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  • 1.
    Adolfsson, P.
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Disability and Habilitation, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lindstedt, H.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Disability and Habilitation, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pettersson, I.
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hermansson, L. N.
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Janeslätt, G.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Disability and Habilitation, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Perception of the influence of environmental factors in the use of electronic planning devices in adults with cognitive disabilities2016In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 493-500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adults with cognitive disabilities often have difficulties in dealing with the complexity of everyday life. With cognitive assistive technology (e.g. electronic planning devices [EPDs] and individual support), they can bring order to their often chaotic life. Assumptions are that environmental factors influence with non-use of EPDs.

    Objective: To explore how adults with cognitive disabilities perceive the influence of environmental factors in the use of EPDs.

    Methods: A reference group with experience of use of EPDs assisted the researchers. Twelve adults with cognitive disabilities and experience of using EPDs participated. An interview guide was implemented covering environmental factors according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Qualitative content analysis was applied in the analyses.

    Results: Five categories and two themes emerged, which were integrated into a model of facilitating factors influencing the use of EPDs. Measures to prevent or eliminate negative influences of the device use are important to be taken.

    Conclusions: Professionals need more knowledge about EPDs, while users need individual adaption of the EPDs. EPDs need to be user-friendly, manageable and work in any seasons.

    Implications for Rehabilitation: The users should have access to specially trained prescribers. There is a need for development of user-friendly and manageable products to function in any climate. Knowledge is lacking on how to implement the users in all stages of the prescribing process. Prescribers should increase knowledge in the use of EPDs to influence the attitudes of the social environment.

  • 2.
    Adolfsson, Päivi
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Disability and Habilitation, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Disability Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lindstedt, Helena
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Disability and Habilitation, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Ingvor
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Norling Hermansson, Liselotte
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Department of Prosthetics and Orthotics, Örebro County Council, Örebro, Sweden.
    Janeslätt, Gunnel
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Disability and Habilitation, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Center for Clinical Research Dalarna, Falun, Sweden; CHILD, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Perception of the influence of environmental factors in the use of electronic planning devices in adults with cognitive disabilities2016In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 493-500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adults with cognitive disabilities often have difficulties in dealing with the complexity of everyday life. With cognitive assistive technology (e.g. electronic planning devices [EPDs] and individual support), they can bring order to their often chaotic life. Assumptions are that environmental factors influence with non-use of EPDs.

    Objective: To explore how adults with cognitive disabilities perceive the influence of environmental factors in the use of EPDs.

    Methods: A reference group with experience of use of EPDs assisted the researchers. Twelve adults with cognitive disabilities and experience of using EPDs participated. An interview guide was implemented covering environmental factors according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Qualitative content analysis was applied in the analyses.

    Results: Five categories and two themes emerged, which were integrated into a model of facilitating factors influencing the use of EPDs. Measures to prevent or eliminate negative influences of the device use are important to be taken.

    Conclusions: Professionals need more knowledge about EPDs, while users need individual adaption of the EPDs. EPDs need to be user-friendly, manageable and work in any seasons.

  • 3.
    Adolfsson, Päivi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lindstedt, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Pettersson, Ingvor
    Univ Örebro, Sch Hlth & Med Sci, Örebro, Sweden.
    Norling Hermansson, Liselotte
    Univ Örebro, Sch Hlth & Med Sci, Örebro, Sweden.; Örebro Cty Council, Dept Prosthet & Orthot, Örebro, Sweden.
    Janeslätt, Gunnel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Center for Clinical Research Dalarna. Jönköping Univ, Sch Hlth Sci, CHILD, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Perception of the influence of environmental factors in the use of electronic planning devices in adults with cognitive disabilities2016In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 493-500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Adults with cognitive disabilities often have difficulties in dealing with the complexity of everyday life. With cognitive assistive technology (e.g. electronic planning devices [EPDs] and individual support), they can bring order to their often chaotic life. Assumptions are that environmental factors influence with non-use of EPDs.

    OBJECTIVE: To explore how adults with cognitive disabilities perceive the influence of environmental factors in the use of EPDs.

    METHODS: A reference group with experience of use of EPDs assisted the researchers. Twelve adults with cognitive disabilities and experience of using EPDs participated. An interview guide was implemented covering environmental factors according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Qualitative content analysis was applied in the analyses.

    RESULTS: Five categories and two themes emerged, which were integrated into a model of facilitating factors influencing the use of EPDs. Measures to prevent or eliminate negative influences of the device use are important to be taken. CONCLUSIONS: Professionals need more knowledge about EPDs, while users need individual adaption of the EPDs. EPDs need to be user-friendly, manageable and work in any seasons. Implications for Rehabilitation The users should have access to specially trained prescribers. There is a need for development of user-friendly and manageable products to function in any climate. Knowledge is lacking on how to implement the users in all stages of the prescribing process. Prescribers should increase knowledge in the use of EPDs to influence the attitudes of the social environment.

  • 4.
    Bergström, Aileen
    et al.
    Department of Occupational Therapy, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala Sweden.
    Samuelsson, Kersti
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine UHL.
    Evaluation of manual wheelchairs by individuals with spinal cord injuries2006In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 175-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate how adults with spinal cord injury assess their satisfaction regarding various aspects and use of their manual wheelchair. Method. The Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology (QUEST 2.0) together with seven additional questions was sent to 205 adults with SCI. Results. One hundred and twenty-four responses were available. The QUEST 2.0 showed a high level of satisfaction with manual wheelchair properties. However, the respondents were less satisfied with the services offered. Ease of use and comfort were identified as most important. Eighty-nine percent of the respondents rated their level of satisfaction as 'quite satisfied' or 'very satisfied' in ease of using a manual wheelchair compared with 68% of the respondents that were 'quite satisfied' or 'very satisfied' with the level of comfort. A greater satisfaction of ease in propulsion indoors compared with sitting comfort in various activities was found. Conclusions. A discrepancy was shown between users not being as satisfied with comfort in sitting in various activities as opposed to satisfaction with propulsion. This indicates the need for increased knowledge and developments concerning individual solutions, incorporating comfort as well as ease of use of a manual wheelchair.

  • 5.
    Boman, I L
    et al.
    Danderyd University Hospital, Stockholm.
    Tham, K
    Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Granqvist, A
    Danderyd University Hospital, Stockholm.
    Bartfai, A
    Danderyd University Hospital, Stockholm.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Using electronic aids to daily living after acquired brain injury: a study of the learning process and the usability.2007In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 23-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The purpose was to study the ability of persons with memory impairments after acquired brain injury to learn how to and use electronic aids to daily living (EADL) and to describe changes in function and quality of life.

    METHOD: Eight participants stayed in two apartments equipped with a set of basic and advanced EADL for either 4 or 6 months during an intervention time of 2 years. The teaching and learning method was influenced by certain principles of errorless learning. Ability to learn to use EADL was measured by structured observations. Function and quality of life were assessed with self-rating questionnaires.

    RESULTS: Results indicate that the participants learned to use EADL in their everyday activities. They perceived that EADL were very useful and easy to learn. Occupational performance and satisfaction with occupational performance and quality of life was improved.

    CONCLUSION: The results indicate that EADL may play an important role in facilitating everyday activities and improve satisfaction with occupational performance and quality of life for people with memory impairments. The study indicates the importance of adjusting technology to the user's needs and calls for more consideration for human-technology interaction factors.

  • 6.
    Boman, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Rosenberg, Lena
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lundberg, Stefan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Nygård, Louise
    Karolinska Institutet.
    First steps in designing a videophone for people with dementia: Identification of users' potentials and the requirements of communication technology2012In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. sept, no 5, p. 356-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To identify, based on the literature, people with dementia´s potentials to manage an easy-to-use videophone, and to develop a videophone requirement specification for people with dementia.

    Method:The study is based on the Inclusive Design method, utilising the first two of four phases. Content analyses of literature reviews were used to identify users´potentials for managing a videophone and to gather recommendations regarding communication technology design for the target group. Existing videophones in Sweden were examined regarding potentia fit to users with dementia.Findings: This led to detailed identification of cognitive, physical and psychosocial challenges that people with dementia will probably have when using an ordinary telephone or videophone. A requirement specification for videophone design to fit users with dementia was formulated, with the seven principles of Universal Design as a framework.Conclusions: The requirement specification presented here is aimed at designing a videophone but might also facilitate design of other products for people with dementia, particularly in the field of communication technology. Based on this, further work will focus on developing a design concept and a prototype to be empirically tested by people with dementia and their significant others, i.e. the final two design process phases.

  • 7.
    Borg, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Commentary on selection of assistive technology in a context with limited resources2019In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 753-754Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Borg, Johan
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Ekman, Björn Olof
    Östergren, Per-Olof
    Is centre-based provision of hearing aids better than community-based provision?: A cluster-randomized trial among adolescents in Bangladesh2018In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 497-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In response to the need for hearing aids in low-income countries, an approach to provide hearing aids through trained community workers was developed. This study compares the effectiveness of the community-based approach with that of a centre-based approach. Methods: One hundred and forty adolescents (56% girls; 12-18 years; mean: 15 years) from eleven sub-districts participated in a cluster-randomized trial comparing a community-based service (n = 75) with a centre-based service (n = 65) in Bangladesh. The International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA) was administered to the participants six weeks after fitting of a hearing aid, and its scores were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U-tests and an ordinal regression model. Results: The community-based approach performed as well as the centre-based approach on five out of seven outcome measures. The latter approach performed statistically significantly better on Residual participation restrictions (p = .007) and Impact on others (p = .012), but the effect sizes were small. Controlling for sex, age, hearing loss, place of living and proxy responses did not change the results. Conclusions: The community-based approach is a viable and effective option for hearing aid delivery in low-resourced settings. The approach needs to be adapted to particular contexts, and possible down-sides may need to be counteracted by special interventions.

  • 9.
    Borg, Johan
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Ostergren, Per-Olof
    Users’ perspectives on the provision of assistive technologies in Bangladesh: awareness, providers, costs and barriers2015In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 301-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to contribute to a better understanding of challenges and solutions to equitable provision of assistive technologies in resource limited environments by (i) describing sources of awareness, types of providers and costs of assistive technologies; (ii) describing common reasons for not possessing assistive technologies; and (iii) comparing these sources, providers, costs and reasons among younger and older men and women living in urban and rural settings. Methods: Descriptive and analytic statistics were used to analyze crosssectional data from a total sample of 581 hearing aid users, wheelchair users, individuals with hearing impairments not using hearing aids and individuals with ambulatory impairments not using wheelchairs living in eight districts of Bangladesh. Results: Major sources of awareness, types of providers and costs paid varied between users of different types of assistive technology. Lack of affordability was the main reason for not possessing assistive technology. Outcome differences were found between younger and older groups, men and women, and literate and illiterate respondents, while no differences related to place of living were identified. Conclusions: Age, gender, type of impairment and socioeconomic status need to be considered when planning and implementing equitable provision of assistive technologies.

  • 10.
    Desmond, Deirdre
    et al.
    Department of Psychology and Assisting Living and Learning Institute, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Ireland.
    Layton, Natasha
    Department of Health Professions, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, Australia.
    Bentley, Jacob
    Department of Clinical Psychology, Seattle Pacific University and School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States.
    Boot, Fleur Heleen
    Department of Psychology and Assisting Living and Learning Institute, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Ireland.
    Borg, Johan
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Dhungana, Bishnu Maya
    Gender and Social Inclusion Specialist, Civil Homes Dhapakhel, Lalitpur, Nepal.
    Gallagher, Pamela
    Faculty of Science and Health, School of Nursing, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland.
    Gitlow, Lynn
    Occupational Therapy, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY, United States.
    Gowran, Rosemary Joan
    School of Allied Health, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland.
    Groce, Nora
    Leonard Cheshire Research Centre, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Mavrou, Katerina
    School of Academic and Pedagogy, European University Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Mackeogh, Trish
    Centre for Behaviour Analysis, Queens University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom.
    McDonald, Rachael
    Department of Health and Medical Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Australia.
    Pettersson, Cecilia
    Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Scherer, Marcia J.
    Institute for Matching Person & Technology, Inc, Webster, MA, United States.
    Assistive technology and people: a position paper from the first global research, innovation and education on assistive technology (GREAT) summit2018In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 437-444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assistive technology (AT) is a powerful enabler of participation. The World Health Organization's Global Collaboration on Assistive Technology (GATE) programme is actively working towards access to assistive technology for all. Developed through collaborative work as a part of the Global Research, Innovation and Education on Assistive Technology (GREAT) Summit, this position paper provides a "state of the science" view of AT users, conceptualized as "People" within the set of GATE strategic "P"s. People are at the core of policy, products, personnel and provision. AT is an interface between the person and the life they would like to lead. People's preferences, perspectives and goals are fundamental to defining and determining the success of AT. Maximizing the impact of AT in enabling participation requires an individualized and holistic understanding of the value and meaning of AT for the individual, taking a universal model perspective, focusing on the person, in context, and then considering the condition and/or the technology. This paper aims to situate and emphasize people at the centre of AT systems: we highlight personal meanings and perspectives on AT use and consider the role of advocacy, empowerment and co-design in developing and driving AT processes.

  • 11. Desmond, Deirdre
    et al.
    Layton, Natasha
    Bentley, Jacob
    Boot, Fleur Heleen
    Borg, Johan
    Lunds universitet.
    Dhungana, Bishnu Maya
    Gallagher, Pamela
    Gitlow, Lynn
    Gowran, Rosemary Joan
    Groce, Nora
    Mavrou, Katerina
    Mackeogh, Trish
    McDonald, Rachael
    Pettersson, Cecilia
    Scherer, Marcia J.
    Assistive technology and people: a position paper from the first global research, innovation and education on assistive technology (GREAT) summit2018In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 437-444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assistive technology (AT) is a powerful enabler of participation. The World Health Organization’s Global Collaboration on Assistive Technology (GATE) programme is actively working towards access to assistive technology for all. Developed through collaborative work as a part of the Global Research, Innovation and Education on Assistive Technology (GREAT) Summit, this position paper provides a “state of the science” view of AT users, conceptualized as “People” within the set of GATE strategic “P” s. People are at the core of policy, products, personnel and provision. AT is an interface between the person and the life they would like to lead. People’s preferences, perspectives and goals are fundamental to defining and determining the success of AT. Maximizing the impact of AT in enabling participation requires an individualized and holistic understanding of the value and meaning of AT for the individual, taking a universal model perspective, focusing on the person, in context, and then considering the condition and/or the technology. This paper aims to situate and emphasize people at the centre of AT systems: we highlight personal meanings and perspectives on AT use and consider the role of advocacy, empowerment and co-design in developing and driving AT processes.

  • 12.
    Eek, Martina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Geriatric. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Geriatric Medicine in Linköping.
    Wressle, Ewa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Geriatric. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Geriatric Medicine in Linköping.
    Everyday technology and 86-year-old individuals in Sweden2011In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 2, no 6, p. 123-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The aim was to investigate everyday technology use in the homes of 86-year-old individuals in Sweden regarding usage, benefits or perceived problems and to study their perception of the technical development and its influence on daily living.

     

    Method

    The design was both quantitative and qualitative. An interview was conducted at a home visit performed by an occupational therapist using a questionnaire including questions on demographics and everyday technology. In addition, a qualitative part was performed based on an interview guide. Two hundred seventy four people participated.

     

    Results

    The results indicate that watching TV was important for almost all 86-year-old individuals. This medium, combined with reading newspapers, was important for obtaining news. The most common problems in usage of everyday technology were related to visual or hearing impairments or operating difficulties. References to the Internet for further information were perceived as problematic for individuals without access to a computer. Another difficulty was automated telephone services. Cognitive deficits impeded everyday technology use and increased perceived problems.

     

    Conclusions

    Access to information and services are important elements in order to be an active participant in the society. Everyday technology is an area that should be addressed by occupational therapists in order to facilitate daily living.

  • 13. Ekman, Björn
    et al.
    Borg, Johan
    Lunds universitet.
    Provision of hearing aids to children in Bangladesh: costs and cost-effectiveness of a community-based and a centre-based approach2017In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 625-630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to provide evidence on the costs and health effects of two alternative hearing aid delivery models, a community-based and a centre-based approach. The study is set in Bangladesh and the study population is children between 12 and 18 years old. Methods: Data on resource use by participants and their caregivers were collected by a household survey. Follow-up data were collected after two months. Data on the costs to providers of the two approaches were collected by means of key informant interviews. Results: The total cost per participant in the community-based model was BDT 6,333 (USD 79) compared with BDT 13,718 (USD 172) for the centre-based model. Both delivery models are found to be cost-effective with an estimated cost per DALY averted of BDT 17,611 (USD 220) for the community-based model and BDT 36,775 (USD 460) for the centre-based model. Conclusions: Using a community-based approach to deliver hearing aids to children in a resource constrained environment is a cost-effective alternative to the traditional centre-based approach. Further evidence is needed to draw conclusions for scale-up of approaches; rigorous analysis is possible using well-prepared data collection tools and working closely with sector professionals.

  • 14.
    Frennert, Susanne
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Technology in Health Care.
    Lost in digitalization?: Municipality employment of welfare technologies2019In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 635-642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Swedish municipalities face a number of daunting challenges; an aging population, the public's increased demands and expectations on municipality services, and a strained economy to mention some. Welfare technology, a Scandinavian concept launched to promote digitalization, is seen as one solution to meet these challenges. Objective: Despite these promises, few welfare technology applications are offered by local Swedish municipalities and care organizations. Numerous studies have shown that Swedish municipalities have a great interest in welfare technologies. Methods: In this article, we draw on empirical research in one Swedish municipality. Through two case studies it is illustrated how technological change and municipality employment of welfare technologies are employed. Results: These case studies show how core values of care are being lost in the quest for digitalization due to the lack of organizational skills and knowledge in transforming the relationship of caregiving and care-receiving through the use of digital technology. Conclusions: Digitalization and welfare technologies deployed ought to represent and support the core values of caregiving and to receive care. Thus, digital transformation most likely will transform conditions for care receivers and working conditions for care workers. New work processes will evolve, which in turn produce new meanings of home help service work and caregiving.

  • 15.
    Glimskär, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Hjalmarson, Jenny
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Lundberg, Stefan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Larsson, Tore J.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    A walker used as a lifting device2014In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 264-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To develop assistive technology that would help an older person to arise from a kneeling position to a standing one. Methods: Developing a prototype, based on an inclusive design and then testing the prototype to verify the approach. The prototype was subsequently tested by a panel of 20 elderly users. These tests were observed and filmed. Participants' experiences of being lifted with the elevation seat were registered with the VIDAR ergonomic assessment system. Result: None of the 20 participants used a walker at that time. In response to a question of whether, assuming they might have to use a walker in the future, they thought that a walker with an elevating seat would be helpful, 18 said that it would. Two of the participants did not believe that they would ever have to use a walker. Conclusion: A simple assistive technology such as a walker equipped with an elevating seat would in many of these cases simplify matters and reduce the distress of people who fall often. In addition, such a device can allow people who fall often to live in their homes longer. For caregivers dealing frequently with people who fall, this assistive device can contribute to decreasing occupational injuries.

  • 16.
    Hagberg, Lars
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital. Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Hermansson, Liselotte M.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Fredriksson, Carin
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Pettersson, Ingvor
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Cost-effectiveness of powered mobility devices for elderly people with disability2017In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 115-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyse the cost-effectiveness of prescribing powered mobility devices (PMDs) to elderly users.

    Methods: Forty-five persons participated in the preand post-intervention study with a follow-up at four months. All participants were prescribed a scooter model and were offered individual support to get started using the PMD. In the analysis, the use of the PMD was compared to the situation prior to its use. The cost-utility analysis takes a societal perspective and considers costs, savings and quality of life (QoL) using answers to the EQ-5D questionnaire.

    Results: Costs for the first year with the PMD were 1395 USD and then 592 USD per subsequent year. There was a significant decrease in transportation costs and in relatives' time use, but the increase in QoL of 0.041 was not significant. Costs per gained quality adjusted life year (QALY) were 12 400-14 700 USD/QALY if the value of time saved not was considered and 600-2900 USD/QALY when an hour was valued at 3.6 USD.

    Conclusion: Prescription of PMDs to elderly users might be cost-effective. However, there are shortcomings in measuring QALY gains from the use of a PMD, and it is unclear how time savings among relatives should be valued.

    Implications for Rehabilitation

    • Prescription of powered mobility devices for the elderly with disability seems to be cost effective and should be a standard intervention.

    • In economic evaluations of powered mobility devices and other assistive devices, the commonly used analyses methods are not always appropriate and therefore need to be adjusted.

  • 17.
    Janeslätt, Gunnel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lindstedt, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Adolfsson, Päivi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Daily time management and influences of environmental factors on use of electronic planning devices in adults with mental disability2015In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 371-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:  To describe daily time management in adults with and without mental disability and to examine differences in the level of their daily time management; to describe the possessions and use of electronic planning devices (EPDs) in activities and how environmental factors influence the use of EPDs in adults with mental disability. Methods: In a descriptive and cross-sectional design 32 participants using EPDs and a matched comparison group of 32 healthy adults was recruited. Time-Self rating scale measuring daily time management was adapted for adults. A study specific questionnaire was applied to collect data on five ICF environmental factors. Rasch modelling, descriptive and non-parametric statistics were applied. Results: Time-S has acceptable psychometric properties for use on adults with mental disability. People with mental disability and low level of daily time management who use advanced EPDs are more influenced by environmental factors. The study group perceived that encouragement and support from professionals as well as services influence their use of EPDs. Conclusions: Time-S can safely be used for people with mental disability. EPDs do not fully compensate the needs of the target-group. Prescribers need to give considerations to this and therefore they should be provided with more knowledge about this matter.

  • 18.
    Jarl, Gustav M.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Centre for Rehabilitation Research, Örebro County Council, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Prosthetics and Orthotics, Örebro County Council, Örebro, Sweden.
    Heinemann, Allen W.
    Rehabilitation Institute, Chicago, USA; Nortwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, USA.
    Norling Hermansson, Liselotte M. N.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences. Centre for Rehabilitation Research, Örebro County Council, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Prosthetics and Orthotics, Örebro County Council, Örebro, Sweden.
    Validity evidence for a modified version of the Orthotics and Prosthetics Users' Survey2012In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 469-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To evaluate the validity of a modified version of the Orthotics and Prosthetics Users' Survey (OPUS) with persons using different prosthetic and orthotic (P&O) devices.

    Method: Two-hundred-and-eighty-two adults using prosthesis, orthosis, shoe insoles or orthopaedic shoes completed OPUS. OPUS comprises five modules - Lower and Upper Extremity Functional Status, respectively (LEFS and UEFS), Client Satisfaction with Device and Services, respectively (CSD and CSS), and, Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). Eight new items were added to LEFS and six to UEFS. Rasch analysis was used for data analyses.

    Results: Rating scales functioned satisfactory after some modifications. All modules demonstrated a ceiling effect. Unidimensionality was satisfactory after deleting some items and dividing HRQoL into two subscales, although somewhat weak on CSD and CSS. Item reliability was excellent for all modules and person reliability good for all but CSD and CSS. Some items demonstrated differential item functioning related to sex and age, but the impact on person measures was small.

    Conclusions: This study supports the validity of a modified version of OPUS for persons using different P&O devices, but also reveals limitations to be addressed in future studies. OPUS could be useful in clinical rehabilitation and research to evaluate P&O outcomes.

  • 19.
    Krantz, Oskar
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Health and Welfare Studies (HV).
    Assistive devices utilisation in activities of everyday life: a proposed framework of understanding a user perspective2012In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 189-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This theoretical article proposes a framework of understanding a user perspective of assistive devices utilisation in everyday life. Method: Utilising the MPT model (Matching Person and Technology) and the ValMO model (Values and Meaning in Human Occupations), a framework of understanding is proposed. Results: Main components are person, assistive device, and activity, connected by the person’s expectations and experiences concerning the doability/doworthiness (possible to do/worth doing) of an activity, and the usability/useworthiness (possible to use/worth using) of an assistive device. Expectations may differ based on not only earlier experiences (habitus), but also situational and environmental variations, and result in differing experiences. In general, the purpose of an assistive device is to increase a person’s repertoire of doable activities. For a person, this can be a function of the evaluation of possible gains, in terms of correlation between investments (in terms of time and energy), and the (expected) result of the activity. Conclusions: The only person able to estimate the useworthiness/usability of a device and the doworthiness/doability of an activity is the user her/himself, assessing the degree at which a specific assistive device enhances the value of an activity, in turn affecting the habitus of the (presumptive) user.

  • 20.
    Krantz, Oskar
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Egard, Hanna
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Use of active wheelchairs in everyday life: experiences among experienced users of active ultra lightweight rigid frame wheelchairs2017In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 65-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe the everyday life experience of being an experienced active wheelchair user in Sweden. Method: A qualitative approach, based on interviews, was chosen. Eleven active wheelchair users were interviewed; the results analysed by means of a thematic content analysis. Results: Two main categories, each with two sub-categories emerged: (1) Challenges and changes (life-course perspective); and (2) the ambassador of differentness (activities and situations). The first sub-categories: (1a) the changing self (attitudes and values); and (1b) getting older (the meaning of experiences for future expectations). The second sub-categories: (2a) the responsible representative (having to represent a general image of disability); and (2b) other's attitudes (interactants' expressions of attitudes). Conclusions: An active wheelchair user can be seen as an open person, a representative of other wheelchair users. Interactants can actively engage in solving non-existing problems, or over-estimate actual problems, i.e. over-attentiveness. The personal experience can change over time, e.g. to care less about over-attentiveness, or to engage less in situations where over-attentiveness is likely to occur, i.e. impression management. Also, regular interactants can learn to see the wheelchair as something normal, sometimes even forgetting it.Implications for Rehabilitation To use an active wheelchair affects interaction in everyday life, rendering the user an open person, possible to address at will as a representative of other users as well. The experienced user of an active wheelchair is the expert concerning her/his present capacity in activities in everyday life; possible obstacles remain inert until defined otherwise by the user.

  • 21.
    Larsson-Lund, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Lövgren-Engström, Ann-Louice
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lexell, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Using everyday technology to compensate for difficulties in task performance in daily life: Experiences in persons with acquired brain injury and their significant others2011In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 402-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to illuminate how persons with acquired brain injury (ABI) and their significant others experienced individualised occupation-based interventions using commonly available everyday technology (ET) to compensate for perceived difficulties with performance of tasks in daily life. Method. Qualitative research interviews were conducted with 10 persons with ABI and with one of their significant others. The data were analysed according to qualitative content analysis. Results. The persons with ABI experienced that they mastered their lives in a better way by the compensatory use of ET. They became capable of doing tasks independently and experienced themselves as being a new person. During the intervention process, persons with ABI became aware of the compensatory potential of familiar ET, and they were supported to use effective compensatory strategies and incorporate them into their habits. Their significant others felt a relief in daily life, and their mood was positively affected as they experienced reduced responsibility and need of control. Conclusions. This qualitative study has shown that persons with ABI, as well as their significant others, experienced a multitude of benefits from occupation-based interventions using commonly available ET to compensate for their difficulties in the performance of tasks in daily life and that the goals achieved affected their overall contentment with life

  • 22.
    Lidström, Helene
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Computer-based assistive technology device for use by children with physical disabilities: a cross sectional study2012In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 287-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    To investigate the prevalence of children with physical disabilities who used a computer-based ATD, and to examine characteristics differences in children and youths who do or do not use computer-based ATDs, as well as, investigate differences that might influence the satisfaction of those two groups of children and youths when computers are being used for in-school and outside school activities.

    METHOD:

    A cross-sectional survey about computer-based activities in and outside school (n = 287) and group comparisons.Results: The prevalence of using computer-based ATDs was about 44 % (n = 127) of the children in this sample. These children were less satisfied with their computer use in education and outside school activities than the children who did not use an ATD.

    CONCLUSION:

    Improved coordination of the usage of computer-based ATDs in school and in the home, including service and support, could increase the opportunities for children with physical disabilities who use computer-based ATDs to perform the computer activities they want, need and are expected to do in school and outside school.

  • 23.
    Lidström, Helene
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm .
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, Västerås.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Computer-based assistive technology device for use by children with physical disabilities: a cross-sectional study2012In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 287-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of children with physical disabilities who used a computer-based ATD, and to examine characteristics differences in children and youths who do or do not use computer-based ATDs, as well as, investigate differences that might influence the satisfaction of those two groups of children and youths when computers are being used for in-school and outside school activities.Method: A cross-sectional survey about computer-based activities in and outside school (n = 287) and group comparisons.Results: The prevalence of using computer-based ATDs was about 44 % (n = 127) of the children in this sample. These children were less satisfied with their computer use in education and outside school activities than the children who did not use an ATD.Conclusion: Improved coordination of the usage of computer-based ATDs in school and in the home, including service and support, could increase the opportunities for children with physical disabilities who use computer-based ATDs to perform the computer activities they want, need and are expected to do in school and outside school. [Box: see text].

  • 24.
    Lindeblad, Emma
    et al.
    Department of Psychology , Linnaeus University , Växjö , Sweden.
    Nilsson, Staffan
    Department of Mathematical Sciences , Chalmers Tekniska Högskola , Göteborg , Sweden.
    Gustafson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Svensson, Idor
    Department of Psychology , Linnaeus University , Växjö , Sweden.
    Assistive technology as reading interventions for children with reading impairments with a one-year follow-up2017In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 12, no 7, p. 713-724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This pilot study investigated the possible transfer effect on reading ability in children with reading difficulties after a systematic intervention to train and compensate for reading deficiencies by using applications in smartphones and tablets. The effects of using assistive technology (AT) one year after the interventions were completely studied. School related motivation, independent learning and family relations were also considered.

  • 25.
    Lindeblad, Emma
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Staffan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Gustafson, Stefan
    Linköping University.
    Svensson, Idor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Assistive technology as reading interventions for children with reading impairments with a one-year follow-up2017In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 12, no 7, p. 713-724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: This pilot study investigated the possible transfer effect on reading ability in children with reading difficulties after a systematic intervention to train and compensate for reading deficiencies by using applications in smartphones and tablets. The effects of using assistive technology (AT) one year after the interventions were completely studied. School related motivation, independent learning and family relations were also considered.

    METHOD: 35 pupils aged 10-12 years participated. They were assessed five times with reading tests. The participants, their parents and teachers were surveyed with questionnaires regarding their experience of using AT. The data from the assessments were analyzed with paired t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. The data from the questionnaires were analyzed using content analysis.

    RESULTS: The paper shows that using AT can create transfer effects on reading ability one year after the interventions were finished. This means that reading impaired children may develop at the same rate as non-impaired readers. Also, increased school motivation and an increase in independent learning and family effects have been shown.

    CONCLUSIONS: This paper provides implications in how to facilitate reading impaired pupils' learning process and realizes the need to challenge the concept of reading to change to fit modern means of gaining information. Implications for rehabilitation Children with reading impairment could benefit from assistive technology in regards of their reading development process and increase their chances of not falling behind peers. Assistive technology as applications in smartphones and tablets may aid children with reading impairment to have an equal platform for learning in school as their peers without reading difficulties. Assistive technology could facilitate the information gaining process and subsequently increase motivation to learn and increase interest in reading activities. Assistive technology had wider effects on its users: stigmatizing situations when leaving the classroom for special education were avoided and positive effects on family life were noted.

  • 26.
    Lindstedt, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Research in Disability and Habilitation.
    Umb-Carlsson, Öie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Cognitive assistive technology and professional support in everyday life for adults with ADHD2013In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 402-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    An evaluation of a model of intervention in everyday settings, consisting of cognitive assistive technology (CAT) and support provided by occupational therapists to adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The purpose was to study how professional support and CAT facilitate everyday life and promote community participation of adults with ADHD.

    Method

    The intervention was implemented in five steps and evaluated in a 15-month study (March 2006 = T1 to June 2007 = T2). One questionnaire and one protocol describe the CATs and provided support. Two questionnaires were employed at T1 and T2 for evaluation of the intervention in everyday settings.

    Results

    The participants tried 74 CATs, with weekly schedules, watches and weighted blankets being most highly valued. Carrying out a daily routine was the most frequent support. More participants were working at T2 than at T1. Frequency of performing and satisfaction with daily occupations as well as life satisfaction were stable over the one-year period.

    Conclusions

    The results indicate a higher frequency of participating in work but only a tendency of increased subjectively experienced life satisfaction. However, to be of optimal usability, CAT requires individually tailored, systematic and structured support by specially trained professionals.

  • 27. Lindén, Anita
    et al.
    Lexell, Jan
    Larsson-Lund, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Improvements of task performance in daily life after acquired brain injury using commonly available everyday technology2011In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 214-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. To investigate how individualised occupation-based interventions with commonly available everyday technology (ET) can compensate for perceived difficulties with daily life tasks after an aquired brain injury (ABI) and improve satisfaction with occupational performance. Method. This intervention study was designed as a multiple case study according to Yin. Ten men and women with an ABI (traumatic or non-traumatic) participated. Data were collected through interviews, observations and field notes before and after the intervention and at follow-up (on average 11 weeks afterwards). The interventions focused on enabling each participant's prioritised goals related to task performance in daily life. Results. All participants achieved all their goals by learning to use both new functions in their own familiar ET and new ET. The participant's perceived difficulties in occupational performance decreased and their satisfaction with occupational performance increased with the use of ET. Conclusions. An individualised intervention process, involving the use of own familiar ET or ET off-the-shelf, has the potential to compensate for perceived difficulties following an ABI and improve satisfaction with occupational performance in daily life

  • 28.
    Lundberg, Stefan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management.
    The result from a two-year case study of an information and communication technology support system for family caregivers2013In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractPurpose: The aim was to better understand how information and communication technology(ICT) can provide support to elderly family caregivers caring for significant others suffering from dementia or stroke. Method: Ten households equipped with an ICT system, with a family caregiver and a spouse diagnosed with dementia or stroke, were followed and observed in a two-year case study. The family caregivers had regular meetings in groups organised by the municipal care of the elderly. Data from observations, semi-structured interviews, user data from the ICT system and data about the support provided by the municipality has been used to validate the findings. Results: The family caregivers socialised with users in the group as long as the users were stayed in the group. Meetings in the group were an important opportunity for exchanging experiences and to easing one’’s mind. The ICT system did not reduce the municipality’’s level of services to the participating families. The information built into the system has to be constantly updated to be of interest. Conclusions: An ICT support must be provided in a context of personal meetings and with a formal caregiver backing. This will empower informal or family caregivers. Such support must give the user the possibility to communicate and get access to the Internet.

     

     

  • 29.
    Löfqvist, C.
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Cecilia
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Iwarsson, S.
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Brandt, A.
    Department of Research and Development, Danish Centre for Assistive Technology, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Mobility and mobility-related participation outcomes of powered wheelchair and scooter interventions after 4-months and 1-year use2012In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 211-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim was to investigate outcomes of powered wheelchair and scooter interventions after 4-months and 1-year use regarding need for assistance when moving around, frequency of mobility-related participation, easiness/difficulty in mobility during participation, and number of participation aspects performed in everyday life.

    METHOD: The study was a prospective cohort study, using an instrument focusing on mobility-related participation outcomes of mobility device interventions (NOMO 1.0), at baseline, after 4-months and 1-year use.

    RESULTS: The results show that the outcomes in terms of participation frequency and easiness in mobility occur in a short time perspective, and that the effects remained stable at 1-year follow-up. The frequency of going for a walk increased most prominently (26%). Even though the majority of the participation aspects were not performed, more often they became easier to perform: 56-91% found that shopping, walking and visiting family/friends were easier. Moreover, independence outdoors and indoors increased.

    CONCLUSIONS: This small study provides knowledge about the outcomes of powered wheelchairs and scooters in terms of mobility and mobility-related participation in real-life situations. The study supports results from former studies, but even so, larger studies are required in order to provide evidence for the effectiveness of powered wheelchairs and scooters. [Box: see text].

  • 30. MacLachlan, Malcolm
    et al.
    Banes, David
    Bell, Diane
    Borg, Johan
    Lunds universitet.
    Donnelly, Brian
    Fembek, Michael
    Ghosh, Ritu
    Gowran, Rosemary Joan
    Geiser, Priscille
    Hooks, Hilary
    Assistive technology policy: a position paper from the first global research, innovation, and education on assistive technology (GREAT) summit2018In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 13, no 5, SI, p. 454-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased awareness, interest and use of assistive technology (AT) presents substantial opportunities for many citizens to become, or continue being, meaningful participants in society. However, there is a significant shortfall between the need for and provision of AT, and this is patterned by a range of social, demographic and structural factors. To seize the opportunity that assistive technology offers, regional, national and sub-national assistive technology policies are urgently required. This paper was developed for and through discussion at the Global Research, Innovation and Education on Assistive Technology (GREAT) Summit; organized under the auspices of the World Health Organization’s Global Collaboration on Assistive Technology (GATE) program. It outlines some of the key principles that AT polices should address and recognizes that AT policy should be tailored to the realities of the contexts and resources available. AT policy should be developed as a part of the evolution of related policy across a number of different sectors and should have clear and direct links to AT as mediators and moderators for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. The consultation process, development and implementation of policy should be fully inclusive of AT users, and their representative organizations, be across the lifespan, and imbued with a strong systems-thinking ethos. Six barriers are identified which funnel and diminish access to AT and are addressed systematically within this paper. We illustrate an example of good practice through a case study of AT services in Norway, and we note the challenges experienced in less well-resourced settings. A number of economic factors relating to AT and economic arguments for promoting AT use are also discussed. To address policy-development the importance of active citizenship and advocacy, the need to find mechanisms to scale up good community practices to a higher level, and the importance of political engagement for the policy process, are highlighted. Policy should be evidence-informed and allowed for evidence-making; however, it is important to account for other factors within the given context in order for policy to be practical, authentic and actionable. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION The development of policy in the area of asssitive technology is important to provide an overarching vision and outline resourcing priorities. This paper identifies some of the key themes that should be addressed when developing or revising assistive technology policy. Each country should establish a National Assistive Technology policy and develop a theory of change for its implementation.

  • 31.
    MacLachlan, Malcolm
    et al.
    Assisting Living & Learning (ALL) Institute, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Ireland; Centre for Rehabilitation Studies, Stellenbosch University, Tygerburg, South Africa; Olomouc University Social Health Institute, Palacky University Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic .
    Banes, David
    David Banes Access, Doha, United Kingdom.
    Bell, Diane
    Centre for Rehabilitation Studies, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Borg, Johan
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Donnelly, Brian
    CECOPS CIC, Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom.
    Fembek, Michael
    Essl Foundation, Vienna, Austria.
    Ghosh, Ritu
    Mobility India, Bangalore, India.
    Gowran, Rosemary Joan
    Department of Clinical Therapies, Faculty of Education and Health Sciences, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland.
    Hannay, Emma
    Acasus, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Hiscock, Diana
    Help Age International, London, United Kingdom.
    Hoogerwerf, Evert-Jan
    AIAS Bologna Onlus, Bologna, Italy.
    Howe, Tracey
    Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
    Kohler, Friedbert
    Hammond Care Braeside Hospital, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
    Layton, Natasha
    Department of Health Professions, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Australia.
    Long, Siobhán
    Assistive Technology and SeatTech Services, Enable Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.
    Mannan, Hasheem
    Health Systems Research Group, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Mji, Gubela
    Centre for Rehabilitation Studies, Stellenbosch University, Tygerburg, South Africa.
    Odera Ongolo, Thomas
    African Disability Forum, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Perry, Katherine
    Independent Consultant & Policy Advocate, Brussels, Belgium.
    Pettersson, Cecilia
    Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Power, Jessica
    Centre for Global Health, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Delgado Ramos, Vinicius
    Faculdade de Medicina da University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Slepičková, Lenka
    Olomouc University Social Health Institute, Palacky University Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic.
    Smith, Emma M.
    Graduate School, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Tay-Teo, Kiu
    Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, Melbourne University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Geiser, Priscille
    International Disability Alliance, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Hooks, Hilary
    Assisting Living & Learning (ALL) Institute, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Ireland.
    Assistive technology policy: a position paper from the first global research, innovation, and education on assistive technology (GREAT) summit2018In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 454-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased awareness, interest and use of assistive technology (AT) presents substantial opportunities for many citizens to become, or continue being, meaningful participants in society. However, there is a significant shortfall between the need for and provision of AT, and this is patterned by a range of social, demographic and structural factors. To seize the opportunity that assistive technology offers, regional, national and sub-national assistive technology policies are urgently required. This paper was developed for and through discussion at the Global Research, Innovation and Education on Assistive Technology (GREAT) Summit; organized under the auspices of the World Health Organization's Global Collaboration on Assistive Technology (GATE) program. It outlines some of the key principles that AT polices should address and recognizes that AT policy should be tailored to the realities of the contexts and resources available. AT policy should be developed as a part of the evolution of related policy across a number of different sectors and should have clear and direct links to AT as mediators and moderators for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. The consultation process, development and implementation of policy should be fully inclusive of AT users, and their representative organizations, be across the lifespan, and imbued with a strong systems-thinking ethos. Six barriers are identified which funnel and diminish access to AT and are addressed systematically within this paper. We illustrate an example of good practice through a case study of AT services in Norway, and we note the challenges experienced in less well-resourced settings. A number of economic factors relating to AT and economic arguments for promoting AT use are also discussed. To address policy-development the importance of active citizenship and advocacy, the need to find mechanisms to scale up good community practices to a higher level, and the importance of political engagement for the policy process, are highlighted. Policy should be evidence-informed and allowed for evidence-making; however, it is important to account for other factors within the given context in order for policy to be practical, authentic and actionable. Implications for Rehabilitation The development of policy in the area of asssitive technology is important to provide an overarching vision and outline resourcing priorities. This paper identifies some of the key themes that should be addressed when developing or revising assistive technology policy. Each country should establish a National Assistive Technology policy and develop a theory of change for its implementation.

  • 32.
    Magnusson, Lina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Ramstrand, Nerrolyn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Prosthetist/Orthotist Educational Experience & Professional Development in Pakistan2009In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 4, no 6, p. 385-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To explore areas in which the education at the Pakistan Institute of Prosthetic & Orthotic Science (PIPOS) could be improved or supplemented to facilitate clinical practice of graduates. To describe educational opportunities PIPOS graduates have had since their graduation and explore their further educational needs.

    METHOD: 15 graduates from PIPOS participated in semi-structured interviews. A qualitative content analysis was applied to the transcripts.

    FINDINGS: Respondents indicated a need to upgrade the education at PIPOS. This should include upgrading of resources such as literature and internet access as well as providing staff with the opportunity to further their own education. Females experienced inequality throughout their education but were supported by management. Upon entering the workforce graduates reported that they were supported by senior staff but experienced difficulties in determining appropriate prescriptions. They further indicated that a multidisciplinary approach to patient care is lacking. Graduates knowledge of workshop management was identified as a problem when entering the workforce. Limited awareness of the prosthetics and orthotics profession by both the general community and the medical community was also identified as a problem. If offered the opportunity to continue their studies the respondents would like to specialize. "Brain drain" was noted as a risk associated with post graduate education. Interaction from international collaborators and networking within the country was desired.

    CONCLUSION: The education at PIPOS meets a need in the country. Graduates indicated that P&O services for Pakistan can be better provided by modifying program content, upgrading teachers' knowledge, improving access to information and addressing issues of gender equality. PIPOS graduates have had limited opportunities for professional development and have a desire for further education.

  • 33.
    Malinowsky, Camilla
    et al.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Kassberg, Ann-Charlotte
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Larsson-Lund, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Kottorp, Anders
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Occupational Therapy, Karolinska Institutet.
    Stability of person ability measures in people with acquired brain injury in the use of everyday technology: the test–retest reliability of the Management of Everyday Technology Assessment (META)2016In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 395-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To evaluate the test–retest reliability of the Management of Everyday Technology Assessment (META) in a sample of people with acquired brain injury (ABI). Method: The META was administered twice within a two-week period to 25 people with ABI. A Rasch measurement model was used to convert the META ordinal raw scores into equal-interval linear measures of each participant’s ability to manage everyday technology (ET). Test–retest reliability of the stability of the person ability measures in the META was examined by a standardized difference Z-test and an intra-class correlations analysis (ICC 1). Results: The results showed that the paired person ability measures generated from the META were stable over the test–retest period for 22 of the 25 subjects. The ICC 1 correlation was 0.63, which indicates good overall reliability. Conclusion: The META demonstrated acceptable test–retest reliability in a sample of people with ABI. The results illustrate the importance of using sufficiently challenging ETs (relative to a person’s abilities) to generate stable META measurements over time.Implications for Rehabilitation •The findings add evidence regarding the test–retest reliability of the person ability measures generated from the observation assessment META in a sample of people with ABI.•The META might support professionals in the evaluation of interventions that are designed to improve clients’ performance of activities including the ability to manage ET.

  • 34. Matter, Rebecca
    et al.
    Harniss, Mark
    Oderud, Tone
    Borg, Johan
    Lunds universitet.
    Eide, Arne H.
    Assistive technology in resource-limited environments: a scoping review2017In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 105-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: It is estimated that only 5-15% of people in low and middle income countries (LMICs) who need assistive technologies (AT) have access to them. This scoping review was conducted to provide a comprehensive picture of the current evidence base on AT within LMICs and other resource limited environments. Method: The scoping review involved locating evidence, extracting data, and summarizing characteristics of all included research publications. Results: Of the 252 publications included, over 80% focused on types of AT that address mobility (45.2%) and vision (35.5%) needs, with AT types of spectacles and prosthetics comprising over 50% of all publications. Evidence on AT that addresses hearing, communication, and cognition is the most underrepresented within the existing evidence base. The vast majority of study designs are observational (63%). Conclusions: Evidence on AT in resource-limited environments is limited in quantity and quality, and not evenly distributed across types of AT. To advance this field, we recommend using appropriate evidence review approaches that allow for heterogeneous study designs, and developing a common language by creating a typology of AT research focus areas. Funders and researchers must commit much greater resources to the AT field to ameliorate the paucity of evidence available.

  • 35.
    Möller, Saffran
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT. 0000-0002-5360-7776.
    Hagberg, Kerstin
    Department of Prosthetics and Orthotics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, Kersti
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine and Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ramstrand, Nerrolyn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Perceived self-efficacy and specific self-reported outcomes in persons with lower-limb amputation using a non-microprocessor-controlled versus a microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee2018In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 220-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To measure self-efficacy in a group of individuals who have undergone a lower-limb amputation and investigate the relationship between self-efficacy and prosthetic-specific outcomes including prosthetic use, mobility, amputation-related problems and global health. A second purpose was to examine if differences exist in outcomes based upon the type of prosthetic knee unit being used.

    Method: Cross-sectional study using the General Self-Efficacy (GSE) Scale and the Questionnaire for Persons with a Transfemoral Amputation (Q-TFA). Forty-two individuals participated in the study. Twenty-three used a non-microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee joint (non-MPK) and 19 used a microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee joint (MPK).

    Results: The study sample had quite high GSE scores (32/40). GSE scores were significantly correlated to the Q-TFA prosthetic use, mobility and problem scores. High GSE scores were related to higher levels of prosthetic use, mobility, global scores and negatively related to problem score. No significant difference was observed between individuals using a non-MPK versus MPK joints. Conclusions: Individuals with high self-efficacy used their prosthesis to a higher degree and high self-efficacy was related to higher level of mobility, global scores and fewer problems related to the amputation in individuals who have undergone a lower-limb amputation and were using a non-MPK or MPK knee. Implications for rehabilitationPerceived self-efficacy has has been shown to be related to quality of life, prosthetic mobility and capability as well as social activities in daily life. Prosthetic rehabilitation is primary focusing on physical improvement rather than psychological interventions. More attention should be directed towards the relationship between self-efficacy and prosthetic related outcomes during prosthetic rehabilitation after a lower-limb amputation. 

  • 36.
    Möller, Saffran
    et al.
    School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Hagberg, Kerstin
    Department of Prosthetics and Orthotics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; dDepartment of Orthopaedics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, SwedenAdvanced Reconstruction of Extremities, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Samuelsson, Kersti
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Ramstrand, Nerrolyn
    School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Perceived self-efficacy and specific self-reported outcomes in persons withlower-limb amputation using a non-microprocessor-controlled versus amicroprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee2018In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 220-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To measure self-efficacy in a group of individuals who have undergone a lower-limb amputationand investigate the relationship between self-efficacy and prosthetic-specific outcomes including prostheticuse, mobility, amputation-related problems and global health. A second purpose was to examine ifdifferences exist in outcomes based upon the type of prosthetic knee unit being used.Method: Cross-sectional study using the General Self-Efficacy (GSE) Scale and the Questionnaire forPersons with a Transfemoral Amputation (Q-TFA). Forty-two individuals participated in the study. Twentythreeused a non-microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee joint (non-MPK) and 19 used a microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee joint (MPK).Results: The study sample had quite high GSE scores (32/40). GSE scores were significantly correlated tothe Q-TFA prosthetic use, mobility and problem scores. High GSE scores were related to higher levels ofprosthetic use, mobility, global scores and negatively related to problem score. No significant differencewas observed between individuals using a non-MPK versus MPK joints.Conclusions: Individuals with high self-efficacy used their prosthesis to a higher degree and high self-efficacywas related to higher level of mobility, global scores and fewer problems related to the amputationin individuals who have undergone a lower-limb amputation and were using a non-MPK or MPK knee.

  • 37. Nilsagård ., Y.
    et al.
    Denison, Eva
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Gunnarsson, LG.
    Evaluating a single session with cooling garment for persons with multiple sclerosis –: a randomised trial.2006In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 1, p. 225-233Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Nilsagård, Y.
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital, Sweden.
    Denison, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Gunnarsson, L. -G
    Örebro University Hospital, Sweden.
    Evaluation of a single session with cooling garment for persons with multiple sclerosis-a randomized trial2006In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 225-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. This research investigates the objective and subjective effects of wearing the Rehband® cooling garment. Method. A multi-centre, randomized crossover study was conducted regarding 43 heat-sensitive persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), comparing active treatment with placebo. Subjects were tested immediately before and after intervention. Ten- (10TW) and 30-metre timed walk (30TW), oral temperature, spasticity, standing balance and timed up and go (TUG) and nine-hole peg test (NHPT) performance were measured. A study-specific questionnaire was used to evaluate subjective experiences. Results. Active treatment produced statistically significant objective improvement in 10TW, 30TW, one-legged stance, tandem stance (right) and TUG; statistically significant subjective improvement was also found in fatigue, spasticity, weakness, balance, gait, transfers, ability to think clearly and time to recover. The coherence between the objective and subjective results indicates clinical relevance from the subjects' perspective. There were no statistically significant differences between treatments in terms of oral temperature, spasticity (measured by the modified Ashworth scale), tandem stance (left), step test or NHPT, or subjective signs such as difficulty in dressing, dysarthria or pain. Conclusions. Active cooling with a Rehband® vest is likely to have a positive effect on everyday life in heat-sensitive persons with MS.

  • 39.
    Nordström, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Ekenberg, Lilly
    County Council of Norrbotten, Department of Research and Development.
    Näslund, Annika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    The psychosocial impact on standing devices2014In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 299-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the psychosocial impact of standing devices as experienced by users. Method: This is the second part of a comprehensive survey in five counties in Sweden where all the subjects with standing devices were invited to participate. The impact of standing devices on functional independence, quality of life and wellbeing was assessed using a questionnaire, Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (PIADS). Results: The psychosocial impact of the standing devices was perceived as positive. The highest PIADS scores in relation to age were found in the oldest group, aged 65 years and older. The ability to walk and independence in ambulation resulted in higher scores than the use of a wheelchair and/or dependence on others. Those who stood often awarded higher scores in the PIADS questionnaire compared to those who used the device less frequently. When standing was integrated in various activities, its psychosocial impact received high scores. Conclusion: The psychosocial impact of standing devices was generally experienced positively. The main results indicated that standing in a standing device had a value and we as professionals should ask the users about the intended purpose of their standing in order to prescribe the optimal device.Implications for Rehabilitation •Standing in standing devices has positive psychosocial impact for the user.•As professionals we should broaden our view of the use of standing devices, i.e. to see the standing device as an aid that not only treats the body’s structures or improves the user’s abilities in activities, but also provides a psychosocial impact on the user’s daily life, and to find meaningful goals for the user from a psychosocial perspective

  • 40.
    Nordström, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Näslund, Annika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Ekenberg, Lilly
    County Council of Norrbotten, Department of Research and Development.
    On an equal footing: adults’ accounts of the experience of using assistive devices for standing2013In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 49-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to illuminate the meaning that standing holds for persons who require standing devices. Method: The phenomenological/hermeneutical analysis of the interviews was carried out using a life world-approach. Fifteen users of standing devices lacking the ability to stand independently participated in the interviews.Result: Each person’s lived experiences of standing in their devices indicated that the upright body position opens up an opportunity for connection to the outside world. An upright body position (i) alters the person’s sense of self, (ii) augments the person’s availability to the outside world, (iii) strengthens social interplay, and (iv) changes a person’s motivation and their expectations over time. Conclusion: Standing may be something that unites the body and self. Understanding the meaning of the altered body position that the use of standing devices opens up is vital for physiotherapists and occupational therapists prescribing these devices. Furthermore, it is important to take account of the subjective body, as well as the biological one, to enhance the adoption of different body positions and the person’s experiences.

  • 41.
    Nordström, Thomas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Staffan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gustafson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Svensson, Idor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Assistive technology applications for students with reading difficulties: special education teacher’s experiences and perceptions2019In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 798-808Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Reading and writing applications (with text-to-speech, TTS and speech-to-text, STT functions), used as assistive technology (AT) for students with reading difficulties are increasingly used in education, however, research has not sufficiently enough evaluated its potential. The purpose of this study was to explore how assistive reading and writing applications were perceived to function with regard to students’ possibilities to assimilate (i.e., “read”) and communicate (i.e., “write”) text.

    Methods: Following a six-week app intervention, this follow-up survey contained 54 special education teachers’ perceptions of how the use of apps impacted student motivation, learning, and its usability in special education. A total of 59 students with reading difficulties from Grade 4, Grade 8 and from high school, were assessed. Analyses included quantitative and qualitative analyses of teachers’ responses and written material.

    Results: The results showed individual differences in how teachers perceived app usage for text-interaction purposes, including how app usage affected student motivation and autonomy for text-based learning. Eighty-two per cent of the younger and forty-seven per cent of older students continued to use the technology after the intervention, but in various degrees.

    Conclusions: Based on these findings, students with reading difficulties seem to be able to use AT in order to assimilate text (i.e., to read) and to communicate text (i.e., to write), and, thus, AT has the potential to promote participation in regular education. Future research should focus on how to customize assistive technology support in order to better utilize the potential.

  • 42.
    Nordström, Thomas
    et al.
    Linnaeus Univ, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Staffan
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Gustafson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Svensson, Idor
    Linnaeus Univ, Sweden.
    Assistive technology applications for students with reading difficulties: special education teachers experiences and perceptions2019In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 798-808Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Reading and writing applications (with text-to-speech, TTS and speech-to-text, STT functions), used as assistive technology (AT) for students with reading difficulties are increasingly used in education, however, research has not sufficiently enough evaluated its potential. The purpose of this study was to explore how assistive reading and writing applications were perceived to function with regard to students possibilities to assimilate (i.e., "read") and communicate (i.e., "write") text. Methods: Following a six-week app intervention, this follow-up survey contained 54 special education teachers perceptions of how the use of apps impacted student motivation, learning, and its usability in special education. A total of 59 students with reading difficulties from Grade 4, Grade 8 and from high school, were assessed. Analyses included quantitative and qualitative analyses of teachers responses and written material. Results: The results showed individual differences in how teachers perceived app usage for text-interaction purposes, including how app usage affected student motivation and autonomy for text-based learning. Eighty-two per cent of the younger and forty-seven per cent of older students continued to use the technology after the intervention, but in various degrees. Conclusions: Based on these findings, students with reading difficulties seem to be able to use AT in order to assimilate text (i.e., to read) and to communicate text (i.e., to write), and, thus, AT has the potential to promote participation in regular education. Future research should focus on how to customize assistive technology support in order to better utilize the potential. IMPLICATION FOR REHABILITATION This study found that students with reading difficulties could use reading and writing apps (with text-to-speech, TTS and speech-to-text, STT) in portable tables to be able to gain access to, and to produce text in an applied school setting. To use TTS and STT as assistive technology efficiently may require relative extensive support and training, but even with this support, not all students in this study benefited from the potential use of the technology, as the processes of being able to gain access to and to produce text with assistive technology seem to be a difficult process for some of the students. It is proposed that in order to enable all students with reading difficulties possibilities to use assistive technology efficiently, its uses need to be customized even further than was done in this extensive intervention.

  • 43.
    Pettersson, Ingvor
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Hagberg, Lars
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Fredriksson, Carin
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Hermansson, Liselotte M N
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Department of Prosthetics and Orthotics, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    The effect of powered scooters on activity, participation and quality of life in elderly users2016In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 11, no 7, p. 558-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim was to explore the effect of using a powered mobility device (PMD) on older peoples’ activity, participation and quality of life (QoL).

    Method: A pre- and post-intervention design with outcome measures for activity, participation (Individually Prioritized Problem Assessment, IPPA; World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule, WHODAS 2.0) and QoL (SF-36) were used. T-test was used to analyse the data. The magnitude of the effects was measured by Cohen’s criteria for effect sizes (d).

    Results: The sample consisted of 45 individuals (36 men) aged 66–88 years referred for prescription of a PMD. All were prescribed a powered scooter (PS). A statistically significant improvement with a large effect on IPPA in the ICF domains of Self-care (d¼2.47), Domestic life (d¼2.40), Interpersonal interactions and relationships (d¼2.08), and Community, social, and civic life (d¼2.36) was found. Medium-sized improvement on the WHODAS 2.0 domain of Participation and small improvements in the SF-36 domains of Physical Health and Role-Physical were also found.

    Conclusion: A PS has significant effects on the areas of activity, participation and QoL in elderly people. These findings have implications for prescriptions of a PS to this population.

  • 44.
    Rezae, Mortaza
    et al.
    Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism, Brisbane, Australia.
    McMeekin, David
    Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism, Brisbane, Australia.
    Tan, Tele
    Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism, Brisbane, Australia.
    Krishna, Aneesh
    School of Electrical Engineering, Computing and Mathematical Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe
    Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism, Brisbane, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism, Brisbane, Australia.
    Public transport planning tool for users on the autism spectrum: from concept to prototype2019In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This research explored the challenges of public transport use for individuals on the autism spectrum. It, subsequently, proposed a mobile application solution, coproduced by individuals on the autism spectrum, to facilitate public transport use.

    Methods: We, first, conducted a review of the literature to highlight the challenges people on the autism spectrum face when utilizing public transport. We, then, designed a list of mobile application functionalities that address the identified problems. To validate these functionalities, 27 young autistic adults and 19 families of autistic individuals were employed. Finally, based on the findings, we designed a mobile application that helps facilitate public transport use for those on the autism spectrum.

    Results: We found that the most prevalent concerns, in public transport use, amongst autistic individuals and their families are safety and spatial awareness. Specific problems include finding one’s way to the bus stop, boarding the correct service and disembarking at the correct stop. Interestingly, anxiety about unexpected events was also a barrier. Sensory sensitivity, similarly, was found to be an obstacle.

    Conclusions: This study defined the challenges of public transport use for autistic individuals and proposed a technological solution. The findings can also inform innovators, public transport providers and policymakers to improve public transport accessibility.

    Implications for rehabilitation:

    • People on the autism spectrum heavily rely on other individuals, namely family and friends, for their transportation needs. This dependence results in immobility for the autistic individuals and significant time and economical sacrifice for the person responsible for the transportation.
    • Public transport, a cheap and widely available form of transportation, has not yet been clearly studied with individuals on the autism spectrum.
    • We clearly define the challenges of using public transport and put forward a trip planner mobile application, coproduced by autistic individuals, that facilitate it.
    • In the long term, this enhanced travel independence can lead to greater education and employment opportunities and an overall improved quality of life. 
  • 45.
    Rusaw, David
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Adaptations from the prosthetic and intact limb during standing on a sway referenced support surface for transtibial prosthesis users2019In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 14, no 7, p. 682-691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate the bilateral postural adaptations as a result of standing on an increasingly unstable sway-referenced support surface with both the intact and prosthetic limb for transtibial prosthesis users (TPUs).

    Method: TPUs (n = 14) and matched controls (n = 14) stood quietly in multiple foot placement conditions (intact foot, prosthetic foot and both feet) on a sway-referenced support surface which matched surface rotation to the movement of the centre of pressure (CoP). Force and motion data were collected and used to analyse CoP mean position, displacement integral and force components under intact and prosthetic limbs.

    Results: Significant differences were found between prosthesis users and controls in CoP mean position in anteroposterior (1.5 (95% CI, 1.2–1.8) cm) and mediolateral directions (3.1 (95% CI, 0.5–5.7) cm. CoP displacement integrals were significantly different greater for prosthesis user group in the anteroposterior direction. Force components differences were found in all planes (anteroposterior: 0.6 (95% CI, 0.4–0.8 N); mediolateral: 0.1 (95% CI, 0.0–0.2 N & 0.3 (95% CI, 0.2–0.4) N, inferosuperior: 2.2 (95% CI, 1.4–3.0) N).

    Conclusions: TPUs have bilateral static and dynamic postural adaptations when standing on a sway-referenced support surface that is different to controls, and between prosthetic and intact sides. Results further support evidence highlighting importance of the intact limb in maintenance of postural control in prosthesis users. Differences indicate clinical treatment should be directed towards improving outcomes on the intact side.

    Implications for rehabilitation:

    • Prosthesis users have bilateral adaptations when standing on a sway referenced support surface

    • These adaptations are different to controls, and between prosthetic and intact sides.

    • The intact limb is the major contributor to maintenance of postural control in prosthesis users.

    • Clinical treatment should account for this when interventions are designed.

  • 46.
    Rusaw, David
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    The validity of forceplate data as a measure of rapid and targeted volitional movements of the center of mass in transtibial prosthesis users2017In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 12, no 7, p. 686-693Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To validate outcome variables from the Limits of Stability protocol that are derived from the center of pressure with those same variables derived from the center of mass during rapid, volitional responses in transtibial prosthesis users.

    Method: Prosthesis users (n=21) and matched controls (n=21) executed movements while force and motion data were collected.  Correlation coefficients were used to investigate relationships between center of pressure and center of mass for: x/y coordinates positions, Limits of Stability outcome variables and muscular reaction times. 

    Results: Significant differences were seen in correlation between x/y coordinate positions toward the intact limb (mean effect size of differences: r = 0.38).  Limits of Stability variables were positively correlated (reaction time and maximum excursion range rs: 0.585 – 0.846; directional control and mean velocity range rs: 0.307 – 0.472).  Muscular reaction times correlated weakly with those from center of pressure (mean rs prosthesis users – 0.186 and controls –  0.101). 

    Conclusions: Forceplate measures are valid in describing rapid, volitional movements in unilateral transtibial prosthesis users.  Limits of Stability outcomes extracted from center of pressure and center of mass are highly correlated but can be sensitive to direction.  Muscular reaction time correlates very little with reaction times extracted from the other variables.

  • 47.
    Rönnåsen, Berit
    et al.
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro, Sweden; Audiological Research Centre, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Möller, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Audiological Research Centre, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Möller, Claes
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Audiological Research Centre, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Department of Behavioural Science and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Anderzén Carlsson, Agneta
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Audiological Research Centre, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Aspects of learning from the perspective of people with Alström syndrome2016In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 38, no 7, p. 644-652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to explore aspects of learning, from a lifelong perspective, in individuals with Alstro ̈m syndrome (AS). AS is an autosomal recessive disorder causing early blindness, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, cardiomyopathy, endocrine disorders, metabolic dysfunction, and abbreviated lifespan.

    Method: Eleven individuals with AS participated. The study had a qualitative explorative design, giving voice to the participants’ perspectives on their situation. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews, which were subjected to conventional (inductive) qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The analysis revealed in the participants a quest for independence and an image of themselves as capable people willing to learn, but in constant need of support to continue learning throughout their lives to be as independent as possible.

    Conclusion: Based on the levels of functioning, i.e. personal resources, revealed in the interviews, supervisors, caregivers, and teachers are encouraged to allow people with AS to be their own advocates, as they know best how, what, and with whom they learn, and what type of sensory material – tactile, auditory, visual, or a combination – is most helpful. Implications for RehabilitationIndividuals with AS strive for independence, and to be independent they need to continue to learn throughout their lives.Individuals with AS know best how they learn, and should be asked what modalities are the most effective for them.The tactile modality for learning will continue throughout life and should be emphasized early in the individual's education and rehabilitation.

  • 48.
    Saeed, Nazish
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics.
    Manzoor, Mirfa
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics. Department of Computer Science, Sardar Bahadur Khan Women’s University, Quetta, Pakistan.
    Khosravi, Pouria
    Business School, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
    An exploration of usability issues in telecare monitoring systems and possible solutions: A systematic literature review2020In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 271-281Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The idea of product usability has been discussed in several research areas including product research and development. Usability, in telecare monitoring systems, determines how much the system is effective and efficient for the telecare users. Usability has been considered an important factor in the acceptance of telecare monitoring systems by individuals who encounter challenges in the use of such systems and who possess a limited knowledge of their use.

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to explore the relevant usability issues and identify possible solutions to improve the usability of telecare monitoring systems.

    METHOD: The study is based on eight research questions and to find the answers to those research questions, a systematic literature is performed.

    RESULTS: The research findings highlight various usability issues, including the complexity of the interface, difficulty in reading the text, and insufficient provision of instructions. These studies have also suggested solutions to enhance the usability of systems, including development of the technical skills of users, explanations of usability evaluation techniques for telecare monitoring systems, and engaging the appropriate users during the development of telecare monitoring systems. Implications for rehabilitation Successful implementation of telecare monitoring systems can increase the chances of acceptance of telecare monitoring systems by the users. Implementing an efficient and effective system will make telecare users more independent at their homes. The development of usable telecare monitoring systems can significantly contribute to a basis for clinical and home-based implementation of the telehealth technology to promote remote monitoring for elderly and people with disabilities. Considering the usability issues and solutions identified in this study, it will go a long way towards aiding subsequent researchers and developers in the implementation of more usable and valid telecare monitoring systems.

  • 49.
    Samuelsson, Kersti
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine UHL.
    Björk, Maarit
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine UHL.
    Erdugan, Ann-Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine UHL.
    Hansson, Anna-Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine UHL.
    Rustner, Birgitta
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine UHL.
    The effect of shaped wheelchair cushion and lumbar supports on under-seat pressure, comfort, and pelvic rotation.2009In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 329-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: A wheelchair seat and position help clients perform daily activities. The comfort of the wheelchair can encourage clients to participate in daily activities and can help prevent future complications. PURPOSE: This study evaluates how a shaped seat-cushion and two different back supports affect under-seat pressure, comfort, and pelvic rotation. METHOD: Thirty healthy subjects were tested using two differently equipped manual wheelchairs. One wheelchair had a Velcro adjustable back seat and a plane seat-cushion. The other wheelchair had a non-adjustable sling-back seat and a plane cushion. The second wheelchair was also equipped with a shaped cushion and/or a detachable lumbar support. Under-seat pressure, estimated comfort, and pelvic rotation were measured after 10 min in each wheelchair outfit. RESULTS: Peak pressure increased with the shaped cushion compared to the plane cushion. No significant difference in estimated comfort was found. Pelvic posterior-rotation was reduced with the adjustable or detachable back-support irrespective of the shape of the seat cushion. CONCLUSIONS: To support a neutral pelvic position and spinal curvature, a combination of a shaped cushion and a marked lumbar support is most effective.

  • 50.
    Samuelsson, Kersti
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Wressle, Ewa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Geriatric Medicine in Linköping.
    Powered wheelchairs and scooters for outdoor mobility: a pilot study on costs and benefits2014In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 330-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study evaluates the effect of electric powered wheelchairs/scooters (PWC/S) on occupational performance, social participation, health, and life satisfaction. In addition, this study estimates the costs and benefits of PWC/S and describes users’ experiences with the delivery process.

    Methods: This prospective study has a before-and-after design. Postal questionnaires were sent to 24 first-time PWC/S users before delivery of the PWC/S and four months after delivery. The participants used their PWC/S for outdoor mobility.

    Results: PWC/S improved the users’ daily lives, their ability to engage in mobility-related activities, and their social participation. For a majority of the users, estimated independence, feelings of safety, and self-esteem increased although overall health and life satisfaction were not significantly affected. All users thought that the therapist had considered their needs during the providing process. Most participants (73%) were satisfied with their device at follow-up. For the 12 users who reported no change in health status between measures, the mean societal savings based on calculated costs for assistance was € 6 227 per person per year.

    Conclusions: PWC/S seems to improve occupational performance, social participation, and life satisfaction for users. Moreover, these improvements seem to have an economic advantage for both users and society.

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