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  • 1.
    Andersson, Petter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Hambäck, Peter A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Immigration of olfactory searching insects into host plant patches: testing scaling rules for olfactory information2011In: Arthropod-Plant Interactions, ISSN 1872-8855, E-ISSN 1872-8847, Vol. 5, p. 269-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herbivorous insects are commonly faced with host plants being distributed in scattered patches across a landscape. Immigration rates into habitat patches may strongly depend on the sensory cues used in the patch location process, and immigration rates of insects can be predicted based on the scaling of sensory cues. Here, we tested recent estimates of the scaling of olfactory information to patch size, which predicts a scaling coefficientf z = -0.5 (A^z, where A = patch size, z = scaling coefficient). We predicted that immigration rates of olfactory searching insects into patches of different sizes should scale according to the estimated slope. We investigated attraction of the weevils Cionus tuberculosus and Cionus scrophulariae to odors from figwort Scrophularia nodosa and quantified immigration rates of weevils into differently sized patches. We also investigated oviposition rates of the sawfly Tenthredo scrophulariae. The slope in the regression between density and patch size for herbivores was then compared with the predicted scaling coefficient. Using olfactometers, we found that weevils were attracted to figwort odors. Weevil densities were significantly affected by patch size, and the slope in the relationship between density and patch size was z = -0.53. The slope in the relationship between larval densities of sawflies and patch size was less negative with a slope of z = -0.15, indicating differences in search behavior compared with the weevils. The density–patch size relationship for the weevils closely matched the predicted slope and supported the previous estimations of the scaling of olfactory informationto patch size.

  • 2.
    Bærholm Schnell, Ida
    et al.
    Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark,.
    Fraser, Magdalena
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Willerslev, Eske
    Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark,.
    Gilbert, M. Thomas P.
    Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark,.
    Characterisation of insect and plant origins using DNA extracted from small volumes of bee honey2010In: Arthropod-Plant Interactions, ISSN 1872-8855, E-ISSN 1872-8847, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 107-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A DNA-based tool was validated that potentially enables the characterisation of both plant and insect of origin of small (approximately 1 ml) samples of bee honey. Using this method, mitochondrial, nuclear and chloroplast DNA (mtDNA, nuDNA, cpDNA) markers were successfully extracted, PCR amplified, and sequenced from a range of honeys, and the relative amount of plant nuDNA and cpDNA, and bee mtDNA in the samples was quantified using quantitative real-time PCR.

    Short, but taxonomically informative lengths of insect and plant organelle DNA could be routinely recovered from all honey samples tested, and longer organelle, and nuclear DNA sequences can be recovered from many. The data also enabled preliminary characterisation of the quality of these different DNA sources in honey. Although the absolute quantity of the different genetic markers varied considerably between sample, a general trend was observed of insect mtDNA dominating over plant organelle DNA, and with plant nuclear DNA at the lowest levels. Furthermore there was a clear correlation between the plant DNA content and the success of the PCR assays. To maximise successful characterisation of samples, future studies are recommended to focus on the use of organelle markers, and limit the size of PCR amplicons targeted, although with appropriate sample selection and assay optimisation, other approaches may be possible.

  • 3.
    Danielsson, Marie
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry Biotechnology and Health, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zhao, Tao
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Chemistry, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry Biotechnology and Health, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    Department of Chemistry, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry Biotechnology and Health, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Arthropod infestation sites and induced defence can be traced by emission from single spruce needle2019In: Arthropod-Plant Interactions, ISSN 1872-8855, E-ISSN 1872-8847, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 253-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emissions of defence chemicals from Norway spruce seedlings can be induced by feeding arthropods or by exogenous hormonal application. Some defence chemicals may attract or repel associated arthropods. The aim of this study was to show that it is possible to detect and collect stress-induced volatiles from micro sites, such as at the scale of a single needle, in vivo by using SPME. Methyl jasmonate application on the stem of Norway spruce seedlings induced emission of (E)-beta-farnesene only from the needles closest to the application site. Emissions of (E)-beta-farnesene, (E,E)-alpha-farnesene and (E)-alpha-bisabolene were only detected from needles infested by the spider mite Oligonychus ununguis. The total volatile amount detected by SPME-GC-MS reached a considerable mass of 14 ng/needle/24 h, suggesting that emission from damaged and stressed conifers might have a larger impact on the macro climate than previously estimated.

  • 4.
    Danielsson, Marie
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry.
    Zhao, Tao
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Organic chemistry. Department of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Organic chemistry.
    Arthropod infestation sites and induced defence can be traced by emission from single spruce needles2019In: Arthropod-Plant Interactions, ISSN 1872-8855, E-ISSN 1872-8847, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 253-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emissions of defence chemicals from Norway spruce seedlings can be induced by feeding arthropods or by exogenous hormonal application. Some defence chemicals may attract or repel associated arthropods. The aim of this study was to show that it is possible to detect and collect stress-induced volatiles from micro sites, such as at the scale of a single needle, in vivo by using SPME. Methyl jasmonate application on the stem of Norway spruce seedlings induced emission of (E)-beta-farnesene only from the needles closest to the application site. Emissions of (E)-beta-farnesene, (E,E)-alpha-farnesene and (E)-alpha-bisabolene were only detected from needles infested by the spider mite Oligonychus ununguis. The total volatile amount detected by SPME-GC-MS reached a considerable mass of 14 ng/needle/24 h, suggesting that emission from damaged and stressed conifers might have a larger impact on the macro climate than previously estimated.

  • 5.
    Lafage, Denis
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Djoudi, El Aziz
    Université de Rennes, France.
    Perrin, Gwenhaël
    Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Gallet, Sèbastien
    Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Pétillon, Julien
    Université de Rennes, France.
    Responses of ground-dwelling spider assemblages to changes in vegetation from wet oligotrophic habitats of Western France2019In: Arthropod-Plant Interactions, ISSN 1872-8855, E-ISSN 1872-8847, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 653-662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While many arthropod species are known to depend, directly or indirectly, on certain plant species or communities, it remains unclear to what extent vegetation shapes spider assemblages. In this study, we tested whether the activity-density, composition, and diversity of ground-dwelling spiders were driven by changes in vegetation structure. Field sampling was conducted using pitfall traps in bogs, heathlands, and grasslands of Brittany (Western France) in 2013. A total of 8576 spider individuals were identified up to the species level (for a total of 141 species), as well as all plant species in more than 300 phytosociological relevés. A generalised linear model showed that spider activity-density was negatively influenced by mean vegetation height and mean Ellenberg value for moisture. Indices of diversity (ɑ, β, and functional diversities) increased with increasing vegetation height and shrub cover. Variables driving spider composition were mean vegetation height, dwarf shrub cover, and low shrub cover (results from a redundancy analysis). Spiders, some of the most abundant arthropod predators, are thus strongly influenced by vegetation structure, including ground-dwelling species. Although later successional states are usually seen as detrimental to local biodiversity in Europe, our results suggest that allowing controlled development of the shrub layer could have a positive impact on the diversity of ground-dwelling spiders. 

  • 6.
    Mehrabi, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Åhman, Inger
    Jonsson, Lisbeth M. V.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    The constitutive expression and induction of three β-1,3-glucanases by bird cherry-oat aphid in relation to aphid resistance in 15 barley breeding lines2016In: Arthropod-Plant Interactions, ISSN 1872-8855, E-ISSN 1872-8847, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 101-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, 15 closely related barley genotypes were analyzed for the abundance of three β-1,3-glucanase transcripts immediately before and during infestation by the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.). The barley lines are doubled haploid lines in backcross (BC) generations BC1 and BC2 from a cross between cultivar Lina and a wild barley accession. Previously, they have been characterized as susceptible (S) or resistant (R) to R. padi based on their ability to support nymphal growth. Here we also tested whether resistance was manifested as reduced aphid settling on the plants. Indeed, aphid numbers were lower on R than on S lines in all cases where there were significant differences between R and S lines. The choice of β-1,3-glucanase sequences is based on earlier results comparing two S and two R genotypes, suggesting that at least two of the three studied sequences are susceptibility factors. The comparisons of transcript abundance in plants with aphids showed for two of the β-1,3-glucanase sequences that there were several cases where an S genotype had significantly higher abundance than an R genotype, and in no case did an R line have significantly higher abundance than an S line. Thus, there was some support for the idea that β-1,3-glucanase sequences are susceptibility factors in the interaction between barley and R. padi.

  • 7.
    Radonjic, Andja
    et al.
    Univ Belgrade, Fac Agr, Zemun Belgrade, Serbia;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Box 7044, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Terenius, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Box 7044, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ninkovic, Velemir
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Box 7044, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    The phytopathogen powdery mildew affects food-searching behavior and survival of Coccinella septempunctata2018In: Arthropod-Plant Interactions, ISSN 1872-8855, E-ISSN 1872-8847, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 685-690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The diet of entomophagous coccinellids is mainly based on aphids and other food sources such as pollen, nectar, or fungal spores. Knowledge of their foraging behavior on plants infected by powdery mildew and their survival on fungal spores is currently limited. In this study, we investigated the olfactory response of Coccinella septempunctata to odor emission of barley plants infected by powdery mildew and their survival on fungal spores in the presence or absence of aphids. Odors released by powdery-mildew infected plants were more attractive for ladybirds compared to those of uninfected controls. After 3days, the survival rate of ladybirds feeding only on powdery-mildew spores was less than 50%, while for ladybirds feeding exclusively on Rhopalosiphum padi aphids, the survival rate was close to 90%. After 15days, the highest survival rate (almost 80%) was observed for ladybirds feeding on plants with both aphids and powdery mildew. Molecular analyses confirmed the presence of fungal spores in ladybird guts when feeding either on powdery mildew or on a mixed diet. Our results provide new insights into foraging behavior of entomophagous coccinellids revealing the potential of powdery mildew to be utilized as important non-essential food in a mixed diet, but also its lethal effect if consumed alone.

  • 8. Valterova, Irena
    et al.
    Kunze, Jan
    Gumbert, Andreas
    Luxová, Anna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Liblikas, Ilme
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Kalinova, Blanka
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Male bumble bee pheromonal components in the scent of deceit pollinated orchids; unrecognized pollinator cues?2007In: Arthropod-Plant Interactions, ISSN 1872-8855, E-ISSN 1872-8847, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 137-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pollination of the non-rewarding Orchis pauciflora was studied. The most abundant visitors of O. pauciflora were B. terrestris queens. The fragrance of O. pauciflora inflorescence was dominated by a sesquiterpene (E)-beta-farnesene. (E,E)-alpha-Farnesene, (E)-2,3-dihydrofarnesol, geranylcitronellol, and the monoterpenes limonene and 1,8-cineol were found among less abundant constituents. The sesqui- and diterpenes detected in O. pauciflora fragrance are frequent constituents of male marking pheromones of many bumble bee species. Enantioselective analysis of O. pauciflora scent and B. terrestris male marking pheromone revealed the presence of the (S)-isomer of (E)-2,3-dihydrofarnesol in both samples, and electrophysiological experiments showed that mainly the (S)-isomer activated the antennal receptors. In field experiments, O. pauciflora inflorescences were enriched with the main compound (E)-beta-farnesene resulting in significantly increased pollinia export. We here discuss the chemical similarities between orchid and bumble bees and whether the presence of bumble bee male pheromone components in O. pauciflora fragrance increases its fitness.

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