Change search
Refine search result
1 - 20 of 20
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Athlin, Simon
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Infectious Diseases, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lidman, Christer
    Unit of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Anders
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Södra Älvsborgs Hospital, Borås, Sweden.
    Naucler, Pontus
    Unit of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Anna C.
    Infectious Disease Research Unit, Department of Translational Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Spindler, Carl
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Strålin, Kristoffer
    Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Unit of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hedlund, Jonas
    Unit of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Management of community-acquired pneumonia in immunocompetent adults: updated Swedish guidelines 20172018In: Infectious Diseases, ISSN 2374-4235, E-ISSN 2374-4243, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 247-272Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on expert group work, Swedish recommendations for the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults are here updated. The management of sepsis-induced hypotension is addressed in detail, including monitoring and parenteral therapy. The importance of respiratory support in cases of acute respiratory failure is emphasized. Treatment with high-flow oxygen and non-invasive ventilation is recommended. The use of statins or steroids in general therapy is not found to be fully supported by evidence. In the management of pleural infection, new data show favourable effects of tissue plasminogen activator and deoxyribonuclease installation. Detailed recommendations for the vaccination of risk groups are afforded.

  • 2.
    Axelsson, Carolina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Lunds universitet.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Lunds universitet.
    Nilson, Bo
    Lunds universitet.
    Rapid detection of antibiotic resistance in positive blood cultures by MALDI-TOF MS and an automated and optimized MBT-ASTRA protocol for Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae2019In: Infectious Diseases, ISSN 2374-4235, E-ISSN 2374-4243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: For fast and effective antibiotic therapy of serious infections like sepsis, it is crucial with rapid information about antibiotic susceptibility, especially in a time when the number of infections caused by multi resistant bacteria has escalated in the world.Methods: Here, we have used a semi-quantitative MALDI-TOF-MS based method for antibiotic resistance detection, MBT-ASTRA™, which is based on the comparison of growth rate of the bacteria cultivated with and without antibiotics. We demonstrate a new protocol where several parameters have been optimized and automated leading to reduced hands-on time and improved capacity to simultaneously analyse multiple clinical samples and antibiotics.Results: Ninety minutes of incubation at 37 °C with agitation was sufficient to differentiate the susceptible and resistant strains of E. coli and K. pneumoniae, for the antibiotics cefotaxime, meropenem and ciprofloxacin. In total, 841 positive blood culture analyses of 14 reference strains were performed. The overall sensitivity was 99%, specificity 99% and the accuracy 97%. The assay gave no errors for cefotaxime (n = 263) or meropenem (n = 289) for sensitive and resistant strains, whilst ciprofloxacin (n = 289) gave six (0.7%) major errors (false resistance) and four (0.5%) very major errors (false susceptibility). The intermediate strains showed a larger variety compared to the E-test MIC values.Conclusions: The hands-on time and the analysis time to detect antibiotic resistance of clinical blood samples can be substantially reduced and the sample capacity can be increased by using automation and this improved protocol.

  • 3.
    Axelsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping. Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden.
    Maternal obesity, obstetric interventions and post-partum anaemia increase the risk of post-partum sepsis: a population-based cohort study based on Swedish medical health registers2017In: Infectious Diseases, ISSN 2374-4235, E-ISSN 2374-4243, Vol. 49, no 10, p. 765-771Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The objective was to estimate whether maternal obesity and/or obstetric interventions are associated with diagnosed maternal post-partum sepsis. Methods: A retrospective observational cohort study including all deliveries in Sweden between 1997 and 2012 (N=1,558,752). Cases of sepsis (n=376) were identified by International Classification of Diseases, (ICD-10) codes A40, A41 and O 85 in the Medical Birth Register and the National Patient Register. The reference population was non-infected, and therefore, women with any other infection diagnosis and/or with dispensed antibiotics within eight weeks post-partum were excluded. Information on dispensed drugs was available in the prescribed drug Register. Women with sepsis were compared with non-infected women concerning maternal characteristics and obstetric interventions. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were determined using the Mantel-Haenszel technique. Adjustments were made for maternal age, parity and smoking. Results: Obese women (body mass index 30) had a doubled risk of sepsis (3.6/10,000) compared with normal weight women (2.0/10,000) (aOR 1.85 (95%CI: 1.37-2.48)). Induction of labour (aOR 1.44 (95%CI: 1.09-1.91)), caesarean section overall (aOR 3.06 (95%CI: 2.49-3.77)) and elective caesarean section (aOR 2.41 (95%CI: 1.68-3.45)) increased the risk of sepsis compared with normal vaginal delivery. Post-partum anaemia due to acute blood loss was associated with maternal sepsis (aOR 3.40 (95%CI: 2.59-4.47)). Conclusions: Maternal obesity, obstetric interventions and post-partum anaemia due to acute blood loss increased the risk of diagnosed post-partum sepsis indicating that interventions in obstetric care should be considered carefully and anaemia should be treated if resources are available.

  • 4.
    Bogelund Hansen, Matilde
    et al.
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Arpi, Magnus
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hedin, Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Futurum, Reg Jonkoping Cty, Linkoping, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Melander, Eva
    Skane Reg, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Hertz, Frederik Boetius
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark; Slagelse Hosp, Denmark.
    Thorsted, Anne Bonde
    Univ Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Jakobsen, Helle Neel
    Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hosp, Denmark.
    Hyllebusk, Lena
    Dept Clin Microbiol, Sweden.
    Brogaard, Emma
    Skane Reg, Sweden.
    Jensen, Jette Nygaard
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark; Capital Reg Denmark, Denmark.
    Antibiotic-prescribing and antibiotic-resistance patterns among elderly citizens residing in two Nordic regions2020In: Infectious Diseases, ISSN 2374-4235, E-ISSN 2374-4243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare antibiotic-prescribing rates in 2016 and antibiotic-resistance rates in 2017 among citizens aged amp;gt;= 85 years between the Capital Region in Denmark and the Skane Region in Sweden, with regards to overall antibiotic use and antibiotics of choice for urinary tract infections (UTIs) and skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Methods: Inhabitants amp;gt;= 85 year old on the date of prescription during 2016 and residing in the Capital Region or the Skane Region were included for antibiotic-prescription analyses. Samples from 2017 from residents of the same regions who were amp;gt;= 85 years old were included for antibiotic-resistance analyses. Antimicrobial use was determined according to the drugs of choice for UTIs and SSTIs in Denmark and Sweden. Students t-tests were used to compare antibiotic prescribing while a Chi-Squared test was performed to compare antibiotic resistance. Results: There was a significantly higher overall prescription rate among citizens amp;gt;= 85 years in the Capital Region than in the Skane Region. The same pattern was evident for the antibiotics of choice for UTIs and SSTIs except for clindamycin. Antibiotic resistance against all antibiotics included was more prominent in the Capital Region than in the Skane Region. Conclusion: Considerable variation in antibiotic prescribing and resistance exists among elderly citizens between these two adjacent Nordic regions. Information and reflection on current practices and resistance patterns may direct attention towards antimicrobial stewardship as a higher priority and may help inform and motivate prescribing behaviours.

  • 5.
    Dalianis, Tina
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Oncol Pathol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Britt-Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Felldin, Marie
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Transplant Inst, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Friman, Vanda
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Infect Dis, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hammarin, Anna-Lena
    Unit Lab Dev & Technol Transfer, Publ Hlth Agcy Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Herthelius, Maria
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Childrens & Womens Hlth Theme, Paediat Nephrol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ljungmang, Per
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Cellular Therapy & Allogene Stem Cell Transp, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Molne, Johan
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Pathol & Genet, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wennberg, Lars
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Transplantat Surg, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Swartling, Lisa
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Infect Dis, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Management of BK-virus infection - Swedish recommendations2019In: Infectious Diseases, ISSN 2374-4235, E-ISSN 2374-4243, Vol. 51, no 7, p. 479-484Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BK-virus (BKV) associated nephropathy (BKVAN) and BKV associated haemorrhagic cystitis (HC) are complications of BKV infection/reactivation in renal and allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients, respectively. The task of how to manage these diseases was given to the chair by the Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy (RAV). After individual contributions by members of the working group, consensus discussions were held in a meeting on 23 January 2018 arranged by RAV. Thereafter, the recommendations were published in Swedish on November 2018. The current translation to English has been approved by all co-authors. High BKV serum levels suggest an increased risk for BKVAN and potential graft failure. For detection of BKVAN, careful monitoring of BKV DNA levels in serum or plasma is recommended the first year after renal transplantation and when increased creatinine serum levels of unknown cause are observed. Notably, a renal biopsy is mandatory for diagnosis. To reduce the risk for progression of BKVAN, there is no specific treatment, and tailored individual decrease of immunosuppression is recommended. For BKV-HC, BKV monitoring is not recommended, since BK-viruria frequently occurs in HSCT patients and the predictive value of BKV in plasma/serum has not been determined. However, the risk for BKV-HC is higher for patients undergoing myeloablative conditioning, having an unrelated, HLA-mismatched, or a cord blood donor, and awareness of the increased risk and early intervention may benefit the patients. Also for BKV-HC, no specific therapy is available. Symptomatic treatment, e.g. forced diuresis and analgesics could be of use.

  • 6.
    Enroth, Helena
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Retz, Karolina
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Andersson, Sofie
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Andersson, Carl
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Svensson, Kristina
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Ljungström, Lars
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Tilevik, Diana
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Pernestig, Anna-Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Evaluation of QuickFISH and maldi Sepsityper for identification of bacteria in bloodstream infection2019In: Infectious Diseases, ISSN 2374-4235, E-ISSN 2374-4243, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 249-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Early detection of bacteria and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns are critical to guide therapeutic decision-making for optimal care of septic patients. The current gold standard, blood culturing followed by subculture on agar plates for subsequent identification, is too slow leading to excessive use of broad-spectrum antibiotic with harmful consequences for the patient and, in the long run, the public health. The aim of the present study was to assess the performance of two commercial assays, QuickFISH® (OpGen) and Maldi Sepsityper™ (Bruker Daltonics) for early and accurate identification of microorganisms directly from positive blood cultures.

    Materials and methods: During two substudies of positive blood cultures, the two commercial assays were assessed against the routine method used at the clinical microbiology laboratory, Unilabs AB, at Skaraborg Hospital, Sweden.

    Results: The Maldi Sepsityper™ assay enabled earlier microorganism identification. Using the cut-off for definite species identification according to the reference method (>2.0), sufficiently accurate species identification was achieved, but only among Gram-negative bacteria. The QuickFISH®assay was time-saving and showed high concordance with the reference method, 94.8% (95% CI 88.4–98.3), when the causative agent was covered by the QuickFISH® assay.

    Conclusions: The use of the commercial assays may shorten the time to identification of causative agents in bloodstream infections and can be a good complement to the current clinical routine diagnostics. Nevertheless, the performance of the commercial assays is considerably affected by the characteristics of the causative agents.

  • 7.
    Eriksson, Hannah K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Ahadpour, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Hailer, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Lazarinis, Stergios
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Järhult, Josef D.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Linezolid in the treatment of periprosthetic joint infection caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci2019In: Infectious Diseases, ISSN 2374-4235, E-ISSN 2374-4243, Vol. 51, no 9, p. 683-690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is increasingly common and is sometimes treated with off-label use of linezolid.

    Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of patients with PJI caused by CoNS treated with surgical intervention and orally administrated linezolid during the period 1995-2014 (n = 28). Clinical outcomes and adverse events related to linezolid administration were evaluated. Mean time to follow-up was 4.3 years (range: 0.2-12).

    Results: Twenty-two of 28 patients were infection-free at follow-up. No CoNS strain was resistant to vancomycin, but 16 of 28 were resistant to rifampicin, 23 of 28 to clindamycin and 20 of 27 to quinolones. The mean duration of linezolid treatment was 4.2 weeks (range: 1-12). Eleven of 28 patients had an adverse event related to the antimicrobial treatment, and four had to discontinue linezolid, but all adverse events were reversible within 2 months after discontinuation.

    Conclusions: Oral linezolid administration combined with adequate surgical treatment may be useful for the treatment of PJIs caused by CoNS.

  • 8.
    Furberg, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Anticona Huaynate, Cynthia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Schumann, Barbara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Post-infectious fatigue following Puumala virus infection2019In: Infectious Diseases, ISSN 2374-4235, E-ISSN 2374-4243, Vol. 51, no 7, p. 519-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Puumala virus infection or nephropathia epidemica (NE) is common in northern Sweden. NE causes haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Most patients make a full recovery, but a convalescent phase with fatigue has been reported. Although post-infectious fatigue has been demonstrated for other viral infections, it is not well studied in relation to NE. This study assessed recovery time and levels of fatigue in former NE patients, as compared to the general population.

    METHODS: NE patients diagnosed in northern Sweden between 2007 and 2011, together with a comparison sample from the general population, answered a questionnaire on demographic and health-related factors, including the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), and characteristics of NE infection. Self-reported recovery time was assessed, and fatigue levels were compared across the two groups by multiple linear regression, stratified by gender.

    RESULTS: In total, 1132 NE patients and 915 comparison group subjects participated. Time to complete recovery was reported to exceed 3 months for 47% and 6 months for 32% of the NE patients. Recovery time differed by gender and age. NE patients had significantly higher FSS scores than the comparison group. Differences were greater among women than men, and adjustments for current illness, body mass index, smoking and current residence only slightly modified the estimates.

    CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with previous NE infection show higher fatigue scores than non-infected individuals, even 5 years following the infection. Full recovery takes half a year or longer for a substantial proportion of former NE patients.

  • 9.
    Lagging, Martin
    et al.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine at Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wejstål, Rune
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine at Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Duberg, Ann-Sofi
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Aleman, Soo
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska Institute at Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Weiland, Ola
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska Institute at Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Westin, Johan
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine at Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy (RAV), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Treatment of hepatitis C virus infection for adults and children: updated Swedish consensus guidelines 20172018In: Infectious Diseases, ISSN 2374-4235, E-ISSN 2374-4243, Vol. 50, no 8, p. 569-583Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Following the approval of two new therapeutic combinations within the European Union in 2017, the former Swedish recommendations for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection from 2016 were deemed in need of updating.

    Materials and methods: An expert meeting to this end was held in Stockholm, Sweden in October 2017.

    Results and conclusions: An interferon-free combination of direct-acting antiviral agents is now recommended for all patients with chronic HCV infection, regardless of liver fibrosis stage, in order to limit morbidity and spread of the disease. An extended discussion of treatment for people who inject drugs in order to diminish transmission is included.

  • 10.
    Magnusson, Charlotta
    et al.
    School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Stegger, Marc
    Department of Bacteria, Parasites and Fungi, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hellmark, Bengt
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Stenmark, Bianca
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital.
    Söderquist, Bo
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Staphylococcus aureus isolates from nares of orthopaedic patients in Sweden are mupirocin susceptible2019In: Infectious Diseases, ISSN 2374-4235, E-ISSN 2374-4243, Vol. 51, no 6, p. 475-478Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Mero, Sointu
    et al.
    Helsinki Univ Hosp, Div Clin Microbiol, HUSLAB, Helsinki, Finland..
    Kirveskari, Juha
    Helsinki Univ Hosp, Div Clin Microbiol, HUSLAB, Helsinki, Finland..
    Antikainen, Jenni
    Helsinki Univ Hosp, Div Clin Microbiol, HUSLAB, Helsinki, Finland..
    Ursing, Johan
    Danderyd Hosp, Dept Infect Dis, Stockholm, Sweden.;Indepth Network, Bandim Hlth Project, Bissau, Guinea Bissau.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Microbiol Tumour & Cell Biol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rombo, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning i Sörmland (CKFD). Karolinska Inst, Unit Infect Dis, Stockholm, Sweden.;Sormland Cty Council, Ctr Clin Res, Eskilstuna, Sweden..
    Kofoed, Poul-Erik
    Indepth Network, Bandim Hlth Project, Bissau, Guinea Bissau.;Kolding Hosp IRS Univ Southern Denmark, Dept Paediat, Kolding, Denmark..
    Kantele, Anu
    Karolinska Inst, Unit Infect Dis, Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Helsinki, Clin Infect Dis, Helsinki, Finland.;Helsinki Univ Hosp, Helsinki, Finland..
    Multiplex PCR detection of Cryptosporidium sp, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica directly from dried stool samples from Guinea-Bissauan children with diarrhoea2017In: Infectious Diseases, ISSN 2374-4235, E-ISSN 2374-4243, Vol. 49, no 9, p. 655-663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In developing countries, diarrhoea is the most common cause of death for children under five years of age, with Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium and Entamoeba histolytica as the most frequent pathogenic parasites. Traditional microscopy for stool parasites has poor sensitivity and specificity, while new molecular methods may provide more accurate diagnostics. In poor regions with sample storage hampered by uncertain electricity supply, research would benefit from a method capable of analysing dried stools. Methods: A real-time multiplex PCR method with internal inhibition control was developed for detecting Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium hominis/parvum and Entamoeba histolytica directly from stool specimens. Applicability to dried samples was checked by comparing with fresh ones in a small test material. Finally, the assay was applied to dried specimens collected from Guinea-Bissauan children with diarrhoea. Results: The PCR's analytical sensitivity limit was 0.1 ng/ml for G. lamblia DNA, 0.01 ng/ml for E. histolytica DNA and 0.1 ng/ml for Cryptosporidium sp. In the test material, the assay performed similarly with fresh and dried stools. Of the 52 Guinea-Bissauan samples, local microscopy revealed a parasite in 15%, while PCR detected 62% positive for at least one parasite: 44% of the dried samples had Giardia, 23% Cryptosporidium and 0% E. histolytica. Conclusions: Our new multiplex real-time PCR for protozoa presents a sensitive method applicable to dried samples. As proof of concept, it worked well on stools collected from Guinea-Bissauan children with diarrhoea. It provides an epidemiological tool for analysing dried specimens from regions poor in resources.

  • 12.
    Tran, Anh Nhi
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, Public Health Agency of Sweden, Solna, Sweden.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bennet, Rutger
    Department of Woman and Child Health, Astrid Lindgren Children´s Hospital, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brytting, Maria
    Department of Microbiology, Public Health Agency of Sweden, Solna, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Margareta
    Department of Woman and Child Health, Astrid Lindgren Children´s Hospital, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Storsaeter, Jann
    Department of Vaccine-Preventable Illnesses, National Public Health Institute, Oslo, Norway.
    Österlin, Barbro
    Department of Microbiology, Public Health Agency of Sweden, Solna, Sweden.
    Johansen, Kari
    Department of Microbiology, Public Health Agency of Sweden, Solna, Sweden.
    Impact on affected families and society of severe rotavirus infections in Swedish children assessed in a prospective cohort study.2018In: Infectious Diseases, ISSN 2374-4235, E-ISSN 2374-4243, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 361-371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Few prospective cohort studies have estimated the overall impact of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) leading to hospitalization on families and society. We assessed human and economic resources needed to care for an affected average child aged <5 years in Sweden.

    METHODS: The study was conducted in Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital which serves approximately 14% of all Swedish children <5 years of age. All children admitted with acute gastroenteritis in the study period were tested for rotavirus. Health care consumption was collected prospectively and publically available unit costs used to calculate direct costs. Non-medical and indirect costs were collected in interviews with families using a standardized questionnaire during the hospital stay and approximately 14 days post-discharge.

    RESULTS: 144/206 children (70%) with laboratory-confirmed RVGE were included. The median age was 14 months. The average total cost per hospitalized child was €3894, of which €2169 (56%) was due to direct healthcare-related costs (including Emergency Department visits and in-patient care), €104 (2%) to non-medical direct costs and €1621 (42%) to indirect costs due to productivity loss. Carers of children with severe RVGE were absent from work on average five days per study child: four days during hospitalization of affected child and one day due to gastroenteritis in the carer.

    CONCLUSIONS: Costs for RVGE are dominated by direct costs which are similar to some other countries in Europe, but indirect costs due to productivity loss are also important, and should be considered in decisions to introduce rotavirus vaccines into national vaccination programmes.

  • 13.
    Tängdén, Thomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Karvanen, Matti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Friberg, Lena E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Odenholt, Inga
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Malmo, Sweden..
    Cars, Otto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Assessment of early combination effects of colistin and meropenem against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii in dynamic time-kill experiments2017In: Infectious Diseases, ISSN 2374-4235, E-ISSN 2374-4243, Vol. 49, no 7, p. 521-527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In view of the paucity of clinical evidence, in vitro studies are needed to find antibiotic combinations effective against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Interpretation of in vitro effects is usually based on bacterial growth after 24h in time-kill and checkerboard experiments. However, the clinical relevance of the effects observed in vitro is not established. In this study we explored alternative output parameters to assess the activities of colistin and meropenem against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. Methods: Four strains each of P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii were exposed to colistin and meropenem, alone and in combination, in 8h dynamic time-kill experiments. Initial (1h), maximum and 8h bacterial reductions and the area under the bacterial time-kill curve were evaluated. Checkerboards, interpreted based on fractional inhibitory concentration indices after 24h, were performed for comparison. Results: In the time-kill experiments, the combination resulted in enhanced 1h, maximum and 8h bacterial reductions against 2, 3 and 5 of 8 strains, respectively, as compared to the single drugs. A statistically significant reduction in the area under the time-kill curve was observed for three strains. In contrast, the checkerboards did not identify synergy for any of the strains. Conclusions: Combination effects were frequently found with colistin and meropenem against P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii in time-kill experiments but were not detected with the checkerboard method. We propose that the early dynamics of bacterial killing and growth, which may be of great clinical importance, should be considered in future in vitro combination studies.

  • 14.
    Tärnvik, Arne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Management of complicated skin and skin structure infections: a call for infectious disease specialists2018In: Infectious Diseases, ISSN 2374-4235, E-ISSN 2374-4243, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 117-118Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Wennerås, Christine
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Infect Dis & Hematol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Goldblatt, David
    UCL, Great Ormond St Inst Child Hlth, Immunobiol Sect, London, England..
    Zancolli, Marta
    UCL, Great Ormond St Inst Child Hlth, Immunobiol Sect, London, England..
    Mattsson, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Haematology.
    Wass, Linda
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Infect Dis & Hematol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Horkko, Sohvi
    Univ Oulu, Med Res Ctr, Dept Med Microbiol & Immunol, Oulu, Finland.;Oulu Univ Hosp, Nordlab Oulu, Oulu, Finland..
    Rosen, Anders
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Natural IgM antibodies in the immune defence against neoehrlichiosis2017In: Infectious Diseases, ISSN 2374-4235, E-ISSN 2374-4243, Vol. 49, no 11-12, p. 809-816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Neoehrlichiosis is an infectious disease caused by the tick-borne bacterium Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis. Splenectomy and rituximab therapies are risk factors for severe neoehrlichiosis. Our aim was to examine if neoehrlichiosis patients had low levels of natural IgM antibodies and/or were hypogammaglobulinemic, and if such deficiencies were associated with asplenia and vascular complications. Methods: Neoehrlichiosis patients (n=9) and control subjects (n=10) were investigated for serum levels of IgG, IgA, and IgM, and for levels of natural IgM antibodies to pneumococcal polysaccharides (6B, 14), and to the malondialdehyde acetaldehyde epitope of oxidized LDL. The multivariate method Projection to Latent Structures was used to analyze the data. Results: The levels of natural IgM antibodies of various specificities were decreased or not measurable in half of the studied patients with neoehrlichiosis. Only one patient and one control subject were hypogammaglobulinemic. An inverse relationship was noted between the levels of natural IgM antibodies and the development of deep vein thrombosis. Unexpectedly, no association was seen between having or not having a spleen and the levels of natural IgM antibody levels in the circulation. Conclusions: Neither hypogammaglobulinemia nor lack of natural IgM antibodies alone predisposes for severe neoehrlichiosis. The importance of the spleen in the immune defence against Ca. N. mikurensis probably lies in its capacity to generate or maintain specific antibodies.

  • 16.
    Wennerås, Christine
    et al.
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Hematology , Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg , Göteborg , Sweden.
    Goldblatt, David
    Immunobiology Section , Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, University College London , London , UK.
    Zancolli, Marta
    Immunobiology Section , Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, University College London , London , UK.
    Mattsson, Mattias
    Department of Hematology , Uppsala University Hospital , Uppsala , Sweden.
    Wass, Linda
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Hematology , Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg , Göteborg , Sweden.
    Hörkkö, Sohvi
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology , Medical Research Center University of Oulu, and Nordlab Oulu, Oulu University Hospital , Oulu , Finland.
    Rosén, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology.
    Natural IgM antibodies in the immune defence against neoehrlichiosis2017In: Infectious Diseases, ISSN 2374-4235, E-ISSN 2374-4243, Vol. 49, no 11, p. 809-816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Neoehrlichiosis is an infectious disease caused by the tick-borne bacterium ?Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis?. Splenectomy and rituximab therapies are risk factors for severe neoehrlichiosis. Our aim was to examine if neoehrlichiosis patients had low levels of natural IgM antibodies and/or were hypogammaglobulinemic, and if such deficiencies were associated with asplenia and vascular complications.

    Methods: Neoehrlichiosis patients (n?=?9) and control subjects (n?=?10) were investigated for serum levels of IgG, IgA, and IgM, and for levels of natural IgM antibodies to pneumococcal polysaccharides (6B, 14), and to the malondialdehyde acetaldehyde epitope of oxidized LDL. The multivariate method Projection to Latent Structures was used to analyze the data.

    Results: The levels of natural IgM antibodies of various specificities were decreased or not measurable in half of the studied patients with neoehrlichiosis. Only one patient and one control subject were hypogammaglobulinemic. An inverse relationship was noted between the levels of natural IgM antibodies and the development of deep vein thrombosis. Unexpectedly, no association was seen between having or not having a spleen and the levels of natural IgM antibody levels in the circulation.

    Conclusions: Neither hypogammaglobulinemia nor lack of natural IgM antibodies alone predisposes for severe neoehrlichiosis. The importance of the spleen in the immune defence against Ca. N. mikurensis probably lies in its capacity to generate or maintain specific antibodies.

  • 17.
    Westin, Johan
    et al.
    Deparment of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Aleman, Soo
    Deparment of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Castedal, Maria
    Department of Surgery, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Duberg, Ann-Sofi
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Deparment of Infectious Diseases.
    Eilard, Anders
    Deparment of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fischler, Björn
    Deparment of Pediatrics, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kampmann, Christian
    Deparment of Infectious Diseases, Skåne University Hospital Lund, Lund, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Karin
    Deparment of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindh, Magnus
    Deparment of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Norkrans, Gunnar
    Deparment of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Stenmark, Stephan
    Deparment of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Weiland, Ola
    Deparment of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wejstål, Rune
    Deparment of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Management of hepatitis B virus infection, updated Swedish guidelines2020In: Infectious Diseases, ISSN 2374-4235, E-ISSN 2374-4243, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite access to effective antiviral drugs and vaccines, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major health issue worldwide. HBV is highly infectious and may cause chronic infection, progressive liver damage, hepatocellular cancer (HCC) and death. Early diagnosis, proper management and timing of treatment are crucial. The Swedish Reference group for Antiviral Treatment (RAV) here provides updated evidence-based guidelines for treatment and management of HBV infection which may be applicable also in other countries. Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) has been introduced as a novel treatment option and new principles regarding indication and duration of treatment and characterization of hepatitis B have been gradually introduced which justifies an update of the previous guidelines from 2007. Updated guidelines on HCC surveillance in HBV-infected patients, treatment and prophylaxis for patients undergoing liver transplantation as well as management of pregnant women and children with HBV infection are also provided.

  • 18. Westin, Johan
    et al.
    Aleman, Soo
    Castedal, Maria
    Duberg, Ann-Sofi
    Eilard, Anders
    Fischlere, Björn
    Kampmann, Christian
    Lindahl, Karin
    Lindh, Magnus
    Norkrans, Gunnar
    Stenmark, Stephan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Weiland, Ola
    Wejstål, Rune
    Management of hepatitis B virus infection, updated Swedish guidelines2020In: Infectious Diseases, ISSN 2374-4235, E-ISSN 2374-4243, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite access to effective antiviral drugs and vaccines, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major health issue worldwide. HBV is highly infectious and may cause chronic infection, progressive liver damage, hepatocellular cancer (HCC) and death. Early diagnosis, proper management and timing of treatment are crucial. The Swedish Reference group for Antiviral Treatment (RAV) here provides updated evidence-based guidelines for treatment and management of HBV infection which may be applicable also in other countries. Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) has been introduced as a novel treatment option and new principles regarding indication and duration of treatment and characterization of hepatitis B have been gradually introduced which justifies an update of the previous guidelines from 2007. Updated guidelines on HCC surveillance in HBV-infected patients, treatment and prophylaxis for patients undergoing liver transplantation as well as management of pregnant women and children with HBV infection are also provided.

  • 19.
    Wågström, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Ryhov Cty Hosp, Sweden.
    Yamada, Naomi
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dahle, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Nilsdotter-Augustinsson, Åsa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Bengner, Malin
    Ryhov Cty Hosp, Sweden.
    Söderkvist, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Clinical genetics.
    Björkander, Jan Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Fc gamma-receptor polymorphisms associated with clinical symptoms in patients with immunoglobulin G subclass deficiency2018In: Infectious Diseases, ISSN 2374-4235, E-ISSN 2374-4243, Vol. 50, no 11-12, p. 853-858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Immunoglobulin G subclass deficiencies (IgGsd) are associated with recurrent respiratory tract infections. Immunoglobulin substitution therapy may be needed to prevent chronic lung tissue damage but tools for identifying the patients that will benefit from this treatment are still insufficient. Some Fc gamma R polymorphisms seem to predispose for an increased risk for infections. In this study we wanted to evaluate if the Fc gamma R-profile differs between individuals with IgGsd and a control population. Methods: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Fc gamma RIIa, Fc gamma RIIIa and Fc gamma RIIc in 36 IgGsd patients and 192 controls with similar sex and geographical distribution were analyzed by TaqMan allelic discrimination assay or Sanger sequencing. Results: In the IgGsd-group, homozygous frequency for Fc gamma RIIa-R/R131 (low-binding capacity isoform) was higher (p = .03) as well as for non-classical Fc gamma RIIc-ORF (p = .03) and classical Fc gamma RIIc-ORF tended (p = .07) to be more common compared to the controls. There was no difference between the groups regarding Fc gamma RIIIa. Conclusion: The gene for classical Fc gamma RIIc-ORF tended to be more frequent in individuals with immunoglobulin G subclass deficiency and the genes for non-classical Fc gamma RIIc-ORF as well as low-binding capacity receptor Fc gamma RIIa-R/R131 were more frequent. Further studies on the Fc gamma R polymorphisms may pave way for identifying individuals that will benefit from immunoglobulin substitution.

  • 20.
    Ziegler, Ingrid
    et al.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Örebro University Hospital , Örebro, Sweden.
    Cajander, Sara
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Infectious Diseases, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Rasmussen, Gunlög
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ennefors, Theresa
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Mölling, Paula
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Strålin, Kristoffer
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    High nuc DNA load in whole blood is associated with sepsis, mortality and immune dysregulation in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia2019In: Infectious Diseases, ISSN 2374-4235, E-ISSN 2374-4243, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 216-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia is a disease with varying presentation, ranging from uncomplicated to life-threatening infections. In S. aureus bacteraemia, a high load of bacterial DNA in blood has been linked to mortality. We hypothesized that a high DNA load would also be linked to the presence of sepsis, and to high C-reactive protein (CRP) and lymphopaenia, indicating inflammation and immunosuppression.

    METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with culture-proven S. aureus bacteraemia, 13 (48%) with sepsis and six (22%) non-survivors, were enrolled in a prospective study. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 1-2, 3-4, 6-8, 13-15 and 26-30, and subjected to droplet digital PCR targeting the nuc gene to determine the nuc DNA load.

    RESULTS: nuc DNA was detected on days 0-2 in 22 patients (81%), and on days 6-8 in three patients (all non-survivors). The nuc DNA load on days 1-2 was significantly elevated in patients with sepsis (median 2.69 versus 1.32 log10 copies/mL; p = .014) and in non-survivors (median 2.5 versus 1.0 log10 copies/mL; p = .033). Patients with a high nuc DNA load (>3.0 log10 copies/mL) on days 1-2 had significantly elevated CRP levels at all timepoints, and significantly decreased lymphocyte counts on days 0, 1-2, 13-15 and 26-30.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that a high initial load of S. aureus DNA in blood is associated with sepsis, mortality and persistent immune dysregulation in S. aureus bacteraemia patients. Further studies are needed to define the role of bacterial DNA load monitoring in the management of S. aureus bacteraemia.

1 - 20 of 20
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf