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  • 1.
    Downs, R.T.
    et al.
    University of Arizona, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Department of Geology, University of Arizona, Tucson.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Determining Mineralogy on Mars with the CheMin X-Ray Diffractometer2015Ingår i: Elements, ISSN 1811-5209, E-ISSN 1811-5217, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 45-50Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The rover Curiosity is conducting X-ray diffraction experiments on the surface of Mars using the CheMin instrument. The analyses enable identification of the major and minor minerals, providing insight into the conditions under which the samples were formed or altered and, in turn, into past habitable environments on Mars. The CheMin instrument was developed over a twenty-year period, mainly through the efforts of scientists and engineers from NASA and DOE. Results from the first four experiments, at the Rocknest, John Klein, Cumberland, and Windjana sites, have been received and interpreted. The observed mineral assemblages are consistent with an environment hospitable to Earth-like life, if it existed on Mars.

  • 2.
    Gellert, Uwe
    et al.
    Universität Hamburg, Freie Universität Berlin.
    III, Benton Clark
    Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colorado.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    In Situ Compositional Measurements of Rocks and Soils with the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer on NASA's Mars Rovers2015Ingår i: Elements, ISSN 1811-5209, E-ISSN 1811-5217, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 39-44Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) is a soda can–sized, arm-mounted instrument that measures the chemical composition of rocks and soils using X-ray spectroscopy. It has been part of the science payload of the four rovers that NASA has landed on Mars. It uses 244Cm sources for a combination of PIXE and XRF to quantify 16 elements. So far, about 700 Martian samples from about 50 km of combined traverses at the four landing sites have been documented. The compositions encountered range from unaltered basaltic rocks and extensive salty sandstones to nearly pure hydrated ferric sulfates and silica-rich subsurface soils. The APXS is used for geochemical reconnaissance, identification of rock and soil types, and sample triage. It provides crucial constraints for use with the mineralogical instruments. The APXS data set allows the four landing sites to be compared with each other and with Martian meteorites, and it provides ground truth measurements for comparison with orbital observations.

  • 3.
    Grady, Moniqa M
    et al.
    Open University, UK ; The Natural History Museum, UK.
    Wright, Ian
    Open University, UK.
    Engrand, Cecile
    University Paris Sud, France.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    The Rosetta mission and the chemistry of organic species in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2018Ingår i: Elements, ISSN 1811-5209, E-ISSN 1811-5217, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 95-100Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Comets are regarded as probably the most primitive of solar system objects, preserving a record of the materials from which the solar system aggregated. Key amongst their components are organic compounds - molecules that may trace their heritage to the interstellar medium from which the protosolar nebula eventually emerged. The most recent cometary space mission, Rosetta, carried instruments designed to characterize, in unprecedented detail, the organic species in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P). Rosetta was the first mission to match orbits with a comet and follow its evolution over time, and also the first mission to land scientific instruments on a comet surface. Results from the mission revealed a greater variety of molecules than previously identified and indicated that 67P contained both primitive and processed organic entities. 

  • 4.
    Grew, Edward S.
    et al.
    Univ Maine, Sch Earth & Climate Sci, Bryand Global Res Ctr 5790, Orono, ME 04469 USA.
    Jonsson, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Mineralogi, petrologi och tektonik. Geol Survey Sweden, Dept Mineral Resources, Box 670, SE-75128 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Langhof, Jorgen
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Geosci, Box 50007, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lithium-200 Years: Symposium and Field Trip June 14-16, 20182018Ingår i: Elements, ISSN 1811-5209, E-ISSN 1811-5217, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 284-284Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5.
    Grotzinger, J.P.
    et al.
    California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology.
    Crisp, J.A.
    Indiana University, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Vasavada, Ashwin
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Curiosity's Mission of Exploration at Gale Crater, Mars2015Ingår i: Elements, ISSN 1811-5209, E-ISSN 1811-5217, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 19-26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Landed missions to the surface of Mars have long sought to determine the material properties of rocks and soils encountered during the course of surface exploration. Increasingly, emphasis is placed on the study of materials formed or altered in the presence of liquid water. Placed in the context of their geological environment, these materials are then used to help evaluate ancient habitability. The Mars Science Laboratory mission—with its Curiosity rover—seeks to establish the availability of elements that may have fueled microbial metabolism, including carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, nitrogen, phosphorus, and a host of others at the trace element level. These measurements are most valuable when placed in a geological framework of ancient environments as interpreted from mapping, combined with an understanding of the petrogenesis of the igneous rocks and derived sedimentary materials. In turn, the analysis of solid materials and the reconstruction of ancient environments provide the basis to assess past habitability.

  • 6.
    Hatert, Frédéric
    et al.
    Université de Liège, Belgium..
    Pasero, Marco
    Università di Pisa, Italy..
    Mills, Stuart J.
    Museum Victoria, Melbourne, Australia..
    Hålenius, Ulf
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    How to define, redefine or discredit a mineral species?2017Ingår i: Elements, ISSN 1811-5209, E-ISSN 1811-5217, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. 208-208Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 7.
    Kah, Linda C.
    et al.
    University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Images from Curiosity: A New Look at Mars2015Ingår i: Elements, ISSN 1811-5209, E-ISSN 1811-5217, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 27-32Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The surface of Mars has been sculpted by flowing water and shaped by wind. During the first two years of its exploration of Gale Crater, the Mars Science Laboratory mission's Curiosity rover has recorded abundant geologic evidence that water once existed on Mars both within the subsurface and, as least episodically, flowed on the land surface. And now, as Curiosity presses onward toward Mount Sharp, the complexity of the Martian surface is becoming increasingly apparent. In this paper, we review the nature of the surface materials and their stories, as seen through the eyes of Curiosity.

  • 8.
    Mahaffy, P.R.
    et al.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Conrad, Pamela G.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Volatile and Isotopic Imprints of Ancient Mars2015Ingår i: Elements, ISSN 1811-5209, E-ISSN 1811-5217, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 51-56Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The science investigations enabled by Curiosity rover's instruments focus on identifying and exploring the habitability of the Martian environment. Measurements of noble gases, organic and inorganic compounds, and the isotopes of light elements permit the study of the physical and chemical processes that have transformed Mars throughout its history. Samples of the atmosphere, volatiles released from soils, and rocks from the floor of Gale Crater have provided a wealth of new data and a window into conditions on ancient Mars.

  • 9.
    Wiens, R.C.
    et al.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Space Remote Sensing, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, International Space and Response Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Maurice, Sylvestre
    Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    ChemCam: Chemostratigraphy by the First Mars Microprobe2015Ingår i: Elements, ISSN 1811-5209, E-ISSN 1811-5217, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 33-38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ChemCam laser-induced breakdown spectrometer on the rover Curiosity has provided more than 200,000 spectra from over 5000 different locations on Mars. This instrument is the first chemical microprobe on Mars and has an analytical footprint 0.3–0.6 mm in diameter. ChemCam has observed a measure of hydration in all the sedimentary materials encountered along the rover traverse in Gale Crater, indicating the ubiquity of phyllosilicates as a constituent of the analyzed sandstones, mudstones, and conglomerates. Diagenetic features, including calcium sulfate veins, millimeter-thick magnesium-rich diagenetic ridges, and manganese-rich rock surfaces, provide clues to water–rock interactions. Float clasts of coarse-grained igneous rocks are rich in alkali feldspars and some are enriched in fluorine, indicating greater magmatic evolution than expected on Mars. The identification of individual soil components has contributed to our understanding of the evolution of Martian soil. These observations have broadened our understanding of Mars as an active and once habitable planet.

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