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  • 1. Cavka, Adnan
    et al.
    Alriksson, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Processum.
    Rose, Shaunita H.
    Van Zyl, Willem H.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Biorefining of wood: Combined production of ethanol and xylanase from waste fiber sludge2011In: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, ISSN 1367-5435, E-ISSN 1476-5535, Vol. 38, no 8, p. 891-899Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility to utilize fiber sludge, waste fibers from pulp mills and lignocellulose-based biorefineries, for combined production of liquid biofuel and biocatalysts was investigated. Without pretreatment, fiber sludge was hydrolyzed enzymatically to monosaccharides, mainly glucose and xylose. In the first of two sequential fermentation steps, the fiber sludge hydrolysate was fermented to cellulosic ethanol with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although the final ethanol yields were similar, the ethanol productivity after 9.5 h was 3.3 g/l/h for the fiber sludge hydrolysate compared with only 2.2 g/l/h for a reference fermentation with similar sugar content. In the second fermentation step, the spent fiber sludge hydrolysate (the stillage obtained after distillation) was used as growth medium for recombinant Aspergillus niger expressing the xylanase-encoding Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) xyn2 gene. The xylanase activity obtained with the spent fiber sludge hydrolysate (8,500 nkat/ml) was higher than that obtained in a standard medium with similar monosaccharide content (1,400 nkat/ml). Analyses based on deglycosylation with N-glycosidase F suggest that the main part of the recombinant xylanase was unglycosylated and had molecular mass of 20.7 kDa, while a minor part had N-linked glycosylation and molecular mass of 23.6 kDa. Chemical analyses of the growth medium showed that important carbon sources in the spent fiber sludge hydrolysate included xylose, small aliphatic acids, and oligosaccharides. The results show the potential of converting waste fiber sludge to liquid biofuel and enzymes as coproducts in lignocellulose-based biorefineries. © 2010 Society for Industrial Microbiology.

  • 2.
    Cavka, Adnan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Alriksson, Björn
    Rose, Shaunita H
    van Zyl, Willem H
    Jönsson, Leif J
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Biorefining of wood: combined production of ethanol and xylanase from waste fiber sludge2011In: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, ISSN 1367-5435, E-ISSN 1476-5535, Vol. 38, no 8, p. 891-899Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility to utilize fiber sludge, waste fibers from pulp mills and lignocellulose-based biorefineries, for combined production of liquid biofuel and biocatalysts was investigated. Without pretreatment, fiber sludge was hydrolyzed enzymatically to monosaccharides, mainly glucose and xylose. In the first of two sequential fermentation steps, the fiber sludge hydrolysate was fermented to cellulosic ethanol with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although the final ethanol yields were similar, the ethanol productivity after 9.5 h was 3.3 g/l/h for the fiber sludge hydrolysate compared with only 2.2 g/l/h for a reference fermentation with similar sugar content. In the second fermentation step, the spent fiber sludge hydrolysate (the stillage obtained after distillation) was used as growth medium for recombinant Aspergillus niger expressing the xylanase-encoding Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) xyn2 gene. The xylanase activity obtained with the spent fiber sludge hydrolysate (8,500 nkat/ml) was higher than that obtained in a standard medium with similar monosaccharide content (1,400 nkat/ml). Analyses based on deglycosylation with N-glycosidase F suggest that the main part of the recombinant xylanase was unglycosylated and had molecular mass of 20.7 kDa, while a minor part had N-linked glycosylation and molecular mass of 23.6 kDa. Chemical analyses of the growth medium showed that important carbon sources in the spent fiber sludge hydrolysate included xylose, small aliphatic acids, and oligosaccharides. The results show the potential of converting waste fiber sludge to liquid biofuel and enzymes as coproducts in lignocellulose-based biorefineries.

  • 3. Cavka, Adnan
    et al.
    Alriksson, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Processum.
    Rose, Shaunita H.
    Van Zyl, Willem H.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Production of cellulosic ethanol and enzyme from waste fiber sludge using SSF, recycling of hydrolytic enzymes and yeast, and recombinant cellulase-producing Aspergillus niger2014In: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, ISSN 1367-5435, E-ISSN 1476-5535, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 1191-1200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioethanol and enzymes were produced from fiber sludges through sequential microbial cultivations. After a first simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with yeast, the bioethanol concentrations of sulfate and sulfite fiber sludges were 45.6 and 64.7 g/L, respectively. The second SSF, which included fresh fiber sludges and recycled yeast and enzymes from the first SSF, resulted in ethanol concentrations of 38.3 g/L for sulfate fiber sludge and 24.4 g/L for sulfite fiber sludge. Aspergillus niger carrying the endoglucanase-encoding Cel7B gene of Trichoderma reesei was grown in the spent fiber sludge hydrolysates. The cellulase activities obtained with spent hydrolysates of sulfate and sulfite fiber sludges were 2,700 and 2,900 nkat/mL, respectively. The high cellulase activities produced by using stillage and the significant ethanol concentrations produced in the second SSF suggest that onsite enzyme production and recycling of enzyme are realistic concepts that warrant further attention. © 2014 Society for Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology.

  • 4.
    Cavka, Adnan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Alriksson, Björn
    Processum Biorefinery Initiative AB, 891 22 Örnsköldsvik, Sweden.
    Rose, Shaunita H.
    Department of Microbiology, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, 7602, South Africa.
    van Zyl, Willem H.
    Department of Microbiology, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, 7602, South Africa.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Production of cellulosic ethanol and enzyme from waste fiber sludge using SSF, recycling of hydrolytic enzymes and yeast, and recombinant cellulase-producing Aspergillus niger2014In: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, ISSN 1367-5435, E-ISSN 1476-5535, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 1191-1200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioethanol and enzymes were produced from fiber sludges through sequential microbial cultivations. After a first simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with yeast, the bioethanol concentrations of sulfate and sulfite fiber sludges were 45.6 and 64.7 g/L, respectively. The second SSF, which included fresh fiber sludges and recycled yeast and enzymes from the first SSF, resulted in ethanol concentrations of 38.3 g/L for sulfate fiber sludge and 24.4 g/L for sulfite fiber sludge. Aspergillus niger carrying the endoglucanase-encoding Cel7B gene of Trichoderma reesei was grown in the spent fiber sludge hydrolysates. The cellulase activities obtained with spent hydrolysates of sulfate and sulfite fiber sludges were 2,700 and 2,900 nkat/mL, respectively. The high cellulase activities produced by using stillage and the significant ethanol concentrations produced in the second SSF suggest that onsite enzyme production and recycling of enzyme are realistic concepts that warrant further attention.

  • 5. Granhall, U.
    et al.
    Welsh, A.
    Throback, I.N.
    Hjort, K.
    Hansson, Mikael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Hallin, S.
    Bacterial community diversity in paper mills processing recycled paper2010In: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, ISSN 1367-5435, E-ISSN 1476-5535, Vol. 37, no 10, p. 1061-1069Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper mills processing recycled paper suffer from biofouling causing problems both in the mill and final product. The total bacterial community composition and identification of specific taxa in the process water and biofilms at the stock preparation and paper machine areas in a mill with recycled paper pulp was described by using a DNA-based approach. Process water in a similar mill was also analyzed to investigate if general trends can be found between mills and over time. Bacterial community profiles, analyzed by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), in process water showed that the dominant peaks in the profiles were similar between the two mills, although the overall composition was unique for each mill. When comparing process water and biofilm at different locations within one of the mills, we observed a separation according to location and sample type, with the biofilm from the paper machine being most different. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were generated and 404 clones were screened by RFLP analysis. Grouping of RFLP patterns confirmed that the biofilm from the paper machine was most different. A total of 99 clones representing all RFLP patterns were analyzed, resulting in sequences recovered from nine bacterial phyla, including two candidate phyla. Bacteroidetes represented 45% and Actinobacteria 23% of all the clones. Sequences with similarity to organisms implicated in biofouling, like Chryseobacterium spp. and Brevundimonas spp., were recovered from all samples even though the mill had no process problems during sampling, suggesting that they are part of the natural paper mill community. Moreover, many sequences showed little homology to as yet uncultivated bacteria implying that paper mills are interesting for isolation of new organisms, as well as for bioprospecting. © Society for Industrial Microbiology 2010.

  • 6. Granhall, Ulf
    et al.
    Welsh, Allana
    Throbäck, Ingela Noredal
    Hjort, Karin
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Hansson, Mikael
    Hallin, Sara
    Bacterial community diversity in paper mills processing recycled paper2010In: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, ISSN 1367-5435, E-ISSN 1476-5535, Vol. 37, no 10, p. 1061-1069Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper mills processing recycled paper suffer from biofouling causing roblems both in the mill and final product. The total bacterial ommunity composition and identification of specific taxa in the process ater and biofilms at the stock preparation and paper machine areas in a ill with recycled paper pulp was described by using a DNA-based pproach. Process water in a similar mill was also analyzed to nvestigate if general trends can be found between mills and over time. acterial community profiles, analyzed by terminal-restriction fragment ength polymorphism (T-RFLP), in process water showed that the dominant eaks in the profiles were similar between the two mills, although the verall composition was unique for each mill. When comparing process ater and biofilm at different locations within one of the mills, we bserved a separation according to location and sample type, with the iofilm from the paper machine being most different. 16S rRNA gene clone ibraries were generated and 404 clones were screened by RFLP analysis. rouping of RFLP patterns confirmed that the biofilm from the paper achine was most different. A total of 99 clones representing all RFLP atterns were analyzed, resulting in sequences recovered from nine acterial phyla, including two candidate phyla. Bacteroidetes epresented 45% and Actinobacteria 23% of all the clones. Sequences with imilarity to organisms implicated in biofouling, like Chryseobacterium pp. and Brevundimonas spp., were recovered from all samples even though he mill had no process problems during sampling, suggesting that they re part of the natural paper mill community. Moreover, many sequences howed little homology to as yet uncultivated bacteria implying that aper mills are interesting for isolation of new organisms, as well as or bioprospecting.

  • 7. Granhall, Ulf
    et al.
    Welsh, Allana
    Throbäck, Ingela Noredal
    Hjort, Karin
    Hansson, Mikael
    Hallin, Sara
    Bacterial community diversity in paper mills processing recycled paper.2010In: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, ISSN 1367-5435, E-ISSN 1476-5535, Vol. 37, no 10, p. 1061-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper mills processing recycled paper suffer from biofouling causing problems both in the mill and final product. The total bacterial community composition and identification of specific taxa in the process water and biofilms at the stock preparation and paper machine areas in a mill with recycled paper pulp was described by using a DNA-based approach. Process water in a similar mill was also analyzed to investigate if general trends can be found between mills and over time. Bacterial community profiles, analyzed by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), in process water showed that the dominant peaks in the profiles were similar between the two mills, although the overall composition was unique for each mill. When comparing process water and biofilm at different locations within one of the mills, we observed a separation according to location and sample type, with the biofilm from the paper machine being most different. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were generated and 404 clones were screened by RFLP analysis. Grouping of RFLP patterns confirmed that the biofilm from the paper machine was most different. A total of 99 clones representing all RFLP patterns were analyzed, resulting in sequences recovered from nine bacterial phyla, including two candidate phyla. Bacteroidetes represented 45% and Actinobacteria 23% of all the clones. Sequences with similarity to organisms implicated in biofouling, like Chryseobacterium spp. and Brevundimonas spp., were recovered from all samples even though the mill had no process problems during sampling, suggesting that they are part of the natural paper mill community. Moreover, many sequences showed little homology to as yet uncultivated bacteria implying that paper mills are interesting for isolation of new organisms, as well as for bioprospecting.

  • 8.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Christiernin, M.
    Agnemo, R.
    Monocomponent endoglucanase treatment increases the reactivity of softwood sulphite dissolving pulp2005In: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, ISSN 1367-5435, E-ISSN 1476-5535, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 211-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Softwood dissolving pulp was treated with a commercial monocomponent fungal endocellulase. The reactivity of the pulp for the production of rayon and cellulose derivatives as determined with the Fock method increased drastically with relatively low amounts of enzyme, and the yield loss and decrease of viscosity were moderate. The mechanism behind the increased reactivity is discussed.

  • 9.
    Johansson, Emma
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Processum.
    Brandberg, Tomas
    Larsson, Christer
    Influence of cultivation procedure for Saccharomyces cerevisiae used as pitching agent in industrial spent sulphite liquor fermentations2011In: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, ISSN 1367-5435, E-ISSN 1476-5535, Vol. 38, no 11, p. 1787-1792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cell viability and fermentation performance often deteriorate in fermentations of spent sulphite liquor (SSL). This investigation therefore addresses the question of how different cultivation conditions for yeast cells influence their ability to survive and boost the ethanol production capacity in an SSL-based fermentation process. The strains used as pitching agents were an industrially harvested Saccharomyces cerevisiae and commercial dry baker's yeast. This study therefore suggests that exposure to SSL in combination with nutrients, prior to the fermentation step, is crucial for the performance of the yeast. Supplying 0.5 g/l fresh yeast cultivated under appropriate cultivation conditions may increase ethanol concentration more than 200%. © 2011 Society for Industrial Microbiology.

  • 10.
    Johansson, Emma
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Processum.
    Brandberg, Tomas
    Larsson, Christer
    Influence of cultivation procedure for Saccharomyces cerevisiae used as pitching agent in industrial spent sulphite liquor fermentations2011In: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, ISSN 1367-5435, E-ISSN 1476-5535, Vol. 38, no 11, p. 1787-1792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cell viability and fermentation performance often deteriorate in fermentations of spent sulphite liquor (SSL). This investigation therefore addresses the question of how different cultivation conditions for yeast cells influence their ability to survive and boost the ethanol production capacity in an SSL-based fermentation process. The strains used as pitching agents were an industrially harvested Saccharomycescerevisiae and commercial dry baker's yeast. This study therefore suggests that exposure to SSL in combination with nutrients, prior to the fermentation step, is crucial for the performance of the yeast. Supplying 0.5 g/l fresh yeast cultivated under appropriate cultivation conditions may increase ethanol concentration more than 200%. © 2011 Society for Industrial Microbiology.

  • 11. Kang, M. -K
    et al.
    Nielsen, Jens
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Biobased production of alkanes and alkenes through metabolic engineering of microorganisms2016In: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, ISSN 1367-5435, E-ISSN 1476-5535, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advancement in metabolic engineering of microorganisms has enabled bio-based production of a range of chemicals, and such engineered microorganism can be used for sustainable production leading to reduced carbon dioxide emission there. One area that has attained much interest is microbial hydrocarbon biosynthesis, and in particular, alkanes and alkenes are important high-value chemicals as they can be utilized for a broad range of industrial purposes as well as ‘drop-in’ biofuels. Some microorganisms have the ability to biosynthesize alkanes and alkenes naturally, but their production level is extremely low. Therefore, there have been various attempts to recruit other microbial cell factories for production of alkanes and alkenes by applying metabolic engineering strategies. Here we review different pathways and involved enzymes for alkane and alkene production and discuss bottlenecks and possible solutions to accomplish industrial level production of these chemicals by microbial fermentation.

  • 12. Lindström, E. Börje
    et al.
    Gunneriusson, Lars
    Thermophilic bioleaching of arsenopyrite using Sulfolobus and a semi-continuous laboratory procedure1990In: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, ISSN 1367-5435, E-ISSN 1476-5535, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 75-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A laboratory equipment for pumping slurries is described. The pumping is performed semi-continuously by using a plastic syringe, a set of different valves, and a programmable electronic unit. The reproducibility of the pumping is demonstrated. Bioleaching of a gold-containing arsenopyrite slurry was done withSulfolobus at 70°C using the semi-continuous procedure and with a retention time of 100 h for the mineral. Arsenic was completely released at a rate of 109 mg l-1 h-1. The gold recovery is related to the amount of iron and arsenic dissolved and is shown to have a correlation factor of approximately one relative to the release of arsenic.

  • 13.
    Ruhal, Rohit
    et al.
    Bioprocess Engineering Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttrakhand, India.
    Choudhury, Bijan
    Improved trehalose production from biodiesel waste using parent and osmotically sensitive mutant of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii under aerobic conditions2012In: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, ISSN 1367-5435, E-ISSN 1476-5535, Vol. 39, no 8, p. 1153-1160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trehalose is an important nutraceutical of wide commercial interest in the food processing industry. Recently, crude glycerol was reported to be suitable for the production of trehalose using a food microbe, Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii, under static flask conditions. Similarly, enhanced trehalose yield was reported in an osmotically sensitive mutant of the same strain under anaerobic conditions. In the present study, an effort was made to achieve higher production of trehalose, propionic acid, and lactic acid using the parent and an osmotically sensitive mutant of P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii under aeration conditions. Under aeration conditions (200 rpm in shake flasks and 30 % air saturation in a batch reactor), biomass was increased and approximately 98 % of crude glycerol was consumed. In the parent strain, a trehalose titre of 361 mg/l was achieved, whereas in the mutant strain a trehalose titre of 1.3 g/l was produced in shake flask conditions (200 rpm). In the mutant strain, propionic and lactic acid yields of 0.53 and 0.21 g/g of substrate were also achieved with crude glycerol. Similarly, in controlled batch reactor culturing conditions a final trehalose titre of approximately 1.56 g/l was achieved with the mutant strain using crude glycerol as the substrate. Enhanced production of trehalose using P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii from waste under aeration conditions is reported here. Higher production of trehalose was not due to a higher yield of trehalose but to a higher final biomass concentration.

  • 14.
    Schoug, Åsa
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fischer, Janett
    UFZ Helmholtz, Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig, Germany.
    Heipieper, Hermann J.
    UFZ Helmholtz, Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig, Germany.
    Schnürer, Johan
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Sebastian
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Impact of fermentation pH and temperature on freeze-drying survival and membrane lipid composition of Lactobacillus coryniformis Si32008In: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, ISSN 1367-5435, E-ISSN 1476-5535, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 175-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the industrial stabilization process, lactic acid bacteria are subjected to several stressful conditions. Tolerance to dehydration differs among lactic acid bacteria and the determining factors remain largely unknown. Lactobacillus coryniformis Si3 prevents spoilage by mold due to production of acids and specific antifungal compounds. This strain could be added as a biopreservative in feed systems, e.g. silage. We studied the survival of Lb. coryniformis Si3 after freeze-drying in a 10% skim milk and 5% sucrose formulation following different fermentation pH values and temperatures. Initially, a response surface methodology was employed to optimize final cell density and growth rate. At optimal pH and temperature (pH 5.5 and 34 degrees C, the freeze-drying survival of Lb. coryniformis Si3 was 67% (+/- 6%). The influence of temperature or pH stress in late logarithmic phase was dependent upon the nature of the stress applied. Heat stress (42 degrees C) did not influence freeze-drying survival, whereas mild cold- (26 degrees C), base(pH 6.5), and acid- (pH 4.5) stress significantly reduced survival. Freeze-drying survival rates varied fourfold, with the lowest survival following mild cold stress (26 degrees C) prior to freeze-drying and the highest survival after optimal growth or after mild heat (42 degrees C) stress. Levels of different membrane fatty acids were analyzed to determine the adaptive response in this strain. Fatty acids changed with altered fermentation conditions and the degree of membrane lipid saturation decreased when the cells were subjected to stress. This study shows the importance of selecting appropriate fermentation conditions to maximize freeze-drying viability of Lb. coryniformis as well as the effects of various unfavorable conditions during growth on freeze-drying survival.

  • 15.
    Sharifia, Mahnaz
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Karimi, Keikhosro
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Production of ethanol by filamentous and yeast-like forms of Mucor indicus from fructose, glucose, sucrose and molasses2008In: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, ISSN 1367-5435, E-ISSN 1476-5535, Vol. 35, no 11, p. 1253-1259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fungus Mucor indicus is found in this study able to consume glucose and fructose, but not sucrose in fermentation of sugarcane and sugar beet molasses. This might be an advantage in industries which want to selectively remove glucose and fructose for crystallisation of sucrose present in the molasses. On the other hand, the fungus assimilated sucrose after hydrolysis by the enzyme invertase. The fungus efficiently grew on glucose and fructose and produced ethanol in synthetic media or from molasses. The cultivations were carried out aerobically and anaerobically, and manipulated toward filamentous or yeast-like morphology. Ethanol was the major metabolite in all the experiments. The ethanol yield in anaerobic cultivations was between 0.35 and 0.48 g/g sugars consumed, depending on the carbon source and the growth morphology, while a yield of as low as 0.16 g/g was obtained during aerobic cultivation. The yeast-like form of the fungus showed faster ethanol production with an average productivity of 0.90 g/l h from glucose, fructose and inverted sucrose, than the filamentous form with an average productivity of 0.33 g/l h. The biomass of the fungus was also analyzed with respect to alkali-insoluble material (AIM), chitin, and chitosan. The biomass of the fungus contained per g maximum 0.217 g AIM and 0.042 g chitosan in yeast-like cultivation under aerobic conditions.

  • 16. Zhang, J.
    et al.
    Henriksson, H.
    Szabo, I. J.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Johansson, G.
    The active component in the flax-retting system of the zygomycete Rhizopus otyzae sb is a family 28 polygalacturonase2005In: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, ISSN 1367-5435, E-ISSN 1476-5535, Vol. 32, no 10, p. 431-438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The zygomycete Rhizopus oryzae sb is a very efficient organism for retting of flax, the initial microbiological step in the process of making linen. An extracellular polygalacturonase, when isolated could perform retting, and therefore probably is the key component in the retting system of R. oryzae. This was purified and characterized. The purified enzyme has a molecular mass of 37,436 Da from mass spectrometric determination, an isoelectric point of 8.4, and has non-methylated polygalacturonic acid as its preferred substrate. Peptide sequences indicate that the enzyme belongs to family 28, in similarity with other polygal-acturonases (EC. 3.2.1.15). It contains, however an N-terminal sequence absent in other fungal pectinases, but present in an enzyme from the phytopathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum. The biochemical background for the superior retting efficiency of R. oryzae sb is discussed.

  • 17.
    Zhang, Jing
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry.
    Henriksson, Hongbin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry.
    Szabo, Istvan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry.
    The active component in the flax-retting system of the zygomycete Rhizopus oryzae sb is a family 28 polygalacturonase2005In: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, ISSN 1367-5435, E-ISSN 1476-5535, Vol. 32, no 10, p. 431-438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The zygomycete Rhizopus oryzae sb is a very efficient organism for retting of flax, the initial microbiological step in the process of making linen. An extracellular polygalacturonase, when isolated could perform retting, and therefore probably is the key component in the retting system of R. oryzae. This was purified and characterized. The purified enzyme has a molecular mass of 37,436 Da from mass spectrometric determination, an isoelectric point of 8.4, and has non-methylated polygalacturonic acid as its preferred substrate. Peptide sequences indicate that the enzyme belongs to family 28, in similarity with other polygalacturonases (EC. 3.2.1.15). It contains, however an N-terminal sequence absent in other fungal pectinases, but present in an enzyme from the phytopathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum. The biochemical background for the superior retting efficiency of R. oryzae sb is discussed.

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