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  • 1.
    Ahmad, Shabir
    et al.
    Jeju National University, Jeju, South Korea.
    Hussain, Ishfaq
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Fayaz, Muhammad
    Jeju National University, Jeju, South Korea.
    Kim, Do-Hyeun
    Jeju National University, Jeju, South Korea.
    A Distributed Approach towards Improved Dissemination Protocol for Smooth Handover in MediaSense IoT Platform2018In: Processes, ISSN 2227-9717, Vol. 6, no 5, article id 46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the Internet has been utilized by many applications to convey time-sensitive messages. The persistently expanding Internet coverage and its easy accessibility have offered to ascend to a problem which was once regarded as not essential to contemplate. Nowadays, the Internet has been utilized by many applications to convey time-sensitive messages. Wireless access points have widely been used but these access points have limitations regarding area coverage. So for covering a wider space, various access points need to be introduced. Therefore, when the user moves to some other place, the devices expected to switch between access points. Packet loss amid the handovers is a trivial issue. MediaSense is an Internet of Things distributed architecture enabling the development of the IoT application faster. It deals with this trivial handover issue by utilizing a protocol called Distributed Context eXchange Protocol. However, this protocol is centralized in nature and also suffers in a scenario when both sender and receiver address change simultaneously. This paper presents a mechanism to deal with this scenario and presents a distributed solution to deal with this issue within the MediaSense platform. The proposed protocol improves dissemination using retransmission mechanism to diminish packet loss. The proposed protocol has been delineated with a proof of concept chat application and the outcomes have indicated a significant improvement in terms of packet loss.

  • 2.
    Frodeson, Stefan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Berghel, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Ståhl, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Granström, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Romlin, Carl
    Drinor AB, Karlstad.
    Thelander, Alexander
    Drinor AB, Karlstad,.
    The Potential for a Pellet Plant to Become a Biorefinery2019In: Processes, ISSN 2227-9717, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 1-11, article id 233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of bioenergy has increased globally in recent years, as has the utilization of biomaterials for various new product solutions through various biorefinery concepts. In this study, we introduce the concept of using a mechanical dewatering press in combination with thermal drying in a pellet plant. The purpose of the study is to increase the understanding of the effects a mechanical dewatering press has in a pellet production chain and investigate whether a pellet plant could thus become a biorefinery. The evaluations in this study are based on industrial data and initial tests at the university. The results show that the concept of using the mechanical dewatering press together with a packed moving bed dryer reduces energy use by 50%, compared to using only a packed moving bed dryer. The press water could be used as a raw material for biogas, bioplastics, and biohydrogen. Hence, this study points out the possibilities of a pellet plant increasing the efficiency of the drying step, while moving towards becoming a biorefinery.

  • 3.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Lund University.
    Rotor-stator mixers: from batch to continuous Mode of Operation—a review2018In: Processes, ISSN 2227-9717, Vol. 6, no 32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although continuous production processes are often desired, many processing industriesstill work in batch mode due to technical limitations. Transitioning to continuous production requires an in-depth understanding of how each unit operation is affected by the shift. This contribution reviews the scientific understanding of similarities and differences between emulsification in turbulent rotor-stator mixers (also known as high-speed mixers) operated in batch and continuous mode. Rotor-stator mixers are found in many chemical processing industries, and are considered the standard tool for mixing and emulsification of high viscosity products. Since the same rotor-stator heads are often used in both modes of operation, it is sometimes assumed that transitioning from batch to continuous rotor-stator mixers is straight-forward. However, this is not always the case, as has been shown in comparative experimental studies. This review summarizes and critically compares the current understanding of differences between these two operating modes, focusing on shaft power draw, pumping power, efficiency in producing a narrow region of high intensity turbulence, and implications for product quality differences when transitioning from batch to continuousrotor-stator mixers.

  • 4.
    Jafari, Mohammad
    et al.
    School of Mining Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Golzadeh, Mehdi
    Software Engineering Lab, University of Mons, Mons, Belgium.
    Shafaei, Sied Ziaedin
    School of Mining Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Abdollahi, Hadi
    School of Mining Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Gharabaghi, Mahdi
    School of Mining Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Chelgani, Saeed Chehreh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Effects of Conventional Flotation Frothers on the Population of Mesophilic Microorganisms in Different Cultures2019In: Processes, ISSN 2227-9717, Vol. 7, no 10, article id 653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioleaching is an environment-friendly and low-investment process for the extraction of metals from flotation concentrate. Surfactants such as collectors and frothers are widely used in the flotation process. These chemical reagents may have inhibitory effects on the activity of microorganisms through a bioleaching process; however, there is no report indicating influences of reagents on the activity of microorganisms in the mixed culture which is mostly used in the industry. In this investigation, influences of typical flotation frothers (methyl isobutyl carbinol and pine oil) in different concentrations (0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 g/L) were examined on activates of bacteria in the mesophilic mixed culture (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans). For comparison purposes, experiments were repeated by pure cultures of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans in the same conditions. Results indicated that increasing the dosage of frothers has a negative correlation with bacteria activities while the mixed culture showed a lower sensitivity to the toxicity of these frothers in comparison with examined pure cultures. Outcomes showed the toxicity of Pine oil is lower than methyl isobutyl carbinol (MIBC). These results can be used for designing flotation separation procedures and to produce cleaner products for bio extraction of metals.

  • 5.
    Mulenshi, Jane
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Khavari, Pourya
    Chelgani, Saeed Chehreh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Characterization and beneficiation options for tungsten recovery from Yxsjöberg historical ore tailings2019In: Processes, ISSN 2227-9717, Vol. 7, no 12, article id 895Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Repositories of historical tungsten mining tailings pose environmental risks, but are also potential resources for valuable metals. They still contain large tonnages of useful minerals and metals, reflecting the inefficient extraction methods and/or low metal prices at the time they were mined. The focus of this study is to evaluate the technical viability of reprocessing the tailings to recover some of the contained valuable minerals and metals, as well as reducing the negative environmental impact associated with the tailings. Geometallurgical studies were conducted on drill core samples taken from the Smaltjärnen tailings repository of the closed Yxsjöberg tungsten mine, Sweden. The collected samples were characterized physically, chemically, and mineralogically. Knelson concentrator dry low- and high-intensity magnetic separation methods were tested as potential beneficiation methods. The tailings are dominated by the −600 to +149 µm particles. The highest concentration of tungsten (W) was 0.22% WO3. Using a Knelson concentrator, scheelite (main W mineral) recovery was enhanced, with 75 wt.% tungsten recovered in the 34 wt.% heavy concentrate. Only 1.0 wt.% sulphur (S) reported to the non-magnetic fraction. Based on the findings, a methodology and a preliminary process flowsheet for reprocessing the tailings is proposed.

  • 6.
    Rahman, Moksadur
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zaccaria, Valentina
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Xin, Zhao
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Diagnostics-Oriented Modelling of Micro Gas Turbines for Fleet Monitoring and Maintenance Optimization2018In: Processes, ISSN 2227-9717, Vol. 6, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The market for the small-scale micro gas turbine is expected to grow rapidly in the coming years. Especially, utilization of commercial off-the-shelf components is rapidly reducing the cost of ownership and maintenance, which is paving the way for vast adoption of such units. However, to meet the high-reliability requirements of power generators, there is an acute need of a real-time monitoring system that will be able to detect faults and performance degradation, and thus allow preventive maintenance of these units to decrease downtime. In this paper, a micro gas turbine based combined heat and power system is modelled and used for development of physics-based diagnostic approaches. Different diagnostic schemes for performance monitoring of micro gas turbines are investigated.

  • 7.
    Safaric, Luka
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Shakeri Yekta, Sepehr
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB.
    Safari, Mohammad
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nadali Najafabadi, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB.
    Ometto, Francesco
    Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB.
    Svensson, Bo H
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Björn, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    A Comparative Study of Biogas Reactor Fluid Rheology: Implications for Mixing Profile and Power Demand2019In: Processes, ISSN 2227-9717, Processes, ISSN 2227-9717, Vol. 7, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an established process for integrating waste management with renewable energy and nutrient recovery. Much of the research in this field focuses on the utilisation of new substrates, yet their effects on operational aspects such as fluid behaviour and power requirement for mixing are commonly overlooked, despite their importance for process optimisation. This study analysed rheological characteristics of samples from 21 laboratory-scale continuous stirred-tank biogas reactors (CSTBRs) digesting a range of substrates, in order to evaluate substrate effect on mixing efficiency and power demand through computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The results show that substrate and process parameters, such as solids content and organic loading, all have a significant effect on CSTBR fluid rheology. The correlation levels between rheological and process parameters were different across substrates, while no specific fluid behaviour patterns could be associated with substrate choice. Substrate should thus be considered an equally important rheology effector as process parameters. Additional substrate-related parameters should be identified to explain the differences in correlations between rheological and process parameters across substrate groups. The CFD modelling revealed that the rheology differences among the AD processes have significant implications for mixing efficiency and power demand of the CSTBRs, highlighting the importance of considering the substrate-induced effects on CSTBR rheology before including a new substrate.

  • 8.
    Zimmerman, Nathan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Lindberg, Carl-Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. ABB Force Measurement, Västerås, Sweden.
    Waste fuel combustion: Dynamic modeling and control2018In: Processes, ISSN 2227-9717, Vol. 6, no 11, article id 222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this study is to present the adherent transients that accompany the combustion of waste derived fuels. This is accomplished, in large, by developing a dynamic model of the process, which can then be used for control purposes. Traditional control measures typically applied in the heat and power industry, i.e., PI (proportional-integral) controllers, might not be robust enough to handle the the accompanied transients associated with new fuels. Therefore, model predictive control is introduced as a means to achieve better combustion stability under transient conditions. The transient behavior of refuse derived fuel is addressed by developing a dynamic modeling library. Within the library, there are two models. The first is for assessing the performance of the heat exchangers to provide operational assistance for maintenance scheduling. The second model is of a circulating fluidized bed block, which includes combustion and steam (thermal) networks. The library has been validated using data from a 160 MW industrial installation located in Västerås, Sweden. The model can predict, with satisfactory accuracy, the boiler bed and riser temperatures, live steam temperature, and boiler load. This has been achieved by using process sensors for the feed-in streams. Based on this model three different control schemes are presented: a PI control scheme, model predictive control with feedforward, and model predictive control without feedforward. The model predictive control with feedforward has proven to give the best performance as it can maintain stable temperature profiles throughout the process when a measured disturbance is initiated. Furthermore, the implemented control incorporates the introduction of a soft-sensor for measuring the minimum fluidization velocity to maintain a consistent level of fluidization in the boiler for deterring bed material agglomeration.

  • 9.
    Åkerstedt, Hans O.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Transport and Deposition of Large Aspect Ratio Prolate and Oblate Spheroidal Nanoparticles in Cross Flow2019In: Processes, ISSN 2227-9717, Vol. 7, no 12, article id 886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper was to study the transport and deposition of non-spherical oblate and prolate shaped particles for the flow in a tube with a radial suction velocity field, with an application to experiments related to composite manufacturing. The transport of the non-spherical particles is governed by a convective diffusion equation for the probability density function, also called the Fokker–Planck equation, which is a function of the position and orientation angles. The flow is governed by the Stokes equation with an additional radial flow field. The concentration of particles is assumed to be dilute. In the solution of the Fokker–Planck equation, an expansion for small rotational Peclet numbers and large translational Peclet numbers is considered. The solution can be divided into an outer region and two boundary layer regions. The outer boundary layer region is governed by an angle-averaged convective-diffusion equation. The solution in the innermost boundary layer region is a diffusion equation including the radial variation and the orientation angles. Analytical deposition rates are calculated as a function of position along the tube axis. The contribution from the innermost boundary layer called steric- interception deposition is found to be very small. Higher order curvature and suction effects are found to increase deposition. The results are compared with results using a Lagrangian tracking method of the same flow configuration. When compared, the deposition rates are of the same order of magnitude, but the analytical results show a larger variation for different particle sizes. The results are also compared with numerical results, using the angle averaged convective-diffusion equation. The agreement between numerical and analytical results is good.

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