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  • 1. Ahmed, A.
    et al.
    Hassan, I.
    Pourrahimi, Amir Masoud
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology. Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, 41296 Sweden.
    Helal, A. S.
    El-Kady, M. F.
    Khassaf, H.
    Kaner, R. B.
    Toward High-Performance Triboelectric Nanogenerators by Engineering Interfaces at the Nanoscale: Looking into the Future Research Roadmap2020In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 5, no 11, p. 2000520-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To meet the future need for clean and sustainable energies, there has been considerable interest in the development of triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) that scavenge waste mechanical energies. The performance of a TENG at the macroscale is determined by the multifaceted role of surface and interface properties at the nanoscale, whose understanding is critical for the future development of TENGs. Therefore, various protocols from the atomic to the macrolevel for fabrication and tuning of surfaces and interfaces are required to obtain the desired TENG performance. These protocols branch out into three categories: chemical engineering, physical engineering, and structural engineering. Chemical engineering is an affordable and optimal strategy for introducing more surface polarities and higher work functions for the improvement of charge transfer. Physical engineering includes the utilization of surface morphology control, and interlayer interactions, which can enhance the active interfacial area and electron transfer capacity. Structural engineering at the macroscale, which includes device and electrode design/modifications has a considerable effect on the performance of TENGs. Future challenges and promising research directions related to the construction of next-generation TENG devices, taking into consideration “interfaces” are also presented.

  • 2. Annamalai, P. K.
    et al.
    Nanjundan, A. K.
    Dubal, D. P.
    Baek, J. -B
    An Overview of Cellulose-Based Nanogenerators2021In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 6, no 3, article id 2001164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing nanogenerators (NGs) is achieved by exploiting the piezoelectric, triboelectric, and pyroelectric effects of both organic and inorganic materials. Many exhibit beneficial electrical properties (dielectric, conductive, or insulating) or have surfaces that are polarizable upon friction or physical contact. Recently, biomass-derived materials and recycled materials, whose electrical activity can be induced, are explored for application in the design of more sustainable, cost-effective, biodegradable, disposable NGs, and have demonstrated a wide range of output (microenergy) power densities. Among them, cellulose, the most abundant biopolymer, is found to offer excellent opportunities for designing and manufacturing NGs with multifunctional capacities. Cellulose can be derived into varied forms with multifunctionalities and physical morphologies. This account provides an overview of how cellulose is utilized in creating NGs based on piezoelectric, triboelectric, and pyroelectric effects. Because the mechanical properties of cellulose are tunable, current research trends on NGs originate with the triboelectric effect. The discussion here focuses on design, fabrication methods, achievable electrical power output, and combinations with other materials and devices. Challenges in efficient fabrication and consistent power densities, and opportunities for integrating different technologies and developing more sustainable (in terms of economic, environmental, and ecological) nature–human–machine interfacial devices are also discussed. © 2021 Wiley-VCH GmbH

  • 3.
    Arbring Sjöström, Theresia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Janson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Poxson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Seitanidou, Maria S.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Decade of Iontronic Delivery Devices2018In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 3, no 5, article id 1700360Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In contrast to electronic systems, biology rarely uses electrons as the signal to regulate functions, but rather ions and molecules of varying size. Due to the unique combination of both electronic and ionic/molecular conductivity in conjugated polymers and polyelectrolytes, these materials have emerged as an excellent tool for translating signals between these two realms, hence the field of organic bioelectronics. Since organic bioelectronics relies on the electron-mediated transport and compensation of ions (or the ion-mediated transport and compensation of electrons), a great deal of effort has been devoted to the development of so-called "iontronic" components to effect precise substance delivery/transport, that is, components where ions are the dominant charge carrier and where ionic-electronic coupling defines device functionality. This effort has resulted in a range of technologies including ionic resistors, diodes, transistors, and basic logic circuits for the precisely controlled transport and delivery of biologically active chemicals. This Research News article presents a brief overview of some of these "ion pumping" technologies, how they have evolved over the last decade, and a discussion of applications in vitro, in vivo, and in plantae.

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  • 4.
    Arbring Sjöström, Theresia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ivanov, Anton I.
    INSERM, INS, Inst Neurosci Syst, Aix Marseille University, Marseille, France.
    Bernard, Christophe
    INSERM, INS, Inst Neurosci Syst, Aix Marseille University, Marseille, France.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Poxson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Design and Operation of Hybrid Microfluidic Iontronic Probes for Regulated Drug Delivery2021In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 6, no 2, article id 2001006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly controlled drug delivery devices play an increasingly important role in the development of new neuroengineering tools. Stringent - and sometimes contradicting - demands are placed on such devices, ranging from robustness in freestanding devices, to overall device miniaturization, while maintaining precise spatiotemporal control of delivery with high chemical specificity and high on/off ratio. Here, design principles of a hybrid microfluidic iontronic probe that uses flow for long-range pressure-driven transport in combination with an iontronic tip that provides electronically fine-tuned pressure-free delivery are explored. Employing a computational model, the effects of decoupling the drug reservoir by exchanging a large passive reservoir with a smaller microfluidic system are reported. The transition at the microfluidic-iontronic interface is found to require an expanded ion exchange membrane inlet in combination with a constant fluidic flow, to allow a broad range of device operation, including low source concentrations and high delivery currents. Complementary to these findings, the free-standing hybrid probe monitored in real time by an external sensor is demonstrated. From these computational and experimental results, key design principles for iontronic devices are outlined that seek to use the efficient transport enabled by microfluidics, and further, key observations of hybrid microfluidic iontronic probes are explained.

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  • 5.
    Arbring Sjöström, Theresia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Amanda
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Miniaturized Ionic Polarization Diodes for Neurotransmitter Release at Synaptic Speeds2020In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 5, no 3, article id 1900750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current neural interfaces rely on electrical stimulation pulses to affect neural tissue. The development of a chemical delivery technology, which can stimulate neural tissue with the bodys own set of signaling molecules, would provide a new level of sophistication in neural interfaces. Such technology should ideally provide highly local chemical delivery points that operate at synaptic speed, something that is yet to be accomplished. Here, the development of a miniaturized ionic polarization diode that exhibits many of the desirable properties for a chemical neural interface technology is reported. The ionic diode shows proper diode rectification and the current switches from off to on in 50 mu s at physiologically relevant electrolyte concentrations. A device model is developed to explain the characteristics of the ionic diode in more detail. In combination with experimental data, the model predicts that the ionic polarization diode has a delivery delay of 5 ms to reach physiologically relevant neurotransmitter concentrations at subcellular spatial resolution. The model further predicts that delays of amp;lt;1 ms can be reached by further miniaturization of the diode geometry. Altogether, the results show that ionic polarization diodes are a promising building block for the next generation of chemical neural interfaces.

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  • 6.
    Boda, Ulrika
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Fully Screen-Printed Stretchable Organic Electrochemical Transistors2023In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, no 16, article id 2300247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stretchable organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are promising for wearable applications within biosensing, bio-signal recording, and addressing circuitry. Efficient large-scale fabrication of OECTs can be performed with printing methods but to date there are no reports on high-performance fully printed stretchable OECTs. Herein, this challenge is addressed by developing fully screen-printed stretchable OECTs based on an architecture that minimizes electrochemical side reactions and improves long-term stability. Fabrication of the OECTs is enabled by in-house development of three stretchable functional screen-printing inks and related printing processes. The stretchable OECTs show good characteristics in terms of transfer curves, output characteristics, and transient response up to 100% static strain and 500 strain cycles at 25% and 50% strain. The strain insensitivity of the OECTs can be further improved by strain conditioning, resulting in stable performance up to 50% strain. Finally, an electrochromic smart pixel is demonstrated by connecting a stretchable OECT to a stretchable electrochromic display. It is believed that the development of screen-printed stretchable electrochemical devices, and OECTs in particular, will pave the way for their use in wearable applications and commercial products. © 2023 The Authors. 

  • 7.
    Boda, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Ersman, Peter Andersson
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fully Screen-Printed Stretchable Organic Electrochemical Transistors2023In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stretchable organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are promising for wearable applications within biosensing, bio-signal recording, and addressing circuitry. Efficient large-scale fabrication of OECTs can be performed with printing methods but to date there are no reports on high-performance fully printed stretchable OECTs. Herein, this challenge is addressed by developing fully screen-printed stretchable OECTs based on an architecture that minimizes electrochemical side reactions and improves long-term stability. Fabrication of the OECTs is enabled by in-house development of three stretchable functional screen-printing inks and related printing processes. The stretchable OECTs show good characteristics in terms of transfer curves, output characteristics, and transient response up to 100% static strain and 500 strain cycles at 25% and 50% strain. The strain insensitivity of the OECTs can be further improved by strain conditioning, resulting in stable performance up to 50% strain. Finally, an electrochromic smart pixel is demonstrated by connecting a stretchable OECT to a stretchable electrochromic display. It is believed that the development of screen-printed stretchable electrochemical devices, and OECTs in particular, will pave the way for their use in wearable applications and commercial products.

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  • 8.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Wijeratne, Kosala
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Electrochromic Displays Manufactured by a Combination of Vapor Phase Polymerization and Screen Printing2022In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 7, no 8, article id 2200054Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart label technology such as indicators is a growing field due to society's demand for Internet of Things devices. New materials and technologies are continuously being discovered and developed in order to provide better resolution, better performance, or more environmentally friendly devices. Within this report, screen printing technology is combined with vapor phase polymerization to synthesize three conductive polymers; poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPy), and polythiophene (PTh). The conductive polymers are created in micrometer resolution and investigated for their electrochromic properties. PEDOT and PPy samples are combined into printed, laminated, transmissive electrochromic displays. The technology is further advanced to establish separate PEDOT, PPy, and PTh all-printed electrochromic displays using several screen printed layers. The PEDOT displays show improved color retention as compared to displays created with commercially available PEDOT:poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) with comparable contrast and switching behavior. All-printed PPy and PTh electrochromic displays with impressive electrochromic behavior are demonstrated. More complex patterns of 7-segment displays are created, thereby highlighting flexibility and individually switched sections of the conductive polymers. This research extends the screen printing and vapor phase polymerization combination to other conductive polymers and the potential commercialization of multicolor electrochromic displays that has been otherwise dominated by monochromatic PEDOT:PSS. 

  • 9.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Wijeratne, Kosala
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Hübscher, Kathrin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Belaineh Yilma, Dagmawi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Combining Vapor Phase Polymerization and Screen Printing for Printed Electronics on Flexible Substrates2022In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 7, no 7, article id 2101665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large area manufacturing of printed electronic components on ~A4-sized substrates is demonstrated by the combination of screen printing and vapor phase polymerization (VPP) into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). The oxidant layer required for the polymerization process is screen printed, and the resulting conductive polymer patterns are manufactured at high resolution (100 µm). Successful processing of several common oxidant species is demonstrated, and the thickness can be adjusted by altering the polymerization time. By comparing the polymer films of this work to a commercial PEDOT:PSS (PEDOT doped with poly(styrene sulfonate)) screen printing ink shows improved surface roughness (26 vs 69 nm), higher conductivity (500 vs 100 S cm–1) and better resolution (100 vs 200 µm). Organic electrochemical transistors, in which the transistor channel is polymerized into PEDOT through VPP, are also demonstrated to further emphasize on the applicability of this manufacturing approach. The resulting transistor devices are not only functional, they also show remarkable switching behavior with respect to ON current levels (–70 mA at –1 V), ON/OFF ratios (>105), switching times (tens of ms) and transconductance values (>100 mS) in standalone transistor devices, in addition to a high amplification factor (>30) upon integration into a screen printed inverter circuit. © 2022 The Authors. 

  • 10.
    Cantoni, Federico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Microsystems Technology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Barbe, Laurent
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Microsystems Technology.
    Pohlit, Hannah
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Microsystems Technology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Tenje, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Microsystems Technology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    A perfusable multi-hydrogel vasculature on-chip engineered by 2-photon 3D printing and scaffold molding to improve microfabrication fidelity in hydrogels2024In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 9, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering vasculature networks in physiologically relevant hydrogelsrepresents a challenge in terms of both fabrication, due to the cell–bioinkinteractions, as well as the subsequent hydrogel-device interfacing. Here, anew cell-friendly fabrication strategy is presented to realize perfusablemulti-hydrogel vasculature models supporting co-culture integrated in amicrofluidic chip. The system comprises two different hydrogels to specificallysupport the growth and proliferation of two different cell types selected for thevessel model. First, the channels are printed in a gelatin-based ink bytwo-photon polymerization (2PP) inside the microfluidic device. Then, ahuman lung fibroblast-laden fibrin hydrogel is injected to surround the printednetwork. Finally, human endothelial cells are seeded inside the printedchannels. The printing parameters and fibrin composition are optimized toreduce hydrogel swelling and ensure a stable model that can be perfused withcell media. Fabricating the hydrogel structure in two steps ensures that nocells are exposed to cytotoxic fabrication processes, while still obtaining highfidelity printing. In this work, the possibility to guide the endothelial cellinvasion through the 3D printed scaffold and perfusion of the co-culturemodel for 10 days is successfully demonstrated on a custom-made perfusionsystem.

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  • 11.
    Cao, Danfeng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hara, Emilio Satoshi
    Okayama Univ, Japan.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Variable Stiffness Actuators with Covalently Attached Nanofragments that Induce Mineralization2023In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 8, no 8, article id 2201651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soft robotics has attracted great attention owing to their immense potential especially in human-robot interfaces. However, the compliant property of soft robotics alone, without stiff elements, restricts their applications under load-bearing conditions. Here, biohybrid soft actuators, that create their own bone-like rigid layer and thus alter their stiffness from soft to hard, are designed. Fabrication of the actuators is based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with an Au film to make a soft substrate onto which polypyrrole (PPy) doped with poly(4-styrenesulfonic-co-maleic acid) sodium salt (PSA) is electropolymerized. The PDMS/Au/PPy(PSA) actuator is then functionalized, chemically and physically, with plasma membrane nanofragments (PMNFs) that induce bone formation within 3 days, without using cells. The resulting stiffness change decreased the actuator displacement; yet a thin stiff layer couldnot completely stop the actuators movement, while a relatively thick segment could, but resulted in partial delamination the actuator. To overcome the delamination, an additional rough Au layer was electroplated to improve the adhesion of the PPy onto the substrate. Finally, an alginate gel functionalized with PMNFs was used to create a thicker mineral layer mimicking the collagen-apatite bone structure, which completely suppressed the actuator movement without causing any structural damage.

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  • 12.
    Chennit, Khalil
    et al.
    Univ Paris Cite, France.
    Delavari, Najmeh
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mekhmoukhen, Samia
    Univ Paris Cite, France.
    Boukraa, Rassen
    Univ Paris Cite, France.
    Fillaud, Laure
    Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Zrig, Samia
    Univ Paris Cite, France.
    Battaglini, Nicolas
    Univ Paris Cite, France.
    Piro, Benoit
    Univ Paris Cite, France.
    Noel, Vincent
    Univ Paris Cite, France.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mattana, Giorgio
    Univ Paris Cite, France.
    Inkjet-Printed, Coplanar Electrolyte-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistors on Flexible Substrates: Fabrication, Modeling, and Applications in Biodetection2023In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 8, no 2, article id 2200300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first example of inkjet-printed, electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors, fabricated on flexible polyimide substrates is presented. The inter-digitated source and drain electrodes, and the coplanar gate electrodes, are inkjet-printed using a homemade gold nanoparticle ink. A semiconducting ink based on the p-type, organic semiconductor poly[2,5-(2-octyldodecyl)-3,6-diketopyrrolopyrrole-alt-5,5-(2,5-di(thien-2-yl)thieno [3,2-b] thiophene)] (DPP-DTT) is formulated and inkjet-printed onto the channel. The performances of inkjet-printed, coplanar devices are compared to those of transistors whose gate electrode consists in a metallic wire inserted in the electrolyte. Printed transistors show excellent electrical properties with field-effect mobility as high as 0.04 cm(2) V-1 s(-1). The electrical behavior of inkjet-printed, coplanar devices is also modeled using the Nernst-Planck-Poisson (NPP) equations, where the output and transfer curves are calculated based on the charge and potential distribution inside the device. Good quantitative agreement between the simulation and experiments is achieved, outlining the attainable use of NPP simulations as predictive tools for device design and optimization. To demonstrate an example of application, printed transistors are functionalized for the detection of complementary DNA strands. This study opens an avenue for the next generation of low-cost, flexible sensors and circuits, both through experimental studies and device modeling.

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  • 13.
    Chondrogiannis, Georgios
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Reu, Pedro
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Hamedi, Mahiar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Paper-Based Bacterial Lysis Enables Sample-to-Answer Home-based DNA Testing2023In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 2201004-, article id 2201004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) is the gold standard for infectious disease diagnostics. Currently NAATs are mainly limited to centralized laboratories, while paper-based antigen tests are used for rapid home-based diagnostics. DNA extraction, the initial sample preparation step in NAATs, remains a bottleneck that hinders its development toward home-based kits. This step requires the use of compounds detrimental to the enzymes in downstream DNA amplification. Here, this work overcomes this bottleneck by immobilizing the enzyme achromopeptidase (ACP) on nitrocellulose, to both store and enable the separation of the enzymes from the other steps. This work provides proof-of-concept that immobilized ACP is effective at lysis and release of amplifiable DNA from gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis and enables the use of the lysate directly for DNA amplification, without the need for heat deactivation of the enzyme. This sample preparation method requires only incubation at 37 °C and mild agitation, which allows to implement it with fully disposable and affordable equipment. Consequently, this work enables to combine the paper-based DNA extraction method with the isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) followed by lateral flow detection to demonstrate a sample-to-answer NAAT packaged as an instrument free self-test kit expanding the capabilities of home-testing beyond antigen tests. 

  • 14. Conti, S.
    et al.
    Martínez-Domingo, C.
    Lay, M.
    Terés, L.
    Vilaseca, Fabiola
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Ramon, E.
    Nanopaper-Based Organic Inkjet-Printed Diodes2020In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rise of internet of things (IoTs) applications has led to the development of a new generation of light-weight, flexible, and cost-effective electronics. These devices and sensors have to be simultaneously easily replaceable and disposable while being environmentally sustainable. Thus, the introduction of new functionalized materials with mechanical flexibility that can be processed using large-area and facile fabrication methods (as, for example, printing technologies) has become a matter of great interest in the scientific community. In this context, cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) are renewable, affordable, robust, and nontoxic materials that are rapidly emerging as components for eco-friendly electronics. Their combination with conductive polymers (CPs) to obtain conductive nanopapers (CNPs) allows moving their functionality from just substrates to active components of the device. In this work, a route for the inkjet-printing of organic diodes is outlined. The proposed strategy is based on the use of CNPs as both substrates and bottom electrodes onto which insulator and organic semiconducting layers are deposited to fabricate novel diode structures. Remarkable rectification ratios of up to 1.2 × 103 at |3 V| and a current density up to 5.1 µA cm−2 are achieved. As a proof-of-concept of the potentiality of the approach for versatile, low-temperature, and disposable sensing applications, an NO2 gas sensor is presented. 

  • 15.
    Conti, Silvia
    et al.
    Univ Pisa, Italy; CSIC, Spain.
    Martinez-Domingo, Carme
    CSIC, Spain.
    Lay, Makara
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Teres, Lluis
    CSIC, Spain.
    Vilaseca, Fabiola
    Univ Girona, Spain; KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Ramon, Eloi
    CSIC, Spain.
    Nanopaper-Based Organic Inkjet-Printed Diodes2020In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 5, no 6, article id 1900773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rise of internet of things (IoTs) applications has led to the development of a new generation of light-weight, flexible, and cost-effective electronics. These devices and sensors have to be simultaneously easily replaceable and disposable while being environmentally sustainable. Thus, the introduction of new functionalized materials with mechanical flexibility that can be processed using large-area and facile fabrication methods (as, for example, printing technologies) has become a matter of great interest in the scientific community. In this context, cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) are renewable, affordable, robust, and nontoxic materials that are rapidly emerging as components for eco-friendly electronics. Their combination with conductive polymers (CPs) to obtain conductive nanopapers (CNPs) allows moving their functionality from just substrates to active components of the device. In this work, a route for the inkjet-printing of organic diodes is outlined. The proposed strategy is based on the use of CNPs as both substrates and bottom electrodes onto which insulator and organic semiconducting layers are deposited to fabricate novel diode structures. Remarkable rectification ratios of up to 1.2 x 10(3) at |3 V| and a current density up to 5.1 mu A cm(-2) are achieved. As a proof-of-concept of the potentiality of the approach for versatile, low-temperature, and disposable sensing applications, an NO2 gas sensor is presented.

  • 16.
    Diacci, Chiara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lee, Jee Woong
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Janson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dufil, Gwennael
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Méhes, Gábor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Real-Time Monitoring of Glucose Export from Isolated Chloroplasts Using an Organic Electrochemical Transistor2020In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 5, no 3, article id 1900262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biosensors based on organic electrochemical transistors (OECT) are attractive devices for real-time monitoring of biological processes. The direct coupling between the channel of the OECT and the electrolyte enables intimate interfacing with biological environments at the same time bringing signal amplification and fast sensor response times. So far, these devices are mainly applied to mammalian systems; cells or body fluids for the development of diagnostics and various health status monitoring technology. Yet, no direct detection of biomolecules from cells or organelles is reported. Here, an OECT glucose sensor applied to chloroplasts, which are the plant organelles responsible for the light-to-chemical energy conversion of the photosynthesis, is reported. Real-time monitoring of glucose export from chloroplasts in two distinct metabolic phases is demonstrated and the transfer dynamics with a time resolution of 1 min is quantified, thus reaching monitoring dynamics being an order of magnitude better than conventional methods.

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  • 17.
    Filate, Tadele T.
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden; Department of Chemistry, Addis Ababa University, PO Box 33658, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Tang, Shi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Genene, Zewdneh
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Edman, Ludvig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Mammo, Wendimagegn
    Department of Chemistry, Addis Ababa University, PO Box 33658, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Wang, Ergang
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hydrophilic conjugated polymers for sustainable fabrication of deep-red light-emitting electrochemical cells2024In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 9, no 3, article id 2301696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is crucial to develop functional electronic materials that can be processed from green solvents to achieve environmentally sustainable and cost-efficient printing fabrication of organic electronic devices. Here, the design and cost-efficient synthesis of two hydrophilic and emissive conjugated polymers, TQ-OEG and TQ2F-OEG, are presented, which are rendered hydrophilic through the grafting of oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) solubilizing groups onto the thiophene-quinoxaline conjugated backbone and thereby can be processed from a water:ethanol solvent mixture. It is shown that the introduction of the OEG groups enables for a direct dissolution of salts by the neat polymer for the attainment of solid-state ion mobility. These properties are utilized for the design and development of light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs), the active materials of which can be solution cast from a water:ethanol-based ink. It is specifically shown that such an LEC device, comprising an optimized blend of the TQ2F-OEG emitter and a Li salt as the active material positioned between two air-stabile electrodes, delivers deep-red emission (peak wavelength = 670 nm) with a radiance of 185 µW m−2 at a low drive voltage of 2.3 V. This study contributes relevant information as to how polymers and LEC devices can be designed and fabricated to combine functionality with sustainability.

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  • 18.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jung, Young Hoon
    Korea Adv Inst Sci & Technol KAIST, South Korea.
    Han, Jae Hyun
    Korea Adv Inst Sci & Technol KAIST, South Korea.
    Joe, Daniel Juhyung
    Korea Res Inst Stand & Sci KRISS, South Korea.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lee, Keon Jae
    Korea Adv Inst Sci & Technol KAIST, South Korea.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Autonomous Microcapillary Drug Delivery System Self-Powered by a Flexible Energy Harvester2021In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 6, no 11, article id 2100526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Implantable bioelectronic devices pave the way for novel biomedical applications operating at high spatiotemporal resolution, which is crucial for neural recording and stimulation, drug delivery, and brain-machine interfaces. Before successful long-term implantation and clinical applications, these devices face a number of challenges, such as mechanical and operational stability, biocompatibility, miniaturization, and powering. To address two of these crucial challenges-miniaturization and powering-the development and characterization of an electrophoretic drug delivery device, manufactured inside fused quartz fibers (outer diameter of 125 mu m), which is self-powered by a flexible piezoelectric energy harvester, are reported. The resulting device-the first integration of piezoelectric charging with "iontronic" delivery-exhibits a high delivery efficiency (number of neurotransmitters delivered per charges applied) and a direct correlation between the piezoelectric charging and the amount delivered (number of dynamic bends versus pmols delivered).

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  • 19.
    Glowacki, Eric
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Warsaw Univ Technol, Poland.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Khodagholy, Dion
    Columbia Univ, NY 10027 USA.
    Bioelectronics Research Reaches New Heights2020In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 5, no 3, article id 2000106Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 20.
    Huniade, Claude
    et al.
    Univ Borås, Sweden.
    Melling, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vancaeyzeele, Cedric
    CY Cergy Paris Univ, France.
    Nguyen, Giao T-M
    CY Cergy Paris Univ, France.
    Vidal, Frederic
    CY Cergy Paris Univ, France.
    Plesse, Cedric
    CY Cergy Paris Univ, France.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bashir, Tariq
    Univ Borås, Sweden.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Univ Borås, Sweden.
    Ionofibers: Ionically Conductive Textile Fibers for Conformal i-Textiles2022In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 7, no 10, article id 2101692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the rise of ion-based devices using soft ionic conductors, ionotronics show the importance of matching electronic and biological interfaces. Since textiles are conformal, an essential property for matching interfaces, light-weight and comfortable, they present as an ideal candidate for a new generation of ionotronics, i-textiles. As fibers are the building blocks of textiles, ionically conductive fibers, named ionofibers, are needed. However, ionofibers are not yet demonstrated to fulfill the fabric manufacturing requirements such as mechanical robustness and upscaled production. Considering that ionogels are known to be conformal films with high ionic conductivity, ionofibers are produced from commercial core yarns with specifically designed ionogel precursor solution via a continuous dip-coating process. These ionofibers are to be regarded as composites, which keep the morphology and improve the mechanical properties from the core yarns while adding the (ionic) conductive function. They keep their conductivity also after their integration into conformal fabrics; thus, an upscaled production is a likely outlook. The findings offer promising perspectives for i-textiles with enhanced textile properties and in-air electrochemical applications.

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  • 21.
    Huniade, Claude
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. The Swedish School of Textiles.
    Melling, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vancaeyzeele, Cédric
    CY Cergy Paris Université, Institut des Matériaux.
    Nguyen, Tran-Minh Giao
    CY Cergy Paris Université, Institut des Matériaux.
    Vidal, Frédéric
    CY Cergy Paris Université, Institut des Matériaux.
    Plesse, Cédric
    CY Cergy Paris Université, Institut des Matériaux.
    Jager, Edwin W. H.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. The Swedish School of Textiles.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. The Swedish School of Textiles.
    Ionofibers: Ionically Conductive Textile Fibers for Conformal i-Textiles2022In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the rise of ion-based devices using soft ionic conductors, ionotronics show the importance of matching electronic and biological interfaces. Since textiles are conformal, an essential property for matching interfaces, light-weight and comfortable, they present as an ideal candidate for a new generation of ionotronics, i-textiles. As fibers are the building blocks of textiles, ionically conductive fibers, named ionofibers, are needed. However, ionofibers are not yet demonstrated to fulfill the fabric manufacturing requirements such as mechanical robustness and upscaled production. Considering that ionogels are known to be conformal films with high ionic conductivity, ionofibers are produced from commercial core yarns with specifically designed ionogel precursor solution via a continuous dip-coating process. These ionofibers are to be regarded as composites, which keep the morphology and improve the mechanical properties from the core yarns while adding the (ionic) conductive function. They keep their conductivity also after their integration into conformal fabrics; thus, an upscaled production is a likely outlook. The findings offer promising perspectives for i-textiles with enhanced textile properties and in-air electrochemical applications.

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  • 22.
    Ismailova, Esma
    et al.
    Ecole Natl Super Mines, France.
    Cramer, Tobias
    Univ Bologna, Italy.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Special Issue on "Electronic Textiles"2018In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 3, no 10, article id 1800195Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue on electronic textiles was planned together with Wiley and the European Materials Research Society (E‐MRS) by the organizers of Symposium J “Electronic textiles” at the E‐MRS Spring 2017 meeting in Strasbourg, France. Advanced Materials Technologies is new to the Advanced Materials series at Wiley and focuses specifically on “advanced device design, fabrication and integration, as well as new technologies based on novel materials”. We thus see the journal as an ideal venue for this special issue on this emerging field....

  • 23. Jadhav, S.
    et al.
    Pham, H. D.
    Padwal, C.
    Chougale, M.
    Brown, C.
    Motta, N.
    Ostrikov, K.
    Bae, J.
    Dubal, D.
    Enhancing Mechanical Energy Transfer of Piezoelectric Supercapacitors2021In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The expected widespread use of wearable and other low-power healthcare devices has triggered great interest in piezoelectric materials as a promising energy harvester. However, traditional piezoelectric materials suffer from poor interfacial energy transfer when used in self-charging power cells. Herein, piezoelectric supercapacitors (PSCs) are engineered using MXene-incorporated polymeric piezo separator and MXene (Ti3C2Tx) multilayered sheets as electrodes. The MXene-blended polymer film showed considerable improvement with maximum output voltage of 28 V and current of 1.71 µA. The electromechanical properties studied by piezoelectric force microscopy suggest that the integration of MXene in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) matrix induces the degree of dipole moment alignment, thereby improving the piezoelectric properties of PVDF. At the device level, the PSC featured the capacitance of 61 mF cm–2, the energy density of 24.9 mJ cm−2, the maximum power density of 1.3 mW cm−3, and the excellent long-term cycling stability. A way is paved toward green, integrated energy harvesting and storing technology for next-generation self-powered implantable and wearable electronics. © 2021 Wiley-VCH GmbH

  • 24.
    Janson, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lee, Keon Jae
    Korea Adv Inst Sci and Technol, South Korea.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    An Ionic Capacitor for Integrated Iontronic Circuits2019In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 4, no 4, article id 1800494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electronics, in combination with custom polyelectrolytes, enables solid- and hydrogel-state circuit components using ionic charges in place of the electrons of traditional electronics. This growing field of iontronics leverages anion- and cation-exchange membranes as analogs to n-type and p-type semiconductors, and conjugated polymer electrodes as ion-to-electron converters. To date, the iontronics toolbox includes ionic resistors, ionic diodes, ionic transistors, and analog and digital circuits comprised thereof. Here, an ionic capacitor based on mixed electron-ion conductors is demonstrated. The ionic capacitor resembles the structure of a conventional electrochemical capacitor that is inverted, with an electronically conducting core and two electrolyte ionic conductors. The device is first verified as a capacitor, and then demonstrated as a smoothing element in an iontronic diode bridge circuit driving an organic electronic ion pump (ionic resistor). The ionic capacitor complements the existing iontronics toolbox, enabling more complex and functional ionic circuits, and will thus have implications in a variety of mixed electron-ion conduction technologies.

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  • 25. Ji, Z.
    et al.
    Wan, Y.
    Zhao, Z.
    Wang, Teng
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Neuronic Engineering.
    Yu, M.
    Wang, H.
    Fan, S.
    Liu, Z.
    Liu, C.
    Polydopamine and Magnesium Ions Loaded 3D-Printed Ti-6Al-4V Implants Coating with Enhanced Osteogenesis and Antibacterial Abilities2022In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 7, no 12, article id 2200598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    3D printing has been applied in the fabrication of Ti-6Al-4V implants due to its high processing efficiency and flexibility. However, the biological inertness of 3D-printed Ti-6Al-4V implant surface limits its further clinical application. This paper aims to improve the biocompatibility of 3D-printed Ti-6Al-4V implants through multi-scale composite structure and bioactive coating. The samples are prepared by selective laser melting (SLM). The multi-scale composite structure is constructed by acid etching and anodic oxidation, and then the bioactive coating is added by hydrothermal treatment. The results indicate that acid etching removes the residuals on the surface and builds micron-/sub-micron structures. Anodic oxidation superimposes TiO2 nanotube arrays with a diameter of ≈80 nm, forming the multi-scale composite structure. The polydopamine-magnesium ion coating is added by hydrothermal treatment on the basis of retaining the multi-scale composite structure. After modification, the surface wettability and corrosion resistance are improved, and the roughness is slightly reduced. Regarding the biocompatibility of the modified 3D-printed Ti-6Al-4V implant, its admirable osteogenic induction performance is verified on osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1). Also, the addition of magnesium ions achieves better antibacterial properties. The results provide new target points for the surface modification of 3D-printed Ti-6Al-4V implant to attain better clinical performance. 

  • 26.
    Last, Torben
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Pagliano, Simone
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Iordanidis, Theocharis Nikiforos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems. MedTechLabs, BioClinicum, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, SE-171 65, Sweden.
    Scaling toward Diminutive MEMS: Dust-Sized Spray Chips for Aerosolized Drug Delivery to the Lung2023In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 8, no 7, article id 2201260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The functional area of silicon-based microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices often occupies only a fraction of the actual silicon area of the chip. As the chip cost directly scales with the total chip area, there is an incentive to reduce the chip to the smallest possible size. However, handling such diminutive devices poses challenges that industry-standard packaging cannot solve. Here, the world's smallest spray nozzle chip for drug delivery to the lung is manufactured and packaged and how magnetic assembly combined with microfluidic glue fixation can overcome this barrier for diminutive MEMS devices is demonstrated. The spray nozzle chips have a circular footprint with a diameter of 280 µm and feature a nickel coating on their conical sidewall, allowing magnetic manipulation. The chips are assembled and sealed into plastic substrates using a three-step gluing process guided by capillary action and activated by heat. Assembly speeds of up to 147 chips per minute are demonstrated and fabrication to packaging and functional operation of this device is shown for the target application.

  • 27.
    Lay, Makara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. INM Leibniz Inst New Mat, Germany.
    Say, Mehmet Girayhan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Direct Ink Writing of Nanocellulose and PEDOT:PSS for Flexible Electronic Patterned and Supercapacitor Papers2023In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 8, no 18, article id 2300652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Printed electronic paper identifies its interest in flexible organic electronics and sustainable and clean energy applications because of its straightforward production method, cost-effectiveness, and positive environmental impact. However, current limitations include restricted material thickness and the use of supporting substrate for printing. Here, 2D and 3D electronic patterned paper are fabricated from direct ink writing (DIW) nanocellulose and PEDOT:PSS-based materials using syringe deposition and 3D printing. The conductor patterns are integrated in the bulk of the paper, while non-conductive sections are used as support to form free-standing paper. The strong interface between the patterns of electronic patterned paper gives mechanical stability for practical handling. The conductive paper-based electrode has 202 S cm(-1) and is capable of handling electric current up to 0.7 A, which can be used for high-power devices. Printed supercapacitor papers show high specific energy of 4.05 Wh kg(-1), specific power of 4615 W kg(-1) at 0.06 A g(-1), and capacitance retention above 95% after 2000 cycles. The new design structure of electronic patterned papers presents a solution for additive manufacturing of paper-based composites for supercapacitors, wearable electronics, or sensors for smart packaging.

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  • 28.
    Lienemann, Samuel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Donahue, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zötterman, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Farnebo, Simon
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Soft and Stretchable Multielectrode Cuff for Selective Peripheral Nerve Stimulation2023In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 8, no 6, article id 2201322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioelectronic medicine can treat diseases and disorders in humans by electrically interfacing with peripheral nerves. Multielectrode cuffs can be used for selective stimulation of portions of the nerve, which is advantageous for treatment specificity. The biocompatibility and conformability of cuffs can be improved by reducing the mechanical mismatch between nerve tissue and cuffs, but selective stimulation of nerves has yet to be achieved with soft and stretchable cuff electrodes. Here, this paper reports the development of a soft and stretchable multielectrode cuff (sMEC) for selective nerve stimulation. The device is made of 50 mu m thick silicone with embedded gold nanowire conductors, which renders it functional at 50% strain, and provides superior conformability for wrapping nerves. By using different stimulation protocols, high functional selectivity is achieved with the sMECs eight stimulation electrodes in a porcine sciatic nerve model. Finite element modeling is used to predict the potential distribution within the nerve, which correlate well with the achieved stimulation results. Recent studies are showing that mechanical softness is of outermost importance for reducing foreign body response. It is therefore believed that the soft high-performance sMEC technology is ideal for future selective peripheral nerve interfaces for bioelectronic medicine.

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  • 29.
    Liu, Lianlian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Lei
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Solin, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Quinones from Biopolymers and Small Molecules Milled into Graphite Electrodes2022In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 7, no 2, article id 2001042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The redox reactions of quinones can be used in electrical energy storage systems. Biopolymers are one of the important sources for quinones due to sustainability and low cost. In this work, biomass materials that contain a large fraction of potential quinone groups are used to directly fabricate biomass/graphite hybrid material electrodes, without extraction or separation of the redox active components from other elements. Among these biomass electrodes based on barks, the bark from holm oak (Quercus ilex) and graphite hybrid electrode exhibits a discharge capacity of 20 mAh g(-1), with 68% capacity retention after 1000 cycles. Moreover, various quinone chemicals from the biological world are used to generate the quinone/graphite hybrid material electrodes that display higher quinone loadings at the carbon electrodes. The alizarin/graphite hybrid material electrode presents a capacity of 70 mAh g(-1), which is approximate to 30 times higher than that of the graphite electrode. It is demonstrated that barks and quinones are capable of exfoliating graphite into few-layer graphene sheets with reduced crystallite size. Processing into electrodes is facilitated by the use of another biopolymer, proteins in the form of misfolded protein fibrils, which also help to improve the available charge in electrodes formed from biomass or quinones.

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  • 30.
    Lund, Anja
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Darabi, Sozan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hultmark, Sandra
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ryan, Jason D.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson, Barbro
    Göteborgs Hemslöjdsförening, Sweden.
    Ström, Anna
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Müller, Christian
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Roll‐to‐Roll Dyed Conducting Silk Yarns: A Versatile Material for E‐Textile Devices2018In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 3, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Makhinia, Anatolii
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. RISE Res Inst Sweden Digital Syst Smart Hardware, Sweden.
    Azizian, Pooya
    Leitat Technol Ctr, Spain; Tech Univ Catalonia, Spain.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Res Inst Sweden Digital Syst Smart Hardware, Sweden.
    Casals-Terre, Jasmina
    Tech Univ Catalonia, Spain.
    Cabot, Joan M.
    Leitat Technol Ctr, Spain.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Res Inst Sweden Digital Syst Smart Hardware, Sweden.
    On-Demand Inkjet Printed Hydrophilic Coatings for Flow Control in 3D-Printed Microfluidic Devices Embedded with Organic Electrochemical Transistors2023In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 8, no 15, article id 2300127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microfluidic surface chemistry can enable control of capillary-driven flow without the need for bulky external instrumentation. A novel pondered nonhomogeneous coating defines regions with different wetting properties on the microchannel walls. It changes the curvature of the liquid-air meniscus at various channel cross-sections and consequently leads to different capillary pressures, which is favorable in the strive toward automatic flow control. This is accomplished by the deposition of hydrophilic coatings on the surface of multilevel 3D-printed (3DP) microfluidic devices via inkjet printing, thereby retaining the surface hydrophilicity for at least 6 months of storage. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of capillary flow control in 3DP microfluidics enabled by inkjet printing. The method is used to create "stop" and "delay" valves to enable preprogrammed capillary flow for sequential release of fluids. To demonstrate further utilization in point-of-care sensing applications, screen printed organic electrochemical transistors are integrated within the microfluidic chips to sense, sequentially and independently from external actions, chloride anions in the (1-100) x 10(-3) m range. The results present a cost-effective fabrication method of compact, yet comprehensive, all-printed sensing platforms that allow fast ion detection (<60 s), including the capability of automatic delivery of multiple test solutions.

  • 32.
    Makhinia, Anatolii
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Azizian, Pooya
    Leitat Technological Center, Spain; Technical University of Catalonia, Spain.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Casals-Terré, Jasmina
    Technical University of Catalonia, Spain.
    Cabot, Joan
    Leitat Technological Center, Spain.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    On-Demand Inkjet Printed Hydrophilic Coatings for Flow Control in 3D-Printed Microfluidic Devices Embedded with Organic Electrochemical Transistors2023In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 8, no 15, article id 2300127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microfluidic surface chemistry can enable control of capillary-driven flow without the need for bulky external instrumentation. A novel pondered nonhomogeneous coating defines regions with different wetting properties on the microchannel walls. It changes the curvature of the liquid–air meniscus at various channel cross-sections and consequently leads to different capillary pressures, which is favorable in the strive toward automatic flow control. This is accomplished by the deposition of hydrophilic coatings on the surface of multilevel 3D-printed (3DP) microfluidic devices via inkjet printing, thereby retaining the surface hydrophilicity for at least 6 months of storage. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of capillary flow control in 3DP microfluidics enabled by inkjet printing. The method is used to create “stop” and “delay” valves to enable preprogrammed capillary flow for sequential release of fluids. To demonstrate further utilization in point-of-care sensing applications, screen printed organic electrochemical transistors are integrated within the microfluidic chips to sense, sequentially and independently from external actions, chloride anions in the (1–100) × 10−3 m range. The results present a cost-effective fabrication method of compact, yet comprehensive, all-printed sensing platforms that allow fast ion detection (<60 s), including the capability of automatic delivery of multiple test solutions. © 2023 The Authors. 

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  • 33.
    Makhinia, Anatolii
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Hübscher, Kathrin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    High Performance Organic Electrochemical Transistors and Logic Circuits Manufactured via a Combination of Screen and Aerosol Jet Printing Techniques2022In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 7, no 10, article id 2200153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work demonstrates a novel fabrication approach based on the combination of screen and aerosol jet printing to manufacture fully printed organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) and OECT-based logic circuits on PET substrates with superior performances. The use of aerosol jet printing allows for a reduction of the channel width to ≈15 µm and the estimated volume by a factor of ≈40, compared to the fully screen printed OECTs. Hence, the OECT devices and OECT-based logic circuits fabricated with the proposed approach emerge with a high ON/OFF ratio (103–104) and remarkably fast switching response, reaching an ON/OFF ratio of &gt;103 in 4–8 ms, which is further demonstrated by a propagation delay time of just above 1 ms in OECT-based logic inverter circuits operated at a frequency of 100 Hz. All-printed monolithically integrated OECT-based five-stage ring oscillator circuits further validated the concept with a resulting self-oscillation frequency of 60 Hz. © 2022 The Authors.

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  • 34.
    Makhinia, Anatolii
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems – Smart Hardware – Printed, Bio- and Organic Electronics, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Hübscher, Kathrin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems – Smart Hardware – Printed, Bio- and Organic Electronics, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems – Smart Hardware – Printed, Bio- and Organic Electronics, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter K
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems – Smart Hardware – Printed, Bio- and Organic Electronics, Norrköping, Sweden.
    High Performance Organic Electrochemical Transistors and Logic Circuits Manufactured via a Combination of Screen and Aerosol Jet Printing Techniques2022In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 7, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work demonstrates a novel fabrication approach based on the combination of screen and aerosol jet printing to manufacture fully printed organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) and OECT-based logic circuits on PET substrates with superior performances. The use of aerosol jet printing allows for a reduction of the channel width to ≈15 µm and the estimated volume by a factor of ≈40, compared to the fully screen printed OECTs. Hence, the OECT devices and OECT-based logic circuits fabricated with the proposed approach emerge with a high ON/OFF ratio (103?104) and remarkably fast switching response, reaching an ON/OFF ratio of >103 in 4?8 ms, which is further demonstrated by a propagation delay time of just above 1 ms in OECT-based logic inverter circuits operated at a frequency of 100 Hz. All-printed monolithically integrated OECT-based five-stage ring oscillator circuits further validated the concept with a resulting self-oscillation frequency of 60 Hz.

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  • 35.
    Mehraeen, Shayan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Asadi, Milad
    Univ Boras, Sweden.
    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Univ Boras, Sweden.
    Stålhand, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effect of Core Yarn on Linear Actuation of Electroactive Polymer Coated Yarn Actuators2023In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 8, no 18, article id 2300460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart textiles combine the features of conventional textiles with promising properties of smart materials such as electromechanically active polymers, resulting in textile actuators. Textile actuators comprise of individual yarn actuators, so understanding their electro-chemo-mechanical behavior is of great importance. Herein, this study investigates the effect of inherent structural and mechanical properties of commercial yarns, that form the core of the yarn actuators, on the linear actuation of the conducting-polymer-based yarn actuators. Commercial yarns were coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) to make them conductive. Then polypyrrole (PPy) that provides the electromechanical actuation is electropolymerized on the yarn surface under controlled conditions. The linear actuation of the yarn actuators is investigated in aqueous electrolyte under isotonic and isometric conditions. The yarn actuators generated an isotonic strain up to 0.99% and isometric force of 95 mN. The isometric strain achieved in this work is more than tenfold and threefold greater than the previously reported yarn actuators. The isometric actuation force shows an increase of nearly 11-fold over our previous results. Finally, a qualitative mechanical model is introduced to describe the actuation behavior of yarn actuators. The strain and force created by the yarn actuators make them promising candidates for wearable actuator technologies.

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  • 36.
    Mehraeen, Shayan
    et al.
    Sensor and Actuator Systems, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping, SE-581 83 Sweden.
    Asadi, Milad
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Martinez, Jose. G.
    Sensor and Actuator Systems, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping, SE-581 83 Sweden.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Stålhand, Jonas
    Department of Management and Engineering (IEI), Solid Mechanics, Linköping University, Linköping, SE-581 83 Sweden.
    Jager, Edwin W. H.
    Sensor and Actuator Systems, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping, SE-581 83 Sweden.
    Effect of Core Yarn on Linear Actuation of Electroactive Polymer Coated Yarn Actuators2023In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, article id 2300460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart textiles combine the features of conventional textiles with promising properties of smart materials such as electromechanically active polymers, resulting in textile actuators. Textile actuators comprise of individual yarn actuators, so understanding their electro-chemo-mechanical behavior is of great importance. Herein, this study investigates the effect of inherent structural and mechanical properties of commercial yarns, that form the core of the yarn actuators, on the linear actuation of the conducting-polymer-based yarn actuators. Commercial yarns were coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) to make them conductive. Then polypyrrole (PPy) that provides the electromechanical actuation is electropolymerized on the yarn surface under controlled conditions. The linear actuation of the yarn actuators is investigated in aqueous electrolyte under isotonic and isometric conditions. The yarn actuators generated an isotonic strain up to 0.99% and isometric force of 95 mN. The isometric strain achieved in this work is more than tenfold and threefold greater than the previously reported yarn actuators. The isometric actuation force shows an increase of nearly 11-fold over our previous results. Finally, a qualitative mechanical model is introduced to describe the actuation behavior of yarn actuators. The strain and force created by the yarn actuators make them promising candidates for wearable actuator technologies. © 2023 The Authors. Advanced Materials Technologies published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.

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  • 37.
    Mondal, Rajib
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing Inst Nanoenergy & Nanosyst, Beijing Key Lab Micronano Energy & Sensor, CAS Ctr Excellence Nanosci, Beijing 101400, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Sch Nanosci & Technol, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China..
    Hasan, Md Al Mahadi
    Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing Inst Nanoenergy & Nanosyst, Beijing Key Lab Micronano Energy & Sensor, CAS Ctr Excellence Nanosci, Beijing 101400, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Sch Nanosci & Technol, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Yang, Ya
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences. Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing Inst Nanoenergy & Nanosyst, Beijing Key Lab Micronano Energy & Sensor, CAS Ctr Excellence Nanosci, Beijing 101400, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Sch Nanosci & Technol, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China.; Guangxi Univ, Sch Phys Sci & Technol, Ctr Nanoenergy Res, Nanning 530004, Peoples R China..
    Nanogenerators-Based Self-Powered Sensors2022In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 7, no 12, article id 2200282Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the rapid technological development, self-powered sensor systems that are capable of operating without an external power supply are becoming more and more crucial in the field of sensing and detection. One of the major drawbacks of a typical sensor is the necessity of an external power supply or batteries, which makes sensor systems more complex and less handy for mobile devices. In the last decade's improvement of triboelectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric, and thermoelectric nanogenerators and their performance in electrical output and mechanical stability, it becomes widely used in the field of self-power sensing systems for healthcare, mechanical and environmental applications. Here in this review, the various types of nanogenerators working principles is first discussed, the output performance is analyzed, and then their recent progress in the application of self-powered sensor systems, including biomedical and healthcare, wearable devices, physical applications, robotics, environmental monitoring, and smart cities, is highlighted. Except for the practical application of self-powered sensors, a future outlook of the self-powered sensor systems is prognosticated.

  • 38.
    Nechyporchuk, Oleksandr
    et al.
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Div Mat & Prod, POB 104, SE-43122 Mölndal, Sweden..
    Hakansson, Karl M. O.
    RISE Bioecon, POB 5604, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gowda, V. Krishne
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Hagstrom, Bengt
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Div Mat & Prod, POB 104, SE-43122 Mölndal, Sweden..
    Kohnke, Tobias
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Div Mat & Prod, POB 104, SE-43122 Mölndal, Sweden..
    Continuous Assembly of Cellulose Nanofibrils and Nanocrystals into Strong Macrofibers through Microfluidic Spinning2019In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 4, no 2, article id 1800557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microfluidic fiber spinning is a promising technique for assembling cellulose nanomaterials into macroscopic fibers. However, its implementation requires upscalabe fabrication processes while maintaining high strength of the fibers, which could not be previously achieved. Herein, a continuous wet spinning process based on microfluidic flow focusing is developed to produce strong fibers from cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and nanocrystals (CNCs). Fibers with an average breaking tenacity as high as 29.5 cN tex(-1) and Young's modulus of 1146 cN tex(-1) are reported for the first time, produced from nonhighly purified CNF grades. Using the same developed method, wet spinning of fibers from CNCs is achieved for the first time, reaching an average Young's modulus of 1263 cN tex(-1) and a breaking tenacity of 10.6 cN tex(-1), thus exhibiting strength twice as high as that of common CNC films. A rather similar stiffness of CNC and CNF spun fibers may originate from similar degrees of alignment, as confirmed by wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and birefringence measurements, whereas lower strength may primarily arise from the shorter length of CNCs compared to that of CNFs. The benefit of CNCs is their higher solids content in the dopes. By combining both CNCs and CNFs, the fiber properties can be tuned.

  • 39.
    Nechyporchuk, Oleksandr
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Håkansson, Karl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Gowda.V, Krishne
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Continuous Assembly of Cellulose Nanofibrils and Nanocrystals into Strong Macrofibers through Microfluidic Spinning2018In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, article id 1800557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microfluidic fiber spinning is a promising technique for assembling cellulose nanomaterials into macroscopic fibers. However, its implementation requires upscalabe fabrication processes while maintaining high strength of the fibers, which could not be previously achieved. Herein, a continuous wet spinning process based on microfluidic flow focusing is developed to produce strong fibers from cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and nanocrystals (CNCs). Fibers with an average breaking tenacity as high as 29.5 cN tex−1 and Young's modulus of 1146 cN tex−1 are reported for the first time, produced from nonhighly purified CNF grades. Using the same developed method, wet spinning of fibers from CNCs is achieved for the first time, reaching an average Young's modulus of 1263 cN tex−1 and a breaking tenacity of 10.6 cN tex−1, thus exhibiting strength twice as high as that of common CNC films. A rather similar stiffness of CNC and CNF spun fibers may originate from similar degrees of alignment, as confirmed by wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and birefringence measurements, whereas lower strength may primarily arise from the shorter length of CNCs compared to that of CNFs. The benefit of CNCs is their higher solids content in the dopes. By combining both CNCs and CNFs, the fiber properties can be tuned.

  • 40.
    Oikonomou, Vasileios
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dreier, Till
    Lund Univ, Sweden; Excillum AB, Sweden.
    Sandéhn, Alexandra
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mohammadi, Mohsen
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Christensen, Jakob Lonborg
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dahl, Anders Bjorholm
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Dahl, Vedrana Andersen
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Bech, Martin
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Elucidating the Bulk Morphology of Cellulose-Based Conducting Aerogels with X-Ray Microtomography2023In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 8, no 23, article id 2300550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conducting cellulose composites are promising sustainable functional materials that have found application in energy devices, sensing and water purification. Herein, conducting aerogels are fabricated based on nanofibrillated cellulose and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate, using the ice templating technique, and their bulk morphology is characterized with X-ray microtomography. The freezing method (-20 degrees C in a freezer vs liquid nitrogen) does not impact the mean porosity of the aerogels but the liquid-N2 aerogels have smaller pores. The integration of carbon fibers as addressing electrodes prior to freezing results in increased mean porosity and pore size in the liquid-N2 aerogels signifying that the carbon fibers alter the morphology of the aerogels when the freezing is fast. Spatially resolved porosity and pore size distributions also reveal that the liquid-N2 aerogels are more inhomogeneous. Independent of the freezing method, the aerogels have similar electrochemical properties. For aerogels without carbon fibers, freezer-aerogels have higher compression modulus and are less stable under cycling compression fatigue test. This can be explained by higher porosity with larger pores in the center of liquid-N2 aerogels and thinner pore walls. This work demonstrates that micro-CT is a powerful tool for characterizing the morphology of aerogels in a non-destructive and spatially resolved manner. Conducting aerogels based on nanofibrillated cellulose and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate are fabricated with the ice templating technique and their bulk morphology is characterized in a spatially resolved manner with X-ray microtomography. The effect of the freezing temperature and the integration of carbon fibers electrodes prior to freezing on the morphology, mechanical, and electrochemical properties is examined.

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  • 41.
    Pagliano, Simone
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Schröder, Stephan
    Senseair AB, Research Department, Färögatan 33, Kista, Stockholm, 16451, Sweden, Färögatan 33, Kista.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    3D Printing by Two-Photon Polymerization of Polyimide Objects and Demonstration of a 3D-printed Micro-Hotplate2023In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 8, no 19, article id 2300229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyimides are polymeric materials with outstanding thermal, chemical, and mechanical properties. For this reason, they find applications in several engineering sectors, including aerospace, microsystems, and biomedical applications. For realizing 3D structures made of polyimides, 3D printing is an attractive technique because it overcomes the limitations of polyimide processing using conventional manufacturing techniques such as molding and subtractive manufacturing. However, current polyimide 3D printing approaches are limited to realizing objects with the smallest dimensions of the order of a few hundred micrometers. 3D printing of polyimide objects featuring sub-micrometer resolution using two-photon polymerization by direct laser writing is demonstrated here. A negative photosensitive polyimide is applied that is widely used in microsystems applications. To demonstrate the utility of this polyimide 3D printing approach and the compatibility of the 3D objects with operation at elevated temperatures, a micro-hotplate is 3D printed and characterized at operating temperatures of above 300 °C.

  • 42.
    Parizkova, Barbora
    et al.
    Palacky Univ, Czech Republic; Czech Acad Sci, Czech Republic; Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Antoniadi, Ioanna
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Poxson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karady, Michal
    Palacky Univ, Czech Republic; Czech Acad Sci, Czech Republic.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zatloukal, Marek
    Palacky Univ, Czech Republic.
    Strnad, Miroslav
    Palacky Univ, Czech Republic; Czech Acad Sci, Czech Republic.
    Dolezal, Karel
    Palacky Univ, Czech Republic; Czech Acad Sci, Czech Republic; Palacky Univ, Czech Republic.
    Novak, Ondrej
    Palacky Univ, Czech Republic; Czech Acad Sci, Czech Republic; Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Ljung, Karin
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    iP & OEIP - Cytokinin Micro Application Modulates Root Development with High Spatial Resolution2022In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 7, no 10, article id 2101664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    State-of-the-art technology based on organic electronics can be used as a flow-free delivery method for organic substances with high spatial resolution. Such highly targeted drug micro applications can be used in plant research for the regulation of physiological processes on tissue and cellular levels. Here, for the first time, an organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) is reported that can transport an isoprenoid-type cytokinin, N-6-isopentenyladenine (iP), to intact plants. Cytokinins (CKs) are plant hormones involved in many essential physiological processes, including primary root (PR) and lateral root (LR) development. Using the Arabidopsis thaliana root as a model system, efficient iP delivery is demonstrated with a biological output - cytokinin-related PR and LR growth inhibition. The spatial resolution of iP delivery, defined for the first time for an organic compound, is shown to be less than 1 mm, exclusively affecting the OEIP-targeted LR. Results from the application of the high-resolution OIEP treatment method confirm previously published findings showing that the influence of CKs may vary at different stages of LR development. Thus, OEIP-based technologies offer a novel, electronically controlled method for phytohormone delivery that could contribute to unraveling cytokinin functions during different developmental processes with high specificity.

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  • 43.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    et al.
    Univ Boras, Sweden.
    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhong, Yong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Maziz, Ali
    Univ Toulouse, France.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Actuating Textiles: Next Generation of Smart Textiles2018In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 3, no 10, article id 1700397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart textiles have been around for some decades. Even if interactivity is central to most definitions, the emphasis so far has been on the stimuli/input side, comparatively little has been reported on the responsive/output part. This study discusses the actuating, mechanical, output side in what could be called a second generation of smart textiles-this in contrast to a first generation of smart textiles devoted to sensorics. This mini review looks at recent progress within the area of soft actuators and what from there that is of relevance for smart textiles. It is found that typically still forces exerted are small, so are strains for many of the actuators types (such as electroactive polymers) that could be considered for textile integration. On the other side, it is argued that for many classes of soft actuators-and, in the extension, soft robotics-textiles could play an important role. The potential of weaving for stress and knitting for strain amplification is shown. Textile processing enables effective production, as is analyzed. Textile systems are made showing automatic actuation asked for in stand-alone solutions. It is envisioned that soft exoskeletons could be an achievable goal for this second generation of smart textiles.

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  • 44.
    Phelipot, Jonathan
    et al.
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Ledos, Nicolas
    Univ Rennes, France.
    Dombray, Thomas
    Univ Rennes, France.
    Duffy, Matthew P.
    Univ Rennes, France.
    Denis, Mathieu
    Univ Rennes, France.
    Wang, Ting
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Didane, Yahia
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Gaceur, Meriem
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Bao, Qinye
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Delugas, Pietro
    Ist Off Mat CNR IOM Cagliari, Italy.
    Mattoni, Alessandro
    Ist Off Mat CNR IOM Cagliari, Italy.
    Tondelier, Denis
    IP Paris, France.
    Geffroy, Bernard
    IP Paris, France; Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Bouit, Pierre-Antoine
    Univ Rennes, France.
    Margeat, Olivier
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Ackermann, Joerg
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Hissler, Muriel
    Univ Rennes, France.
    Highly Emissive Layers based on Organic/Inorganic Nanohybrids Using Aggregation Induced Emission Effect2022In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 2100876Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluorescent nanohybrids, based on pi-extended hydroxyoxophosphole ligands grafted onto ZnO nanoparticles, are designed and studied. The restriction of the intramolecular motions of the organic fluorophore, through either aggregates formation in solution or processing into thin films, forms highly emissive materials due to a strong aggregation induced emission effect. Theoretical calculations and XPS analyses were performed to analyze the interactions between the organic and inorganic counterparts. Preliminary results on the use of these nanohybrids as solution-processed emissive layers in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) illustrate their potential for lighting applications.

  • 45. Pirozzi, I.
    et al.
    Kight, A.
    Liang, X.
    Han, A. K.
    Ennis, D. B.
    Hiesinger, W.
    Dual, Seraina A.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems.
    Cutkosky, M. R.
    Electrohydraulic Vascular Compression Device (e-VaC) with Integrated Sensing and Controls2023In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 2201196-, article id 2201196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Right ventricular (RV) failure remains a significant clinical burden particularly during the perioperative period surrounding major cardiac surgeries, such as implantation of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs), bypass procedures or valvular surgeries. Device solutions designed to support the function of the RV do not keep up with the pace of development of left-sided solutions, leaving the RV vulnerable to acute failure in the challenging hemodynamic environments of the perioperative setting. This work describes the design of a biomimetic, soft, conformable sleeve that can be prophylactically implanted on the pulmonary artery to support RV ventricular function during major cardiac surgeries, through afterload reduction and augmentation of flow. Leveraging electrohydraulic principles, a technology is proposed that is non-blood contacting and obviates the necessity for drivelines by virtue of being electrically powered. In addition, the integration of an adjacent is demonstrate, continuous pressure sensing module to support physiologically adaptive control schemes based on a real-time biological signal. In vitro experiments conducted in a pulsatile flow-loop replicating physiological flow and pressure conditions show a reduction of mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 8 mmHg (25% reduction), a reduction in peak systolic arterial pressure of up to 10 mmHg (20% reduction), and a concomitant 19% increase in diastolic pulmonary flow. Computational simulations further predict substantial augmentation of cardiac output as a result of reduced RV ventricular stress and RV dilatation. 

  • 46.
    Pirozzi, Ileana
    et al.
    Department of Bioengineering Stanford University Palo Alto 94301 USA.
    Kight, Ali
    Department of Bioengineering Stanford University Palo Alto 94301 USA.
    Shad, Rohan
    Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery Stanford University Palo Alto 94301 USA.
    Han, Amy Kyungwon
    Department of Mechanical Engineering Stanford University Palo Alto 94301 USA;Department of Mechanical Engineering Seoul National University Seoul 08826 Korea.
    Dual, Seraina A.
    Department of Radiology Stanford University Palo Alto 94301 USA.
    Fong, Robyn
    Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery Stanford University Palo Alto 94301 USA.
    Jia, Allison
    Department of Mechanical Engineering Stanford University Palo Alto 94301 USA.
    Hiesinger, William
    Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery Stanford University Palo Alto 94301 USA.
    Yock, Paul
    Department of Bioengineering Stanford University Palo Alto 94301 USA.
    Cutkosky, Mark
    Department of Mechanical Engineering Stanford University Palo Alto 94301 USA.
    RVEX: Right Ventricular External Device for Biomimetic Support and Monitoring of the Right Heart2022In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 7, no 8, p. 2101472-2101472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Right ventricular (RV) failure remains a significant burden for patients with advanced heart failure, especially after major cardiac surgeries such as implantation of left ventricular assist devices. Device solutions that can assist the complex biological function of heart muscle without the disadvantages of bulky designs and infection-prone drivelines remain an area of pressing clinical need, especially for the right ventricle. In addition, devices that incur contact between blood and artificial surfaces mandate long-term use of blood-thinning medications, carrying increased risks for the patients. This work describes the design of a biomimetic, elastic sleeve to support RV-specific motion via tuned regional mechanical properties. The RV external device (RVEX) in computational models as well as benchtop models and ex vivo (i.e., explanted heart) setups are evaluated to characterize the device and predict functional benefit. Additionally, long-term implantation potential is demonstrated in mice. Finally, the ability to sensorize the RVEX device to yield resistive self-sensing capabilities to continuously monitor ventricular deformation, as demonstrated in benchtop experiments and in live animal surgeries, is proposed.

  • 47.
    Riera-Galindo, Sergi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Leonardi, Francesca
    Inst Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB CSIC, Spain.
    Pfattner, Raphael
    Inst Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB CSIC, Spain.
    Mas-Torrent, Marta
    Inst Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB CSIC, Spain.
    Organic Semiconductor/Polymer Blend Films for Organic Field-Effect Transistors2019In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 4, no 9, article id 1900104Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of low-cost printed organic electronics entails the processing of active organic semiconductors (OSCs) through solution-based techniques. However, the preparation of large-area uniform and reproducible films based on OSC inks can be very challenging due to the low viscosity of their solutions, which causes dewetting problems, the low stability of OSC polymer solutions, or the difficulty in achieving appropriate crystal order. To circumvent this, a promising route is the use of blends of OSCs and insulating binding polymers. This approach typically gives rise to films with an enhanced crystallinity and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with significantly improved device performance. Recent progress in the fabrication of OFETs based on OSC/binding polymer inks is reviewed, highlighting the main morphological and structural features that play a major role in determining the final electrical properties and some future perspectives. Undoubtedly, the use of these types of blends results in more reliable and reproducible devices that can be fabricated on large areas and at low cost and, thus, this methodology brings great expectations for the implementation of OSCs in real-world applications.

  • 48.
    Ràfols-Ribé, Joan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Hänisch, Christian
    Dresden Integrated Center for Applied Physics and Photonic Materials (IAPP), Institute for Applied Physics, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.
    Larsen, Christian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. LunaLEC AB, Umeå, Sweden.
    Reineke, Sebastian
    Dresden Integrated Center for Applied Physics and Photonic Materials (IAPP), Institute for Applied Physics, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.
    Edman, Ludvig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. LunaLEC AB, Umeå, Sweden.
    In situ determination of the orientation of the emissive dipoles in light-emitting electrochemical cells2023In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 8, no 13, article id 2202120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The orientation of the emissive dipoles in thin-film devices is important since it strongly affects the light outcoupling and thereby the device emission efficiency. The light-emitting electrochemical cell (LEC) is particularly interesting in this context because its emissive dipoles are located in a high electric-field p-n junction, which is formed in situ by redistribution of bulky ions. This implies that the dipole orientation could be distinctly different in the driven LEC compared to the pristine device. This study develops the destructive-interference microcavity method for the accurate in situ determination of the orientation of the emissive dipoles during LEC operation and apply it on a common LEC device comprising an amorphous conjugated polymer termed Super Yellow as the emitter. It is found that ≈95% of the emissive dipoles are oriented in the horizontal direction with respect to the thin-film plane in both the pristine LEC and during steady-state light emission. This finding is attractive since it enables for efficient outcoupling of the generated photons, and interesting because it shows that a horizontal orientation of the emissive dipoles can remain despite the existence of a strong perpendicular electric field and the nearby motion of bulky ions during LEC operation.

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  • 49.
    Sahlberg, Arne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Nilsson, Frida
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Berglund, Albin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Nguyen, Hugo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Hjort, Klas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Jeong, Seung Hee
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    High-Resolution Liquid Alloy Patterning for Small Stretchable Strain Sensor Arrays2018In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 3, no 4, article id 1700330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soft material applied technology has in recent years become more advanced, enabling for, e.g., soft robotics, skin electronics, and wearable systems. Yet, the processing technology of soft materials has not been sufficiently developed to create high performance in soft and stretchable systems, as compared to the processing technology of conventional electronics or electromechanical systems. Liquid alloys have shown excellent properties for soft and stretchable electrical interconnectors and conductors, which is a basic building block to produce electric or electromechanical systems. In order to overcome the limited resolution of previously developed liquid alloy patterning methods for large-area printed circuits, this work explores the possibility of employing shrinking substrates. By utilizing the characteristics of liquid alloys and elastomers the pattern resolution is improved through a stretch-shrink patterning (SSP) process. The process provides highly conductive liquid conductors of high resolution and can be combined with existing printing techniques for liquid alloys. The SSP process increases design flexibility of soft and stretchable systems that use liquid alloys and enables designs with finer and denser patterns, and cost-effective production for small scale systems.

  • 50.
    Say, Mehmet Girayhan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sahalianov, Ihor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Brno Univ Technol, Czech Republic.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE Res Inst Sweden Digital Syst Smart Hardware, Sweden.
    Migliaccio, Ludovico
    Brno Univ Technol, Czech Republic.
    Glowacki, Eric D.
    Brno Univ Technol, Czech Republic.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Donahue, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ultrathin Paper Microsupercapacitors for Electronic Skin Applications2022In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 7, no 8, article id 2101420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrathin devices are rapidly developing for skin-compatible medical applications and wearable electronics. Powering skin-interfaced electronics requires thin and lightweight energy storage devices, where solution-processing enables scalable fabrication. To attain such devices, a sequential deposition is employed to achieve all spray-coated symmetric microsupercapacitors (mu SCs) on ultrathin parylene C substrates, where both electrode and gel electrolyte are based on the cheap and abundant biopolymer, cellulose. The optimized spraying procedure allows an overall device thickness of approximate to 11 mu m to be obtained with a 40% active material volume fraction and a resulting volumetric capacitance of 7 F cm(-3). Long-term operation capability (90% of capacitance retention after 10(4) cycles) and mechanical robustness are achieved (1000 cycles, capacitance retention of 98%) under extreme bending (rolling) conditions. Finite element analysis is utilized to simulate stresses and strains in real-sized mu SCs under different bending conditions. Moreover, an organic electrochromic display is printed and powered with two serially connected mu-SCs as an example of a wearable, skin-integrated, fully organic electronic application.

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