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  • 1.
    Aarons, G. A.
    et al.
    University of California, United States.
    Seijo, C.
    University of California, United States.
    Green, A. E.
    University of California, United States.
    Moullin, J. C.
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Hasson, H.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    James, S.
    University of Kassel, Kassel, Germany.
    Ehrhart, M. G.
    University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida.
    Ducarroz, S.
    Université Claude Bernard, Lyon, France.
    Sevdalis, N.
    King's College London, UK.
    Willging, C.
    Behavioral Health Research Center of the Southwest, Albuquerque, United States.
    Fostering international collaboration in implementation science and research: A concept mapping exploratory study2019In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: International collaboration in science has received increasing attention given emphases on relevance, generalizability, and impact of research. Implementation science (IS) is a growing discipline that aims to translate clinical research findings into health services. Research is needed to identify efficient and effective ways to foster international collaboration in IS. Concept-mapping (CM) was utilized with a targeted sample for preliminary exploration of fostering international collaboration. Concept-mapping is a mixed-method approach (qualitative/quantitative) particularly suited for identifying essential themes and action items to facilitate planning among diverse stakeholders. We sought to identify key factors likely to facilitate productive and rewarding international collaborations in implementation research. Results: We identified eleven dimensions: Strategic Planning; Practicality; Define Common Principles; Technological Tools for Collaboration; Funding; Disseminate Importance of Fostering International Collaboration in IS; Knowledge Sharing; Innovative & Adaptive Research; Training IS Researchers; Networking & Shared Identity; Facilitate Meetings. Strategic Planning and Funding were highest rated for importance and Strategic Planning and Networking and Shared Identity were rated most feasible to institute. Fostering international collaboration in IS can accelerate the efficiency, relevance, and generalizability of implementation research. Strategies should be developed and tested to improve international collaborations and engage junior and experienced investigators in collaborations advancing implementation science and practice. 

  • 2.
    Andersson, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Internal Medicine, County Council of Jönköping, Jönköping.
    Landberg, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Festin, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Norrköping, Sweden.
    Consequences of high-sensitivity troponin T testing applied in a primary care population with chest pain compared with a commercially available point-of-care troponin T analysis: an observational prospective study2015In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:There is a demand for a highly sensitive and specific point-of care test to detect acute myocardial infarction (AMI). It is unclear if a high-sensitivity troponin assay will have enough discriminative power to become a decision support in primary care. The aim of this study was to evaluate a high-sensitivity troponin T assay performed in three primary health care centres in southeast Sweden and to compare the outcome with a point-of-care troponin T test.METHODS:This study included 115 patients who consulted their general practitioner for chest pain, dyspnoea on exertion, unexplained weakness and/or fatigue in the last 7days. Troponin T was analysed by a point-of-care test and a high-sensitivity method together with N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and creatinine. All patients were checked for AMI or unstable angina (UA) within 30days of study enrolment. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was carried out to examine possible connections between troponin T[greater than or equal to]15ng/L, clinical variables and laboratory findings at baseline. In addition, 21 patients with troponin T[greater than or equal to]15ng/L and no signs of AMI or UA were followed up for 2-3years.RESULTS:Three patients were diagnosed with AMI and three with UA. At the [greater than or equal to]15ng/L cut-off, the troponin T method had 100% sensitivity, 75% specificity for AMI and a positive predictive value of 10%. The troponin T point-of-care test missed one case of AMI and the detection limit was 50ng/L. Troponin T[greater than or equal to]15ng/L was correlated to age [greater than or equal to]65years (odds ratio (OR), 10.9 95% CI 2.28-51.8) and NT-proBNP in accordance with heart failure (OR 8.62 95% CI 1.61-46.1). Fourteen of the 21 patients, without signs of AMI or UA at baseline, still had increased troponin T at follow-up after 2-3years.CONCLUSIONS:A high-sensitivity troponin T assay could become useful in primary care as a point-of-care test for patients <65years. For patients older than 65-70years, a higher decision limit than [greater than or equal to]15ng/L should be considered and used in conjunction with clinical parameters and possibly with NT-proBNP.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bjerså, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Falk, Kristin
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olsén, Monika Fagevik
    Department of Surgery and Department of Physical Therapy, Sahlgrenska University Hospital; Department of Gastrosurgical Research and Education, Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effects of chewing gum against postoperative ileus after pancreaticoduodenectomy: a randomized controlled trial2015In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 8, no 37, article id 25886536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Postoperative ileus is common after surgery. One non-pharmacological intervention that has shown promising results in reducing the duration of postoperative ileus is chewing gum after surgery. However, this has not been investigated in upper gastrointestinal surgery such as pancreatic surgery. Hence the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chewing gum treatment on patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy ad modum whipple due to pancreatic or periampullary cancer.

    METHODS: This study was conducted as a phase III trial that was terminated early. Patients diagnosed with pancreatic tumours scheduled for pancreaticoduodenectomy ad modum whipple were included. The treatment group received chewing gum postoperatively and standard care. Controls received glucose solution and standard care. Chewing gum and glucose were used four times a day during the whole hospital stay. Time to first flatus and stool was defined as the primary outcome. The secondary outcome was start with clear liquids, start with liquid diet and length of hospital stay.

    RESULTS: No statistically significant differences could be observed between the chewing gum intervention group and the control group. However, a numerical difference in mean time was observed in first flatus, first stool, start of clear fluids, and start of liquid diet and length of hospital stay in favour of the intervention group.

    CONCLUSIONS: Although this study did not find statistically significant differences favouring the use of chewing gum for postoperative ileus, a positive trend was observed of a reduction of the impact of postoperative ileus among patients after pancreatic surgery. It also contributes valuable methodological experience that is important for future studies of chewing gum interventions during recovery after pancreatic surgery.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02319512 , publication date 2014-12-17.

  • 4.
    Arkkukangas, Marina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning i Sörmland (CKFD).
    Hultgren, Staffan
    Implementation of motivational interviewing in a fall prevention exercise program: experiences from a randomized controlled trial.2019In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The elderly population over 65 is increasing globally, and interventions promoting health and preventive work, especially fall prevention, will constitute a large part of physiotherapists' duties in the near future. To address the challenges of promoting effective and sustainable health behavior changes among older persons, physiotherapists need support when it comes to how to apply behavior change strategies, especially in fall prevention. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe implementation of motivational interviewing in a fall prevention exercise program. This study is a side product of another project.

    RESULTS: Data from a recently performed three-armed randomized controlled trial were used to describe the implementation of motivational interviewing in the exercise group (n = 58). Level of motivation (priorities) and self-efficacy for both the physiotherapist and the participant in treatment, and to use a guide targeted towards the planned treatment are recommended actions. Regular meetings and follow ups as well as updates of motivational interviewing skills during a treatment period, should also be considered to achieve treatment fidelity. Trial registration NCT01778972, Retrospectively registered January 29, 2013.

  • 5.
    Aryal, Umesh Raj
    et al.
    Kathmandu Medical College Nepal / Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Vaidya, Abhinav
    Kathmandu Medical College Nepal / Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Shakya-Vaidya, Suraj
    Nordic School of Public Health NHV / Nepal Medical College, Kathmandu Nepal.
    Petzold, Max
    Nordic School of Public Health NHV / Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg.
    Krettek, Alexandra
    Nordic School of Public Health NHV / Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg.
    Establishing a health demographic surveillance site in Bhaktapur district, Nepal: initial experiences and findings2012In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 5, article id 489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: A health demographic surveillance system (HDSS) provides longitudinal data regarding health and demography in countries with coverage error and poor quality data on vital registration systems due to lack of public awareness, inadequate legal basis and limited use of data in health planning. The health system in Nepal, a low-income country, does not focus primarily on health registration, and does not conduct regular health data collection. This study aimed to initiate and establish the first HDSS in Nepal.

    RESULTS: We conducted a baseline survey in Jhaukhel and Duwakot, two villages in Bhaktapur district. The study surveyed 2,712 households comprising a total population of 13,669. The sex ratio in the study area was 101 males per 100 females and the average household size was 5. The crude birth and death rates were 9.7 and 3.9/1,000 population/year, respectively. About 11% of births occurred at home, and we found no mortality in infants and children less than 5 years of age. Various health problems were found commonly and some of them include respiratory problems (41.9%); headache, vertigo and dizziness (16.7%); bone and joint pain (14.4%); gastrointestinal problems (13.9%); heart disease, including hypertension (8.8%); accidents and injuries (2.9%); and diabetes mellitus (2.6%). The prevalence of non-communicable disease (NCD) was 4.3% (95% CI: 3.83; 4.86) among individuals older than 30 years. Age-adjusted odds ratios showed that risk factors, such as sex, ethnic group, occupation and education, associated with NCD.

    CONCLUSION: Our baseline survey demonstrated that it is possible to collect accurate and reliable data in a village setting in Nepal, and this study successfully established an HDSS site. We determined that both maternal and child health are better in the surveillance site compared to the entire country. Risk factors associated with NCDs dominated morbidity and mortality patterns.

  • 6. Butt, Salma
    et al.
    Harlid, Sophia
    Lund University, Department of Laboratory Sciences.
    Borgquist, Signe
    Ivarsson, Malin
    Landberg, Göran
    Dillner, Joakim
    Carlson, Joyce
    Manjer, Jonas
    Genetic predisposition, parity, age at first childbirth and risk for breast cancer.2012In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 5, article id 414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have identified several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the risk of breast cancer and parity and age at first childbirth are well established and important risk factors for breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to examine the interaction between these environmental factors and genetic variants on breast cancer risk.

    METHODS: The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS) included 17 035 female participants, from which 728 incident breast cancer cases were matched to 1448 controls. The associations between 14 SNPs and breast cancer risk were investigated in different strata of parity and age at first childbirth. A logistic regression analysis for the per allele risk, adjusted for potential confounders yielded odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

    RESULTS: Six of the previously identified SNPs showed a statistically significant association with breast cancer risk: rs2981582 (FGFR2), rs3803662 (TNRC9), rs12443621 (TNRC9), rs889312 (MAP3K1), rs3817198 (LSP1) and rs2107425 (H19). We could not find any statistically significant interaction between the effects of tested SNPs and parity/age at first childbirth on breast cancer risk after adjusting for multiple comparisons.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study are in agreement with previous studies of null interactions between tested SNPs and parity/age at first childbirth with regard to breast cancer risk.

  • 7.
    Bölenius, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Brulin, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Grankvist, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Lindkvist, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Söderberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    A content validated questionnaire for assessment of self reported venous blood sampling practices2012In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 5, p. 39-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Venous blood sampling is a common procedure in health care. It is strictly regulated by national and international guidelines. Deviations from guidelines due to human mistakes can cause patient harm. Validated questionnaires for health care personnel can be used to assess preventable "near misses"--i.e. potential errors and nonconformities during venous blood sampling practices that could transform into adverse events. However, no validated questionnaire that assesses nonconformities in venous blood sampling has previously been presented. The aim was to test a recently developed questionnaire in self reported venous blood sampling practices for validity and reliability.

    FINDINGS: We developed a questionnaire to assess deviations from best practices during venous blood sampling. The questionnaire contained questions about patient identification, test request management, test tube labeling, test tube handling, information search procedures and frequencies of error reporting. For content validity, the questionnaire was confirmed by experts on questionnaires and venous blood sampling. For reliability, test-retest statistics were used on the questionnaire answered twice. The final venous blood sampling questionnaire included 19 questions out of which 9 had in total 34 underlying items. It was found to have content validity. The test-retest analysis demonstrated that the items were generally stable. In total, 82% of the items fulfilled the reliability acceptance criteria.

    CONCLUSIONS: The questionnaire could be used for assessment of "near miss" practices that could jeopardize patient safety and gives several benefits instead of assessing rare adverse events only. The higher frequencies of "near miss" practices allows for quantitative analysis of the effect of corrective interventions and to benchmark preanalytical quality not only at the laboratory/hospital level but also at the health care unit/hospital ward.

  • 8.
    Cipriano, Mariateresa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Persson, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Nording, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fowler, Christopher
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    The influence of monoacylglycerol lipase inhibition upon the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor in human PC-3 prostate cancer cells.2014In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 7, p. 441-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It has been reported that direct activation of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor in epidermal growth factor (EGR)-stimulated PC-3 prostate cancer cells results in an anti-proliferative effect accompanied by a down-regulation of EGF receptors (EGFR). In the present study, we investigated whether similar effects are seen following inhibition of the endocannabinoid hydrolytic enzyme monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL).

    Results: CB1 receptor expression levels were found to differ greatly between two experimental series conducted using PC-3 cells. The monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor JZL184 increased levels of 2-arachidonoylglycerol in the PC-3 cells without producing changes in the levels of anandamide and related N-acylethanolamines. In the first series of experiments, JZL184 produced a small mitogenic effect for cells that had not been treated with EGF, whereas an anti-proliferative effect was seen for EGF-treated cells. An anti-proliferative effect for the EGF-treated cells was also seen with the CB receptor agonist CP55,940. In the second batch of cells, there was an interaction between JZL184 and CB1 receptor expression densities in linear regression analyses with EGFR expression as the dependent variable.

    Conclusions: Inhibition of MGL by JZL184 can affect EGFR expression. However, the use in our hands of PC-3 cells as a model to investigate the therapeutic potential of MGL inhibitors and related compounds is compromised by their variability of CB1 receptor expression.

  • 9.
    Danielson, U Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC.
    Huang, H H
    Seeger, Christian
    Lindblad, Peter
    Analysis of the leakage of gene repression by an artificial TetR-regulated promoter in cyanobacteria2015In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 8, p. 459-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Dauvrin, M.
    et al.
    Institute of Health and Society IRSS, Université Catholique de Louvain, Clos Chapelle aux Champs 30 B1.30.15, 1200 Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Lorant, V
    Institute of Health and Society IRSS, Université Catholique de Louvain, Clos Chapelle aux Champs 30 B1.30.15, 1200 Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Sandhu, S
    Unit for Social and Community Psychiatry, London and the Barts School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London E13 8SP, United Kingdom.
    Devillé, W
    International and Migrant Health, NIVEL (Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research), Otterstraat 118-124, 3500, BN Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Dia, H
    Etablissement Public de Santé Maison Blanche, 3-5 rue Lespagnol, 75020 Paris, France.
    Dias, S
    Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Rua da Junqueira, 96, 1349-008, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Gaddini, A
    Laziosanit ASP Public Health Agency for the Lazio Region, Via S. Costanza 53, 00185 Rome, Italy.
    Ioannidis, E
    Department of Sociology, National School of Public Health, 196 Alexandras avenue, Athens 11521, Greece.
    Jensen, N
    Department of Public Health, Danish Research Centre for Migration, Ethnicity and Health (MESU), University of Copenhagen, Oster Farimagsgade 5, DK-1014 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Kluge, U
    Clinic for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medicine Berlin, CCM, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany.
    Mertaniemi, R
    Department for Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services, National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), P.O.B. 30, FIN-00271 Helsinki, Finland.
    Puigpinás I Riera, R
    Agency of Public Health of Barcelona, Pça. Lesseps, 1, 08023 Barcelona, Spain.
    Sárváry, A
    Faculty of Health, University of Debrecen, Sástái út 2-4, 4400 Nyíregyháza, Hungary.
    Stramayr, C
    Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Social Psychiatry, Lazarettgasse 14A-912, 1090 Vienna, Austria.
    Stankunas, M
    Department of Health Management, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, A. Mickeviciaus 9, Kaunas 44307, Lithuania.
    Soares, Joaquim J. F.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Welbel, M
    Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Ul. Sobieskiego 9, 02-957 Warsaw, Poland.
    Priebe, S
    Unit for Social and Community Psychiatry, London and the Barts School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London E13 8SP, United Kingdom.
    Health care for irregular migrants: Pragmatism across Europe. A qualitative study2012In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 5, p. Art. no. 99-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract. Background: Health services in Europe face the challenge of delivering care to a heterogeneous group of irregular migrants (IM). There is little empirical evidence on how health professionals cope with this challenge. This study explores the experiences of health professionals providing care to IM in three types of health care service across 16 European countries. Results: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with health professionals in 144 primary care services, 48 mental health services, and 48 Accident & Emergency departments (total n = 240). Although legal health care entitlement for IM varies across countries, health professionals reported facing similar issues when caring for IM. These issues include access problems, limited communication, and associated legal complications. Differences in the experiences with IM across the three types of services were also explored. Respondents from Accident & Emergency departments reported less of a difference between the care for IM patients and patients in a regular situation than did respondents from primary care and mental health services. Primary care services and mental health services were more concerned with language barriers than Accident & Emergency departments. Notifying the authorities was an uncommon practice, even in countries where health professionals are required to do this. Conclusions: The needs of IM patients and the values of the staff appear to be as important as the national legal framework, with staff in different European countries adopting a similar pragmatic approach to delivering health care to IM. While legislation might help to improve health care for IM, more appropriate organisation and local flexibility are equally important, especially for improving access and care pathways. © 2012 Dauvrin et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  • 11.
    Dey, Sapna
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, Madhav Science College (MVM), Vikram University, Ujjain, India.
    Rosales-Klintz, Senia
    Department of Public Health Sciences (Global Health/IHCAR), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Shouche, Shobha
    Department of Microbiology, Madhav Science College (MVM), Vikram University, Ujjain, India.
    Pathak, Jai Prakash Narayan
    Department of Microbiology, Madhav Science College (MVM), Vikram University, Ujjain, India.
    Pathak, Ashish
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Prevalence and risk factors for nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in children attending anganwaries (preschools) in Ujjain, India2013In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 6, p. 265-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Children with nasal carriage of S. aureus play an important role in community spread of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Screening the nasal carriage isolates of S. aureus for antibiotic resistance patterns will provide guidelines for empiric therapy of community-acquired infections. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA and it's in vitro antibiotic susceptibility pattern among children in anganwaries (preschools) of Ujjain city India. This work is an extension to our previous publication in BMC Pediatrics (http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2431/10/100).

    METHODS:

    A prospective study was done among children aged 1 to 6 years of age attending 100 anganwaries chosen purposely for the study to evenly cover the city. From each anganwari 10 children were randomly selected for nasal swabbing. Children having pyoderma were not included. Information on risk factors for nasal colonization was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Swabs from anterior nares were plated on 5% sheep blood agar. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed using Kirby-Bauer's disc diffusion method according to performance standards of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute guidelines.

    RESULTS:

    A total of 1002 children were included in the study. The prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage was 35% (95% confidence interval CI 32.07 to 37.98) and that of MRSA nasal carriage was 29% (95% CI 24.28 to 33.88). The factors that were independently associated with nasal carriage of S. aureus were: "age-group" i.e. as the age increased beyond the age of 2 years the OR of nasal carriage decreased, "family size of more than 10 members" OR 2.59 (95% CI 1.53-4.37; P < 0.001), and protein energy malnutrition Grade 3 or 4 (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.04-1.90; P = 0.026). The resistance pattern of S. aureus and MRSA showed resistance not only to single antibiotic class but co-resistance and multi-drug resistance was also common.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The high rates of nasal carriage of S. aureus and MRSA and presence of resistance to commonly used antibiotics are disturbing. Antibiotic stewardship programmes that promote judicious use of antibiotic along with strategies to prevent community spread of S. aureus are urgently needed.

  • 12.
    Dubois, Louise
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Biomedical Radiation Sciences.
    Andersson, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Biomedical Radiation Sciences.
    Asplund, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Björkelund, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Biomedical Radiation Sciences.
    Evaluating real-time immunohistochemistry on multiple tissue samples, multiple targets and multiple antibody labeling methods2013In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 6, p. 542-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a well-established method for the analysis of protein expression in tissue specimens and constitutes one of the most common methods performed in pathology laboratories worldwide. However, IHC is a multi-layered method based on subjective estimations and differences in staining and interpretation has been observed between facilities, suggesting that the analysis of proteins on tissue would benefit from protocol optimization and standardization. Here we describe how the emerging and operator independent tool of real-time immunohistochemistry (RT-IHC) reveals a time resolved description of antibody interacting with target protein in formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue. The aim was to understand the technical aspects of RT-IHC, regarding generalization of the concept and to what extent it can be considered a quantitative method.

    Results

    Three different antibodies labeled with fluorescent or radioactive labels were applied on nine different tissue samples from either human or mouse, and the results for all RT-IHC analyses distinctly show that the method is generally applicable. The collected binding curves showed that the majority of the antibody-antigen interactions did not reach equilibrium within 3 hours, suggesting that standardized protocols for immunohistochemistry are sometimes inadequately optimized. The impact of tissue size and thickness as well as the position of the section on the glass petri dish was assessed in order for practical details to be further elucidated for this emerging technique. Size and location was found to affect signal magnitude to a larger extent than thickness, but the signal from all measurements were still sufficient to trace the curvature. The curvature, representing the kinetics of the interaction, was independent of thickness, size and position and may be a promising parameter for the evaluation of e.g. biopsy sections of different sizes.

    Conclusions

    It was found that RT-IHC can be used for the evaluation of a number of different antibodies and tissue types, rendering it a general method. We believe that by following interactions over time during the development of conventional IHC assays, it becomes possible to better understand the different processes applied in conventional IHC, leading to optimized assay protocols with improved sensitivity.

  • 13. Enström, Sofie
    et al.
    Nthiwa, Daniel
    Bett, Bernard
    Karlsson, Amanda
    Alonso, Silvia
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Brucella seroprevalence in cattle near a wildlife reserve in Kenya.2017In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Brucellosis is caused by bacteria from the genus Brucella which infect human and domestic animals as well as wildlife. The Maasai Mara National Reserve has vast populations of wild ruminants such as buffaloes and wildebeest which could contribute to the risk of brucellosis in livestock, and the surrounding pastoralist communities grazing cattle in and around the reserve may be exposed to a higher risk of zoonotic diseases like brucellosis due to the close contact with livestock. In this study, cattle from three villages at varying distance from the reserve, were screened for antibodies against Brucella abortus.

    RESULTS: In total, 12.44% of 225 sampled animals were seropositive, with more females (15%) infected than males (5%). Seroprevalence was higher in livestock closer to Maasai Mara with the cattle in the village Mara Rianta having an odds ratio of 7.03 compared to Endoinyo Narasha further away (95% CI 1.4-11.1, p = 0.003), suggesting that a closer contact with wildlife may increase the circulation of infectious diseases between livestock and wildlife. Symptoms consistent with brucellosis were reported to occur in both humans and animals, and we thus conclude that brucellosis may be an important problem, both for the health and the economy.

  • 14. Freyhult, E
    et al.
    Edvardsson, Sverker
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Tamas, I
    Moulton, Vincent
    Poole, AM
    Fisher: a program for the detection of H/ACA snoRNAs using MFE secondary structure prediction and comparative genomics - assessment and update2008In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 1, no 49, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundThe H/ACA family of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) plays a central role in guiding the pseudouridylation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA). In an effort to systematically identify the complete set of rRNA-modifying H/ACA snoRNAs from the genome sequence of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we developed a program - Fisher - and previously presented several candidate snoRNAs based on our analysis [1].

     

    FindingsIn this report, we provide a brief update of this work, which was aborted after the publication of experimentally-identified snoRNAs [2] identical to candidates we had identified bioinformatically using Fisher. Our motivation for revisiting this work is to report on the status of the candidate snoRNAs described in [1], and secondly, to report that a modified version of Fisher together with the available multiple yeast genome sequences was able to correctly identify several H/ACA snoRNAs for modification sites not identified by the snoGPS program [3]. While we are no longer developing Fisher, we briefly consider the merits of the Fisher algorithm relative to snoGPS, which may be of use for workers considering pursuing a similar search strategy for the identification of small RNAs. The modified source code for Fisher is made available as supplementary material.

     

    ConclusionOur results confirm the validity of using minimum free energy (MFE) secondary structure prediction to guide comparative genomic screening for RNA families with few sequence constraints.

     

  • 15.
    Friman, Göran
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Hultin, Margareta
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nilsson, Gunnar H.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Wårdh, Inger
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Medical screening in dental settings: A qualitative study of the views of authorities and organizations Health Services Research2015In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 8, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The practice of identifying individuals with undiagnosed diabetes mellitus type II or undiagnosed hypertension by medical screening in dental settings has been received positively by both patients and dentistry professionals. This identification has also shown to be cost-effective by achieving savings and health benefits, but no investigation has been made of the attitudes of authorities and organizations. The aim of this study was to describe the views of authorities and organizations. Results: Thirteen authorities and organizations were interviewed of the sample of 20 requested. Seven approached authorities and organizations did not believe it was relevant to participate in the study. The manifest analysis resulted in four categories: medical screening ought to be established in the society; dentistry must have relevant competence to perform medical screening; medical screening requires cooperation between dentistry and health care; and dentistry is not the only context where medical screening could be performed. The latent analysis resulted in an emerging theme: positive to, but uncertain about, the concept of medical screening in dental settings. The spokespersons for the approached authorities and organizations had a positive view of medical screening but the respondents experienced a lack of facts concerning the scientific communities’ position, guidelines and procedures in the topic. Conclusions and implications: Approached authorities and organizations generally had a positive view of medical screening in dental settings but were uncertain about the concept. Further scientific knowledge and guidelines concerning the topic are needed before it can be commonly introduced and additional research on implementation strategies and long-term follow-up of medical screening are needed.

  • 16.
    From, Ingrid
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karlstads universitet, Avdelningen för omvårdnad.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    Karlstads universitet, Avdelningen för omvårdnad.
    Nordström, Gun
    Karlstads universitet, Avdelningen för omvårdnad.
    Johansson, Inger
    Karlstads universitet, Avdelningen för omvårdnad.
    Formal caregivers' perceptions of quality of care for older people: associating factors2015In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Despite the growing number of studies concerning quality of care for older people, there is a lack of studies depicting factors associated with good quality of care from the formal caregivers' perspective. The aim was to describe formal caregivers' perceptions of quality of care for older people in the community and explore factors associated with these perceptions. In total, 70 nursing assistants, 163 enrolled nurses and 198 registered nurses from 14 communities in central Sweden participated in the study. They filled out the following questionnaires: a modified version of Quality from the Patient's Perspective, Creative Climate Questionnaire, Stress of Conscience Questionnaire, items regarding education and competence, Health Index and Sense of coherence questionnaire. The overall response rate was 57 % (n = 431).

    Results:

    In the perceived reality of quality of care respondents assessed the highest mean value in the dimension medical-technical competence and physical technical conditions and lower values in the dimensions; identity-oriented approach, socio-cultural atmosphere and in the context specific dimension. The caregivers estimated their competence and health rather high, had lower average values in sense of coherence and organizational climate and low values in stress of conscience.

    Conculsions:

    The PR of quality of care were estimated higher among NA/ENs compared to RNs. Occupation, organizational climate and stress of conscience were factors associated with quality of care that explained 42 % of the variance. Competence, general health and sense of coherence were not significantly associated to quality of care. The mentioned factors explaining quality of care might be intertwined and showed that formal caregivers' working conditions are of great importance for quality of care.

  • 17.
    From, Ingrid
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences. Dalarna University.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Nordström, Gun
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences. Hedmark University College, Norway.
    Johansson, Inger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences. Gjövik University College, Norway.
    Formal caregivers' perceptions of quality of care for older people: predicting factors2015In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 8, no 623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Despite the growing number of studies concerning quality of care for older people, there is a lack of studies depicting factors associated with good quality of care from the formal caregivers’ perspective. The aim was to describe formal caregivers’ perceptions of quality of care for older people in the community and explore factors associated with these perceptions. In total, 70 nursing assistants, 163 enrolled nurses and 198 registered nurses from 14 communities in central Sweden participated in the study. They filled out the following questionnaires: a modified version of Quality from the Patient’s Perspective, Creative Climate Questionnaire, Stress of Conscience Questionnaire, items regarding education and competence, Health Index and Sense of coherence questionnaire. The overall response rate was 57 % (n = 431).

    Results

    In the perceived reality of quality of care respondents assessed the highest mean value in the dimension medical-technical competence and physical technical conditions and lower values in the dimensions; identity-oriented approach, socio-cultural atmosphere and in the context specific dimension. The caregivers estimated their competence and health rather high, had lower average values in sense of coherence and organizational climate and low values in stress of conscience.

    Conclusions

    The PR of quality of care were estimated higher among NA/ENs compared to RNs. Occupation, organizational climate and stress of conscience were factors associated with quality of care that explained 42 % of the variance. Competence, general health and sense of coherence were not significantly associated to quality of care. The mentioned factors explaining quality of care might be intertwined and showed that formal caregivers’ working conditions are of great importance for quality of care.

  • 18.
    Gold, Judith
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Public Health, Temple University, Philadelphia, United States ; West Virginia University, Injury Control Research Center, Morgantown, United States .
    Rauscher, Kimberly
    West Virginia University, Injury Control Research Center, Morgantown, United States; Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences, West Virginia University, School of Public Health, Morgantown, United States .
    Zhu, Motao
    West Virginia University, Injury Control Research Center, Morgantown, United States ; Department of Epidemiology, West Virginia University, School of Public Health, Morgantown, United States .
    A validity study of self-reported daily texting frequency, cell phone characteristics, and texting styles among young adults2015In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 8, article id 120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Texting is associated with adverse health effects including musculoskeletal disorders, sleep disturbances, and traffic crashes. Many studies have relied on self-reported texting frequency, yet the validity of self-reports is unknown. Our objective was to provide some of the first data on the validity of self-reported texting frequency, cell phone characteristics including input device (e.g. touchscreen), key configuration (e.g., QWERTY), and texting styles including phone orientation (e.g., horizontal) and hands holding the phone while texting.

    Methods

    Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and observation of a texting task among college students ages 18 to 24. To gauge agreement between self-reported and phone bill-derived categorical number of daily text messages sent, we calculated percent of agreement, Spearman correlation coefficient, and a linear weighted kappa statistic. For agreement between self-reported and observed cell phone characteristics and texting styles we calculated percentages of agreement. We used chi-square tests to detect significant differences (α = 0.05) by gender and study protocol.

    Results

    There were 106 participants; 87 of which had complete data for texting frequency analyses. Among these 87, there was 26% (95% CI: 21–31) agreement between self-reported and phone bill-derived number of daily text messages sent with a Spearman’s rho of 0.48 and a weighted kappa of 0.17 (95% CI: 0.06-0.27). Among those who did not accurately report the number of daily texts sent, 81% overestimated this number. Among the full sample (n = 106), there was high agreement between self-reported and observed texting input device (96%, 95% CI: 91–99), key configuration (89%, 95% CI: 81–94), and phone orientation while texting (93%, 95% CI: 86–97). No differences were found by gender or study protocol among any items.

    Conclusions

    While young adults correctly reported their cell phone’s characteristics and phone orientation while texting, most incorrectly estimated the number of daily text messages they sent. This suggests that while self-reported texting frequency may be useful for studies where relative ordering is adequate, it should not be used in epidemiologic studies to identify a risk threshold. For these studies, it is recommended that a less biased measure, such as a cell phone bill, be utilized.

  • 19.
    Guldbrandsson, K.
    et al.
    Swedish National Institute of Public Health, Östersund, Sweden.
    Nordvik, Monica K.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Bremberg, S.
    Swedish National Institute of Public Health, Östersund, Sweden.
    Identification of potential opinion leaders in child health promotion in Sweden using network analysis2012In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 5, p. Art. no. 424-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Opinion leaders are often local individuals with high credibility who can influence other people. Robust effects using opinion leaders in diffusing innovations have been shown in several randomized controlled trials, for example regarding sexually transmitted infections (STI), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention, mammography rates and caesarean birth delivery rates. In a Cochrane review 2010 it was concluded that the use of opinion leaders can successfully promote evidence-based practice. Thus, using opinion leaders within the public health sector might be one means to speed up the dissemination of health promoting and disease preventing innovations. Social network analysis has been used to trace and map networks, with focus on relationships and positions, in widely spread arenas and topics. The purpose of this study was to use social network analysis in order to identify potential opinion leaders at the arena of child health promotion in Sweden. Results: By using snowball technique a short e-mail question was spread in up to five links, starting from seven initially invited persons. This inquiry resulted in a network consisting of 153 individuals. The most often mentioned actors were researchers, public health officials and paediatricians, or a combination of these professions. Four single individuals were mentioned by five to seven other persons in the network. These individuals obviously possess qualities that make other professionals within the public health sector listen to and trust them. Conclusions: Social network analysis seemed to be a useful method to identify influential persons with high credibility, i.e. potential opinion leaders, at the arena of child health promotion in Sweden. If genuine opinion leaders could be identified directed measures can be carried out in order to spread new and relevant knowledge. This may facilitate for public health actors at the local, regional and national level to more rapidly progress innovations into everyday practice. However, effectiveness studies of opinion leaders in the public health sector still have to be performed. © 2012 Guldbrandsson et al.

  • 20.
    Hadziabdic, Emina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden .
    Albin, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden .
    Hjelm, Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Arabic-speaking migrants' attitudes, opinions, preferences and past experiences concerning the use of interpreters in healthcare: a postal cross-sectional survey2014In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 7, no 71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Good communication is an important prerequisite for equal treatment in a healthcare encounter. One way to overcome language barriers when patients and healthcare staff do not share the same language is to use a professional interpreter. Few previous studies have been found investigating the use of interpreters, and just one previous study from the perspective of European migrants, which showed that they perceived interpreters as a communication aid and a guide in the healthcare system as regards information and practical matters. No previous study has gathered quantitative information to focus on non-European migrants' attitudes to the use of interpreters in healthcare encounters. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate Arabic-speaking individuals' attitudes, opinions, preferences and past experiences concerning the use of interpreters in healthcare in order to: (i) understand how persons' expectations and concerns regarding interpreters may vary, both within and across cultural/linguistic populations; (ii) understand the consequences of diverse opinions/expectations for planning responsive services; and (iii) confirm findings from previous qualitative studies.

    METHOD: A postal cross-sectional study using a structured self-administered 51-item questionnaire was used to describe and document aspects of Arabic-speaking individuals' attitudes to the use of interpreters in healthcare. The sample of 53 Arabic-speaking migrants was recruited from three different places. Participants were mostly born in Iraq and had a high level of education and were almost equally divided between genders. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics.

    RESULTS: The main findings were that most of the participants perceived the interpreter's role as being a communication aid and a practical aid, interpreting literally and objectively. Trust in the professional interpreter was related to qualification as an interpreter and personal contact with face-to-face interaction. The qualities of the desired professional interpreter were: a good knowledge of languages and medical terminology, translation ability, and sharing the same origin, dialect and gender as the patient.

    CONCLUSION: This study confirmed previous qualitative findings from European migrant groups with a different cultural and linguistic background. The study supports the importance of planning a good interpretation situation in accordance with individuals' desire, irrespective of the migrant's linguistic and cultural background, and using interpreters who interpret literally and objectively, who are highly trained with language skills in medical terminology, and with a professional attitude to promote communication, thus increasing cost-effective, high-quality individualized healthcare.

  • 21.
    Hadziabdic, Emina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Albin, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hjelm, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Arabic-speaking migrants’ attitudes, opinions, preferences and past experiences concerning the use of interpreters in healthcare: a postal cross-sectional survey2014In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 7, article id 71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Good communication is an important prerequisite for equal treatment in a healthcare encounter. One way to overcome language barriers when patients and healthcare staff do not share the same language is to use a professional interpreter. Few previous studies have been found investigating the use of interpreters, and just one previous study from the perspective of European migrants, which showed that they perceived interpreters as a communication aid and a guide in the healthcare system as regards information and practical matters. No previous study has gathered quantitative information to focus on non-European migrants’ attitudes to the use of interpreters in healthcare encounters. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate Arabic-speaking individuals’ attitudes, opinions, preferences and past experiences concerning the use of interpreters in healthcare in order to: (i) understand how persons’ expectations and concerns regarding interpreters may vary, both within and across cultural/linguistic populations; (ii) understand the consequences of diverse opinions/expectations for planning responsive services; and (iii) confirm findings from previous qualitative studies.

    Method

    A postal cross-sectional study using a structured self-administered 51-item questionnaire was used to describe and document aspects of Arabic-speaking individuals’ attitudes to the use of interpreters in healthcare. The sample of 53 Arabic-speaking migrants was recruited from three different places. Participants were mostly born in Iraq and had a high level of education and were almost equally divided between genders. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics.

    Results

    The main findings were that most of the participants perceived the interpreter’s role as being a communication aid and a practical aid, interpreting literally and objectively. Trust in the professional interpreter was related to qualification as an interpreter and personal contact with face-to-face interaction. The qualities of the desired professional interpreter were: a good knowledge of languages and medical terminology, translation ability, and sharing the same origin, dialect and gender as the patient.

    Conclusion

    This study confirmed previous qualitative findings from European migrant groups with a different cultural and linguistic background. The study supports the importance of planning a good interpretation situation in accordance with individuals’ desire, irrespective of the migrant’s linguistic and cultural background, and using interpreters who interpret literally and objectively, who are highly trained with language skills in medical terminology, and with a professional attitude to promote communication, thus increasing cost-effective, high-quality individualized healthcare.

  • 22.
    Hamed, Sarah
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Klingberg, Sonja
    Cambridge University.
    Mahmud, Amina Jama
    Independant researcher.
    Bradby, Hannah
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Researching health in diverse neighbourhoods:: critical reflection on the use of a community research model in Uppsala, Sweden2018In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 612-, article id s13104-018-3717-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: A community research model developed in the United Kingdom was adopted in a multi-country study of health in diverse neighbourhoods in European cities, including Sweden. This paper describes the challenges and opportunities of using this model in Sweden.Results: In Sweden, five community researchers were recruited and trained to facilitate access to diverse groups in the two study neighbourhoods, including ethnic, religious, and linguistic minorities. Community researchers recruited participants from the neighbourhoods, and assisted during semi-structured interviews. Their local networks, and knowledge were invaluable for contextualising the study and finding participants. Various factors made it difficult to fully apply the model in Sweden. The study took place when an unprecedented number of asylum-seekers were arriving in Sweden, and potential collaborators’ time was taken up in meeting their needs. Employment on short-term, temporary contracts is difficult since Swedish Universities are public authorities. Strong expectations of stable full-time employment, make flexible part-time work undesirable. The community research model was only partly suc-cessful in embedding the research project as a collaboration between community members and the University. While there was interest and some involvement from neighbourhood residents, the research remained University-led with a limited sense of community ownership.Keywords: Sweden, Healthcare research, Community research.

  • 23.
    Holmqvist, Marie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Photochemistry and Molecular Science, Microbial Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Pia
    Agervald, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Photochemistry and Molecular Science, Microbial Chemistry.
    Stensjö, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Photochemistry and Molecular Science, Microbial Chemistry.
    Lindblad, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Photochemistry and Molecular Science, Microbial Chemistry.
    Transcript analysis of the extended hyp-operons in the cyanobacteria Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120 and Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 291332011In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 4, no 186Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of cyanobacteria to capture solar energy, via oxygenic photosynthesis, and convert that energy to molecular hydrogen (H2) has made them an interesting group of organisms with potential as future energy producers. There are three types of enzymes directly involved in the cyanobacterial hydrogen metabolism; nitrogenases that produce H2 as a by-product when fixating atmospheric nitrogen, uptake hydrogenases that catalyze the oxidation of H2,thereby preventing energy losses from the cells, and bidirectional hydrogenases that has the capacity to both oxidize and reduce H2. Hydrogenases are complex metalloenzymes, and the insertion of ligands and correct folding of the proteins require assistance of accessory proteins, the Hyp proteins. Cyanobacterial hydrogenases are NiFe-type hydrogenases and consist of a large and a small subunit. Today, the maturation process of the large subunit has been uncovered to a large extent in cyanobacteria, mostly by analogy assumptions from studies done in other bacteria such as Escherichia coli but also from mutational analyses in cyanobacteria, while the maturation process of the small subunit is still unknown. Recently a set of genes, putatively involved in the maturation process of the small subunit, was discovered in Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 and Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133. These five ORFs, encoding unknown proteins, are located in between the uptake hydrogenase structural genes and the hyp-genes were shown to be transcribed together with the hyp-genes in Nostoc PCC 7120. The ORFs upstream the hyp-genes can be found in the same genomic arrangement in other filamentous, nitrogen fixing cyanobacterial strains but are interestingly missing in strains incapable of nitrogen fixation. In this study we have further investigated the function of the ORFs upstream the hyp-genes by studying their transcription pattern after nitrogen depletion in the filamentous, nitrogen fixing strains Nostoc PCC 7120 and N. punctiforme. The transcription pattern were compared to the transcription pattern of hupS and hoxY, encoding the uptake and bidirectional hydrogenase small subunits, nifD, encoding a nitrogenase subunit and hypC and hypF, encoding the maturation process accessory proteins HypC and HypF. All the five ORFs upstream the hyp-genes, in both organisms, were upregulated after nitrogen step down in accordance with the transcription pattern for hupS, nifD, hypC and hypF which support the theory that these genes might be involved in the maturation of the small subunit.

  • 24.
    Huang, Hsin-Ho
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics.
    Seeger, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Evolution.
    Danielson, U. Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC.
    Lindblad, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Analysis of the leakage of gene repression by an artificial TetR-regulated promoter in cyanobacteria2015In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 8, article id 459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: There is a need for strong and tightly regulated promoters to construct more reliable and predictable genetic modules for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. For this reason we have previously constructed a TetR regulated L promoter library for the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803. In addition to the L03 promoter showing wide dynamic range of transcriptional regulation, we observed the L09 promoter as unique in high leaky gene expression under repressed conditions. In the present study, we attempted to identify the cause of L09 promoter leakage. TetR binding to the promoter was studied by theoretical simulations of DNA breathing dynamics and by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor technology to analyze the kinetics of the DNA-protein interactions.

    RESULTS: DNA breathing dynamics of a promoter was computed with the extended nonlinear Peyrard-Bishop-Dauxois mesoscopic model to yield a DNA opening probability profile at a single nucleotide resolution. The L09 promoter was compared to the L10, L11, and L12 promoters that were point-mutated and different in repressed promoter strength. The difference between DNA opening probability profiles is trivial on the TetR binding site. Furthermore, the kinetic rate constants of TetR binding, as measured by SPR biosensor technology, to the respective promoters are practically identical. This suggests that a trivial difference in probability as low as 1 × 10(-4) cannot lead to detectable variations in the DNA-protein interactions. Higher probability at the downstream region of transcription start site of the L09 promoter compared to the L10, L11, and L12 promoters was observed. Having practically the same kinetics of binding to TetR, the leakage problem of the L09 promoter might be due to enhanced RNA Polymerase (RNAP)-promoter interactions in the downstream region.

    CONCLUSIONS: Both theoretical and experimental analyses of the L09 promoter's leakage problem exclude a mechanism of reduced TetR binding but instead suggest enhanced RNAP binding. These results assist in creating more tightly regulated promoters for realizing synthetic biology and metabolic engineering in biotechnological applications.

  • 25.
    Hultstrand Ahlin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Carson, Dean
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    "There is no reward penny for going out and picking up youths": issues in the design of accessible youth healthcare services in rural northern Sweden2019In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: There is a continuing challenge to ensure equitable access to youth healthcare services in small rural communities. Sweden’s ‘youth clinic’ system is an attempt to provide comprehensive youth health services from a single centre, but many small rural communities have not adopted the youth clinic model. This study uses one case study to examine what the issues might be in establishing a youth clinic in a small rural community. The objective of this paper is to examine the issues around youth healthcare access in one municipality without a youth clinic, and to explore whether and how a youth clinic model might contribute to access in this municipality.

    Results: Three categories emerged from the analysis; (i) rural closeness; both good and bad, (ii) youth are not in the centre of the healthcare organization, and (iii) adapting youth clinics to a rural setting. While limited to one case example, the study provides valuable insights into youth health service planning in particular types of rural communities. This paper identified structural barriers to developing youth-specific services, and some alternative approaches that might be more suitable to smaller communities.

  • 26. Jacobsen, Mette
    et al.
    Cirera, Susanna
    Joller, David
    Esteso, Gloria
    Kracht, Steffen S
    Edfors, Inger
    Bendixen, Christian
    Archibald, Alan L
    Vogeli, Peter
    Neuenschwander, Stefan
    Bertschinger, Hans U
    Rampoldi, Antonio
    Andersson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Fredholm, Merete
    Jørgensen, Claus B
    Characterisation of five candidate genes within the ETEC F4ab/ac candidate region in pigs2011In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 4, p. 225-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) that express the F4ab and F4ac fimbriae is a major contributor to diarrhoea outbreaks in the pig breeding industry, infecting both newborn and weaned piglets. Some pigs are resistant to this infection, and susceptibility is inherited as a simple dominant Mendelian trait. Indentifying the genetics behind this trait will greatly benefit pig welfare as well as the pig breeding industry by providing an opportunity to select against genetically susceptible animals, thereby reducing the number of diarrhoea outbreaks. The trait has recently been mapped by haplotype sharing to a 2.5 Mb region on pig chromosome 13, a region containing 18 annotated genes.

    FINDINGS:

    The coding regions of five candidate genes for susceptibility to ETEC F4ab/ac infection (TFRC, ACK1, MUC20, MUC4 and KIAA0226), all located in the 2.5 Mb region, were investigated for the presence of possible causative mutations. A total of 34 polymorphisms were identified in either coding regions or their flanking introns. The genotyping data for two of those were found to perfectly match the genotypes at the ETEC F4ab/ac locus, a G to C polymorphism in intron 11 of TFRC and a C to T silent polymorphism in exon 22 of KIAA0226. Transcriptional profiles of the five genes were investigated in a porcine tissue panel including various intestinal tissues. All five genes were expressed in intestinal tissues at different levels but none of the genes were found differentially expressed between ETEC F4ab/ac resistant and ETEC F4ab/ac susceptible animals in any of the tested tissues.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    None of the identified polymorphisms are obvious causative mutations for ETEC F4ab/ac susceptibility, as they have no impact on the level of the overall mRNA expression nor predicted to influence the composition of the amino acids composition. However, we cannot exclude that the five tested genes are bona fide candidate genes for susceptibility to ETEC F4ab/ac infection since the identified polymorphism might affect the translational apparatus, alternative splice forms may exist and post translational mechanisms might contribute to disease susceptibility.

  • 27.
    Jacobsen, Mette
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Cirera, Susanna
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Joller, David
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Switzerland.
    Esteso, Gloria
    Universidad de Córdoba, Spain.
    Kracht, Steffen S.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Edfors, Inger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Bendixen, Christian
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Archibald, Alan L.
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Vogeli, Peter
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Switzerland.
    Neuenscwander, Stefan
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Switzerland.
    Bertschinger, Hans U.
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Switzerland.
    Rampoldi, Antonio
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Switzerland.
    Andersson, Leif
    Uppsala University.
    Fredholm, Merete
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Jørgensen, Claus B.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Characterisation of five candidate genes within the ETEC F4ab/ac candidate region in pigs2011In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 4, article id 225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) that express the F4ab and F4ac fimbriae is a major contributor to diarrhoea outbreaks in the pig breeding industry, infecting both newborn and weaned piglets. Some pigs are resistant to this infection, and susceptibility is inherited as a simple dominant Mendelian trait. Indentifying the genetics behind this trait will greatly benefit pig welfare as well as the pig breeding industry by providing an opportunity to select against genetically susceptible animals, thereby reducing the number of diarrhoea outbreaks. The trait has recently been mapped by haplotype sharing to a 2.5 Mb region on pig chromosome 13, a region containing 18 annotated genes.

    Findings

    The coding regions of five candidate genes for susceptibility to ETEC F4ab/ac infection (TFRC, ACK1, MUC20, MUC4 and KIAA0226), all located in the 2.5 Mb region, were investigated for the presence of possible causative mutations. A total of 34 polymorphisms were identified in either coding regions or their flanking introns. The genotyping data for two of those were found to perfectly match the genotypes at the ETEC F4ab/ac locus, a G to C polymorphism in intron 11 of TFRC and a C to T silent polymorphism in exon 22 of KIAA0226. Transcriptional profiles of the five genes were investigated in a porcine tissue panel including various intestinal tissues. All five genes were expressed in intestinal tissues at different levels but none of the genes were found differentially expressed between ETEC F4ab/ac resistant and ETEC F4ab/ac susceptible animals in any of the tested tissues.

    Conclusions

    None of the identified polymorphisms are obvious causative mutations for ETEC F4ab/ac susceptibility, as they have no impact on the level of the overall mRNA expression nor predicted to influence the composition of the amino acids composition. However, we cannot exclude that the five tested genes are bona fide candidate genes for susceptibility to ETEC F4ab/ac infection since the identified polymorphism might affect the translational apparatus, alternative splice forms may exist and post translational mechanisms might contribute to disease susceptibility.

  • 28.
    Jansson, Stefan P. O.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital. Centre for Assessment of Medical Technology in Örebro (CAMTÖ), Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Engfeldt, Peter
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital.
    Magnuson, Anders
    Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lohse PT, Georg
    Centre for Assessment of Medical Technology in Örebro (CAMTÖ), Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Liljegren, Göran
    Örebro University Hospital. Centre for Assessment of Medical Technology in Örebro (CAMTÖ), Örebro, Sweden; Department of Surgery, University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Interventions for lifestyle changes to promote weight reduction, a randomized controlled trial in primary health care2013In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Overweight and obesity are growing public health problems in high income countries and is now growing at a dramatic pace in low and middle income countries, particularly in urban settings. The aim of this trial was to examine the effects of a weight reduction program in adults and to determine whether or not a more extensive intervention was superior to ordinary care.

    Methods: Patients seeking advice for overweight/obesity or illness related to overweight/obesity at eight primary health care centers in Sweden were randomized either to intervention or control care groups with both groups given dietary advice and individualized information on increased regular physical activity. In the intervention group advice was more extensive and follow-up more frequent than in the control group during the study period of two years. Main outcome measure was reduction in body weight of five percent or more from study start.

    Results: From October 2004 to April 2006, 133 patients, 67 in the intervention group and 66 in the control group, were randomized over a period of 18 months. Target weight was achieved at 12 months by 26.7% of the patients in the intervention group compared with 18.4% in the control group (p = 0.335). There was an average absolute weight loss of 2.5 kg in the intervention group and 0.8 kg in the control group at 12 months as compared with the weight at study entry. There were no significant differences between the groups in quality of life, blood glucose and lipids. At 24 months target weight was achieved in 21.9% versus 15.6%, with an average weight reduction of 1.9 kg and 1.2 kg in the two groups, respectively.

    Conclusions: Promotion of a diet with limited energy intake, appropriate composition of food and increased physical activity had limited effects on body weight in a Swedish primary care setting. More extensive advice and more frequent visits made no significant difference to the outcome.

  • 29.
    Kaplan-Sturk, Rebecka
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Science and Education, Section of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Karolinska Institute, Soder Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Åkerud, Helena
    Uppsala universitet, Obstetrik & gynekologi.
    Volgsten, Helena
    Uppsala universitet, Obstetrik & gynekologi.
    Hellström-Westas, Lena
    Uppsala universitet, Pediatrik.
    Wiberg-Itzel, Eva
    Department of Clinical Science and Education, Section of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Karolinska Institute, Soder Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Outcome of deliveries in healthy but obese women: obesity and delivery outcome2013In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 6, no 50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Obesity among fertile women is a global problem. 25% of pregnant Swedish women are overweight at admission to the antenatal clinic and 12% of them are considered as obese. Previous studies have shown an increased risk of delivery complications with an elevated maternal BMI. The aim of this study was to evaluate delivery outcomes in relation to maternal BMI on admission to the antenatal clinic.

    A healthy group of 787 women with full-term pregnancies and spontaneous onset of labor were included in the study. Delivery outcome was assessed in relation to maternal BMI when attending the antenatal clinic.

    RESULTS:

    The results indicated that in deliveries where the maternal BMI was >30 a high frequency of abnormal CTG trace during the last 30 minutes of labor was shown. A blood sample for evaluation of risk of fetal hypoxia was performed in only eight percent of these deliveries. A spontaneous vaginal delivery without intervention was noted in 85.7%, and 12% of neonates were delivered with an adverse fetal outcome compared to 2.8% in the group with a maternal BMI<30 (p<0.001).

    CONCLUSION:

    These results indicate an increased risk at delivery for healthy, but obese women in labor. Furthermore, the delivery management may not always be optimal in these deliveries.

  • 30.
    Kaplan-Sturk, Rebecka
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Science and Education, Section of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Karolinska Institute, Soder Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Åkerud, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Volgsten, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Hellström-Westas, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Wiberg-Itzel, Eva
    Department of Clinical Science and Education, Section of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Karolinska Institute, Soder Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Outcome of deliveries in healthy but obese women: obesity and delivery outcome2013In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 6, p. 50-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Obesity among fertile women is a global problem. 25% of pregnant Swedish women are overweight at admission to the antenatal clinic and 12% of them are considered as obese. Previous studies have shown an increased risk of delivery complications with an elevated maternal BMI. The aim of this study was to evaluate delivery outcomes in relation to maternal BMI on admission to the antenatal clinic.

    A healthy group of 787 women with full-term pregnancies and spontaneous onset of labor were included in the study. Delivery outcome was assessed in relation to maternal BMI when attending the antenatal clinic.

    RESULTS:

    The results indicated that in deliveries where the maternal BMI was >30 a high frequency of abnormal CTG trace during the last 30 minutes of labor was shown. A blood sample for evaluation of risk of fetal hypoxia was performed in only eight percent of these deliveries. A spontaneous vaginal delivery without intervention was noted in 85.7%, and 12% of neonates were delivered with an adverse fetal outcome compared to 2.8% in the group with a maternal BMI<30 (p<0.001).

    CONCLUSION:

    These results indicate an increased risk at delivery for healthy, but obese women in labor. Furthermore, the delivery management may not always be optimal in these deliveries.

  • 31.
    Kjellin, Lars
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital. Psychiatric Research Centre, Örebro County Council, Örebro, Sweden.
    Pelto-Piri, Veikko
    Örebro University Hospital. Psychiatric Research Centre, Örebro County Council, Örebro, Sweden.
    Community treatment orders in a Swedish county: Applied as intended?2014In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 879Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Community treatment orders (CTOs) were legally implemented in psychiatry in Sweden in 2008, both in general psychiatry and in forensic psychiatric care. A main aim with the reform was to replace long leaves from compulsory psychiatric inpatient care with CTOs. The aims of the present study were to examine the use of compulsory psychiatric care before and after the reform and if this intention of the law reform was fulfilled.

    Methods: The study was based on register data from the computerized patient administrative system of Örebro County Council. Two periods of time, two years before (I) and two years after (II) the legal change, were compared. The Swedish civic registration number was used to connect unique individuals to continuous treatment episodes comprising different forms of legal status and to identify individuals treated during both time periods.

    Results: The number of involuntarily admitted patients was 524 in period I and 514 in period II. CTOs were in period II used on relatively more patients in forensic psychiatric care than in general psychiatry. In all, there was a 9% decrease from period I to period II in hospital days of compulsory psychiatric care, while days on leave decreased with 60%. The number of days on leave plus days under CTOs was 26% higher in period II than the number of days on leave in period I. Among patients treated in both periods, this increase was 43%. The total number of days under any form of compulsory care (in hospital, on leave, and under CTOs) increased with five percent. Patients with the longest leaves before the reform had more days on CTOs after the reform than other patients.

    Conclusions: The results indicate that the main intention of the legislator with introducing CTOs was fulfilled in the first two years after the reform in the studied county. At the same time the use of coercive psychiatric care outside hospital, and to some extent the total use of coercive in- and outpatient psychiatric care, increased. Adding an additional legal coercive instrument in psychiatry may increase the total use of coercion.

  • 32. Kwamin, Francis
    et al.
    Gref, Rolf
    Haubek, Dorte
    Johansson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Molecular Periodontology.
    Interactions of extracts from selected chewing stick sources with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans2012In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 5, p. 203-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans produces a leukotoxin that activates a pro-inflammatory death of human monocytes/macrophages. A specific clone of this bacterium (JP2) has a 530-base pair deletion in the leukotoxin promoter gene that causes a significantly enhanced expression of leukotoxin. This specific clone of A. actinomycetemcomitans is common in some African populations and has a strong association with periodontal attachment loss in adolescents in these populations. Chewing sticks of plant origin are commonly used as oral hygiene tool in Africa, but their role as a therapeutic agent in periodontal disease is poorly investigated. RESULTS: Ethanol extracts were made from 7 common plants used as chewing sticks in West-Africa. None of the tested extracts inhibited growth of A. actinomycetemcomitans. However, extracts from Psidium guajava (Guava) completely neutralized the cell death and pro-inflammatory response of human leukocytes induced by the leukotoxin. None of the six other tested chewing stick extracts showed this effect. CONCLUSIONS: The discovery that extracts from Guava efficiently neutralizes A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxicity might lead to novel therapeutic agents and strategies for prevention and treatment of aggressive forms of periodontitis induced by infections with the highly leukotoxic JP2 clone of this bacterium.

  • 33. Lawrence, Maggie
    et al.
    Asaba, Eric
    Duncan, Elaine
    Elf, Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Chalmers University of Technology.
    Eriksson, Gunilla
    Faulkner, James
    Guidetti, Susanne
    Johansson, Birgitta
    Kruuse, Christina
    Lennon, Olive
    Stroke secondary prevention, a non-surgical and non-pharmacological consensus definition: results of a Delphi study2019In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Evidence supporting lifestyle modification in vascular risk reduction is limited, drawn largely from primary prevention studies. To advance the evidence base for non-pharmacological and non-surgical stroke secondary prevention (SSP), empirical research is needed, informed by a consensus-derived definition of SSP. To date, no such definition has been published. We used Delphi methods to generate an evidence-based definition of non-pharmacological and non-surgical SSP.

    RESULTS: The 16 participants were members of INSsPiRE (International Network of Stroke Secondary Prevention Researchers), a multidisciplinary group of trialists, academics and clinicians. The Elicitation stage identified 49 key elements, grouped into 3 overarching domains: Risk factors, Education, and Theory before being subjected to iterative stages of elicitation, ranking, discussion, and anonymous voting. In the Action stage, following an experience-based engagement with key stakeholders, a consensus-derived definition, complementing current pharmacological and surgical SSP pathways, was finalised: Non-pharmacological and non-surgical stroke secondary prevention supports and improves long-term health and well-being in everyday life and reduces the risk of another stroke, by drawing from a spectrum of theoretically informed interventions and educational strategies. Interventions to self-manage modifiable lifestyle risk factors are contextualized and individualized to the capacities, needs, and personally meaningful priorities of individuals with stroke and their families.

  • 34.
    Lilja, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Widerström, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Lindh, Johan
    Persisting post-infection symptoms 2 years after a large waterborne outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis in northern Sweden2018In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: In 2010–2011, a large waterborne outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis affected the city of Östersund in Sweden. Previous findings had suggested that gastrointestinal symptoms can persist for up to 11 months after the initial infection. Here we investigated whether the parasite could cause sequelae in infected individuals up to 28 months after the outbreak. We compared cases linked to the outbreak and the previous follow-up study with non-cases regarding symptoms present up to 28 months after the initial infection. We investigated whether cases were more likely to report a list of symptoms at follow-up compared to non-cases, calculating odds ratio and 95% confidence interval obtained through logistic regression.

    Results: A total of 559 individuals (215 cases) were included in the study. Forty-eight percent of the outbreak cases reported symptoms at follow-up. Compared to non-cases, cases were more likely to report watery diarrhea, diarrhea, abdominal pain, fatigue, nausea, headache, or joint stiffness/pain/discomfort at follow-up after adjusting for age and sex. Our findings suggest that gastrointestinal symptoms and joint pain can persist several years after the initial Cryptosporidium infection and should be regarded as a potential cause of unexplained gastrointestinal symptoms or joint pain in people who have had this infection.

  • 35.
    Lindgren, Lenita
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Nording, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fowler, Christopher
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Endocannabinoids and related lipids in blood plasma following touch massage: a randomised, crossover study2015In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 8, article id 504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The endocannabinoid system is involved in the regulation of stress and anxiety. In a recent study, it was reported that short-term changes in mood produced by a pleasant ambience were correlated with changes in the levels of plasma endocannabinoids and related N-acylethanolamines (Schrieks et al. PLoS One 10: e0126421, 2015). In the present study, we investigated whether stress reduction by touch massage (TM) affects blood plasma levels of endocannabinoids and relatedN-acylethanolamines.

    Results: A randomized two-session crossover design for 20 healthy participants was utilised, with one condition that consisted of TM and a rest condition as control. TM increased the perceived pleasantness rating of the participants, and both TM and rest reduced the basal anxiety level as assessed by the State scale of the STAI-Y inventory. However, there were no significant effects of either time (pre- vs. post-treatment measures) as main effect or the interaction time x treatment for the plasma levels of the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol or for eight other related lipids. Four lipids showed acceptable relative reliabilities, and for two of these (linoleoyl ethanolamide and palmitoleoyl ethanolamide) a significant correlation was seen between the TM-related change in levels, calculated as (post-TM value minus pre-TM value) − (post-rest value minus pre-rest value), and the corresponding TM-related change in perceived pleasantness.

    Conclusions: It is concluded that in the participants studied here, there are no overt effects of TM upon plasma endocannabinoid levels. Possible associations of related N-acylethanolamines with the perceived pleasantness should be investigated further.

  • 36.
    Lysholm, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Bioinformatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Björn
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Persson, Bengt
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Bioinformatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An efficient simulator of 454 data using configurable statistical models2011In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 4, no 449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Roche 454 is one of the major 2nd generation sequencing platforms. The particular characteristics of 454 sequence data   pose new challenges for bioinformatic analyses, e.g. assembly and alignment search   algorithms. Simulation of these data is therefore useful, in order to further assess   how bioinformatic applications and algorithms handle 454 data.

    Findings

    We developed a new application named 454sim for simulation of 454 data at high speed   and accuracy. The program is multi-thread capable and is available as C++ source code   or pre-compiled binaries. Sequence reads are simulated by 454sim using a set of statistical   models for each chemistry. 454sim simulates recorded peak intensities, peak quality   deterioration and it calculates quality values. All three generations of the Roche   454 chemistry ('GS20', 'GS FLX' and 'Titanium') are supported and defined in external   text files for easy access and tweaking.

    Conclusions

    We present a new platform independent application named 454sim. 454sim is generally   200 times faster compared to previous programs and it allows for simple adjustments   of the statistical models. These improvements make it possible to carry out more complex   and rigorous algorithm evaluations in a reasonable time scale.

  • 37.
    Merrick, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Stålnacke, Britt-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Five years post whiplash injury: symptom and psychological factors in recovered versus non-recovered2010In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 3, p. 190-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Few studies have focused on the differences between persons who are recovered after whiplash injury and those who suffer from persistent disability. The primary aim of this study was therefore to examine differences in symptoms, psychological factors and life satisfaction between subjects classified as recovered and those with persistent disability five years after whiplash injury based on the Neck Disability Index (NDI).

    Methods A set of questionnaires was answered by 158 persons (75 men, 83 women) to assess disability (NDI), pain intensity (VAS), whiplash-related symptoms (Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire, RPQ), post-traumatic stress (Impact of Event Scale, IES), depression (Beck's depression inventory, BDI) and life satisfaction (LiSat-11).

    The participants were divided into three groups based on the results of the NDI: recovered (34.8%), mild disability (37.3%) and moderate/severe disability (27.3%).

    Results The moderate/severe group reported significantly higher VAS, BDI and IES scores and lower level of physical health and psychological health compared to the mild and the recovered groups. Less significant differences were reported between the mild and the recovered groups.

    Conclusions The group with the highest disability score reported most health problems with pain, symptoms, depression, post-traumatic stress and decreased life satisfaction. These findings indicate that classifying these subjects into subgroups based on disability levels makes it possible to optimize the management and treatment after whiplash injury.

  • 38.
    Monstein, Hans-Jurg
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Karlsson, Anneli
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ryberg, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Borch, Kurt
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Application of PCR amplicon sequencing using a single primer pair in PCR amplification to assess variations in Helicobacter pylori CagA EPIYA tyrosine phosphorylation motifs2010In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 3, no 35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The presence of various EPIYA tyrosine phosphorylation motifs in the CagA protein of Helicobacter pylori has been suggested to contribute to pathogenesis in adults. In this study, a unique PCR assay and sequencing strategy was developed to establish the number and variation of cagA EPIYA motifs.

    Findings

    MDA-DNA derived from gastric biopsy specimens from eleven subjects with gastritis was used with M13- and T7- sequence-tagged primers for amplification of the cagA EPIYA motif region. Automated capillary electrophoresis using a high resolution kit and amplicon sequencing confirmed variations in the cagA EPIYA motif region. In nine cases, sequencing revealed the presence of AB, ABC, or ABCC (Western type) cagA EPIYA motif, respectively. In two cases, double cagA EPIYA motifs were detected (ABC/ABCC or ABC/AB), indicating the presence of two H. pylori strains in the same biopsy.

    Conclusion

    Automated capillary electrophoresis and amplicon sequencing using a single, M13- and T7-sequence-tagged primer pair in PCR amplification enabled a rapid molecular typing of cagA EPIYA motifs. Moreover, the techniques described allowed for a rapid detection of mixed H. pylori strains present in the same biopsy specimen.

  • 39. Myrnäs, Anna
    et al.
    Castegren, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning i Sörmland (CKFD).
    Fatal hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with day care surgery and anaesthesia: a case report2013In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 242-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Thrombotic angiopathies, i.e. haemolytic uremic syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, are thought to occur in patients with a combination of risk factors (e.g., an infection with shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) or low activity of the metalloproteinase Adamts-13) and a pathophysiological trigger (e.g., anti-endothelial antibodies, cytokines or activation of chemokine receptor 4). To our knowledge, this is the first report describing an association between haemolytic uremic syndrome and routine surgery and anaesthesia.

    CASE PRESENTATION:

    We present a case in which a 67-year-old Caucasian female developed fatal haemolytic uremic syndrome in the immediate postoperative period of uncomplicated day care surgery. The patient had suffered gastrointestinal symptoms followed by confusion approximately two weeks before surgery, but had been without any symptoms in the week before surgery. Haemolytic uremic syndrome with cerebral symptoms ranging from initial anxiety to subsequent seizures and coma developed within a few hours after the end of surgery. In addition, acute kidney failure and severe thrombocytopenia occurred about the same time. During intensive care, the patient was found to be positive for enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) in faeces.

    CONCLUSION:

    Anaesthesiologists should be notified that haemolytic uremic syndrome is an uncommon differential diagnosis in patients with postoperative seizures and coma. Patients with a recent enterohemmoragic E.Coli infection should be followed postoperatively for signs of haemolytic uremic syndrome.

  • 40.
    Nayeri, Fariba
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Occlusive bandaging of wounds with decreased circulation promotes growth of anaerobic bacteria and necrosis: case report2016In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 9, no 394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Topical occlusive/semi-occlusive dressings that induce a damp and trapped environment are widely used in wound treatment. Subjecting the wound with impaired circulation to such trapped/air-free environment potentiates the growth of anaerobic bacteria and risk for serious infection. Case presentation: We present a case of previously healthy Swedish male that had a muscle contusion after heavy trauma that induced impaired circulation. The application of an occlusive bandage to the post-traumatic wound on the patient resulted in a poly-microbial anaerobic infection and necrosis. These complications were treated successfully with antibiotics and open dressing of the wound. Conclusion: The pathophysiology of difficult- to- treat ulcers should be reviewed by the physician and occlusive dressing should be avoided when treating wounds with impaired circulation.

  • 41. Nelin, Viktoria
    et al.
    KC, Ashish
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition.
    Andersson, Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition.
    Rana, Nisha
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition.
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition.
    Factors associated with timing of umbilical cord clamping in tertiary hospital of Nepal.2018In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Delayed umbilical cord clamping (DCC) (≥ 60 s) is recognized to improve iron status and neurodevelopment compared to early umbilical cord clamping. The aim of this study is to identify current umbilical cord clamping practice and factors determining the timing of clamping in a low-resource setting where prevalence of anemia in infants is high.

    RESULTS: A cross-sectional study design including 128 observations of clinical practice in a tertiary-level maternity hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal. Overall 48% of infants received DCC. The mean and median cord clamping times were 61 ± 33 and 57 (38-79) s, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that infants born during the night shift were five times more likely to receive DCC (OR 5.6, 95% CI 1.4-38.0). Additionally, infants born after an obstetric complication were 2.5 times more likely to receive DCC (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2-5.3), and babies requiring ventilation had a 65% lower likelihood of receiving DCC (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.13-0.88). Despite the existence of standard protocols for cord clamping and its proven benefit, the lack of uniformity in the timing of cord clamping reveals poor translation of clinical guidelines into clinical practice. Clinical trial registration ISRCTN97846009.

  • 42. Nelson, Ronald M
    et al.
    Shen, Xia
    Carlborg, Örjan
    SLU.
    qtl.outbred: Interfacing outbred line cross data with the R/qtl mapping software.2011In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: qtl.outbred is an extendible interface in the statistical environment, R, for combining quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping tools. It is built as an umbrella package that enables outbred genotype probabilities to be calculated and/or imported into the software package R/qtl.

    FINDINGS: Using qtl.outbred, the genotype probabilities from outbred line cross data can be calculated by interfacing with a new and efficient algorithm developed for analyzing arbitrarily large datasets (included in the package) or imported from other sources such as the web-based tool, GridQTL.

    CONCLUSION: qtl.outbred will improve the speed for calculating probabilities and the ability to analyse large future datasets. This package enables the user to analyse outbred line cross data accurately, but with similar effort than inbred line cross data.

  • 43. Nelson, Ronald M.
    et al.
    Shen, Xia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Carlborg, Örjan
    qtl.outbred: Interfacing outbred line cross data with the R/qtl mapping software2011In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 4, no 154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    qtl.outbred is an extendible interface in the statistical environment, R, for combining quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping tools. It is built as an umbrella package that enables outbred genotype probabilities to be calculated and/or imported into the software package R/qtl.

    Findings

    Using qtl.outbred, the genotype probabilities from outbred line cross data can be calculated by interfacing with a new and efficient algorithm developed for analyzing arbitrarily large datasets (included in the package) or imported from other sources such as the web-based tool, GridQTL.

    Conclusion

    qtl.outbred will improve the speed for calculating probabilities and the ability to analyse large future datasets. This package enables the user to analyse outbred line cross data accurately, but with similar effort than inbred line cross data.

  • 44. Nelson, Ronald
    et al.
    Shen, Xia
    Carlborg, Örjan
    SLU.
    qtl.outbred: interfacing outbred line cross data with the R/qtl mapping software2011In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 4, no 154Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Nerpin, Elisabet
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Helmersson-Karlqvist, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemial structure and function.
    Riserus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Sundström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemial structure and function.
    Jobs, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Inflammation, oxidative stress, glomerular filtration rate, and albuminuria in elderly men: a cross-sectional study2012In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 537-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     BACKGROUND: The role of inflammation and oxidative stress in mild renal impairment in the elderly is not well studied. Accordingly, we aimed at investigating the associations between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), and markers of different inflammatory pathways and oxidative stress in a community based cohort of elderly men.

    FINDINGS: Cystatin C-based GFR, ACR, and biomarkers of cytokine-mediated inflammation (interleukin-6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein[CRP], serum amyloid A[SAA]), cyclooxygenase-mediated inflammation (urinary prostaglandin F2alpha [PGF2alpha]), and oxidative stress (urinary F2 isoprostanes) were assessed in the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men(n = 647, mean age 77 years).

    RESULTS: In linear regression models adjusting for age, BMI, smoking, blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and treatment with statins, ACE-inhibitors, ASA, and anti-inflammatory agents, eGFR was inversely associated with CRP, interleukin-6, and SAA (beta-coefficient -0.13 to -0.19, p < 0.001 for all), and positively associated with urinary F2-isoprostanes (beta-coefficient 0.09, p = 0.02). In line with this, ACR was positively associated with CRP, interleukin-6, and SAA (beta- coefficient 0.09-0.12, p < 0.02 for all), and negatively associated with urinary F2-isoprostanes (beta-coefficient -0.12, p = 0.002). The associations were similar but with lower regression coefficients in a sub-sample with normal eGFR (>60 ml/min/1.73 m2, n = 514), with the exception that F2-isoprostane and SAA were no longer associated with eGFR.

    CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that cytokine-mediated inflammation is involved in the early stages of impaired kidney function in the elderly, but that cyclooxygenase-mediated inflammation does not play a role at this stage. The unexpected association between higher eGFR/lower albuminuria and increased F2-isoprostanes in urine merits further studies.

  • 46.
    Olsson, Lovisa A
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital.
    Hagnelius, Nils-Olof
    Nilsson, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Renal function is a determinant of subjective well-being in active seniors but not in patients with subjective memory complaints2014In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 7, p. 647-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: During our whole life span, factors influencing health and functioning are accumulated. In chronic kidney disease, quality of life is adversely affected. We hypothesized that biomarkers of renal function could also be determinants of subjective well-being (SWB) in Swedish elderly subjects. SWB was assessed by the Psychological General Well-Being index (PGWB index) in two study groups: Active seniors (AS) consisted of community-dwelling elderly Swedes leading an active life (n = 389), and the DGM cohort (n = 300) consisted of subjects referred to the Memory Unit at the Department of Geriatrics for memory problems, Serum creatinine, cystatin C, and eGFR (CKD-EPI) were used as biomarkers of renal function.

    RESULTS: There were no significant differences in cystatin C and eGFR values between the two cohorts: cystatin C medians 0.88 vs 0.86 mg/L and eGFR 73 vs 80 mL/min/1.73 m2 (AS vs DGM). In the AS cohort cystatin C was negatively related to PGWB index in women (P < 0.001, R2 ≈ 5%), and the covariates age and BMI did not improve the models. The renal biomarkers were unrelated to the PGWB index in the DGM cohort. Cystatin C in the AS cohort was adversely related to the PGWB subdimensions anxiety, depressed mood, positive well-being, and vitality in women, but in men only to depressed mood (P < 0.006; R2 ≈ 6%). In the DGM cohort, depressed mood in men was also significantly related to cystatin C (P = 0.050), but not in women.

    CONCLUSIONS: Renal function even within the normal range, measured by serum cystatin C concentration, has significant and sex specific associations with subjective well-being and its subdimensions in healthy elderly subjects. Maintenance of good renal function in aging may be of importance in maintaining a high subjective well-being.

  • 47.
    Olsson, Lovisa A.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Laboratory Medicine/Clinical Chemistry, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hagnelius, Nils-Olof
    Örebro University Hospital. Department of Geriatrics, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K.
    Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Renal function is a determinant of subjective well-being in active seniors but not in patients with subjective memory complaints2014In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 647Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results: There were no significant differences in cystatin C and eGFR values between the two cohorts: cystatin C medians 0.88 vs 0.86 mg/L and eGFR 73 vs 80 mL/min/1.73 m2(AS vs DGM). In the AS cohort cystatin C was negatively related to PGWB index in women (P &lt; 0.001, R 2≈ 5%), and the covariates age and BMI did not improve the models. The renal biomarkers were unrelated to the PGWB index in the DGM cohort. Cystatin C in the AS cohort was adversely related to the PGWB subdimensions anxiety, depressed mood, positive well-being, and vitality in women, but in men only to depressed mood (P &lt; 0.006; R 2≈ 6%). In the DGM cohort, depressed mood in men was also significantly related to cystatin C (P = 0.050), but not in women.

    Background: During our whole life span, factors influencing health and functioning are accumulated. In chronic kidney disease, quality of life is adversely affected. We hypothesized that biomarkers of renal function could also be determinants of subjective well-being (SWB) in Swedish elderly subjects. SWB was assessed by the Psychological General Well-Being index (PGWB index) in two study groups: Active seniors (AS) consisted of community-dwelling elderly Swedes leading an active life (n = 389), and the DGM cohort (n = 300) consisted of subjects referred to the Memory Unit at the Department of Geriatrics for memory problems, Serum creatinine, cystatin C, and eGFR (CKD-EPI) were used as biomarkers of renal function.

    Conclusions: Renal function even within the normal range, measured by serum cystatin C concentration, has significant and sex specific associations with subjective well-being and its subdimensions in healthy elderly subjects. Maintenance of good renal function in aging may be of importance in maintaining a high subjective well-being.

  • 48. Papp, Marian E
    et al.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Storck, Niklas
    Wändell, Per E
    Increased heart rate variability but no effect on blood pressure from 8 weeks of hatha yoga - a pilot study2013In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 6, no 59, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Yoga exercises are known to decrease stress and restore autonomic balance. Yet knowledge about the physiological effects of inversion postures is limited. This study aimed to investigate the effects of inversion postures (head below the heart) on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate variability (HRV).

    Methods

    Twelve healthy women and men took part in an 8-week yoga program (60 min once a week). BP was measured with an automatic Omron mx3 oscillometric monitoring device and HRV with a Holter 24-hour ECG at baseline and 8 weeks after the intervention.

    Results

    There was no significant effect of inversion postures on BP. Nine out of 12 participants showed a significant increase in HRV (p < 0.05) at night (2 hours) on pNN50% (12.7 +/- 12.5 to 18.2 +/- 13.3). There were no significant changes in other HRV measures such as NN50, LF, HF, LF/HF ratio, LF normalized units (n.u.), HF n.u. and RMSSD.

    Conclusion

    Eight weeks of hatha yoga improved HRV significantly which suggests an increased vagal tone and reduced sympathetic activity.

  • 49.
    Pedersen, Kristina
    et al.
    University of Aarhus, Denmark .
    Wiechec, Emilia
    University of Aarhus, Denmark .
    Madsen, Bo Eskerod
    University of Aarhus, Denmark .
    Overgaard, Jens
    Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark .
    Hansen, Lise Lotte
    University of Aarhus, Denmark .
    A simple way to evaluate self-designed probes for tumor specific Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA)2010In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    The Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) is widely used for analysis of copy number variations (CNVs) in single or multiple loci. MLPA is a versatile methodology and important tool in cancer research; it provides precise information on increased or decreased copy number at specific loci as opposed to loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies based upon microsatellite analysis. Pre-designed MLPA kits and software are commercially available to analyze multiple exons, genes, and genomic regions. However, an increasing demand for new gene specific assays makes it necessary to self-design new MLPA probes for which the available software may not be applicable. During evaluation of new self-designed reference probes, we encountered a number of problems, especially when applying the MLPA methodology to tumor samples.

    FINDINGS:

    DNA samples from 48 unaffected individuals and 145 breast cancer patients were used to evaluate 11 self-designed MLPA probes and determine the cut-off values for CNV, before applying the MLPA probes to normalize the target probes in a cohort of affected individuals. To test the calculation strategy, three probes were designed to cover regions in Regulator of G-protein Signaling 8 (RGS8), which we previously have identified as being affected by allelic imbalance by LOH analysis across RGS8 in the cohort comprising 145 breast tumors. Agreement between the LOH results and the results obtained by each of the three MLPA probes in RGS8 was found for 64%, 73%, and 91%, of the analyzed samples, respectively.

    CONCLUSION:

    Here, we present a straightforward method, based upon the normalization pattern in both unaffected and affected individuals, to evaluate self-designed reference probes and to calculate CNV for the MLPA assay with specific focus on the difficulties when analyzing tumor DNA.

  • 50.
    Pelto-Piri, Veikko
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. University Health Care Research Center (UFC).
    Kjellin, Lars
    University Health Care Research Center (UFC), Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hylén, Ulrika
    University Health Care Research Center (UFC), Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Valenti, Emanuele
    Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
    Priebe, Stefan
    Unit for Social and Community Psychiatry, WHO Collaborating Centre for Mental Health Services Development, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.
    Different forms of informal coercion in psychiatry: a qualitative study2019In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 787Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to investigate how mental health professionals describe and reflect upon different forms of informal coercion.

    RESULTS: In a deductive qualitative content analysis of focus group interviews, several examples of persuasion, interpersonal leverage, inducements, and threats were found. Persuasion was sometimes described as being more like a negotiation. Some participants worried about that the use of interpersonal leverage and inducements risked to pass into blackmail in some situations. In a following inductive analysis, three more categories of informal coercion was found: cheating, using a disciplinary style and referring to rules and routines. Participants also described situations of coercion from other stakeholders: relatives and other authorities than psychiatry. The results indicate that informal coercion includes forms that are not obviously arranged in a hierarchy, and that its use is complex with a variety of pathways between different forms before treatment is accepted by the patient or compulsion is imposed.

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