by four PDH isoforms: PDHR 43673 was activated by PDH-1 and PDH-2 at low nanomolar doses whilst PDHR 41189 was activated by PDH-3 and an extended 20 residue e-PDH. Detailed examination of the anatomical distribution of all four peptides and their cognate receptors indicate that they likely perform different functions as secreted hormones and/or neuromodulators, with PDH-1 and its receptor 43,673 implicated in an authentic hormonal axis. PDH-2, PDH-3, and e-PDH were limited to non-neurohemal interneuronal sites in the CNS; PDHR 41189 was largely restricted to the nervous system suggesting a neuromodulatory function. Notably PDH-3 and e-PDH were without chromatophore dispersing activity. This is the first report which functionally defines a PDHR in an endocrine system in a crustacean and to indicate this and other putative roles of this physiologically pivotal peptide group in these organisms. Thus, our findings present opportunities to further examine the endocrine and circadian machinery in this important arthropod phylum.

  • 2.
    Alickovic, Emina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Oticon AS, Denmark; Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Gustafsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ljung, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Tutorial on Auditory Attention Identification Methods2019In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 13, article id 153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Auditory attention identification methods attempt to identify the sound source of a listeners interest by analyzing measurements of electrophysiological data. We present a tutorial on the numerous techniques that have been developed in recent decades, and we present an overview of current trends in multivariate correlation-based and model-based learning frameworks. The focus is on the use of linear relations between electrophysiological and audio data. The way in which these relations are computed differs. For example, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) finds a linear subset of electrophysiological data that best correlates to audio data and a similar subset of audio data that best correlates to electrophysiological data. Model-based (encoding and decoding) approaches focus on either of these two sets. We investigate the similarities and differences between these linear model philosophies. We focus on (1) correlation-based approaches (CCA), (2) encoding/decoding models based on dense estimation, and (3) (adaptive) encoding/decoding models based on sparse estimation. The specific focus is on sparsity-driven adaptive encoding models and comparing the methodology in state-of-the-art models found in the auditory literature. Furthermore, we outline the main signal processing pipeline for how to identify the attended sound source in a cocktail party environment from the raw electrophysiological data with all the necessary steps, complemented with the necessary MATLAB code and the relevant references for each step. Our main aim is to compare the methodology of the available methods, and provide numerical illustrations to some of them to get a feeling for their potential. A thorough performance comparison is outside the scope of this tutorial.

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  • 3.
    Alickovic, Emina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Wendt, Dorothea
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Fiedler, Lorenz
    Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Hietkamp, Renskje
    Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Ng, Hoi Ning Elaine
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Graversen, Carina
    Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Neural Representation Enhanced for Speech and Reduced for Background Noise With a Hearing Aid Noise Reduction Scheme During a Selective Attention Task2020In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 14, article id 846Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Selectively attending to a target talker while ignoring multiple interferers (competing talkers and background noise) is more difficult for hearing-impaired (HI) individuals compared to normal-hearing (NH) listeners. Such tasks also become more difficult as background noise levels increase. To overcome these difficulties, hearing aids (HAs) offer noise reduction (NR) schemes. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of NR processing (inactive, where the NR feature was switched off,vs.active, where the NR feature was switched on) on the neural representation of speech envelopes across two different background noise levels [+3 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and +8 dB SNR] by using a stimulus reconstruction (SR) method. Design To explore how NR processing supports the listeners selective auditory attention, we recruited 22 HI participants fitted with HAs. To investigate the interplay between NR schemes, background noise, and neural representation of the speech envelopes, we used electroencephalography (EEG). The participants were instructed to listen to a target talker in front while ignoring a competing talker in front in the presence of multi-talker background babble noise. Results The results show that the neural representation of the attended speech envelope was enhanced by the active NR scheme for both background noise levels. The neural representation of the attended speech envelope at lower (+3 dB) SNR was shifted, approximately by 5 dB, toward the higher (+8 dB) SNR when the NR scheme was turned on. The neural representation of the ignored speech envelope was modulated by the NR scheme and was mostly enhanced in the conditions with more background noise. The neural representation of the background noise was modulated (i.e., reduced) by the NR scheme and was significantly reduced in the conditions with more background noise. The neural representation of the net sum of the ignored acoustic scene (ignored talker and background babble) was not modulated by the NR scheme but was significantly reduced in the conditions with a reduced level of background noise. Taken together, we showed that the active NR scheme enhanced the neural representation of both the attended and the ignored speakers and reduced the neural representation of background noise, while the net sum of the ignored acoustic scene was not enhanced. Conclusion Altogether our results support the hypothesis that the NR schemes in HAs serve to enhance the neural representation of speech and reduce the neural representation of background noise during a selective attention task. We contend that these results provide a neural index that could be useful for assessing the effects of HAs on auditory and cognitive processing in HI populations.

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  • 4.
    Alickovic, Emina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Ng, Hoi Ning, Elaine
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Fiedler, Lorenz
    Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Santurette, Sebastien
    Oticon AS, Denmark; Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Innes-Brown, Hamish
    Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Graversen, Carina
    Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Effects of Hearing Aid Noise Reduction on Early and Late Cortical Representations of Competing Talkers in Noise2021In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 15, article id 636060Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Previous research using non-invasive (magnetoencephalography, MEG) and invasive (electrocorticography, ECoG) neural recordings has demonstrated the progressive and hierarchical representation and processing of complex multi-talker auditory scenes in the auditory cortex. Early responses (<85 ms) in primary-like areas appear to represent the individual talkers with almost equal fidelity and are independent of attention in normal-hearing (NH) listeners. However, late responses (>85 ms) in higher-order non-primary areas selectively represent the attended talker with significantly higher fidelity than unattended talkers in NH and hearing-impaired (HI) listeners. Motivated by these findings, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a noise reduction scheme (NR) in a commercial hearing aid (HA) on the representation of complex multi-talker auditory scenes in distinct hierarchical stages of the auditory cortex by using high-density electroencephalography (EEG). Design We addressed this issue by investigating early (<85 ms) and late (>85 ms) EEG responses recorded in 34 HI subjects fitted with HAs. The HA noise reduction (NR) was either on or off while the participants listened to a complex auditory scene. Participants were instructed to attend to one of two simultaneous talkers in the foreground while multi-talker babble noise played in the background (+3 dB SNR). After each trial, a two-choice question about the content of the attended speech was presented. Results Using a stimulus reconstruction approach, our results suggest that the attention-related enhancement of neural representations of target and masker talkers located in the foreground, as well as suppression of the background noise in distinct hierarchical stages is significantly affected by the NR scheme. We found that the NR scheme contributed to the enhancement of the foreground and of the entire acoustic scene in the early responses, and that this enhancement was driven by better representation of the target speech. We found that the target talker in HI listeners was selectively represented in late responses. We found that use of the NR scheme resulted in enhanced representations of the target and masker speech in the foreground and a suppressed representation of the noise in the background in late responses. We found a significant effect of EEG time window on the strengths of the cortical representation of the target and masker. Conclusion Together, our analyses of the early and late responses obtained from HI listeners support the existing view of hierarchical processing in the auditory cortex. Our findings demonstrate the benefits of a NR scheme on the representation of complex multi-talker auditory scenes in different areas of the auditory cortex in HI listeners.

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  • 5. Allocca, Giancarlo
    et al.
    Ma, Sherie
    Martelli, Davide
    Cerri, Matteo
    Del Vecchio, Flavia
    Bastianini, Stefano
    Zoccoli, Giovanna
    Amici, Roberto
    Morairty, Stephen R.
    Aulsebrook, Anne E.
    Blackburn, Shaun
    Lesku, John A.
    Rattenborg, Niels C.
    Vyssotski, Alexei L.
    Wams, Emma
    Porcherer, Kate
    Wulff, Katharina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Centre for Molecular Medicine (WCMM), Umeå University, Sweden.
    Foster, Russell
    Chan, Julia K. M.
    Nicholas, Christian L.
    Freestone, Dean R.
    Johnston, Leigh A.
    Gundlachla, Andrew L.
    Validation of 'Somnivore', a Machine Learning Algorithm for Automated Scoring and Analysis of Polysomnography Data2019In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 13, article id 207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manual scoring of polysomnography data is labor-intensive and time-consuming, and most existing software does not account for subjective differences and user variability. Therefore, we evaluated a supervised machine learning algorithm, Somnivore (TM), for automated wake-sleep stage classification. We designed an algorithm that extracts features from various input channels, following a brief session of manual scoring, and provides automated wake-sleep stage classification for each recording. For algorithm validation, polysomnography data was obtained from independent laboratories, and include normal, cognitively-impaired, and alcohol-treated human subjects (total n = 52), narcoleptic mice and drug-treated rats (total n = 56), and pigeons (n = 5). Training and testing sets for validation were previously scored manually by 1-2 trained sleep technologists from each laboratory. F-measure was used to assess precision and sensitivity for statistical analysis of classifier output and human scorer agreement. The algorithm gave high concordance with manual visual scoring across all human data (wake 0.91 +/- 0.01; N1 0.57 +/- 0.01; N2 0.81 +/- 0.01; N3 0.86 +/- 0.01; REM 0.87 +/- 0.01), which was comparable to manual inter-scorer agreement on all stages. Similarly, high concordance was observed across all rodent (wake 0.95 +/- 0.01; NREM 0.94 +/- 0.01; REM 0.91 +/- 0.01) and pigeon (wake 0.96 +/- 0.006; NREM 0.97 +/- 0.01; REM 0.86 +/- 0.02) data. Effects of classifier learning from single signal inputs, simple stage reclassification, automated removal of transition epochs, and training set size were also examined. In summary, we have developed a polysomnography analysis program for automated sleep-stage classification of data from diverse species. Somnivore enables flexible, accurate, and high-throughput analysis of experimental and clinical sleep studies.

  • 6.
    Alstermark, Bror
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Pettersson, Lars-Gunnar
    Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Endogenous plasticity in neuro-rehabilitation following partial spinal cord lesions2014In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 8, p. 59-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, much interest in neuro-rehabilitation is focused on mechanisms related to axonal outgrowth and formation of new circuits although still little is known about the functionality in motor behavior. This is a highly exciting avenue of research and most important to consider when dealing with large lesions. Here, we address endogenous mechanisms with the potential of modifying the function of already existing spinal circuits via associative plasticity. We forward a hypothesis based on experimental findings suggesting that potentiation of synaptic transmission in un-injured pathways can be monitored and adjusted by a Cerebellar loop involving the Reticulospinal, Rubrospinal and Corticospinal tracts and spinal interneurons with projection to motoneurons. This mechanism could be of relevance when lesions are less extensive and the integrity of the neural circuits remains in part. Endogenous plasticity in the spinal cord could be of clinical importance if stimulated in an adequate manner, e.g., by using optimal training protocols.

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  • 7.
    Auffarth, Benjamin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Gutierrez-Galvez, Agustín
    Marco, Santiago
    Continuous Spatial Representations in the Olfactory Bulb may Reflect Perceptual Categories2011In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 5, no 82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In sensory processing of odors, the olfactory bulb is an important relay station, where odor representations are noise-filtered, sharpened, and possibly re-organized. An organization by perceptual qualities has been found previously in the piriform cortex, however several recent studies indicate that the olfactory bulb code reflects behaviorally relevant dimensions spatially as well as at the population level. We apply a statistical analysis on 2-deoxyglucose images, taken over the entire bulb of glomerular layer of the rat, in order to see how the recognition of odors in the nose is translated into a map of odor quality in the brain. We first confirm previous studies that the first principal component could be related to pleasantness, however the next higher principal components are not directly clear. We then find mostly continuous spatial representations for perceptual categories. We compare the space spanned by spatial and population codes to human reports of perceptual similarity between odors and our results suggest that perceptual categories could be already embedded in glomerular activations and that spatial representations give a better match than population codes. This suggests that human and rat perceptual dimensions of odorant coding are related and indicates that perceptual qualities could be represented as continuous spatial codes of the olfactory bulb glomerulus population.

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  • 8.
    Auffarth, Benjamin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Gutierrez-Galvez, Agustín
    Marco, Santiago
    Statistical analysis of coding for molecular properties in the olfactory bulb2011In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 5, no 62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between molecular properties of odorants and neural activities is arguably one of the most important issues in olfaction and the rules governing this relationship are still not clear. In the olfactory bulb (OB), glomeruli relay olfactory information to second-order neurons which in turn project to cortical areas. We investigate relevance of odorant properties, spatial localization of glomerular coding sites, and size of coding zones in a dataset of [14C] 2-deoxyglucose images of glomeruli over the entire OB of the rat. We relate molecular properties to activation of glomeruli in the OB using a non-parametric statistical test and a support-vector machine classification study. Our method permits to systematically map the topographic representation of various classes of odorants in the OB. Our results suggest many localized coding sites for particular molecular properties and some molecular properties that could form the basis for a spatial map of olfactory information. We found that alkynes, alkanes, alkenes, and amines affect activation maps very strongly as compared to other properties and that amines, sulfur-containing compounds, and alkynes have small zones and high relevance to activation changes, while aromatics, alkanes, and carboxylics acid recruit very big zones in the dataset. Results suggest a local spatial encoding for molecular properties.

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  • 9.
    Backstrom, Tobias
    et al.
    Univ Koblenz Landau, Inst Integrated Nat Sci, Koblenz, Germany..
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Serotonin Coordinates Responses to Social Stress: What We Can Learn from Fish2017In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 11, article id 595Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social interaction is stressful and subordinate individuals are often subjected to chronic stress, which greatly affects both their behavior and physiology. In teleost fish the social position of an individual may have long-term effects, such as effects on migration, age of sexual maturation or even sex. The brain serotonergic system plays a key role in coordinating autonomic, behavioral and neuroendocrine stress responses. Social subordination results in a chronic activation of the brain serotonergic system an effect, which seems to be central in the subordinate phenotype. However, behavioral effects of short-term acute activation of the serotonergic system are less obvious. As in other vertebrates, divergent stress coping styles, often referred to as proactive and reactive, has been described in teleosts. As demonstrated by selective breeding, stress coping styles appear to be partly heritable. However, teleost fish are characterized by plasticity, stress coping style being affected by social experience. Again, the brain serotonergic system appears to play an important role. Studies comparing brain gene expression of fish of different social rank and/or displaying divergent stress coping styles have identified several novel factors that seem important for controlling aggressive behavior and stress coping, e.g., histamine and hypocretin/orexin. These may also interact with brain monoaminergic systems, including serotonin.

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  • 10.
    Belic, Jovana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computational Biology, CB. University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Halje, Pär
    Lund University.
    Richter, Ulrike
    Lund University.
    Petersson, Per
    Lund Unversity.
    Hellgren Kotaleski, Jeanette
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computational Biology, CB. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Corticostriatal circuits and their role in disease2015In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 8, p. 31-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The basal ganglia (BG) represent subcortical structures considered to be involved in action selection and decision making [1]. Dysfunction of the BG circuitry leads to many motor and cognitive disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), Tourette syndrome, Huntington’s disease, obsessive compulsive disorder and many others. Therefore, we simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFPs) in primary motor cortex and sensorimotor striatum to study features directly related to healthy versus pathological states such as Parkinson disease and levodopa-induced dyskinesia [2], [3]. The striatum, the input stage of the basal ganglia (BG), is an inhibitory network that contains several distinct cell types and receives massive excitatory inputs from the cortex. Cortex sends direct projections to the striatum, while striatum can affect cortex only indirectly through other BG nuclei and thalamus. Firstly we analyzed spectral characteristics of the obtained signals and observed that during dyskinesia, the most prominent feature was a relative power increase in the high gamma frequency range around 80 Hz, while for PD it was the beta frequency range. Secondly our preliminary results have shown that during both pathological states effective connectivity in terms of Granger causality is bidirectional with an accent on striatal influence on cortex. In the case of dyskinesia we have also found a specifically high increase in effective connectivity at 80 Hz. In order to further understand the 80-Hz phenomenon we have performed cross-frequency analysis across all states and both structures and observed characteristic patterns in the case of dyskinesia in both structures but not in the case of PD and healthy state. We have seen a large relative decrease in the modulation of the amplitude at 80Hz by the phase of low frequency oscillations (up to ~10Hz). It has been suggested that the activity of local neural populations is modulated according to the global neuronal dynamics in the way that populations oscillate and synchronize at lower frequencies and smaller ensembles are active at higher frequencies Our results suggest unexpectedly a lack of coupling between the low frequency activity of a larger population and the synchronized activity of a smaller group of neurons active at 80Hz.

  • 11. Belkacem, Abdelkader Nasreddine
    et al.
    Jamil, Nuraini
    Palmer, Jason A
    Ouhbi, Sofia
    Chen, Chao
    Brain Computer Interfaces for Improving the Quality of Life of Older Adults and Elderly Patients.2020In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 14, p. 692-, article id 692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All people experience aging, and the related physical and health changes, including changes in memory and brain function. These changes may become debilitating leading to an increase in dependence as people get older. Many external aids and tools have been developed to allow older adults and elderly patients to continue to live normal and comfortable lives. This mini-review describes some of the recent studies on cognitive decline and motor control impairment with the goal of advancing non-invasive brain computer interface (BCI) technologies to improve health and wellness of older adults and elderly patients. First, we describe the state of the art in cognitive prosthetics for psychiatric diseases. Then, we describe the state of the art of possible assistive BCI applications for controlling an exoskeleton, a wheelchair and smart home for elderly people with motor control impairments. The basic age-related brain and body changes, the effects of age on cognitive and motor abilities, and several BCI paradigms with typical tasks and outcomes are thoroughly described. We also discuss likely future trends and technologies to assist healthy older adults and elderly patients using innovative BCI applications with minimal technical oversight.

  • 12.
    Benedict, Christian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Grillo, Claudia A.
    Univ South Carolina, Sch Med, Dept Pharmacol Physiol & Neurosci, Columbia, SC 29208 USA..
    Insulin Resistance as a Therapeutic Target in the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease: A State-of-the-Art Review2018In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 12, article id 215Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research in animals and humans has shown that type 2 diabetes and its prodromal state, insulin resistance, promote major pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), such as the formation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). Worrisomely, dysregulated amyloid beta (A beta) metabolism has also been shown to promote central nervous system insulin resistance; although the role of tau metabolism remains controversial. Collectively, as proposed in this review, these findings suggest the existence of a mechanistic interplay between AD pathogenesis and disrupted insulin signaling. They also provide strong support for the hypothesis that pharmacologically restoring brain insulin signaling could represent a promising strategy to curb the development and progression of AD. In this context, great hopes have been attached to the use of intranasal insulin. This drug delivery method increases cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of insulin in the absence of peripheral side effects, such as hypoglycemia. With this in mind, the present review will also summarize current knowledge on the efficacy of intranasal insulin to mitigate major pathological symptoms of AD, i.e., cognitive impairment and deregulation of A beta and tau metabolism.

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  • 13.
    Bergsten, Elin
    et al.
    Helsingborg Hosp, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Rydberg, Mattias
    Lund Univ, Sweden; Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Dahlin, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Lund Univ, Sweden; Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Zimmerman, Malin
    Helsingborg Hosp, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Ulnar Nerve Entrapment at the Elbow Are Not Associated With Plasma Levels of Caspase-3, Caspase-8 or HSP272022In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 16, article id 809537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundNerve compression disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and ulnar entrapment at the elbow (UNE), may be associated with apoptosis and neuroprotective mechanisms in the peripheral nerve that may be detected by biomarkers in the blood. The relationships between CTS and UNE and two biomarkers of apoptosis, i.e., caspase-3 and caspase-8, and the neuroprotective factor Heat Shock Protein 27 (HSP27) in plasma were examined in a population-based cohort. MethodThe biomarkers caspase-3, caspase-8 and HSP27 were measured in plasma at inclusion of 4,284 study participants aged 46-68 years in the population-based Malmo Diet and Cancer study (MDCS). End-point retrieval was made from national registers concerning CTS and UNE. Independent t-test was used to examine the association between caspase-3, caspase-8 and HSP27 plasma levels and incidence of CTS and UNE. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to investigate if plasma levels of caspase-3, caspase-8 and HSP27 affected time to diagnosis of CTS or UNE. ResultsDuring the mean follow-up time of 22 years, 189/4,284 (4%) participants were diagnosed with CTS and 42/4,284 (1%) were diagnosed with UNE. No associations were found between incident CTS or UNE and the biomarkers caspase-3, caspase-8 and HSP27 in plasma. ConclusionThe apoptotic biomarkers caspase-3 and caspase-8 and the neuroprotective factor HSP27 in plasma, factors conceivably related to a nerve injury, are not associated with the nerve compression disorders CTS and UNE in a general population.

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  • 14.
    Blomberg, Rina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Signoret, Carine
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Perini, Irene
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Johansson Capusan, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Psykiatricentrum, Psykiatriska kliniken i Linköping.
    Aberrant resting-state connectivity of auditory, ventral attention/salience and default-mode networks in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder2022In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 16, article id 972730.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Numerous resting-state studies on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have reported aberrant functional connectivity (FC) between the default-mode network (DMN) and the ventral attention/salience network (VA/SN). This finding has commonly been interpreted as an index of poorer DMN regulation associated with symptoms of mind wandering in ADHD literature. However, a competing perspective suggests that dysfunctional organization of the DMN and VA/SN may additionally index increased sensitivity to the external environment. The goal of the current study was to test this latter perspective in relation to auditory distraction by investigating whether ADHD-adults exhibit aberrant FC between DMN, VA/SN, and auditory networks. Methods Twelve minutes of resting-state fMRI data was collected from two adult groups: ADHD (n = 17) and controls (n = 17); from which the FC between predefined regions comprising the DMN, VA/SN, and auditory networks were analyzed. Results A weaker anticorrelation between the VA/SN and DMN was observed in ADHD. DMN and VA/SN hubs also exhibited aberrant FC with the auditory network in ADHD. Additionally, participants who displayed a stronger anticorrelation between the VA/SN and auditory network at rest, also performed better on a cognitively demanding behavioral task that involved ignoring a distracting auditory stimulus. Conclusion Results are consistent with the hypothesis that auditory distraction in ADHD is linked to aberrant interactions between DMN, VA/SN, and auditory systems. Our findings support models that implicate dysfunctional organization of the DMN and VA/SN in the disorder and encourage more research into sensory interactions with these major networks.

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  • 15.
    Brelstaff, Jack
    et al.
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Ossola, Bernardino
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Neher, Jonas J.
    University of Tubingen, Germany.
    Klingstedt, Therese
    MRC, England.
    Nilsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Goedert, Michel
    MRC, England.
    Grazia Spillantini, Maria
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Tolkovsky, Aviva M.
    University of Cambridge, England.
    The fluorescent pentameric oligothiophene pFTAA identifies filamentous tau in live neurons cultured from adult P301S tau mice2015In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 9, no 184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identification of fluorescent dyes that label the filamentous protein aggregates characteristic of neurodegenerative disease, such as beta-amyloid and tau in Alzheimers disease, in a live cell culture system has previously been a major hurdle. Here we show that pentameric formyl thiophene acetic acid (pFTAA) fulfills this function in living neurons cultured from adult P301S tau transgenic mice. Injection of pFTAA into 5-month-old P301S tau mice detected cortical and DRG neurons immunoreactive for AT100, an antibody that identifies solely filamentous tau, or MC1, an antibody that identifies a conformational change in tau that is commensurate with neurofibrillary tangle formation in Alzheimers disease brains. In fixed cultures of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, pFTAA binding, which also identified AT100 or MC1+ve neurons, followed a single, saturable binding curve with a half saturation constant of 0.14 mu M, the first reported measurement of a binding affinity of a beta-sheet reactive dye to primary neurons harboring filamentous tau. Treatment with formic acid, which solubilizes filamentous tau, extracted pFTAA, and prevented the re-binding of pFTAA and MC1 without perturbing expression of soluble tau, detected using an anti-human tau (HT7) antibody. In live cultures, pFTAA only identified DRG neurons that, after fixation, were AT100/MC1+ve, confirming that these forms of tau pre-exist in live neurons. The utility of pFTAA to discriminate between living neurons containing filamentous tau from other neurons is demonstrated by showing that more pFTAA+ve neurons die than pFTAA-ve neurons over 25 days. Since pFTAA identifies fibrillar tau and other misfolded proteins in living neurons in culture and in animal models of several neurodegenerative diseases, as well as in human brains, it will have considerable application in sorting out disease mechanisms and in identifying diseasemodifying drugs that will ultimately help establish the mechanisms of neurodegeneration in human neurodegenerative diseases.

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  • 16.
    Brusini, Irene
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Medical Imaging. Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Clin Geriatr, Solna, Sweden..
    Lindberg, Olof
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Clin Geriatr, Solna, Sweden..
    Muehlboeck, J-Sebastian
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Clin Geriatr, Solna, Sweden..
    Smedby, Örjan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems.
    Westman, Eric
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Clin Geriatr, Solna, Sweden..
    Wang, Chunliang
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems.
    Shape Information Improves the Cross-Cohort Performance of Deep Learning-Based Segmentation of the Hippocampus2020In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 14, article id 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Performing an accurate segmentation of the hippocampus from brain magnetic resonance images is a crucial task in neuroimaging research, since its structural integrity is strongly related to several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Some automatic segmentation tools are already being used, but, in recent years, new deep learning (DL)-based methods have been proven to be much more accurate in various medical image segmentation tasks. In this work, we propose a DL-based hippocampus segmentation framework that embeds statistical shape of the hippocampus as context information into the deep neural network (DNN). The inclusion of shape information is achieved with three main steps: (1) a U-Net-based segmentation, (2) a shape model estimation, and (3) a second U-Net-based segmentation which uses both the original input data and the fitted shape model. The trained DL architectures were tested on image data of three diagnostic groups [AD patients, subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and controls] from two cohorts (ADNI and AddNeuroMed). Both intra-cohort validation and cross-cohort validation were performed and compared with the conventional U-net architecture and some variations with other types of context information (i.e., autocontext and tissue-class context). Our results suggest that adding shape information can improve the segmentation accuracy in cross-cohort validation, i.e., when DNNs are trained on one cohort and applied to another. However, no significant benefit is observed in intra-cohort validation, i.e., training and testing DNNs on images from the same cohort. Moreover, compared to other types of context information, the use of shape context was shown to be the most successful in increasing the accuracy, while keeping the computational time in the order of a few minutes.

  • 17.
    Caravaca, April S.
    et al.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden; SetPoint Med Inc, CA 91355 USA.
    Levine, Yaakov A.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden; SetPoint Med Inc, CA 91355 USA; Feinstein Inst Med Res, NY 11030 USA.
    Drake, Anna
    SetPoint Med Inc, CA 91355 USA.
    Eberhardson, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken. Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Peder S.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden; Feinstein Inst Med Res, NY 11030 USA.
    Vagus Nerve Stimulation Reduces Indomethacin-Induced Small Bowel Inflammation2022In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 15, article id 730407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crohns disease is a chronic, idiopathic condition characterized by intestinal inflammation and debilitating gastrointestinal symptomatology. Previous studies of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), primarily in colitis, have shown reduced inflammation after electrical or pharmacological activation of the vagus nerve, but the scope and kinetics of this effect are incompletely understood. To investigate this, we studied the effect of electrical vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in a rat model of indomethacin-induced small intestinal inflammation. 1 min of VNS significantly reduced small bowel total inflammatory lesion area [(mean +/- SEM) sham: 124 +/- 14 mm(2), VNS: 62 +/- 14 mm(2), p = 0.002], intestinal peroxidation and chlorination rates, and intestinal and systemic pro-inflammatory cytokine levels as compared with sham-treated animals after 24 h following indomethacin administration. It was not known whether this observed reduction of inflammation after VNS in intestinal inflammation was mediated by direct innervation of the gut or if the signals are relayed through the spleen. To investigate this, we studied the VNS effect on the small bowel lesions of splenectomized rats and splenic nerve stimulation (SNS) in intact rats. We observed that VNS reduced small bowel inflammation also in splenectomized rats but SNS alone failed to significantly reduce small bowel lesion area. Interestingly, VNS significantly reduced small bowel lesion area for 48 h when indomethacin administration was delayed. Thus, 1 min of electrical activation of the vagus nerve reduced indomethacin-induced intestinal lesion area by a spleen-independent mechanism. The surprisingly long-lasting and spleen-independent effect of VNS on the intestinal response to indomethacin challenge has important implications on our understanding of neural control of intestinal inflammation and its potential translation to improved therapies for IBD.

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  • 18.
    Cardin, Velia
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. UCL, Dept Expt Psychol, Deafness Cognit & Language Res Ctr, London, England.
    Effects of Aging and Adult-Onset Hearing Loss on Cortical Auditory Regions2016In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 10, no 199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hearing loss is a common feature in human aging. It has been argued that dysfunctions in central processing are important contributing factors to hearing loss during older age. Aging also has well documented consequences for neural structure and function, but it is not clear how these effects interact with those that arise as a consequence of hearing loss. This paper reviews the effects of aging and adult-onset hearing loss in the structure and function of cortical auditory regions. The evidence reviewed suggests that aging and hearing loss result in atrophy of cortical auditory regions and stronger engagement of networks involved in the detection of salient events, adaptive control and re-allocation of attention. These cortical mechanisms are engaged during listening in effortful conditions in normal hearing individuals. Therefore, as a consequence of aging and hearing loss, all listening becomes effortful and cognitive load is constantly high, reducing the amount of available cognitive resources. This constant effortful listening and reduced cognitive spare capacity could be what accelerates cognitive decline in older adults with hearing loss.

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  • 19.
    Cardoso, Joao C. R.
    et al.
    Univ Algarve, Ctr Marine Sci, Comparat Endocrinol & Integrat Biol, Faro, Portugal..
    Bergqvist, Christina
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Larhammar: Pharmacology.
    Larhammar, Dan
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Larhammar: Pharmacology.
    Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) Gene Family Duplications in Lampreys Correlate With Two Early Vertebrate Genome Doublings2020In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 14, article id 672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ancestor of gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates) is generally considered to have undergone two rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD). The timing of these WGD events relative to the divergence of the closest relatives of the gnathostomes, the cyclostomes, has remained contentious. Lampreys and hagfishes are extant cyclostomes whose gene families can shed light on the relationship between the WGDs and the cyclostome-gnathostome divergence. Previously, we have characterized in detail the evolution of the gnathostome corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) family and found that its five members arose from two ancestral genes that existed before the WGDs. The two WGDs resulted, after secondary losses, in one triplet consisting of CRH1, CRH2, and UCN1, and one pair consisting of UCN2 and UCN3. All five genes exist in representatives for cartilaginous fishes, ray-finned fishes, and lobe-finned fishes. Differential losses have occurred in some lineages. We present here analyses of CRH-family members in lamprey and hagfish by comparing sequences and gene synteny with gnathostomes. We found five CRH-family genes in each of two lamprey species (Petromyzon marinusandLethenteron camtschaticum) and two genes in a hagfish (Eptatretus burgeri). Synteny analyses show that all five lamprey CRH-family genes have similar chromosomal neighbors as the gnathostome genes. The most parsimonious explanation is that the lamprey CRH-family genes are orthologs of the five gnathostome genes and thus arose in the same chromosome duplications. This suggests that lampreys and gnathostomes share the same two WGD events and that these took place before the lamprey-gnathostome divergence.

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  • 20.
    Castiglione, Alessandro
    et al.
    Department of Neurosciences, University of Padua, Padua, Italy; Complex Operative Unit of Otolaryngology, Hospital of Padua, Padua, Italy.
    Casa, Mariella
    Regional Center for the Study and Treatment of the Aging Brain, Department of Internal Medicine, Padua, Italy.
    Gallo, Samanta
    Complex Operative Unit of Otolaryngology, Hospital of Padua, Padua, Italy.
    Sorrentino, Flavia
    Complex Operative Unit of Otolaryngology, Hospital of Padua, Padua, Italy.
    Dhima, Sonila
    Complex Operative Unit of Otolaryngology, Hospital of Padua, Padua, Italy.
    Cilia, Dalila
    Department of Neurosciences, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.
    Lovo, Elisa
    Department of Neurosciences, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.
    Gambin, Marta
    Department of Neurosciences, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.
    Previato, Maela
    Department of Neurosciences, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.
    Colombo, Simone
    Department of Neurosciences, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.
    Caserta, Ezio
    Complex Operative Unit of Otolaryngology, Hospital of Padua, Padua, Italy.
    Gheller, Flavia
    Department of Neurosciences, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.
    Giacomelli, Cristina
    Department of Neurosciences, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.
    Montino, Silvia
    Department of Neurosciences, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.
    Limongi, Federica
    Institute of Neuroscience, National Research Council, Padua, Italy.
    Brotto, Davide
    Complex Operative Unit of Otolaryngology, Hospital of Padua, Padua, Italy.
    Gabelli, Carlo
    Regional Center for the Study and Treatment of the Aging Brain, Department of Internal Medicine, Padua, Italy.
    Trevisi, Patrizia
    Department of Neurosciences, University of Padua, Padua, Italy; Complex Operative Unit of Otolaryngology, Hospital of Padua, Padua, Italy.
    Bovo, Roberto
    Department of Neurosciences, University of Padua, Padua, Italy; Complex Operative Unit of Otolaryngology, Hospital of Padua, Padua, Italy.
    Martini, Alessandro
    Department of Neurosciences, University of Padua, Padua, Italy; Complex Operative Unit of Otolaryngology, Hospital of Padua, Padua, Italy.
    Correspondence Between Cognitive and Audiological Evaluations Among the Elderly: A Preliminary Report of an Audiological Screening Model of Subjects at Risk of Cognitive Decline With Slightto Moderate Hearing Loss2019In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 13, article id 1279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epidemiological studies show increasing prevalence rates of cognitive decline and hearing loss with age, particularly after the age of 65 years. These conditions are reported to be associated, although conclusive evidence of causality and implications is lacking. Nevertheless, audiological and cognitive assessment among elderly people is a key target for comprehensive and multidisciplinary evaluation of the subject's frailty status. To evaluate the use of tools for identifying older adults at risk of hearing loss and cognitive decline and to compare skills and abilities in terms of hearing and cognitive performances between older adults and young subjects, we performed a prospective cross-sectional study using supraliminal auditory tests. The relationship between cognitive assessment results and audiometric results was investigated, and reference ranges for different ages or stages of disease were determined. Patients older than 65 years with different degrees of hearing function were enrolled. Each subject underwent an extensive audiological assessment, including tonal and speech audiometry, Italian Matrix Sentence Test, and speech audiometry with logatomes in quiet. Cognitive function was screened and then verified by experienced clinicians using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Score, the Geriatric Depression Scale, and further investigations in some. One hundred twenty-three subjects were finally enrolled during 2016-2019: 103 were >65 years of age and 20 were younger participants (as controls). Cognitive functions showed a correlation with the audiological results in post-lingual hearing-impaired patients, in particular in those affected by slight to moderate hearing loss and aged more than 70 years. Audiological testing can thus be useful in clinical assessment and identification of patients at risk of cognitive impairment. The study was limited by its sample size (CI 95%; CL 10%), strict dependence on language, and hearing threshold. Further investigations should be cond

  • 21.
    Chen, Guang
    et al.
    Tongji Univ, Coll Automot Engn, Shanghai, Peoples R China.;Tech Univ Munich, Chair Robot Artificial Intelligence & Real Time S, Munich, Germany..
    Chen, Jieneng
    Tongji Univ, Coll Elect & Informat Engn, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Lienen, Marten
    Tech Univ Munich, Chair Robot Artificial Intelligence & Real Time S, Munich, Germany..
    Conradt, Jörg
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Roehrbein, Florian
    Tech Univ Munich, Chair Robot Artificial Intelligence & Real Time S, Munich, Germany..
    Knoll, Alois C.
    Tech Univ Munich, Chair Robot Artificial Intelligence & Real Time S, Munich, Germany..
    FLGR: Fixed Length Gists Representation Learning for RNN-HMM Hybrid-Based Neuromorphic Continuous Gesture Recognition2019In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 13, article id 73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A neuromorphic vision sensors is a novel passive sensing modality and frameless sensors with several advantages over conventional cameras. Frame-based cameras have an average frame-rate of 30 fps, causing motion blur when capturing fast motion, e.g., hand gesture. Rather than wastefully sending entire images at a fixed frame rate, neuromorphic vision sensors only transmit the local pixel-level changes induced by the movement in a scene when they occur. This leads to advantageous characteristics, including low energy consumption, high dynamic range, a sparse event stream and low response latency. In this study, a novel representation learning method was proposed: Fixed Length Gists Representation (FLGR) learning for event-based gesture recognition. Previous methods accumulate events into video frames in a time duration (e.g., 30 ms) to make the accumulated image-level representation. However, the accumulated-frame-based representation waives the friendly event-driven paradigm of neuromorphic vision sensor. New representation are urgently needed to fill the gap in non-accumulated-frame-based representation and exploit the further capabilities of neuromorphic vision. The proposed FLGR is a sequence learned from mixture density autoencoder and preserves the nature of event-based data better. FLGR has a data format of fixed length, and it is easy to feed to sequence classifier. Moreover, an RNN-HMM hybrid was proposed to address the continuous gesture recognition problem. Recurrent neural network (RNN) was applied for FLGR sequence classification while hidden Markov model (HMM) is employed for localizing the candidate gesture and improving the result in a continuous sequence. A neuromorphic continuous hand gestures dataset (Neuro ConGD Dataset) was developed with 17 hand gestures classes for the community of the neuromorphic research. Hopefully, FLGR can inspire the study on the event-based highly efficient, high-speed, and high-dynamic-range sequence classification tasks.

  • 22.
    Chen, Heping
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH). Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Biomed Engn, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Shi, Yan
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Biomed Engn, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Bo, Bin
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Biomed Engn, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Zhao, Denghui
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Biomed Engn, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Miao, Peng
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Biomed Engn, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Tong, Shanbao
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Biomed Engn, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Chunliang
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Medical Imaging.
    Real-Time Cerebral Vessel Segmentation in Laser Speckle Contrast Image Based on Unsupervised Domain Adaptation2021In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 15, article id 755198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is a full-field, high spatiotemporal resolution and low-cost optical technique for measuring blood flow, which has been successfully used for neurovascular imaging. However, due to the low signal-noise ratio and the relatively small sizes, segmenting the cerebral vessels in LSCI has always been a technical challenge. Recently, deep learning has shown its advantages in vascular segmentation. Nonetheless, ground truth by manual labeling is usually required for training the network, which makes it difficult to implement in practice. In this manuscript, we proposed a deep learning-based method for real-time cerebral vessel segmentation of LSCI without ground truth labels, which could be further integrated into intraoperative blood vessel imaging system. Synthetic LSCI images were obtained with a synthesis network from LSCI images and public labeled dataset of Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction, which were then used to train the segmentation network. Using matching strategies to reduce the size discrepancy between retinal images and laser speckle contrast images, we could further significantly improve image synthesis and segmentation performance. In the testing LSCI images of rodent cerebral vessels, the proposed method resulted in a dice similarity coefficient of over 75%.

  • 23.
    Comasco, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Frokjaer, Vibe G
    Department of Neurology, Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging and Neurobiology Research Unit 6931, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark.
    Sundström-Poromaa, Inger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Functional and molecular neuroimaging of menopause and hormone replacement therapy2014In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 8, p. 388-Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The level of gonadal hormones to which the female brain is exposed considerably changes across the menopausal transition, which in turn, is likely to be of great relevance for neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. However, the neurobiological consequences of these hormone fluctuations and of hormone replacement therapy in the menopause have only begun to be understood. The present review summarizes the findings of thirty-five studies of human brain function, including functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron and single-photon computed emission tomography studies, in peri- and postmenopausal women treated with estrogen, or estrogen-progestagen replacement therapy. Seven studies using gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist intervention as a model of hormonal withdrawal are also included. Cognitive paradigms are employed by the majority of studies evaluating the effect of unopposed estrogen or estrogen-progestagen treatment on peri- and postmenopausal women's brain. In randomized-controlled trials, estrogen treatment enhances activation of fronto-cingulate regions during cognitive functioning, though in many cases no difference in cognitive performance was present. Progestagens seems to counteract the effects of estrogens. Findings on cognitive functioning during acute ovarian hormone withdrawal suggest a decrease in activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus, thus essentially corroborating the findings in postmenopausal women. Studies of the cholinergic and serotonergic systems indicate these systems as biological mediators of hormonal influences on the brain. More, hormonal replacement appears to increase cerebral blood flow in several cortical regions. On the other hand, studies on emotion processing in postmenopausal women are lacking. These results call for well-powered randomized-controlled multi-modal prospective neuroimaging studies as well as investigation on the related molecular mechanisms of effects of menopausal hormonal variations on the brain.

  • 24.
    Commuri, Vrishab
    et al.
    Univ Maryland, MD 20742 USA.
    Kulasingham, Joshua
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Jonathan Z.
    Univ Maryland, MD 20742 USA.
    Cortical responses time-locked to continuous speech in the high-gamma band depend on selective attention2023In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 17, article id 1264453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Auditory cortical responses to speech obtained by magnetoencephalography (MEG) show robust speech tracking to the speaker ' s fundamental frequency in the high-gamma band (70-200 Hz), but little is currently known about whether such responses depend on the focus of selective attention. In this study 22 human subjects listened to concurrent, fixed-rate, speech from male and female speakers, and were asked to selectively attend to one speaker at a time, while their neural responses were recorded with MEG. The male speaker ' s pitch range coincided with the lower range of the high-gamma band, whereas the female speaker ' s higher pitch range had much less overlap, and only at the upper end of the high-gamma band. Neural responses were analyzed using the temporal response function (TRF) framework. As expected, the responses demonstrate robust speech tracking of the fundamental frequency in the high-gamma band, but only to the male ' s speech, with a peak latency of similar to 40 ms. Critically, the response magnitude depends on selective attention: the response to the male speech is significantly greater when male speech is attended than when it is not attended, under acoustically identical conditions. This is a clear demonstration that even very early cortical auditory responses are influenced by top-down, cognitive, neural processing mechanisms.

  • 25.
    Dahlén, Amelia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Schofield, Aphra
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Fac Hlth, Sch Psychol, Liverpool, Lancashire, England..
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Functional Pharmacology and neuroscience.
    Brooks, Samantha J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences. Liverpool John Moores Univ, Fac Hlth, Sch Psychol, Liverpool, Lancashire, England.;Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Human & Community Dev, Dept Psychol, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Subliminal Emotional Faces Elicit Predominantly Right-Lateralized Amygdala Activation: A Systematic Meta-Analysis of fMRI Studies2022In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 16, article id 868366Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research suggests that conscious face processing occurs preferentially in right hemisphere occipito-parietal regions. However, less is known about brain regions associated with non-conscious processing of faces, and whether a right-hemispheric dominance persists in line with specific affective responses. We aim to review the neural responses systematically, quantitatively, and qualitatively underlying subliminal face processing. PubMed was searched for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) publications assessing subliminal emotional face stimuli up to March 2022. Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analyses and narrative reviews were conducted on all studies that met ALE requirements. Risk of bias was assessed using the AXIS tool. In a meta-analysis of all 22 eligible studies (merging clinical and non-clinical populations, whole brain and region of interest analyses), bilateral amygdala activation was reported in the left (x = -19.2, y = 1.5, z = -17.1) in 59% of studies, and in the right (x = 24.4, y = -1.7, z = -17.4) in 68% of studies. In a second meta-analysis of non-clinical participants only (n = 18), bilateral amygdala was again reported in the left (x = -18, y = 3.9, z = -18.4) and right (x = 22.8, y = -0.9, z = -17.4) in 56% of studies for both clusters. In a final meta-analysis of whole-brain studies only (n=14), bilateral amygdala was also reported in the left (x = -20.2, y = 2.9, z = -17.2) in 64% of studies, and right (x = 24.2, y = -0.7, z = -17.8) in 71% of studies. The findings suggest that non-consciously detected emotional faces may influence amygdala activation, especially right-lateralized (a higher percentage of convergence in studies), which are integral for pre-conscious affect and long-term memory processing.

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  • 26.
    de Paula, Gabriela Cristina
    et al.
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Brazil; Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Brazil.
    Brunetta, Henver S.
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Brazil.
    Engel, Daiane F.
    Univ Fed Ouro Preto, Brazil; Univ Estadual Campinas, Brazil.
    Gaspar, Joana M.
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Brazil.
    Velloso, Licio A.
    Univ Estadual Campinas, Brazil.
    Engblom, David
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    de Oliveira, Jade
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Fabro de Bem, Andreza
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Univ Brasilia, Brazil.
    Hippocampal Function Is Impaired by a Short-Term High-Fat Diet in Mice: Increased Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability and Neuroinflammation as Triggering Events2021In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 15, article id 734158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Worldwide, and especially in Western civilizations, most of the staple diets contain high amounts of fat and refined carbohydrates, leading to an increasing number of obese individuals. In addition to inducing metabolic disorders, energy dense food intake has been suggested to impair brain functions such as cognition and mood control. Here we demonstrate an impaired memory function already 3 days after the start of a high-fat diet (HFD) exposure, and depressive-like behavior, in the tail suspension test, after 5 days. These changes were followed by reduced synaptic density, changes in mitochondrial function and astrocyte activation in the hippocampus. Preceding or coinciding with the behavioral changes, we found an induction of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6 and an increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), in the hippocampus. Finally, in mice treated with a TNF-alpha inhibitor, the behavioral and BBB alterations caused by HFD-feeding were mitigated suggesting that inflammatory signaling was critical for the changes. In summary, our findings suggest that HFD rapidly triggers hippocampal dysfunction associated with BBB disruption and neuroinflammation, promoting a progressive breakdown of synaptic and metabolic function. In addition to elucidating the link between diet and cognitive function, our results might be relevant for the comprehension of the neurodegenerative process.

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  • 27.
    Deng, Tingzhi
    et al.
    Binzhou Med Univ, Precis Med Res Ctr, Sch Pharm, Yantai, Peoples R China..
    Li, Jingjing
    Binzhou Med Univ, Precis Med Res Ctr, Sch Pharm, Yantai, Peoples R China.;Qingdao Univ, Yantai Yuhuangding Hosp, Dept Otorhinolaryngol Head & Neck Surg, Yantai, Peoples R China.;Binzhou Med Univ, Clin Med Coll 2, Yantai, Peoples R China..
    Liu, Jian
    Shandong First Med Univ, Shandong Prov Qianfoshan Hosp, Dept Plast Surg, Affiliated Hosp 1, Jinan, Peoples R China..
    Xu, Fuyi
    Binzhou Med Univ, Precis Med Res Ctr, Sch Pharm, Yantai, Peoples R China.;Univ Tennessee, Dept Genet Genom & Informat, Hlth Sci Ctr, Memphis, TN USA..
    Liu, Xiaoya
    Binzhou Med Univ, Precis Med Res Ctr, Sch Pharm, Yantai, Peoples R China..
    Mi, Jia
    Binzhou Med Univ, Precis Med Res Ctr, Sch Pharm, Yantai, Peoples R China..
    Bergquist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry. Binzhou Med Univ, Precis Med Res Ctr, Sch Pharm, Yantai, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Helen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Yang, Chunhua
    Binzhou Med Univ, Precis Med Res Ctr, Sch Pharm, Yantai, Peoples R China..
    Lu, Lu
    Univ Tennessee, Dept Genet Genom & Informat, Hlth Sci Ctr, Memphis, TN USA..
    Song, Xicheng
    Qingdao Univ, Yantai Yuhuangding Hosp, Dept Otorhinolaryngol Head & Neck Surg, Yantai, Peoples R China..
    Yao, Cuifang
    Binzhou Med Univ, Precis Med Res Ctr, Sch Pharm, Yantai, Peoples R China..
    Tian, Geng
    Binzhou Med Univ, Precis Med Res Ctr, Sch Pharm, Yantai, Peoples R China..
    Zheng, Qing Yin
    Case Western Reserve Univ, Dept Otolaryngol Head & Neck Surg, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA..
    Hippocampal Transcriptome-Wide Association Study Reveals Correlations Between Impaired Glutamatergic Synapse Pathway and Age-Related Hearing Loss in BXD-Recombinant Inbred Mice2021In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 15, article id 745668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is associated with cognitive dysfunction; however, the detailed underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential underlying mechanism with a system genetics approach. A transcriptome-wide association study was performed on aged (12-32 months old) BXD mice strains. The hippocampus gene expression was obtained from 56 BXD strains, and the hearing acuity was assessed from 54 BXD strains. Further correlation analysis identified a total of 1,435 hearing-related genes in the hippocampus (p < 0.05). Pathway analysis of these genes indicated that the impaired glutamatergic synapse pathway is involved in ARHL (p = 0.0038). Further gene co-expression analysis showed that the expression level of glutamine synthetase (Gls), which is significantly correlated with ARHL (n = 26, r = -0.46, p = 0.0193), is a crucial regulator in glutamatergic synapse pathway and associated with learning and memory behavior. In this study, we present the first systematic evaluation of hippocampus gene expression pattern associated with ARHL, learning, and memory behavior. Our results provide novel potential molecular mechanisms involved in ARHL and cognitive dysfunction association.

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  • 28. Droguerre, Marine
    et al.
    Duchêne, Adeline
    Picoli, Christèle
    Portal, Benjamin
    Lejards, Camille
    Guiard, Bruno P
    Meunier, Johann
    Villard, Vanessa
    Déglon, Nicole
    Hamon, Michel
    Mouthon, Franck
    Charvériat, Mathieu
    Efficacy of THN201, a Combination of Donepezil and Mefloquine, to Reverse Neurocognitive Deficits in Alzheimer's Disease.2020In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 14, article id 563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Donepezil (DPZ) is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used in Alzheimer's disease to restore cognitive functions but is endowed with limited efficacy. Recent studies pointed out the implication of astroglial networks in cognitive processes, notably via astrocyte connexins (Cxs), proteins involved in gap junction intercellular communications. Hence, we investigated the impact on cognition of pharmacological or genetic modulations of those astrocyte Cxs during DPZ challenge in two rodent models of Alzheimer's disease-like memory deficits. We demonstrated that the Cx modulator mefloquine (MEF) significantly enhanced the procognitive effect of DPZ in both models. In parallel, we determined that MEF potentiated DPZ-induced release of acetylcholine in hippocampus. Finally, local genetic silencing of astrocyte Cxs in the hippocampus was also found to enhance the procognitive effect of DPZ, pointing out the importance of Cx-dependent astrocyte networks in memory processes.

  • 29.
    Duchesne, Annie
    et al.
    Univ Northern British Columbia, Canada.
    Pletzer, Belinda
    Univ Salzburg, Austria.
    Pavlova, Marina A.
    Eberhard Karls Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Lai, Meng-Chuan
    Azrieli Adult Neurodev Ctr, Canada; Ctr Addict and Mental Hlth, Canada; Hosp Sick Children, Canada; Hosp Sick Children, Canada; Univ Toronto, Canada; Univ Cambridge, England; Natl Taiwan Univ Hosp, Taiwan; Coll Med, Taiwan; Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Einstein, Gillian
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Toronto, Canada; Baycrest Hosp, Canada; Canadian Consortium Neurodegenerat and Aging, Canada; Wilfred and Joyce Posluns Chair Womens Brain Hlth and, Canada.
    Editorial: Bridging Gaps Between Sex and Gender2020In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, FRONTIERS IN NEUROSCIENCE, Vol. 14, article id 561Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 30.
    Ekman, Urban
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Domellöf, Magdalena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Elgh, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Lundquist, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Longitudinal changes in task-evoked brain responses in Parkinson's disease patients with and without mild cognitive impairment2014In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 8, article id 207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive deficits are common in Parkinson's disease. Previous cross-sectional research has demonstrated a link between cognitive impairments and fronto-striatal dopaminergic dysmodulation. However, longitudinal studies that link disease progression with altered task-evoked brain activity are lacking. Therefore, our objective was to longitudinally evaluate working-memory related brain activity changes in Parkinson's disease patients with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Patients were recruited within a longitudinal cohort study of incident patients with idiopathic parkinsonism. We longitudinally (at baseline examination and at 12-months follow-up) compared 28 patients with Parkinson's disease without MCI with 11 patients with Parkinson's disease and MCI. Functional MRI blood oxygen level dependent signal was measured during a verbal two-back working-memory task. Patients with MCI under-recruited bilateral medial prefrontal cortex at both time-points (main effect of group: p < 0.001, uncorrected). Critically, a significant group-by-time interaction effect (p < 0.001, uncorrected) was found in the right fusiform gyrus, indicating that working-memory related activity decreased for patients with Parkinson's disease and MCI between baseline and follow-up, while patients without MCI were stable across time-points. The functional connectivity between right fusiform gyrus and bilateral caudate nucleus was stronger for patients without MCI relative to patients with MCI. Our findings support the view that deficits in working-memory updating are related to persistent fronto-striatal under-recruitments in patients with early phase Parkinson's disease and MCI. The longitudinal evolution of MCI in Parkinson's disease translates into additional task-evoked posterior cortical changes.

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  • 31.
    Fanton, Silvia
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Neuroradiol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Altawil, Reem
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Ctr Mol Med, Dept Med,Rheumatol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ellerbrock, Isabel
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Neuroradiol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lampa, Jon
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Ctr Mol Med, Dept Med,Rheumatol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kosek, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Pain. Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Neuroradiol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fransson, Peter
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Neuroradiol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Thompson, William H.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Dept Appl IT, Div Cognit & Commun, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Multiple spatial scale mapping of time-resolved brain network reconfiguration during evoked pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis2022In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 16, article id 942136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional brain networks and the perception of pain can fluctuate over time. However, how the time-dependent reconfiguration of functional brain networks contributes to chronic pain remains largely unexplained. Here, we explored time-varying changes in brain network integration and segregation during pain over a disease-affected area (joint) compared to a neutral site (thumbnail) in 28 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in comparison with 22 healthy controls (HC). During functional magnetic resonance imaging, all subjects received individually calibrated pain pressures corresponding to visual analog scale 50 mm at joint and thumbnail. We implemented a novel approach to track changes of task-based network connectivity over time. Within this framework, we quantified measures of integration (participation coefficient, PC) and segregation (within-module degree z-score). Using these network measures at multiple spatial scales, both at the level of single nodes (brain regions) and communities (clusters of nodes), we found that PC at the community level was generally higher in RA patients compared to HC during and after painful pressure over the inflamed joint and corresponding site in HC. This shows that all brain communities integrate more in RA patients than in HC for time points following painful stimulation to a disease-relevant body site. However, the elevated community-related integration seen in patients appeared to not pertain uniquely to painful stimulation at the inflamed joint, but also at the neutral thumbnail, as integration and segregation at the community level did not differ across body sites in patients. Moreover, there was no specific nodal contribution to brain network integration or segregation. Altogether, our findings indicate widespread and persistent changes in network interaction in RA patients compared to HC in response to painful stimulation.

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  • 32.
    Favre-Felix, Antoine
    et al.
    Eriksholm Res Ctr, Denmark; Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Graversen, Carina
    Eriksholm Res Ctr, Denmark.
    Bhuiyan, Tanveer A.
    Eriksholm Res Ctr, Denmark.
    Skoglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Eriksholm Res Ctr, Denmark.
    Rotger-Griful, Sergi
    Eriksholm Res Ctr, Denmark.
    Rank, Mike Lind
    UNEEG Med AS, Denmark.
    Dau, Torsten
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Eriksholm Res Ctr, Denmark; Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Absolute Eye Gaze Estimation With Biosensors in Hearing Aids2019In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, FRONTIERS IN NEUROSCIENCE, Vol. 13, article id 1294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People with hearing impairment typically have difficulties following conversations in multi-talker situations. Previous studies have shown that utilizing eye gaze to steer audio through beamformers could be a solution for those situations. Recent studies have shown that in-ear electrodes that capture electrooculography in the ear (EarEOG) can estimate the eye-gaze relative to the head, when the head was fixed. The head movement can be estimated using motion sensors around the ear to create an estimate of the absolute eye-gaze in the room. In this study, an experiment was designed to mimic a multi-talker situation in order to study and model the EarEOG signal when participants attempted to follow a conversation. Eleven hearing impaired participants were presented speech from the DAT speech corpus (Bo Nielsen et al., 2014), with three targets positioned at -30 degrees, 0 degrees and +30 degrees azimuth. The experiment was run in two setups: one where the participants had their head fixed in a chinrest, and the other where they were free to move their head. The participants task was to focus their visual attention on an LED-indicated target that changed regularly. A model was developed for the relative eye-gaze estimation, taking saccades, fixations, head movement and drift from the electrode-skin half-cell into account. This model explained 90.5% of the variance of the EarEOG when the head was fixed, and 82.6% when the head was free. The absolute eye-gaze was also estimated utilizing that model. When the head was fixed, the estimation of the absolute eye-gaze was reliable. However, due to hardware issues, the estimation of the absolute eye-gaze when the head was free had a variance that was too large to reliably estimate the attended target. Overall, this study demonstrated the potential of estimating absolute eye-gaze using EarEOG and motion sensors around the ear.

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  • 33. Freischmidt, Axel
    et al.
    Brenner, David
    Ludolph, Albert C.
    Andersen, Peter M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Neurosciences.
    Weishaupt, Jochen H.
    Commentary: Effects of ALS-associated TANK binding kinase 1 mutations on protein-protein interactions and kinase activity2020In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 14, article id 551006Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 34.
    Frid, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Alborno, Paolo
    Elblaus, Ludvig
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Interactive Sonification of Spontaneous Movement of Children: Cross-Modal Mapping and the Perception of Body Movement Qualities through Sound2016In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 10, article id 521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present three studies focusing on the effect of different sound models in interactive sonification of bodily movement. We hypothesized that a sound model characterized by continuous smooth sounds would be associated with other movement characteristics than a model characterized by abrupt variation in amplitude and that these associations could be reflected in spontaneous movement characteristics. Three subsequent studies were conducted to investigate the relationship between properties of bodily movement and sound: (1) a motion capture experiment involving interactive sonification of a group of children spontaneously moving in a room, (2) an experiment involving perceptual ratings of sonified movement data and (3) an experiment involving matching between sonified movements and their visualizations in the form of abstract drawings. In (1) we used a system constituting of 17 IR cameras tracking passive reflective markers. The head positions in the horizontal plane of 3-4 children were simultaneously tracked and sonified, producing 3-4 sound sources spatially displayed through an 8-channel loudspeaker system. We analyzed children’s spontaneous movement in terms of energy-, smoothness- and directness index. Despite large inter-participant variability and group-specific effects caused by interaction among children when engaging in the spontaneous movement task, we found a small but significant effect of sound model. Results from (2) indicate that different sound models can be rated differently on a set of motion-related perceptual scales (e.g. expressivity and fluidity). Also, results imply that audio-only stimuli can evoke stronger perceived properties of movement (e.g. energetic, impulsive) than stimuli involving both audio and video representations. Findings in (3) suggest that sounds portraying bodily movement can be represented using abstract drawings in a meaningful way. We argue that the results from these studies support the existence of a cross-modal mapping of body motion qualities from bodily movement to sounds. Sound can be translated and understood from bodily motion, conveyed through sound visualizations in the shape of drawings and translated back from sound visualizations to audio. The work underlines the potential of using interactive sonification to communicate high-level features of human movement data.

  • 35. Grigoriadis, Anastasios
    et al.
    Kumar, Abhishek
    Åberg, Magnus K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Trulsson, Mats
    Effect of Sudden Deprivation of Sensory Inputs From Periodontium on Mastication2019In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 13, article id 1316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the effect of sudden deprivation of sensory inputs from the periodontium on jaw kinematics and time-varying activation profile of the masseter muscle.

    Methods: Fourteen (age range: 22-26 years; four men) healthy and natural dentate volunteers participated in a single experimental session. During the experiment, the participants were asked to eat six hard visco-elastic test food models, three each before and after an anesthetic intervention. The movements of the jaw in three dimensions and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the masseter muscle on the chewing side were recorded.

    Results: The results of the study showed no significant differences in the number of chewing cycles (P = 0.233) and the duration of chewing sequence (P = 0.198) due to sudden deprivation of sensory inputs from the periodontium. However, there was a significant increase in the jaw opening velocity (P = 0.030) and a significant increase in the duration of occlusal phase (P = 0.004) during the anesthetized condition. The EMG activity of the jaw closing phase was significantly higher during the control condition [116.5 arbitrary units (AU)] than anesthetized condition (93.9 AU). The temporal profile of the masseter muscle showed a biphasic increase in the excitatory muscle drive in the control condition but this increase was virtually absent during the anesthetized condition.

    Conclusion: Sudden deprivation of sensory inputs from the periodontium affects the jaw kinematics and jaw muscle activity, with a clear difference in the time-varying activation profile of the masseter muscle. The activation profile of the masseter muscle shows that periodontal mechanoreceptors contribute to approximately 20% of the EMG activity during the jaw closing phase.

  • 36.
    Haller, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology. CIRD, Geneva, Switzerland; Univ Geneva, Fac Med, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Montandon, Marie-Louise
    Univ Geneva, Univ Hosp Geneva, Dept Rehabil & Geriatr, Geneva, Switzerland;Univ Geneva, Dept Psychiat, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Rodriguez, Cristelle
    Univ Geneva, Dept Psychiat, Geneva, Switzerland;Geneva Univ Hosp, Div Inst Measures, Med Direct, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Garibotto, Valentina
    Geneva Univ Hosp, Dept Diagnost, Div Nucl Med & Mol Imaging, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Lilja, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology. Hermes Med Solut, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Herrmann, Francois R.
    Univ Geneva, Univ Hosp Geneva, Dept Rehabil & Geriatr, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon
    Univ Geneva, Dept Psychiat, Geneva, Switzerland;Geneva Univ Hosp, Div Inst Measures, Med Direct, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Amyloid Load, Hippocampal Volume Loss, and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Changes in Early Phases of Brain Aging2019In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 13, article id 1228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Purpose Amyloid imaging, gray matter (GM) morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have all been used as predictive biomarkers in dementia. Our objective was to define the imaging profile of healthy elderly controls as a function of their cognitive trajectories and explore whether amyloid burden and white matter (WM) microstructure changes are associated with subtle decrement of neuropsychological performances in old age. Materials and Methods We performed a 4.5-year longitudinal study in 133 elderly individuals who underwent cognitive testing at inclusion and follow-up, amyloid PET, MRI including DTI sequences at inclusion, and APOE epsilon 4 genotyping. All cases were assessed using a continuous cognitive score (CCS) taking into account the global evolution of neuropsychological performances. Data processing included region of interest analysis of amyloid PET analysis, GM densities and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS)-DTI. Regression models were built to explore the association between the CCS and imaging parameters controlling for significant demographic and clinical covariates. Results Amyloid uptake was not related to the cognitive outcome. In contrast, GM densities in bilateral hippocampus were associated with worst CCS at follow-up. In addition, radial and axial diffusivities in left hippocampus were negatively associated with CCS. Amyloid load was associated with decreased VBM and increased radial and axial diffusivity in the same area. These associations persisted when adjusting for gender and APOE4 genotype. Importantly, they were absent in amygdala and neocortical areas studied. Conclusion The progressive decrement of neuropsychological performances in normal aging is associated with volume loss and WM microstructure changes in hippocampus long before the emergence of clinically overt symptoms. Higher amyloid load in hippocampus is compatible with cognitive preservation in cases with better preservation of GM densities and WM microstructure in this area.

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  • 37.
    Han, Yilin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics and Neurobiology.
    Barasa, Povilas
    Vilnius Univ, Inst Biochem, Vilnius, Lithuania..
    Zeger, Lukas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics and Neurobiology.
    Salomonsson, Sara B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Zanotti, Federica
    Univ Ferrara, Dept Translat Med, Ferrara, Italy..
    Egli, Marcel
    Lucerne Univ Appl Sci & Arts, Inst Med Engn, Sch Engn & Architecture, Space Biol Grp, Hergiswil, Switzerland.;Univ Zurich, Natl Ctr Biomed Res Space Innovat Cluster Space &, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Zavan, Barbara
    Univ Ferrara, Dept Translat Med, Ferrara, Italy..
    Trentini, Martina
    Univ Ferrara, Dept Translat Med, Ferrara, Italy..
    Florin, Gunnar
    Swedish Space Corp, Solna, Sweden..
    Vaerneus, Alf
    Swedish Space Corp, Solna, Sweden..
    Aldskogius, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics and Neurobiology.
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Kozlova, Elena N.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics and Neurobiology.
    Effects of microgravity on neural crest stem cells2024In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 18, article id 1379076Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to microgravity (μg) results in a range of systemic changes in the organism, but may also have beneficial cellular effects. In a previous study we detected increased proliferation capacity and upregulation of genes related to proliferation and survival in boundary cap neural crest stem cells (BC) after MASER14 sounding rocket flight compared to ground-based controls. However, whether these changes were due to μg or hypergravity was not clarified. In the current MASER15 experiment BCs were exposed simultaneously to μg and 1 g conditions provided by an onboard centrifuge. BCs exposed to μg displayed a markedly increased proliferation capacity compared to 1 g on board controls, and genetic analysis of BCs harvested 5 h after flight revealed an upregulation, specifically in μg-exposed BCs, of Zfp462 transcription factor, a key regulator of cell pluripotency and neuronal fate. This was associated with alterations in exosome microRNA content between μg and 1 g exposed MASER15 specimens. Since the specimens from MASER14 were obtained for analysis with 1 week’s delay, we examined whether gene expression and exosome content were different compared to the current MASER15 experiments, in which specimens were harvested 5 h after flight. The overall pattern of gene expression was different and Zfp462 expression was down-regulated in MASER14 BC μg compared to directly harvested specimens (MASER15). MicroRNA exosome content was markedly altered in medium harvested with delay compared to directly collected samples. In conclusion, our analysis indicates that even short exposure to μg alters gene expression, leading to increased BC capacity for proliferation and survival, lasting for a long time after μg exposure. With delayed harvest of specimens, a situation which may occur due to special post-flight circumstances, the exosome microRNA content is modified compared to fast specimen harvest, and the direct effects from μg exposure may be partially attenuated, whereas other effects can last for a long time after return to ground conditions.

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  • 38.
    Hedin, Gita
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Norell-Clarke, Annika
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health.
    Hagell, Peter
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap.
    Tønnesen, Hanne
    Lunds universitet.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap.
    Garmy, Pernilla
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap.
    Facilitators and barriers for a good night's sleep among adolescents2020In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sleep deprivation among adolescents is a major public health issue. Although previous studies have described their sleep habits and the consequences thereof, the voices of adolescents themselves are rarely heard. The aim of this study was to investigate adolescents' experiences regarding what they perceived as facilitators and barriers for a good night's sleep.

    Methods: A qualitative focus group study with Swedish adolescents (n = 45) aged 16-18 years was performed with seven focus groups and analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    Results: Three categories were identified in the analysis regarding facilitators and barriers for achieving a good night's sleep: (1) Striving for a sense of well-being, (2) Tiring yourself out, and (3) Regulating electronic media availability. The adolescents thought that sleep was important in order to be able to cope with everyday life and to allow physical recovery. Overall, the adolescents were knowledgeable regarding commonly recommended strategies for improving sleep, but they had trouble finding a balance between sleep and other activities. Electronic media was used to obtain a sense of belonging and to communicate with others, which in itself was described as important for the adolescents' well-being. However, communicating with friends and family during the night conflicted with achieving a good night's sleep. Parental behaviors (late work habits, internet rules) were also perceived as important for adolescents' sleep habits.

    Conclusions: An understanding of the dilemma of finding a balance between sleep and other activities may aid future sleep-promoting interventions for adolescents, incorporating the impact from social factors' on the adolescents' sleep.

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  • 39.
    Hedin, Gita
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013). Lund University, Sweden.
    Norell-Clarke, Annika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013). Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    Hagell, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Tønnesen, Hanne
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Westergren, Albert
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013). Lund University, Sweden.
    Garmy, Pernilla
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013). Lund University, Sweden.
    Facilitators and Barriers for a Good Night's Sleep Among Adolescents2020In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 14, p. 1-8, article id 92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Sleep deprivation among adolescents is a major public health issue. Although previous studies have described their sleep habits and the consequences thereof, the voices of adolescents themselves are rarely heard. The aim of this study was to investigate adolescents' experiences regarding what they perceived as facilitators and barriers for a good night's sleep. Methods A qualitative focus group study with Swedish adolescents (n = 45) aged 16-18 years was performed with seven focus groups and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Three categories were identified in the analysis regarding facilitators and barriers for achieving a good night's sleep: (1) Striving for a sense of well-being, (2) Tiring yourself out, and (3) Regulating electronic media availability. The adolescents thought that sleep was important in order to be able to cope with everyday life and to allow physical recovery. Overall, the adolescents were knowledgeable regarding commonly recommended strategies for improving sleep, but they had trouble finding a balance between sleep and other activities. Electronic media was used to obtain a sense of belonging and to communicate with others, which in itself was described as important for the adolescents' well-being. However, communicating with friends and family during the night conflicted with achieving a good night's sleep. Parental behaviors (late work habits, internet rules) were also perceived as important for adolescents' sleep habits. Conclusions An understanding of the dilemma of finding a balance between sleep and other activities may aid future sleep-promoting interventions for adolescents, incorporating the impact from social factors' on the adolescents' sleep.

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  • 40.
    Hedin, Gita
    et al.
    Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden; Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Norell-Clarke, Annika
    Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden; Faculty of Health and Science, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Hagell, Peter
    Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Tønnesen, Hanne
    Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Westergren, Albert
    Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden; Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Garmy, Pernilla
    Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden; Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Facilitators and Barriers for a Good Night’s Sleep Among Adolescents2020In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 14, article id 92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sleep deprivation among adolescents is a major public health issue. Although previous studies have described their sleep habits and the consequences thereof, the voices of adolescents themselves are rarely heard. The aim of this study was to investigate adolescents’ experiences regarding what they perceived as facilitators and barriers for a good night’s sleep.

    Methods: A qualitative focus group study with Swedish adolescents (n = 45) aged 16–18 years was performed with seven focus groups and analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    Results: Three categories were identified in the analysis regarding facilitators and barriers for achieving a good night’s sleep: (1) Striving for a sense of well-being, (2) Tiring yourself out, and (3) Regulating electronic media availability. The adolescents thought that sleep was important in order to be able to cope with everyday life and to allow physical recovery. Overall, the adolescents were knowledgeable regarding commonly recommended strategies for improving sleep, but they had trouble finding a balance between sleep and other activities. Electronic media was used to obtain a sense of belonging and to communicate with others, which in itself was described as important for the adolescents’ well-being. However, communicating with friends and family during the night conflicted with achieving a good night’s sleep. Parental behaviors (late work habits, internet rules) were also perceived as important for adolescents’ sleep habits.

    Conclusions: An understanding of the dilemma of finding a balance between sleep and other activities may aid future sleep-promoting interventions for adolescents, incorporating the impact from social factors’ on the adolescents’ sleep.

  • 41.
    Hedin, Gita
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Sweden; Lund University, Sweden..
    Norell-Clarke, Annika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Kristianstad University, Sweden; Örebro University, Sweden.
    Tonnesen, Hanne
    Lund University, Sweden; University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, Sweden; Lund University, Sweden.
    Garmy, Pernilla
    Kristianstad University, Sweden; Lund University, Sweden.
    Contributory factors for teen insomnia symptoms: A prospective cohort study in Sweden2022In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 16, article id 904974Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectivesInsufficient sleep is a public health problem that impacts the mental and physical health of children and adolescents. Complaints of insomnia are particularly pervasive among adolescents. This longitudinal study investigates factors that contribute to teen insomnia symptoms. DesignFive-year prospective follow-up study. SettingSchool-based. ParticipantsA total of 522 children (49.8% girls) aged 9.4 +/- 1.3 years at baseline; 14.4 +/- 0.7 years at follow-up. MeasurementsThe dependent variable of insomnia symptoms at follow-up was assessed with the Minimal Insomnia Symptom Scale-Revised. The independent variables at baseline were the perceived family financial situation, tiredness at school, problems waking up, short sleep duration, sleeping difficulties, having a bedroom Television (TV), and time spent with a TV/computer. Multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were used to examine whether the independent variables at baseline predicted insomnia symptoms at follow-up. ResultsPerceived quite bad/very bad family financial situation (OR 3.1; CI 1.4-6.7) and short sleep duration (<10 h) (OR 2.3; CI 1.0-5.3) among girls at baseline were associated with insomnia symptoms at follow-up. Having problems waking up among boys at baseline was associated with insomnia symptoms at follow-up (OR 4.9; CI 1.6-14.4). ConclusionShort sleep duration, problems waking up, and perceived bad family financial situation during childhood were linked with adolescent insomnia symptoms. The sex-based differences in these associations warrant further investigation to effectively mitigate adolescent insomnia.

  • 42.
    Hedin, Gita
    et al.
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden; Clinical Health Promotion Centre, WHO-Collaborating Centre, Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Norell-Clarke, Annika
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden; Department of Social and Psychological Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Tønnesen, Hanne
    Clinical Health Promotion Centre, WHO-Collaborating Centre, Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Westergren, Albert
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Garmy, Pernilla
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden; Clinical Health Promotion Centre, WHO-Collaborating Centre, Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Contributory Factors for Teen Insomnia Symptoms: A Prospective Cohort Study in Sweden2022In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 16, article id 904974Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Insufficient sleep is a public health problem that impacts the mental and physical health of children and adolescents. Complaints of insomnia are particularly pervasive among adolescents. This longitudinal study investigates factors that contribute to teen insomnia symptoms.

    Design: Five-year prospective follow-up study.

    Setting: School-based.

    Participants: A total of 522 children (49.8% girls) aged 9.4 ± 1.3 years at baseline; 14.4 ± 0.7 years at follow-up.

    Measurements: The dependent variable of insomnia symptoms at follow-up was assessed with the Minimal Insomnia Symptom Scale-Revised. The independent variables at baseline were the perceived family financial situation, tiredness at school, problems waking up, short sleep duration, sleeping difficulties, having a bedroom Television (TV), and time spent with a TV/computer. Multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were used to examine whether the independent variables at baseline predicted insomnia symptoms at follow-up.

    Results: Perceived quite bad/very bad family financial situation (OR 3.1; CI 1.4-6.7) and short sleep duration (<10 h) (OR 2.3; CI 1.0-5.3) among girls at baseline were associated with insomnia symptoms at follow-up. Having problems waking up among boys at baseline was associated with insomnia symptoms at follow-up (OR 4.9; CI 1.6-14.4).

    Conclusion: Short sleep duration, problems waking up, and perceived bad family financial situation during childhood were linked with adolescent insomnia symptoms. The sex-based differences in these associations warrant further investigation to effectively mitigate adolescent insomnia.

  • 43.
    Hena, Momota
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Garmy, Pernilla
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap. Lunds universitet.
    Social jetlag and its association with screen time and nighttime texting among adolescents in Sweden: a cross-sectional study2020In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The discrepancy between social and biological clock due to sleep and wake up time difference across weekdays and weekends is referred as social jetlag. The overall aim of this study is to test whether there is an association between both screen time and nighttime texting and social jetlag among 13- to 15-year-old adolescents in Sweden. This study included a cross-sectional survey in which data were collected from all schools with grades 7 and 8 in four municipalities in southern Sweden. The sample consisted of 1518 students (72.7% response rate), among whom 50.7% were girls. Ages varied between 13 and 15 years (mean, 13.9; standard deviation (SD), 0.4). Social jetlag was defined as more than 2 h difference between bedtime and wake-up time on school days compared to weekends. The prevalence of social jetlag among this study population was 53.9%. After adjusting for age, sex, and economic status, the multivariate binary logistic regression analysis results showed that increased screen time (p < 0.001) and texting at night (p = 0.002) were significantly associated with social jetlag. Irregular bedtime and wake-up habits on school days and weekends are associated with nighttime texting and increased screen time. For future research, more focus should be given to identifying causality factors and gain an understanding of the effects of social jetlag, which will help in developing appropriate public health messages and intervention programs.

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  • 44. Henningsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Zettergren, Anna
    Hovey, Daniel
    Jonsson, Lina
    Svärd, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Cortes, Diana S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Melke, Jonas
    Ebner, Natalie C.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Westberg, Lars
    Association between polymorphisms in NOS3 and KCNH2 and social memory2015In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 9, article id 393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social memory, including the ability to recognize faces and voices, is essential for social relationships. It has a large heritable component, but the knowledge about the contributing genes is sparse. The genetic variation underlying inter-individual differences in social memory was investigated in an exploratory sample (n = 55), genotyped with a chip comprising approximately 200,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and in a validation sample (n = 582), where 30 SNPs were targeted. In the exploratory study face identity recognition was measured. The validation study also measured vocal sound recognition, as well as recognition of faces and vocal sounds combined (multimodal condition). In the exploratory study, the 30 SNPs that were associated with face recognition at puncorrected < 0.001 and located in genes, were chosen for further study. In the validation study two of these SNPs showed significant associations with recognition of faces, vocal sounds, and multimodal stimuli: rs1800779 in the gene encoding nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) and rs3807370 in the gene encoding the voltage-gated channel, subfamily H, member 2 (KCNH2), in strong linkage disequilibrium with each other. The uncommon alleles were associated with superior performance, and the effects were present for men only (p < 0.0002). The exploratory study also showed a weaker but significant association with (non-emotional) word recognition, an effect that was independent of the effect on face recognition. This study demonstrates evidence for an association between NOS3 and KCNH2SNPs and social memory.

  • 45.
    Ingelsson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Alpha-Synuclein Oligomers-Neurotoxic Moleculesin Parkinson's Disease and Other Lewy Body Disorders2016In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 10, article id 408Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adverse intra- and extracellular effects of toxic a-synuclein are believed to be central to the pathogenesis in Parkinson's disease and other disorders with Lewy body pathology in the nervous system. One of the physiological roles of a-synuclein relates to the regulation of neurotransmitter release at the presynapse, although it is still unclear whether this mechanism depends on the action of monomers or smaller oligomers. As for the pathogenicity, accumulating evidence suggest that prefibrillar species, rather than the deposits per se, are responsible for the toxicity in affected cells. In particular, larger oligomers or protofibrils of a-synuclein have been shown to impair protein degradation as well as the function of several organelles, such as the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum. Accumulating evidence further suggest that oligomers/protofibrils may have a toxic effect on the synapse, which may lead to disrupted electrophysiological properties. In addition, recent data indicate that oligomeric a-synuclein species can spread between cells, either as free-floating proteins or via extracellular vesicles, and thereby act as seeds to propagate disease between interconnected brain regions. Taken together, several lines of evidence suggest that a-synuclein have neurotoxic properties and therefore should be an appropriate molecular target for therapeutic intervention in Parkinson's disease and other disorders with Lewy pathology. In this context, immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies against a-synuclein oligomers/protofibrils should be a particularly attractive treatment option.

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  • 46.
    Ising, Erik
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Sweden; Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    ahrman, Emma
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Thomsen, Niels O. B.
    Lund Univ, Sweden; Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    akesson, Anna
    Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Malmstroem, Johan
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Dahlin, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Lund Univ, Sweden; Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Quantification of heat shock proteins in the posterior interosseous nerve among subjects with type 1 and type 2 diabetes compared to healthy controls2023In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 17, article id 1227557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IntroductionDiabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common complication of both type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). No cure for DPN is available, but several potential targets have been proposed for treatment. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are known to respond to both hyper- and hypoglycemia. DPN can be diagnosed using electrophysiology and studied using peripheral nerve biopsies. AimThis study aimed to analyze the presence and patterns of HSPs in peripheral nerve biopsies from subjects with T1D, T2D, and healthy controls. MethodsPosterior interosseous nerves (PIN) from a total of 56 subjects with T1D (n = 9), with T2D (n = 24), and without diabetes (i.e., healthy controls, n = 23) were harvested under local anesthesia and prepared for quantitative mass spectrometry analysis. Protein intensities were associated with electrophysiology data of the ulnar nerve and morphometry of the same PIN, and differences in protein intensities between groups were analyzed. ResultsIn total, 32 different HSPs were identified and quantified in the nerve specimens. No statistically significant differences were observed regarding protein intensities between groups. Furthermore, protein intensities did not correlate with amplitude or conduction velocity in the ulnar nerve or with the myelinated nerve fiber density of PIN. ConclusionQuantitative proteomics can be used to study HSPs in nerve biopsies, but no clear differences in protein quantities were observed between groups in this cohort.

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  • 47. José Ferreiro, María
    et al.
    Pérez, Coralia
    Marchesano, Mariana
    Ruiz, Santiago
    Caputi, Angel
    Aguilera, Pedro
    Barrio, Rosa
    Cantera, Rafael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas Clemente Estable, Uruguay.
    Drosophila melanogaster White Mutant w(1118) Undergo Retinal Degeneration2018In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 11, article id 732Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Key scientific discoveries have resulted from genetic studies of Drosophila melanogaster, using a multitude of transgenic fly strains, the majority of which are constructed in a genetic background containing mutations in the white gene. Here we report that white mutant flies from w(1118) strain undergo retinal degeneration. We observed also that w(1118) mutants have progressive loss of climbing ability, shortened life span, as well as impaired resistance to various forms of stress. Retinal degeneration was abolished by transgenic expression of mini-white+ in the white null background w(1118). We conclude that beyond the classical eye-color phenotype, mutations in Drosophila white gene could impair several biological functions affecting parameters like mobility, life span and stress tolerance. Consequently, we suggest caution and attentiveness during the interpretation of old experiments employing white mutant flies and when planning new ones, especially within the research field of neurodegeneration and neuroprotection. We also encourage that the use of w(1118) strain as a wild-type control should be avoided.

  • 48.
    Juvrud, Joshua
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lerin, Nils
    Goodbye Kansas Studios, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nyström, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kastrati, Granit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rosén, Jörgen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Immersive Virtual Reality Lab: Possibilities for Remote Experimental Manipulations of Autonomic Activity on a Large Scale2018In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 12, article id 305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for large-scale remote data collection in a controlled environment, and the in-home availability of virtual reality (VR) and the commercial availability of eye tracking for VR present unique and exciting opportunities for researchers. We propose and provide a proof-of-concept assessment of a robust system for large-scale in-home testing using consumer products that combines psychophysiological measures and VR, here referred to as a Virtual Lab. For the first time, this method is validated by correlating autonomic responses, skin conductance response (SCR), and pupillary dilation, in response to a spider, a beetle, and a ball using commercially available VR. Participants demonstrated greater SCR and pupillary responses to the spider, and the effect was dependent on the proximity of the stimuli to the participant, with a stronger response when the spider was close to the virtual self. We replicated these effects across two experiments and in separate physical room contexts to mimic variability in home environment. Together, these findings demonstrate the utility of pupil dilation as a marker of autonomic arousal and the feasibility to assess this in commercially available VR hardware and support a robust Virtual Lab tool for massive remote testing.

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  • 49.
    Juvrud, Joshua
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lerin, Nils
    Goodbye Kansas Studios, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nyström, Pär
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kastrati, Granit
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rosén, Jörgen
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The Immersive Virtual Reality Lab: Possibilities for Remote Experimental Manipulations of Autonomic Activity on a Large Scale2018In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 12, article id 305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for large-scale remote data collection in a controlled environment, and the in-home availability of virtual reality (VR) and the commercial availability of eye tracking for VR present unique and exciting opportunities for researchers. We propose and provide a proof-of-concept assessment of a robust system for large-scale in-home testing using consumer products that combines psychophysiological measures and VR, here referred to as a Virtual Lab. For the first time, this method is validated by correlating autonomic responses, skin conductance response (SCR), and pupillary dilation, in response to a spider, a beetle, and a ball using commercially available VR. Participants demonstrated greater SCR and pupillary responses to the spider, and the effect was dependent on the proximity of the stimuli to the participant, with a stronger response when the spider was close to the virtual self. We replicated these effects across two experiments and in separate physical room contexts to mimic variability in home environment. Together, these findings demonstrate the utility of pupil dilation as a marker of autonomic arousal and the feasibility to assess this in commercially available VR hardware and support a robust Virtual Lab tool for massive remote testing.

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  • 50.
    Kauppi, Karolina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States.
    Fan, Chun Chieh
    McEvoy, Linda K.
    Holland, Dominic
    Tan, Chin Hong
    Chen, Chi-Hua
    Andreassen, Ole A.
    Desikan, Rahul S.
    Dale, Anders M.
    Combining Polygenic Hazard Score With Volumetric MRI and Cognitive Measures Improves Prediction of Progression From Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer's Disease2018In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 12, article id 260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved prediction of progression to Alzheimer's Disease (AD) among older individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is of high clinical and societal importance. We recently developed a polygenic hazard score (PHS) that predicted age of AD onset above and beyond APOE. Here, we used data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) to further explore the potential clinical utility of PHS for predicting AD development in older adults with MCI. We examined the predictive value of PHS alone and in combination with baseline structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data on performance on the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE). In survival analyses, PHS significantly predicted time to progression from MCI to AD over 120 months (p = 1.07e-5), and PHS was significantly more predictive than APOE alone (p = 0.015). Combining PHS with baseline brain atrophy score and/or MMSE score significantly improved prediction compared to models without PHS (three-factor model p = 4.28e-17). Prediction model accuracies, sensitivities and area under the curve were also improved by including PHS in the model, compared to only using atrophy score and MMSE. Further, using linear mixed-effect modeling, PHS improved the prediction of change in the Clinical Dementia Rating—Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB) score and MMSE over 36 months in patients with MCI at baseline, beyond both APOE and baseline levels of brain atrophy. These results illustrate the potential clinical utility of PHS for assessment of risk for AD progression among individuals with MCI both alone, or in conjunction with clinical measures of prodromal disease including measures of cognitive function and regional brain atrophy.

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