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  • 1. Aarskaug Wiik, Kenneth
    et al.
    Bernhardt, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Gendered expectations: expected consequences of union formation across Europe2019In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 214-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using comparable survey data from eight European countries this study investigated expected consequences of forming a co-residential relationship among non-partnered individuals aged 22-35 (N = 8443). Results showed that respondents expected improvements in their financial situation when moving in with a partner, though in all countries women held more positive expectations toward their post union formation economic situation than men. This result likely reflects the lingering traditional gender structure of the society, with men faced with the responsibility of being the main breadwinner in the family. Such an interpretation would seem to be supported by the fact that this gender gap was smallest in Sweden, France and Belgium, the countries in the current sample with the most egalitarian gender structure. Potential restrictions in personal freedom by forming a co-residential relationship, on the other hand, seem to be less important, particularly among women.

  • 2. Alsarve, Jenny
    et al.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Sandström, Lina
    New practices during the pandemic? A qualitative study of parents’ work, care and housework during the COVID-19 pandemic2023In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 2248-2267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we explore how parents (re)negotiate care and housework during the COVID-19 pandemic. Drawing on qualitative interviews with Swedish parents of school-age children, the article contributes new knowledge about how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the everyday lives of families and their care and household practices. Previous research indicates that life changing events influence how couples divide and perhaps renegotiate the division of care and housework. Similarly, the pandemic and its accompanying restrictions and recommendations, such as working from home, might trigger the need to renegotiate care and housework. The results of the study suggest that while most of the interviewed parents have been affected in some way by the pandemic, especially with regard to a change of workplace and the restrictions on social interactions, only some argue that this has led them to explicit renegotiate and modify the division of housework and care. 

  • 3.
    Alsarve, Jenny
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Boye, Katarina
    Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandström, Lina
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Gender Studies.
    New practices during the pandemic? A qualitative study of parents’ work, care and housework during the COVID-19 pandemic2023In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 2248-2267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we explore how parents (re)negotiate care and housework during the COVID-19 pandemic. Drawing on qualitative interviews with Swedish parents of school-age children, the article contributes new knowledge about how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the everyday lives of families and their care and household practices. Previous research indicates that life changing events influence how couples divide and perhaps renegotiate the division of care and housework. Similarly, the pandemic and its accompanying restrictions and recommendations, such as working from home, might trigger the need to renegotiate care and housework. The results of the study suggest that while most of the interviewed parents have been affected in some way by the pandemic, especially with regard to a change of workplace and the restrictions on social interactions, only some argue that this has led them to explicit renegotiate and modify the division of housework and care.

  • 4.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Becoming a half-time parent: Fatherhood after divorce2019In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 2-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Men have increasingly been dedicating time and effort to childcare. Consequently, the idea of the ‘new’ emotionally involved father has been discussed in the literature. This article focuses on narratives of divorced Swedish fathers with joint physical custody of their children. This arrangement, a new model of post-divorce parenting, has become increasingly popular in several Nordic countries. The article aims to analyse the experiences attached to and emanating from this particular form of post-divorce agreement, and how it is understood in relation to the Swedish childcare system. The fathers interviewed had a strong ambition to share things equally, as well as to carry on family practices in gender-equal ways. This desire was, however, balanced with a number of obstacles, such as work requirements, living conditions and conceptions of gender differences. In this way, the fathers’ subjective aspirations and strivings were filtered through structural and cultural conditions in society, with clear connections to Swedish family and gender politics.

  • 5.
    Andréasson, Frida
    et al.
    Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden; Regional Association of Kalmar County, Swedish Family Care Competence Centre, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Tina
    School of Social Work, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hanson, Elizabeth
    Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden; Regional Association of Kalmar County, Swedish Family Care Competence Centre, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    ‘The balance in our relationship has changed’: everyday family living, couplehood and digital spaces in informal spousal care2021In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT: Building on an ethnographic approach, this study aims to explore how the notion of couplehood and family life is understood and negotiated in everyday life by older carers and their spouses. Inspired by Morgan?s perspective on the doing of family life, and Hochschild?s analysis of emotion work and feeling rules, the article shows how the process of becoming a carer/care recipient creates a new life situation for couples. The findings show that gendered tasks of family life such as housework and financial responsibilities change between spouses, and new practicalities emerge. This in turn changes the power balance between the spouses and how they do couplehood. The findings also reveal how the participants? sense of we and I are negotiated to do family life, with regards to their health, sense of moral obligation, personal autonomy, love and caregiving. A sense of social isolation is apparent, and social media, apps and online games are sometimes used to create digital spaces in which participants can maintain connections with friends and children, find solitude and regain energy by getting a temporary pause from spousal informal care. Such strategies enable couples to find balance and a sense of autonomy in their lives as a family.

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  • 6.
    Andréasson, Frida
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Swedish Family Care Competence Centre, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Tina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hanson, Elizabeth
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Swedish Family Care Competence Centre, Sweden.
    ‘The balance in our relationship has changed’: everyday family living, couplehood and digital spaces in informal spousal care2023In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 719-737Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on an ethnographic approach, this study aims to explore how the notion of couplehood and family life is understood and negotiated in everyday life by older carers and their spouses. Inspired by Morgan’s perspective on the doing of family life, and Hochschild’s analysis of emotion work and feeling rules, the article shows how the process of becoming a carer/care recipient creates a new life situation for couples. The findings show that gendered tasks of family life such as housework and financial responsibilities change between spouses, and new practicalities emerge. This in turn changes the power balance between the spouses and how they do couplehood. The findings also reveal how the participants’ sense of we and I are negotiated to do family life, with regards to their health, sense of moral obligation, personal autonomy, love and caregiving. A sense of social isolation is apparent, and social media, apps and online games are sometimes used to create digital spaces in which participants can maintain connections with friends and children, find solitude and regain energy by getting a temporary pause from spousal informal care. Such strategies enable couples to find balance and a sense of autonomy in their lives as a family.

  • 7. Arnalds, Asdis A.
    et al.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Eydal, Gudny Björk
    Gislason, Ingolfur V.
    Constructing parenthood in times of crisis2021In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 420-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iceland was hit by a financial crisis in October 2008 and in the following year the ceiling on parental leave benefits was significantly lowered. The subsequent drop in fathers' uptake of parental leave raises questions on whether the crisis endangered gender equality when it comes to how parents arranged care for their new-born. The article explores changes in how parents arrange childcare with the use of paid parental leave and unpaid time off work by comparing findings from surveys among parents of firstborn children in 2003 and 2009. The results show that mothers of children born during the crisis were more likely to lengthen their time at home with the child, than those who had a child during an economic boom. This they did either by using the leave part-time, use vacation days or unpaid leave. It is argued that this could be a result of the fall in fathers' leave use during the crisis.

  • 8.
    Bergnehr, Disa
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue). Department of Teacher Education, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Adapted fathering for new times: refugee men's narratives on caring for home and children2022In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 934-949Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores Middle Eastern men's narratives on how they adapt their fathering to new circumstances during resettlement in Sweden. It is based on individual interviews and diary notes collected over three years. Swedish policies encourage mothers as well as fathers to participate in paid labour and to be involved in household and child-care duties. Migrants who have been granted residency as refugees are entitled to extensive social welfare benefits, but they are also required to participate in language studies, accept trainee positions, and actively search for employment. The results of the present study suggest that the refugee fathers come to share daily chores and childcare with their spouse more equally than prior in their home countries. This new fatherhood is referred to in several ways: as a necessity to make family life work; as positive for the father?child relationship; and, as very time- and energy- consuming. Emerging masculinities and caring masculinities evolve in the analyses, and the results show comprehensive fathering, that is, fatherhood characterized by care, intimacy and love that are the result of hard, straining (reproductive) work that takes place with limited financial and/or cultural resources.

  • 9.
    Bergnéhr, Disa
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Adapted fathering for new times: Refugee men’s narratives on caring for home and children2020In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, article id 10.1080/13229400.2020.1769708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores Middle Eastern men's narratives on how they adapt their fathering to new circumstances during resettlement in Sweden. It is based on individual interviews and diary notes collected over three years. Swedish policies encourage mothers as well as fathers to participate in paid labour and to be involved in household and child-care duties. Migrants who have been granted residency as refugees are entitled to extensive social welfare benefits, but they are also required to participate in language studies, accept trainee positions, and actively search for employment. The results of the present study suggest that the refugee fathers come to share daily chores and childcare with their spouse more equally than prior in their home countries. This new fatherhood is referred to in several ways: as a necessity to make family life work; as positive for the father–child relationship; and, as very time- and energy- consuming. Emerging masculinities and caring masculinities evolve in the analyses, and the results show comprehensive fathering, that is, fatherhood characterized by care, intimacy and love that are the result of hard, straining (reproductive) work that takes place with limited financial and/or cultural resources.

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  • 10.
    Bildtgård, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Öberg, Peter
    Blood thicker than water? Emotional closeness between older parents and adult children in stepfamilies2022In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 493-510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing prevalence of ageing stepfamilies and stepchildren's potential to act as a source of support for older parents has prompted research about intergenerational cohesion in steprelationships. Our purpose is to investigate emotional closeness in biological and step-relationships in ageing stepfamilies, and the explanations older parents and adult children give to such differences. We study emotional closeness in parent-child relationships among Swedish older parents (aged 66-79) who have raised both biological and stepchildren, and adult children (aged 31-57) who were raised by both biological and stepparents. Qualitative family history interviews (n = 24) including hierarchical maps of long-term family relationships were collected and analyzed. Results show biological relationships to be rated as emotionally closer than step-relationships, by both parents and children. This gap in closeness is explained by the informants in terms of (a) personal characteristics, (b) social circumstances and (c) the importance of blood. Both children and parents use the first two explanations, but there is a clear generational difference concerning the perceived importance of blood. While older parents deemphasize the importance of blood for emotional closeness, adult children emphasize it. The study contributes to ageing stepfamily research by including stepfamily members' own perspectives on emotional closeness.

  • 11.
    Bildtgård, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Öberg, Peter
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Blood thicker than water?: Emotional closeness between older parents and adult children in stepfamilies2022In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 493-510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing prevalence of ageing stepfamilies and stepchildren’s potential to act as a source of support for older parents has prompted research about intergenerational cohesion in steprelationships. Our purpose is to investigate emotional closeness in biological and step-relationships in ageing stepfamilies, and the explanations older parents and adult children give to such differences. We study emotional closeness in parent-child relationships among Swedish older parents (aged 66–79) who have raised both biological and stepchildren, and adult children (aged 31–57) who were raised by both biological and stepparents. Qualitative family history interviews (n = 24) including hierarchical maps of long-term family relationships were collected and analyzed. Results show biological relationships to be rated as emotionally closer than step-relationships, by both parents and children. This gap in closeness is explained by the informants in terms of (a) personal characteristics, (b) social circumstances and (c) the importance of blood. Both children and parents use the first two explanations, but there is a clear generational difference concerning the perceived importance of blood. While older parents deemphasize the importance of blood for emotional closeness, adult children emphasize it. The study contributes to ageing stepfamily research by including stepfamily members’ own perspectives on emotional closeness.

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  • 12.
    Bodin, Maja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    Regretting parenthood in a family friendly, ‘gender equal’ society: accounts from Swedish online forums2023In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 2195-2212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past decades, parents have used online forums to discuss challenges associated with parenthood, seeking support from other parents as well as professional advice. A highly sensitive topic discussed in these forums is regret about having children. Previous studies from various contexts have highlighted how regret, as expressed online, is often connected to difficulties of living up to and identifying with ideals of parenting, and that parenthood leads to feelings of exhaustion, entrapment and a negative self-image. In this article, I analyze how regret is expressed in two major Swedish online forums, including accounts from 142 parents. Sweden is a country that is often highlighted internationally as a pioneer in gender equality, with laws that protect sexual and reproductive rights and family- friendly policies that support parents in combining family life and work life. In light of this, I focus on the different decisions related to parenthood that people regret, the challenges and disappointments that family life has brought to parents, and the consequences that parenthood has had on their lives. I show how gender-equal parenting ideals are highly present in the discussions, and how they coexist and conflict with more traditional parenting behaviours and patterns.

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  • 13.
    Brandén, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Bernhardt, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Does similarity in work-family related attitudes improve relationship quality? Evidence from Sweden2022In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 822-840Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how similarity in work-family related attitudes matter for relationship satisfaction and union dissolution among Swedish couples. It utilizes a data set from 2009 (the Young Adult Panel Study) containing information on 1055 opposite-sex couples (married or co-residential), and registered union dissolutions up to 2014. Results indicate that couples who have similar notions on the importance of being successful at work; on the importance of having children; or on the importance of having enough time for leisure activities are more likely to be satisfied with their partner relationship than couples who have dissimilar attitudes. However, there are no effects of similarity in attitudes regarding the importance of living in a good partner relationship or doing well economically on relationship satisfaction, and we do not find any impact of similarity in attitudes of any kind on actual breakups. We find no support for specialization theory, which would predict that dissimilarity in work orientation would increase relationship quality. The study concludes that having similar priorities regarding work, career, and family does seem to matter for relationship quality, at least when it comes to the partners' satisfaction with the relationship.

  • 14.
    Brandén, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Bernhardt, Eva
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Does similarity in work-family related attitudes improve relationship quality? Evidence from Sweden2022In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 822-840Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how similarity in work-family related attitudes matter for relationship satisfaction and union dissolution among Swedish couples. It utilizes a data set from 2009 (the Young Adult Panel Study) containing information on 1055 opposite-sex couples (married or co-residential), and registered union dissolutions up to 2014. Results indicate that couples who have similar notions on the importance of being successful at work; on the importance of having children; or on the importance of having enough time for leisure activities are more likely to be satisfied with their partner relationship than couples who have dissimilar attitudes. However, there are no effects of similarity in attitudes regarding the importance of living in a good partner relationship or doing well economically on relationship satisfaction, and we do not find any impact of similarity in attitudes of any kind on actual breakups. We find no support for specialization theory, which would predict that dissimilarity in work orientation would increase relationship quality. The study concludes that having similar priorities regarding work, career, and family does seem to matter for relationship quality, at least when it comes to the partners satisfaction with the relationship.

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  • 15.
    Edlund, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Öun, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Equal sharing or not at all caring? Ideals about fathers’ family involvement and the prevalence of the second half of the gender revolution in 27 societies2023In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 2576-2599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using attitude data from the ISSP 2012, we study the prevalence of the second half of the gender revolution – the involvement of men/fathers in care and housework on equal terms as women/mothers. With a focus on the collective consciousness in 27 societies, we (1) map patterns of support for different family model ideals; (2) study the extent to which these ideals are related to national level indicators of gender equality and modernization; (3) analyse similarities and differences between groups of societies, focusing on which ideals that represent conservative and progressive alternatives in each society; (4) analyse group differences and the degree to which these ideals are contested within societies. We find that the ideal of a father as provider and a mother as caregiver persists, but in nearly all societies, it is challenged by other alternatives: mothers’ part-time work, full-time work for both mothers and fathers, and a dual-earner/dual-carer ideal, with shared responsibilities for paid (part-time) and unpaid work. On the societal level, modernization and gender equality are positively associated with both progressive family ideals and marked group differences, indicating that fathers’ involvement in the family is a contested issue in progressive societies.

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  • 16.
    Eklund, Lina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Sadowski, Helga
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Doing intimate family work through ICTs in the time of networked individualism2023In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 758-773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, family intimacy has been seen as depending on spatial proximity and physical closeness. However, due to individualization and globalization, many families live apart and/or spend their days away from each other. Moreover, a shift in family communication from household-to-household to person-to-person has occurred in the context of so-called networked individualism. These changes make it imperative to investigate how contemporary families communicate to create and maintain intimacy in and across households. Drawing on the concept of doing intimate family work, this study investigates the small acts performed in everyday life to do family intimacy through ICT in the context of networked individualism. We conducted interviews with 6 multigenerational families – spread across 18 households in Sweden and the US. Results show how responsibilities and practices of family communication become part of doing intimate family work, through personalized technology, with consequences for each individual family member. We explore the various affordances family members realize through actions in order to support family intimacy and how these practices reinforce the importance of the family home as a physical base for cross-household family communication.

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  • 17.
    Eriksson Kirsch, Madeleine
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Evertsson, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Taking turns: lesbian couples' decision of (first) birth mother in Sweden2023In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 1865-1883Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an analysis of how lesbian couples in Sweden negotiate birth motherhood in a context where equality is thought to be achieved by being and doing the same [Gullestad, M. (2002). Invisible fences: Egalitarianism, nationalism and racism. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 8(1), 45-63. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9655.00098]. We do so by studying narratives of how 20 couples arrived at the decision of who will be the (first) birth mother, a decision unique to a small group of parents with theoretical implications for motherhood norms, kinship and within-couple decision-making extending beyond the couples themselves. Most couples interviewed planned to have two children and take turns carrying, a plan that to some extent solves the challenge of equality and sameness. Genetic links were downplayed and instead, the embodied and often desired experience of pregnancy was foregrounded. In deciding who would be the (first) birth mother, the couples' reasoning centred on age and desire, both presented as harmless and 'natural' determinants that defused a potentially disruptive decision.

  • 18.
    Flinkfeldt, Marie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Department of Social Work, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Höglund, Frida
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Department of Social Work, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    ‘The family administrator’: Women take most responsibility for information-seeking, planning and administration of parental benefit in Sweden2024In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Glatz, Terese
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Center for Lifespan Developmental Research.
    Buchanan, Christy M.
    Department ofPsychology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem NC, USA.
    Trends in parental self-efficacy between 1999 and 20142023In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 205-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parenting and parent-child relationships in Western countries have undergone notable changes over recent decades. Parents today generally spend more time with their children and use less harsh discipline compared to parents over 50 years ago. Less is known about trends in parental beliefs over this time period. In this study, we examined differences in parental self-efficacy (PSE) between parents of young adolescents from two samples, one collected in 1999/2000 and one in 2014. We focused specifically on PSE concerning children's school adjustment and other behaviors outside the home. Results showed that although the meaning of PSE was the same at both time points (i.e., the latent PSE factor showed equivalence across the samples), parents in the 2014 sample reported significantly lower levels of PSE than did parents in the 1999/2000 sample. This difference contrasts with trends concerning parenting practices and is discussed in relation to societal changes over this time period, such as changes in expectations and societal pressure on parents, and in technology, including social media. This study adds to research on trends in parenting, suggesting that parents in Western countries feel less efficacious in promoting certain positive behaviors among young adolescents compared to parents 15 years ago.

  • 20.
    Hovén, Emma
    et al.
    Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lindahl Norberg, Annika
    Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Toft, Teolinda
    Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Forinder, Ulla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work. Department of Social Work and Psychology, Faculty of Health and Occupational StudiesUniversity of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Siblings of children diagnosed with cancer: being faced with a moral dilemma2023In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 1043-1060Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we explore how siblings of children diagnosed with cancer describe the implications of cancer experience in interaction with other young people. Seven focus groups were performed with 30 siblings, 14–23 years at the time of study. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. We applied the theoretical framework of ecological system theory and sociological perspective of childhood. Two themes were identified: family relations and maintaining normality. Family relations covered experiences of loneliness, neglect and changed family relationships. Siblings described being faced with a moral dilemma, where, on the one hand, it was difficult to handle the clash of being aware of their parents’ struggle and the severity of the illness; and on the other hand, refraining from claiming attention and support, resulting in experiencing loneliness and unmet needs. Maintaining normality involved descriptions of a strive for ‘normality,’ where the brother’s/sister’s cancer didn’t dominate. The results show how a sister’s/brother’s cancer disrupts the family system and the relations between microsystems, including school and friends. Young siblings should be recognized as independent agents, who have rights to be listened to. The health care system should create possibilities for siblings to express their own needs and provide appropriate support.

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  • 21.
    Hovén, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Reproductive Health.
    Lindahl Norberg, Annika
    Toft, Teolinda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Forinder, Ulla
    Siblings of children diagnosed with cancer: being faced with a moral dilemma2021In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we explore how siblings of children diagnosed with cancer describe the implications of cancer experience in interaction with other young people. Seven focus groups were performed with 30 siblings, 14–23 years at the time of study. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. We applied the theoretical framework of ecological system theory and sociological perspective of childhood. Two themes were identified: family relations and maintaining normality. Family relations covered experiences of loneliness, neglect and changed family relationships. Siblings described being faced with a moral dilemma, where, on the one hand, it was difficult to handle the clash of being aware of their parents’ struggle and the severity of the illness; and on the other hand, refraining from claiming attention and support, resulting in experiencing loneliness and unmet needs. Maintaining normality involved descriptions of a strive for ‘normality,’ where the brother’s/sister’s cancer didn’t dominate. The results show how a sister’s/brother’s cancer disrupts the family system and the relations between microsystems, including school and friends. Young siblings should be recognized as independent agents, who have rights to be listened to. The health care system should create possibilities for siblings to express their own needs and provide appropriate support.

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  • 22.
    Kapetanovic, Sabina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Bohlin, Margareta
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Göteborgs universitet.
    Skoog, Therese
    Gothenburg University, Department of Psychology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Gothenburg University, Department of Psychology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Structural relations between sources of parental knowledge, feelings of being overly controlled and risk behaviors in early adolescence2020In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 226-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we have investigated parental knowledge and its sources, namely adolescent disclosure, parental control, and parental solicitation; and how they relate to adolescents' feelings of being overly controlled, and to three types of adolescent risk behaviors, namely bullying, substance use, and delinquent behavior. This was studied in a sample of 1520 Swedish early adolescent boys and girls (M age = 13.0). A structural equation path model showed that adolescent disclosure and parental control were positively associated with parental knowledge, which in turn related to all three risk behaviors. Adolescent disclosure was related to lower levels of risk behaviors, while parental solicitation was linked to higher levels of adolescent engagement in risk behaviors, especially for boys, through feelings of being overly controlled. The findings support the idea of a functional role of open communication, as well as adequate levels of autonomy granting, for managing boys' and girls' risk behavior.

  • 23.
    Kapetanovic, Sabina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare. University West, Sweden.
    Bohlin, Margareta
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Skoog, Therese
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue). Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Structural relations between sources of parental knowledge, feelings of being overly controlled and risk behaviors in early adolescence2020In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 226-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we have investigated parental knowledge and its sources, namely adolescent disclosure, parental control, and parental solicitation; and how they relate to adolescents’ feelings of being overly controlled, and to three types of adolescent risk behaviors, namely bullying, substance use, and delinquent behavior. This was studied in a sample of 1520 Swedish early adolescent boys and girls (M age = 13.0). A structural equation path model showed that adolescent disclosure and parental control were positively associated with parental knowledge, which in turn related to all three risk behaviors. Adolescent disclosure was related to lower levels of risk behaviors, while parental solicitation was linked to higher levels of adolescent engagement in risk behaviors, especially for boys, through feelings of being overly controlled. The findings support the idea of a functional role of open communication, as well as adequate levels of autonomy granting, for managing boys’ and girls’ risk behavior.

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  • 24.
    Kapetanovic, Sabina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Skoog, Therése
    The department of psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (SWE).
    In their own voices: immigrant mothers’ experiences and perceptions of the group-based self-assured parents programme for parents in disadvantaged areas in Sweden2024In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Culturally responsive parenting interventions are crucial for immigrant parents in disadvantaged areas. This qualitative study delves into the experiences of 18 immigrant mothers (Mage =41.2 years) from Somalia, Syria, Turkey, Eritrea, and Iraq participating in the Swedish Self-Assured Parents programme, targeting immigrant parents who live in social disadvantage with teenage children. Thematic analysis revealed seven main themes

    (1) the meaning of the programme content and structure,

    (2) enjoying  oneself  and  being  comfortable,  

    (3) putting  theadolescent  in  the  centre,

    (4) mothers’own  socioemotionaldevelopment,

    (5) changing from being a passive reactor to anactive agent,

    (6) empowered citizenship, and

    (7) having always been a strong and good mother.

    Overall, the mothers were positive about both the content and the format of the programme, appreciating the warm and supportive climate. They also perceived themselves as being more attentive to adolescent needs, having improved their own socio-emotional skills, and being empowered both as a citizen and as a mother on accoun tof attending the programme. With the development of culturally responsive programmes that take into account the unique needsand experiences of diverse populations, governments  can effectively support parents, promote child positive development, and help cultivate social cohesion among the members of society.

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  • 25.
    Linden, Charlotte
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Skoog, Therese
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Goteborg (SWE).
    Kapetanovic, Sabina
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Raising teenage children in disadvantaged neighbourhoods: the experiences and challenges of immigrant mothers in Sweden2022In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parenting is arguably the most critical factor in protecting teenagers from problem behaviours, such as delinquency and substance use. For immigrant mothers, however, the ability to care for their children might be negatively affected by challenges related to acculturation and area deprivation. The aim of this study was to raise this issue by examining parenting challenges and needs among immigrant mothers of teenagers living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Sweden. Such knowledge is crucial for society to be able to adequately support families in promoting their teenagers well-being. Based on an intersectional framework and qualitative interviews with 14 mothers, four themes related to challenges and needs emerged: structural challenges, cultural transition, psychosocial problems, and social support. The themes were highly intertwined and demonstrated substantial distress among immigrant mothers in relation to their parenting and protecting their children. Mothers’ were, therefore, highly engaged in parenting and expressed a desire and motivation to improve their parenting through social support. The introduction of culturally sensitive parenting support specifically aimed at this marginalized group of parents is encouraged.

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  • 26.
    Paul, Pooja L.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Grönlund, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Gender equality as attitude or context: what matters for fertility ideals?2024In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The link between gender equality and fertility has been the topic of a growing literature. Using data from the International Social Survey Program (ISSP) of 2012 (n=27,062 individuals, 39 countries), and applying multi-level modelling techniques, we explored the associations between individual gender egalitarian attitudes, societal gender equality and fertility ideals. The results show that individual gender egalitarianism is negatively associated with fertility ideals even across a broad set of countries from different regions. Additionally, we find that while societal gender equality is positively associated with fertility ideals, we also observe a small but statistically significant interaction effect between individual attitudes and societal gender equality. The cross-level interaction suggests that the negative fertility implications of individual egalitarian attitudes are amplified rather than mitigated in gender equal contexts. Thus, while the findings point to the potential importance of context and societal gender equality, they do not clearly confirm dominating theories. In future, the interplay between individual attitudes and societal support should be further explored in cross-country research, and more studies should include countries from the global South.

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  • 27.
    Rooth, Hetty
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    Forinder, Ulla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Piuva, Katarina
    Stockholm University.
    Söderbäck, Maja
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Being a child in the family: Young children describe themselves and their parents2023In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how children describe their experiences of family interaction with parents who had taken part in parenting training. 11 children between five and nine years participated in semi-structured interviews which were analysed using a qualitative content analysis method. The children described themselves as active participants in family life, identifying strategies that they used to safeguard their subjective selves on one hand and to enhance communication with their parents on the other. The analysis displayed three main approaches in everyday life: withholding thoughts and hiding, extending limits for personal agency, and putting trust in their parents to guide and protect them in their stride. While handling these processes the children showed a willingness to take part in democratic family decisions by compromises and compliance. Towards their parents they expressed understanding and forbearance with adult shortcomings such as absentmindedness. Their reasoning involved issues of integrity and relational closeness. Conclusively, the children balanced their own selves with an undemanding respect for parental care and adult competence. The study contributes to awareness of and respect for how children position themselves as relational agents in a generational order. The results suggest that future research should further explore children’s perspectives on family life in a parenting training context. Children’s views should be drawn on to inform future developments in parenting training.

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  • 28.
    Rooth, Hetty
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Forinder, Ulla
    Gävle University, Sweden.
    Piuva, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Söderbäck, Maja
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Being a child in the family: young children describe themselves and their parentsIn: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how children describe their experiences of family interaction with parents who had taken part in parenting training. 11 children between five and nine years participated in semi-structured interviews which were analysed using a qualitative content analysis method. The children described themselves as active participants in family life, identifying strategies that they used to safeguard their subjective selves on one hand and to enhance communication with their parents on the other. The analysis displayed three main approaches in everyday life: withholding thoughts and hiding, extending limits for personal agency, and putting trust in their parents to guide and protect them in their stride. While handling these processes the children showed a willingness to take part in democratic family decisions by compromises and compliance. Towards their parents they expressed understanding and forbearance with adult shortcomings such as absentmindedness. Their reasoning involved issues of integrity and relational closeness. Conclusively, the children balanced their own selves with an undemanding respect for parental care and adult competence. The study contributes to awareness of and respect for how children position themselves as relational agents in a generational order. The results suggest that future research should further explore children's perspectives on family life in a parenting training context. Children's views should be drawn on to inform future developments in parenting training.

  • 29.
    Saxonberg, Steven
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Maříková, Hana
    Czech Academy of Science, Czech Republic.
    The central European world of fatherhood policies: how individual attitudes mediate the norm of threeness in the Czech Republic and Slovakia2023In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, Vol. 29, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here is the shorter abstract: Following Rush's suggestion to explore differences across cultures, our study compares the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Appyling Rush's discussion of how individual attitudes function as mediators, we analyse how attitudes mediate the norm of threeness. We interviewed 79 parents in both countries and our results show that despite the cultural differences between the countries, there is great support for the norm of threeness. Nevertheless, individual attitudes mediate between culture differently among men than women. About 1/3 of fathers would ideally want to share part of the leave time while no mothers support this. Furthermore, most men would prefer to share the leave time if there were no economic loss, while few mothers support the idea. Apparently, mothers do not trust fathers. Our interviews give reason to believe that if well-paid father quotas were introduced and more fathers went on leave, mothers would start to trust fathers. 

  • 30.
    Shahbazian, Roujman
    Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Is there any difference between having a brother or having a sister?: The association between sex-composition and socioeconomic outcomes in Swedish two-and three-child families2020In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 362-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the association of sibling sex-composition onsocioeconomic outcomes in adulthood, where previous studieshave found mixed results. Using Swedish administrative registerscovering all biological siblings born between years 1960 and 1970in two- and three-child families, the sex-composition of siblings isdisentangled from their birth order and gender. The reportedincome magnitudes (measured as rank and absolute term) aresmall. In all, having a same-sex or opposite-sex sibling seems notto be an important family structural component for understandingsocioeconomic outcomes such as income differences.

  • 31.
    Shahbazian, Roujman
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Is there any difference between having a brother or having a sister? The association between sex-composition and socioeconomic outcomes in Swedish two-and three-child families2020In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 362-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the association of sibling sex-composition on socioeconomic outcomes in adulthood, where previous studies have found mixed results. Using Swedish administrative registers covering all biological siblings born between years 1960 and 1970 in two- and three-child families, the sex-composition of siblings is disentangled from their birth order and gender. The reported income magnitudes (measured as rank and absolute term) are small. In all, having a same-sex or opposite-sex sibling seems not to be an important family structural component for understanding socioeconomic outcomes such as income differences.

  • 32.
    Silvén Hagström, Anneli
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Forinder, Ulla
    'If I whistled in her ear she'd wake up': Children's narration about their experiences of growing up in alcoholic families2022In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 216-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to investigate what it means to grow up in an alcoholic family environment. Nineteen children aged 6–11 who participated in a psycho-educational programme in the 1990s for children living with parents who misuse alcohol were interviewed about their experiences in a longitudinal study. A narrative analysis of their life stories demonstrates how, on the one hand, they positioned themselves as ‘vulnerable victims’ exposed to their parent’s alcoholism and to situations of severe neglect, domestic violence and sexual abuse. This position was characterized by a sense of powerlessness and lack of resources for coping with emotional distress and risk, as well as an urgent need for protection and care. On the other hand, the children positioned themselves as ‘competent agents’ who had developed purposeful strategies for managing their life situation, such as trying to reduce their parent’s drinking and undertaking the role of a ‘young carer’. The children primarily tried to normalize themselves in their social circle in a position of ‘silenced and invisible victims’. However, the alcoholism was usually exposed and the children occasionally also found themselves in the position of ‘help-seeking victims’ obliged to disclose the ‘family secret’. Remarkably, this rarely changed their situation very much. Instead, the children were commonly left in the position of ‘visible but unprotected victims’.

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  • 33.
    Silvén Hagström, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work. Stockholm university.
    Forinder, Ulla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    'If I whistled in her ear she'd wake up': children's narration about their experiences of growing up in alcoholic families2022In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 216-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to investigate what it means to grow up in an alcoholic family environment. Nineteen children aged 6-11 who participated in a psycho-educational programme in the 1990s for children living with parents who misuse alcohol were interviewed about their experiences in a longitudinal study. A narrative analysis of their life stories demonstrates how, on the one hand, they positioned themselves as 'vulnerable victims' exposed to their parent's alcoholism and to situations of severe neglect, domestic violence and sexual abuse. This position was characterized by a sense of powerlessness and lack of resources for coping with emotional distress and risk, as well as an urgent need for protection and care. On the other hand, the children positioned themselves as 'competent agents' who had developed purposeful strategies for managing their life situation, such as trying to reduce their parent's drinking and undertaking the role of a 'young carer'. The children primarily tried to normalize themselves in their social circle in a position of 'silenced and invisible victims'. However, the alcoholism was usually exposed and the children occasionally also found themselves in the position of 'help-seeking victims' obliged to disclose the 'family secret'. Remarkably, this rarely changed their situation very much. Instead, the children were commonly left in the position of 'visible but unprotected victims'.

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  • 34.
    van Houdt, Kirsten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Adult (step) parent-child relationships in complex families: a latent profile analysis2023In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 660-682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study identifies a typology of adult stepparent-child and biological parent-child relationships by studying the structures in which relationship dimensions - affection, contact, support, and conflict - combine, building on the intergenerational solidarity paradigm. The existing literature on family complexity, which has analysed parent-child relationships one-dimensionally, and exclusively considered positive dimensions, requires a more integrated approach to describe the diverse landscape of (step)parent-child relationships. Using the OKiN anchor data, based on a stratified random sample of Dutch adults (aged 25-45), this study simultaneously analysed closeness, contact, support, and conflict in stepparent-child (N = 3,896) and biological parentchild relationships (N = 9,467), using latent profile analysis (LPA). These data provided adults' reports on up to four relationships to their (step)parents. LPA revealed four relationship profiles among biological parent-child as well as stepparent-child dyads: harmonious, ambivalent, detached, and conflictual. One relationship profile, disharmonious, was unique for step-dyads. Although the distribution over these profiles differs between stepdyads and biological dyads, it seems more strongly differentiated by parental separation, co-residential history, and parental gender. This study reveals the multi-dimensional diversity that lies beneath the comparison of averages of single dimensions of parent-child relationships, and calls for more nuance in studying family ties.

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