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  • 1. Alvarez, Belinda
    et al.
    Frings, Patrick J
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Clymans, Wim
    Fontorbe, Guillaume
    Conley, Daniel
    Assessing the Potential of Sponges (Porifera) as Indicators of Ocean Dissolved Si Concentrations2017In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 4, no 373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore the distribution of sponges along dissolved silica (dSi) concentration gradients to test whether sponge assemblages are related to dSi and to assess the validity of fossil sponges as a palaeoecological tool for inferring dSi concentrations of the past oceans. We extracted sponge records from the publically available Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) database and linked these records with ocean physiochemical data to evaluate if there is any correspondence between dSi concentrations of the waters sponges inhabit and their distribution. Over 320,000 records of Porifera were available, of which 62,360 met strict quality control criteria. Our analyses was limited to the taxonomic levels of family, order and class. Because dSi concentration is correlated with depth in the modern ocean, we also explored sponge taxa distributions as a function of depth. We observe that while some sponge taxa appear to have dSi preferences (e.g., class Hexactinellida occurs mostly at high dSi), the overall distribution of sponge orders and families along dSi gradients is not sufficiently differentiated to unambiguously relate dSi concentrations to sponge taxa assemblages. We also observe that sponge taxa tend to be similarly distributed along a depth gradient. In other words, both dSi and/or another variable that depth is a surrogate for, may play a role in controlling sponge spatial distribution and the challenge is to distinguish between the two. We conclude that inferences about palaeo-dSi concentrations drawn from the abundance of sponges in the stratigraphic records must be treated cautiously as these animals are adapted to a great range of dSi conditions and likely other underlying variables that are related to depth. Our analysis provides a quantification of the dSi ranges of common sponge taxa, expands on previous knowledge related to their bathymetry preferences and suggest that sponge taxa assemblages are not related to particular dSi conditions. 

  • 2. Berg, C.
    et al.
    Dupont, C. L.
    Asplund-Samuelsson, Johannes
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH). KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Celepli, N. A.
    Eiler, A.
    Allen, A. E.
    Ekman, M.
    Bergman, B.
    Ininbergs, K.
    Dissection of microbial community functions during a cyanobacterial bloom in the Baltic Sea via metatranscriptomics2018In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 4, no FEB, article id 55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine and brackish surface waters are highly dynamic habitats that undergo repeated seasonal variations in microbial community composition and function throughout time. While succession of the various microbial groups has been well investigated, little is known about the underlying gene-expression of the microbial community. We investigated microbial interactions via metatranscriptomics over a spring to fall seasonal cycle in the brackish Baltic Sea surface waters, a temperate brackish water ecosystem periodically promoting massive cyanobacterial blooms, which have implications for primary production, nutrient cycling, and expansion of hypoxic zones. Network analysis of the gene expression of all microbes from 0.22 to 200 μm in size and of the major taxonomic groups dissected the seasonal cycle into four components that comprised genes peaking during different periods of the bloom. Photoautotrophic nitrogen-fixing Cyanobacteria displayed the highest connectivity among the microbes, in contrast to chemoautotrophic ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota, while heterotrophs dominated connectivity among pre- and post-bloom peaking genes. The network was also composed of distinct functional connectivities, with an early season balance between carbon metabolism and ATP synthesis shifting to a dominance of ATP synthesis during the bloom, while carbon degradation, specifically through the glyoxylate shunt, characterized the post-bloom period, driven by Alphaproteobacteria as well as by Gammaproteobacteria of the SAR86 and SAR92 clusters. Our study stresses the exceptionally strong biotic driving force executed by cyanobacterial blooms on associated microbial communities in the Baltic Sea and highlights the impact cyanobacterial blooms have on functional microbial community composition. 

  • 3.
    Berg, Carlo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Dupont, Chris L.
    Asplund-Samuelsson, Johannes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Celepli, Narin A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Eiler, Alexander
    Allen, Andrew E.
    Ekman, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Bergman, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Ininbergs, Karolina
    Dissection of Microbial Community Functions during a Cyanobacterial Bloom in the Baltic Sea via Metatranscriptomics2018In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, article id UNSP 55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine and brackish surface waters are highly dynamic habitats that undergo repeated seasonal variations in microbial community composition and function throughout time. While succession of the various microbial groups has been well investigated, little is known about the underlying gene-expression of the microbial community. We investigated microbial interactions via metatranscriptomics over a spring to fall seasonal cycle in the brackish Baltic Sea surface waters, a temperate brackish water ecosystem periodically promoting massive cyanobacterial blooms, which have implications for primary production, nutrient cycling, and expansion of hypoxic zones. Network analysis of the gene expression of all microbes from 0.22 to 200 mu m in size and of the major taxonomic groups dissected the seasonal cycle into four components that comprised genes peaking during different periods of the bloom. Photoautotrophic nitrogen-fixing Cyanobacteria displayed the highest connectivity among the microbes, in contrast to chemoautotrophic ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota, while heterotrophs dominated connectivity among pre- and post-bloom peaking genes. The network was also composed of distinct functional connectivities, with an early season balance between carbon metabolism and ATP synthesis shifting to a dominance of ATP synthesis during the bloom, while carbon degradation, specifically through the glyoxylate shunt, characterized the post-bloom period, driven by Alphaproteobacteria as well as by Gammaproteobacteria of the SAR86 and SAR92 clusters. Our study stresses the exceptionally strong biotic driving force executed by cyanobacterial blooms on associated microbial communities in the Baltic Sea and highlights the impact cyanobacterial blooms have on functional microbial community composition.

  • 4.
    Berkström, Charlotte
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, Stockholm, Sweden;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Resources, Inst Coastal Res, Oregrund, Sweden.
    Papadopoulos, Myron
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jiddawi, Narriman Saleh
    State Univ Zanzibar, Trop Ctr Oceanog Environm Sci & Nat Resources, Zanzibar, Sweden.
    Nordlund, Lina M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Fishers' Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK) on Connectivity and Seascape Management2019In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, article id 130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In developing countries where data and resources are lacking, the practical relevance of local ecological knowledge (LEK) to expand our understanding of the environment, has been highlighted. The potential roles of the LEK varies from direct applications such as gathering environmental information to a more participative involvement of the community in the management of resources they depend on. Fishers' LEK could therefore be useful in order to obtain information on how to advance management of coastal fisheries. Many targeted fish species migrate between habitats to feed, spawn or recruit, connecting important habitats within the seascape. LEK could help provide answers to questions related to this connectivity and the identification of fish habitat use, and migrations for species and areas where such knowledge is scarce. Here we assess fishers' LEK on connectivity between multiple habitats within a tropical seascape, investigate the differences in LEK among fisher groups and the coherence between LEK and conventional scientific knowledge (CSK). The study was conducted in 2017 in Zanzibar, Tanzania, a tropical developing country. One hundred and thirty-five semi-structured interviews were conducted in six different locations focusing on fish migrations, and matching photos of fish and habitats. Differences between fisher groups were found, where fishers traveling further, exposed to multiple habitats, and who fish with multiple gears had a greater knowledge of connectivity patterns within the seascape than those that fish locally, in single habitats and with just one type of gear. A high degree of overlap in LEK and CSK was found, highlighting the potential benefits of a collaboration between scientists and fishers, and the use of LEK as complementary information in the management of small-scale fisheries.

  • 5.
    Berkström, Charlotte
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Papadopoulos, Myron
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Jiddawi, Narriman Saleh
    Nordlund, Lina Mtwana
    Fishers' Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK) on Connectivity and Seascape Management2019In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, article id 130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In developing countries where data and resources are lacking, the practical relevance of local ecological knowledge (LEK) to expand our understanding of the environment, has been highlighted. The potential roles of the LEK varies from direct applications such as gathering environmental information to a more participative involvement of the community in the management of resources they depend on. Fishers' LEK could therefore be useful in order to obtain information on how to advance management of coastal fisheries. Many targeted fish species migrate between habitats to feed, spawn or recruit, connecting important habitats within the seascape. LEK could help provide answers to questions related to this connectivity and the identification of fish habitat use, and migrations for species and areas where such knowledge is scarce. Here we assess fishers' LEK on connectivity between multiple habitats within a tropical seascape, investigate the differences in LEK among fisher groups and the coherence between LEK and conventional scientific knowledge (CSK). The study was conducted in 2017 in Zanzibar, Tanzania, a tropical developing country. One hundred and thirty-five semi-structured interviews were conducted in six different locations focusing on fish migrations, and matching photos of fish and habitats. Differences between fisher groups were found, where fishers traveling further, exposed to multiple habitats, and who fish with multiple gears had a greater knowledge of connectivity patterns within the seascape than those that fish locally, in single habitats and with just one type of gear. A high degree of overlap in LEK and CSK was found, highlighting the potential benefits of a collaboration between scientists and fishers, and the use of LEK as complementary information in the management of small-scale fisheries.

  • 6. Buck, Bela H.
    et al.
    Troell, Max F.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Krause, Gesche
    Angel, Dror L.
    Grote, Britta
    Chopin, Thierry
    State of the Art and Challenges for Offshore Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA)2018In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 5, article id UNSP 165Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By moving away from coastal waters and hence reducing pressure on nearshore ecosystems, offshore aquaculture can be seen as a possible step towards the large-scale expansion of marine food production. Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) in nearshore water bodies has received increasing attention and could therefore play a role in the transfer of aquaculture operations to offshore areas. IMTA holds scope for multi-use of offshore areas and can bring environmental benefits from making use of waste products and transforming these into valuable co-products. Furthermore, they may act as alternative marine production systems and provide scope for alternative income options for coastal communities, e.g., by acting as nodes for farm operation and maintenance requirements. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge on the implications of the exposed nature of offshore and open ocean sites on the biological, technological and socio-economic performance of IMTA. Of particular interest is improving knowledge about resource flows between integrated species in hydrodynamic challenging conditions that characterize offshore waters.

  • 7.
    Caputo, Andrea
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Stenegren, Marcus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Pernice, Massimo C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Foster, Rachel A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    A short comparison of two marine planktonic diazotrophic symbioses highlights an un-quantified disparity2018In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 5, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some N2-fixing cyanobacteria form symbiosis with diverse protists. In the plankton two groups of diazotrophic symbioses are described: (1) a collective group of diatoms which associate with heterocystous cyanobacteria (Diatom Diazotroph Associations, DDA), and (2) the microalgal prymnesiophyte Braarudosphaera bigelowii and its relatives which associate with the unicellular cyanobacterium Candidatus Atelocyanobacterium thalassa (hereafter as UCYN-A). Both symbiotic systems co-occur, and in both partnerships the symbionts function as a nitrogen (N) source. In this perspective, we provide a brief comparison between the DDAs and the prymnesiophyte-UCYN-A symbioses highlighting similarities and differences in both systems, and present a bias in the attention and current methodology that has led to an under-detection and under-estimation of the DDAs.

  • 8. Centurioni, Luca R.
    et al.
    Turton, Jon
    Lumpkin, Rick
    Braasch, Lancelot
    Brassington, Gary
    Chao, Yi
    Charpentier, Etienne
    Chen, Zhaohui
    Corlett, Gary
    Dohan, Kathleen
    Donlon, Craig
    Gallage, Champika
    Hormann, Verena
    Ignatov, Alexander
    Ingleby, Bruce
    Jensen, Robert
    Kelly-Gerreyn, Boris A.
    Koszalka, Inga M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology . Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Lin, Xiaopei
    Lindstrom, Eric
    Maximenko, Nikolai
    Merchant, Christopher J.
    Minnett, Peter
    O'Carroll, Anne
    Paluszkiewicz, Theresa
    Poli, Paul
    Poulain, Pierre-Marie
    Reverdin, Gilles
    Sun, Xiujun
    Swail, Val
    Thurston, Sidney
    Wu, Lixin
    Yu, Lisan
    Wang, Bin
    Zhang, Dongxiao
    Global in situ Observations of Essential Climate and Ocean Variables at the Air-Sea Interface2019In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, article id 419Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The air-sea interface is a key gateway in the Earth system. It is where the atmosphere sets the ocean in motion, climate/weather-relevant air-sea processes occur, and pollutants (i.e., plastic, anthropogenic carbon dioxide, radioactive/chemical waste) enter the sea. Hence, accurate estimates and forecasts of physical and biogeochemical processes at this interface are critical for sustainable blue economy planning, growth, and disaster mitigation. Such estimates and forecasts rely on accurate and integrated in situ and satellite surface observations. High-impact uses of ocean surface observations of essential ocean/climate variables (EOVs/ECVs) include (1) assimilation into/validation of weather, ocean, and climate forecast models to improve their skill, impact, and value; (2) ocean physics studies (i.e., heat, momentum, freshwater, and biogeochemical air-sea fluxes) to further our understanding and parameterization of air-sea processes; and (3) calibration and validation of satellite ocean products (i.e., currents, temperature, salinity, sea level, ocean color, wind, and waves). We review strengths and limitations, impacts, and sustainability of in situ ocean surface observations of several ECVs and EOVs. We draw a 10-year vision of the global ocean surface observing network for improved synergy and integration with other observing systems (e.g., satellites), for modeling/forecast efforts, and for a better ocean observing governance. The context is both the applications listed above and the guidelines of frameworks such as the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) (both co-sponsoredby the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, IOC-UNESCO; the World Meteorological Organization, WMO; the United Nations Environment Programme, UNEP; and the International Science Council, ISC). Networks of multiparametric platforms, such as the global drifter array, offer opportunities for new and improved in situ observations. Advances in sensor technology (e.g., low-cost wave sensors), high-throughput communications, evolving cyberinfrastructures, and data information systems with potential to improve the scope, efficiency, integration, and sustainability of the ocean surface observing system are explored.

  • 9.
    Cherif, Mehdi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Faithfull, Carolyn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Guo, Junwen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Meunier, Cédric L.
    Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Poslar- und Meeresforschung, Biologische Anstalt Helgoland, Helgoland, Germany.
    Sitters, Judith
    Ecology and Biodiversity, Department Biology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Uszko, Wojciech
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rivera Vasconcelos, Francisco
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    An operational framework for the advancement of a molecule-to-biosphere stoichiometry theory2017In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 4, article id 286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological stoichiometry is an approach that focuses on the balance of elements in biological interactions. It is a theory that has the potential to causally link material processes at all biological levels—from molecules to the biosphere. But the lack of a coherent operational framework has so far restricted progress in this direction. Here, we provide a framework to help infer how a stoichiometric imbalance observed at one level impacts all other biological levels. Our framework enables us to highlight the areas of the theory in need of completion, development and integration at all biological levels. Our hope is that this framework will contribute to the building of a more predictive theory of elemental transfers within the biosphere, and thus, to a better understanding of human-induced perturbations to the global biogeochemical cycles.

  • 10. Conley, Daniel
    et al.
    Frings, Patrick J
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Fontorbe, Guillaume
    Clymans, Wim
    Stadmark, Johanna
    Hendry, Katherine
    Marron, Alan
    De La Rocha, Christina
    Biosilicification drives a decline of dissolved Si in the oceans through geologic time2017In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biosilicification has driven variation in the global Si cycle over geologic time. The evolution of different eukaryotic lineages that convert dissolved Si (DSi) into mineralized structures (higher plants, siliceous sponges, radiolarians and diatoms) has driven a secular decrease in DSi in the global ocean leading to the low DSi concentrations seen today. Recent studies, however, have questioned the timing previously proposed for the DSi decreases and the concentration changes through deep time, which would have major implications for the cycling of carbon and other key nutrients in the ocean. Here, we combine relevant genomic data with geological data and present new hypotheses regarding the impact of the evolution of biosilicifying organisms on the DSi inventory of the oceans throughout deep time. Although there is no fossil evidence for true silica biomineralization until the late Precambrian, the timing of the evolution of silica transporter genes suggests that bacterial silicon-related metabolism has been present in the oceans since the Archean with eukaryotic silicon metabolism already occurring in the Neoproterozoic. We hypothesize that biological processes have influenced oceanic DSi concentrations since the beginning of oxygenic photosynthesis.

  • 11. Cummings, Vonda J.
    et al.
    Hewitt, Judi E.
    Thrush, Simon F.
    Marriott, Peter M.
    Halliday, N. Jane
    Norkko, Alf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Linking Ross Sea Coastal Benthic Communities to Environmental Conditions: Documenting Baselines in a Spatially Variable and Changing World2018In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 5, article id 232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the functionality of marine benthic ecosystems, and how they are influenced by their physical environment, is fundamental to realistically predicting effects of future environmental change. The Antarctic faces multiple environmental pressures associated with greenhouse gas emissions, emphasizing the need for baseline information on biodiversity and the bio-physical processes that influence biodiversity. We describe a survey of shallow water benthic communities at eight Ross Sea locations with a range of environmental characteristics. Our analyses link coastal benthic community composition to seafloor habitat and sedimentary parameters and broader scale features, at locations encompassing considerable spatial extent and variation in environmental characteristics (e.g., seafloor habitat, sea ice conditions, hydrodynamic regime, light). Our aims were to: (i) document existing benthic communities, habitats and environmental conditions against which to assess future change, (ii) investigate the relationships between environmental and habitat characteristics and benthic community structure and function, and (iii) determine whether these relationships were dependent on spatial extent. A very high percentage (>95%) of the between-location variability in macro- or epifaunal community composition was explainable using multi-scale environmental variables. The explanatory power varied depending on the scale of influence of the environmental variables measured (fine and medium-scale habitat, broad scale), and with community type. However, the inclusion of parameters at all scales produced the most powerful model for both communities. Ice duration, ice thickness and snow cover were important broad scale variables identified that directly relate to climate change. Even when using only habitat-scale variables, extending the spatial scale of the study from three locations covering 32 km to eight locations covering ~340 km increased the degree of explanatory power from 18–32 to 64–78%. The increase in explanatory power with spatial extent lends weight to the possibility of using an indirect “space for time” substitution approach for future predictions of the effects of change on these coastal marine ecosystems. Given the multiple and interacting drivers of change in Antarctic coastal ecosystems a multidisciplinary, long term, repeated observation approach will be vital to both improve and test predictions of how coastal communities will respond to environmental change.

  • 12.
    de la Torre-Castro, Maricela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Inclusive Management Through Gender Consideration in Small-Scale Fisheries: The Why and the How2019In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, article id UNSP 156Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a world in which ocean degradation is widespread and aggravated by the effects of climate change, there is a need to contribute with new management approaches to ameliorate the situation. Here, inclusive management is proposed as such an alternative. This contribution argues that including all genders in the management process is needed and the inclusion itself can generate new ways to solve problems. An assessment of findings from literature of the positive aspects when considering gender in environmental governance is presented and related to the specific situation of small-scale fisheries (SSF). These positive findings are explained in terms of (1) Participation, (2) Space, actors and activities, (3) Economic power, and (4) Equity and environmental stewardship. Further, a practical approach is taken and a model for gender inclusion in coastal/ocean management for SSF is presented and illustrated with a case of seagrass SSF in East Africa. The central argument is that in view of ongoing coastal/ocean degradation and the moderate governance and management success, it is worth trying management approaches that consciously and explicitly consider gender and diversity of actors. This will bring central actors (e.g., women not previously considered) into the management process and will provide the base for better governance and policy reform.

  • 13.
    Drury O'Neill, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lindahl, Therese
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Daw, Tim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Ferrer, Alice Joan G.
    Pomeroy, Robert
    An Experimental Approach to Exploring Market Responses in Small-Scale Fishing Communities2019In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, article id 491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale fishing communities are increasingly connected to international seafood trade via exports in a growing global market. Understanding how this connectedness impacts local fishery systems, both socially and ecologically, has become a necessary challenge for fishery governance. Market prices are a potential mechanism by which global market demands are transferred to small-scale fishery actors. In most small-scale fisheries (SSF) this happens through various traders (intermediaries, middlemen/women, or patrons). By financing fishing operations, buying and selling products and transferring market information, traders can actively pass international market signals, such as price, to fishers. How these signals influence fishers' decisions and the consequent fishing efforts, is still poorly understood yet significant for future social-ecological sustainability. This paper uses an economic framed field experiment, in combination with interviews, to shed light on this. It does so in the context of the Philippine patron-client suki arrangement. Over 250 fishers in Concepcion, Iloilo were asked in an economic experiment, to make decisions about fuel loans in light of changing market prices. Interviews with participants and their patrons gathered additional information on relevant contextual variables potentially influencing borrowing. They included fisher characteristics and socio-economic conditions. Contrary to our hypotheses, fishers showed no response in their borrowing behavior to experimental price changes. Instead, gender and the previous experiment round were predictive of their choice of loans in the experiment. We explore possible reasons for this and discuss potential implications for social-ecological sustainability and fishery governance.

  • 14.
    Duffy, J. Emmett
    et al.
    Smithsonian Inst, Edgewater, MD 21037 USA.
    Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro
    Univ Pisa, Dept Biol, Pisa, Italy;CoNISMa, Pisa, Italy.
    Trinanes, Joaquin
    Univ Santiago de Compostela, Inst Invest Tecnolox, Santiago, Spain;NOAA, Phys Oceanog Div, Atlantic Oceanog & Meteorol Lab, Miami, FL USA;Univ Miami, Rosenstiel Sch Marine & Atmospher Sci, Cooperat Inst Marine & Atmospher Studies, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149 USA.
    Muller-Karger, Frank E.
    Univ S Florida, Coll Marine Sci, St Petersburg, FL USA.
    Ambo-Rappe, Rohani
    Hasanuddin Univ, Dept Marine Sci, Makassar, Indonesia.
    Boström, Christoffer
    Abo Akad Univ, Fac Sci & Engn, Environm & Marine Biol, Turku, Finland.
    Buschmann, Alejandro H.
    Univ Los Lagos, Ctr I Mar, Puerto Montt, Chile;Univ Los Lagos, Ctr Biotecnol & Bioingn CeBiB, Puerto Montt, Chile.
    Byrnes, Jarrett
    Univ Massachusetts, Dept Biol, Boston, MA 02125 USA.
    Coles, Robert G.
    James Cook Univ, Ctr Trop Water & Aquat Ecosyst Res, Douglas, Qld, Australia.
    Creed, Joel
    Univ Estado Rio de Janeiro, Dept Ecol, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Cullen-Unsworth, Leanne C.
    Cardiff Univ, Sustainable Pl Res Inst, Cardiff, S Glam, Wales.
    Diaz-Pulido, Guillermo
    Griffith Univ, Sch Environm & Sci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia;Griffith Univ, Australian Rivers Inst Coast & Estuaries, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    Duarte, Carlos M.
    King Abdullah Univ Sci & Technol, Red Sea Res Ctr, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia.
    Edgar, Graham J.
    Univ Tasmania, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
    Fortes, Miguel
    Univ Philippines, Marine Sci Inst CS, Quezon City, Philippines.
    Goni, Gustavo
    NOAA, Atlantic Oceanog & Meteorol Lab, Miami, FL 33149 USA.
    Hu, Chuanmin
    Univ S Florida, Coll Marine Sci, St Petersburg, FL USA.
    Huang, Xiaoping
    Chinese Acad Sci, South China Sea Inst Oceanol, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China.
    Hurd, Catriona L.
    Univ Tasmania, Inst Marine & Antarctic Studies, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
    Johnson, Craig
    Univ Tasmania, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
    Konar, Brenda
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Coll Fisheries & Ocean Sci, Fairbanks, AK USA.
    Krause-Jensen, Dorte
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Biosci, Silkeborg, Denmark;Aarhus Univ, Arctic Res Ctr, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Krumhansl, Kira
    Bedford Inst Oceanog, Dartmouth, NS, Canada.
    Macreadie, Peter
    Deakin Univ, Ctr Integrat Ecol, Burwood, Vic, Australia.
    Marsh, Helene
    James Cook Univ, Div Trop Environm & Soc, Townsville, Qld, Australia.
    McKenzie, Len J.
    James Cook Univ, Ctr Trop Water & Aquat Ecosyst Res, Douglas, Qld, Australia.
    Mieszkowska, Nova
    Marine Biol Assoc UK, Plymouth, Devon, England.
    Miloslavich, Patricia
    Univ Tasmania, Inst Marine & Antarctic Studies, Hobart, Tas, Australia;Univ Simon Bolivar, Dept Estudios Ambientales, Caracas, Venezuela.
    Montes, Enrique
    Univ S Florida, Coll Marine Sci, St Petersburg, FL USA.
    Nakaoka, Masahiro
    Hokkaido Univ, Akkeshi Marine Stn, Field Sci Ctr Northern Biosphere, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan.
    Norderhaug, Kjell Magnus
    IMR, Bergen, Norway.
    Nordlund, Lina M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Orth, Robert J.
    Virginia Inst Marine Sci, Coll William & Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 USA.
    Prathep, Anchana
    Pince Songkla Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Biol, Hat Yai, Thailand.
    Putman, Nathan F.
    LGL Ecol Res Associates, Bryan, TX USA.
    Samper-Villarreal, Jimena
    Univ Costa Rica, Ctr Invest Ciencias Mar & Limnol, San Jose, CA USA.
    Serrao, Ester A.
    Univ Algarve, Ctr Marine Sci CCMAR, Interdisciplinary Ctr Marine & Environm Res CIMAR, Faro, Portugal.
    Short, Frederick
    Univ New Hampshire, Nat Resources & Environm, Durham, NH 03824 USA.
    Pinto, Isabel Sousa
    Univ Porto, Fac Sci, Interdisciplinary Ctr Marine & Environm Res CIIMA, Porto, Portugal.
    Steinberg, Peter
    Sydney Inst Marine Sci, Mosman, NSW, Australia.
    Stuart-Smith, Rick
    Univ Tasmania, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
    Unsworth, Richard K. F.
    Swansea Univ, Seagrass Ecosyst Res Grp, Swansea, W Glam, Wales.
    van Keulen, Mike
    Murdoch Univ, Ctr Sustainable Aquat Ecosyst Environm & Conserva, Murdoch, WA, Australia.
    van Tussenbroek, Brigitta, I
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, ICML, Puerto Morelos, Mexico.
    Wang, Mengqiu
    Univ S Florida, Coll Marine Sci, St Petersburg, FL USA.
    Waycott, Michelle
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Environm & Water, Adelaide, SA, Australia;State Herbarium South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Weatherdon, Lauren, V
    UN Environm World Conservat Monitoring Ctr, Cambridge, England.
    Wernberg, Thomas
    Univ Western Australia, Oceans Inst, Perth, WA, Australia;Univ Western Australia, Sch Biol Sci, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Yaakub, Siti Maryam
    DHI Water & Environm, Ecol Habitats & Proc Dept, Singapore, Singapore.
    Toward a Coordinated Global Observing System for Seagrasses and Marine Macroalgae2019In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, article id 317Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In coastal waters around the world, the dominant primary producers are benthic macrophytes, including seagrasses and macroalgae, that provide habitat structure and food for diverse and abundant biological communities and drive ecosystem processes. Seagrass meadows and macroalgal forests play key roles for coastal societies, contributing to fishery yields, storm protection, biogeochemical cycling and storage, and important cultural values. These socio-economically valuable services are threatened worldwide by human activities, with substantial areas of seagrass and macroalgal forests lost over the last half-century. Tracking the status and trends in marine macrophyte cover and quality is an emerging priority for ocean and coastal management, but doing so has been challenged by limited coordination across the numerous efforts to monitor macrophytes, which vary widely in goals, methodologies, scales, capacity, governance approaches, and data availability. Here, we present a consensus assessment and recommendations on the current state of and opportunities for advancing global marine macrophyte observations, integrating contributions from a community of researchers with broad geographic and disciplinary expertise. With the increasing scale of human impacts, the time is ripe to harmonize marine macrophyte observations by building on existing networks and identifying a core set of common metrics and approaches in sampling design, field measurements, governance, capacity building, and data management. We recommend a tiered observation system, with improvement of remote sensing and remote underwater imaging to expand capacity to capture broad-scale extent at intervals of several years, coordinated with strati fied in situ sampling annually to characterize the key variables of cover and taxonomic or functional group composition, and to provide ground-truth. A robust networked system of macrophyte observations will be facilitated by establishing best practices, including standard protocols, documentation, and sharing of resources at all stages of work flow, and secure archiving of open-access data. Because such a network is necessarily distributed, sustaining it depends on close engagement of local stakeholders and focusing on building and long-term maintenance of local capacity, particularly in the developing world. Realizing these recommendations will producemore effective, efficient, and responsive observing, a more accurate global picture of change in vegetated coastal systems, and stronger international capacity for sustaining observations.

  • 15.
    Edman, Moa
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Eilola, Kari
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Almroth-Rosell, Elin
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Wåhlstrom, Irene
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Arneborg, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Nutrient Retention in the Swedish Coastal Zone2018In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 5, article id UNSP 415Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Ehrnsten, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Bauer, Barbara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre. Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany; German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Germany.
    Gustafsson, Bo G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Combined Effects of Environmental Drivers on Marine Trophic Groups - A Systematic Model Comparison2019In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, article id 492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The responses of food webs to simultaneous changes in several environmental drivers are still poorly understood. As a contribution to filling this knowledge gap, we investigated the major pathways through which two interlinked environmental drivers, eutrophication and climate, affect the biomass and community composition of fish and benthic macrofauna. For this aim, we conducted a systematic sensitivity analysis using two models simulating the dynamics of benthic and pelagic food webs in the Baltic Sea. We varied environmental forcing representing primary productivity, oxygen conditions and water temperature in all possible combinations, over a range representative of expected changes during the 21st century. Both models indicated that increased primary productivity leads to biomass increase in all parts of the system, however, counteracted by expanding hypoxia. Effects of temperature were complex, but generally small compared to the other drivers. Similarities across models give confidence in the main results, but we also found differences due to different representations of the food web in the two models. While both models predicted a shift in benthic community composition toward an increased abundance of Limecola (Macoma) balthica with increasing productivity, the effects on deposit-feeding and predatory benthic groups depended on the presence of fish predators in the model. The model results indicate that nutrient loads are a stronger driver of change for ecosystem functions in the Baltic Sea than climate change, but it is important to consider the combined effects of these drivers for proper management of the marine environment.

  • 17.
    Endres, Sonja
    et al.
    GEOMAR Helmholtz Ctr Ocean Res, Biol Oceanog, Kiel, Germany;Max Planck Inst Chem, Climate Geochem, Mainz, Germany.
    Maes, Frank
    Univ Ghent, Maritime Inst, Fac Law & Criminol, Ghent, Belgium.
    Hopkins, Frances
    Plymouth Marine Lab, Plymouth, Devon, England.
    Houghton, Katherine
    Inst Adv Sustainabil Studies, Potsdam, Germany.
    Mårtensson, E. Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Oeffner, Johannes
    Fraunhofer Ctr Maritime Logist & Serv, Hamburg, Germany.
    Quack, Birgit
    GEOMAR Helmholtz Ctr Ocean Res, Chem Oceanog, Kiel, Germany.
    Singh, Pradeep
    Univ Bremen, Ctr Marine Environm Sci, Bremen, Germany;Univ Bremen, Fac Law, Bremen, Germany.
    Turner, David
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A New Perspective at the Ship-Air-Sea-Interface: The Environmental Impacts of Exhaust Gas Scrubber Discharge2018In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 5, article id 139Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shipping emissions are likely to increase significantly in the coming decades, alongside increasing emphasis on the sustainability and environmental impacts of the maritime transport sector. Exhaust gas cleaning systems ("scrubbers"), using seawater or fresh water as cleaning media for sulfur dioxide, are progressively used by shipping companies to comply with emissions regulations. Little is known about the chemical composition of the scrubber effluent and its ecological consequences for marine life and biogeochemical processes. If scrubbers become a central tool for atmospheric pollution reduction from shipping, modeling, and experimental studies will be necessary to determine the ecological and biogeochemical effects of scrubber wash water discharge on the marine environment. Furthermore, attention must be paid to the regulation and enforcement of environmental protection standards concerning scrubber use. Close collaboration between natural scientists and social scientists is crucial for progress toward sustainable shipping and protection of the marine environment.

  • 18. Förlin, Lars
    et al.
    Asker, Noomi
    Töpel, Mats
    Österlund, Tobias
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Parkkonen, Jari
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Faxneld, Suzanne
    Sturve, Joachim
    mRNA Expression and Biomarker Responses in Perch at a Biomonitoring Site in the Baltic Sea - Possible Influence of Natural Brominated Chemicals2019In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, article id 316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perch (Perca fluviatilis) has been used in biological effect monitoring in a program for integrated coastal fish monitoring at the reference site Kvadofjarden along the Swedish east coast, which is a site characterized by no or minor local anthropogenic influences. Using a set of physiological and biochemical endpoints (i.e., biomarkers), clear time trends for "early warning" signs of impaired health were noted in the perch from this site, possibly as a result of increased baseline pollution. The data sets also showed relatively large variations among years. To identify additional temporal variation in biological parameters, global mRNA expression studies using RNA sequencing was performed. Perch collected in 2010 and 2014 were selected, as they showed variations in several biomarkers, such as the activity of the detoxification enzyme CYP1A (EROD), the plasma levels of vitellogenin, markers for oxidative stress, white blood cells count and gonad sizes. The RNA sequencing study identified approximately 4800 genes with a significantly difference in mRNA expression levels. A gene ontology enrichment analysis showed that these differentially expressed genes were involved in biological processes such as complement activation, iron ion homeostasis and cholesterol biosynthetic process. In addition, differences in immune system parameters and responses to the exposure of toxic substances have now been verified in two different biological levels (mRNA and protein) in perch collected in 2010 and 2014. Markedly higher mRNA expression of the membrane transporter (MATE) and the detoxification enzyme COMT, together with higher concentrations of bioactive naturally produced brominated compounds, such as brominated indoles and carbazoles, seem to indicate that the perch collected in 2014 had been exposed to macro- and microalga blooming to a higher degree than did perch from 2010. These results and the differential mRNA expression between the 2 years in genes related to immune and oxidative stress parameters suggest that attention must be given to algae blooming when elucidating the well-being of the perch at Kvadofjarden and other Baltic coastal sites.

  • 19.
    Förlin, Lars
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Asker, Noomi
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Töpel, Mats
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Österlund, Tobias
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Parkkonen, Jari
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet.
    Faxneld, Suzanne
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    Sturve, Joachim
    Göteborgs universitet.
    mRNA expression and biomarker responses in perch at a biomonitoring site in the Baltic Sea - possible influence of natural brominated chemicals2019In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20. Gonzalez-Pola, Cesar
    et al.
    Fratantoni, Paula
    Larsen, Karin M. H.
    Holliday, N. Penny
    Dye, Stephen
    Mork, Kjell Arne
    Beszczynska-Moller, Agnieszka
    Valdimarsson, Hedinn
    Trofimov, Alexander
    Parner, Hjalte
    Klein, Holger
    Cisewski, Boris
    Fontan, Almudena
    Lyons, Kieran
    Kolodziejczyk, Nicolas
    Grana, Rocio
    Linders, Johanna
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Wodzinowski, Tycjan
    Goszczko, Ilona
    Cusack, Caroline
    The ICES Working Group on Oceanic Hydrography: A Bridge From In-situ Sampling to the Remote Autonomous Observation Era2019In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, article id UNSP 103Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21. Hall, Per O. J.
    et al.
    Almroth Rosell, Elin
    Bonaglia, Stefano
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Dale, Andrew W.
    Hylén, Astrid
    Kononets, Mikhail
    Nilsson, Madeleine
    Sommer, Stefan
    Van de Velde, Sebastiaan
    Viktorsson, Lena
    Influence of Natural Oxygenation of Baltic Proper Deep Water on Benthic Recycling and Removal of Phosphorus, Nitrogen, Silicon and Carbon2017In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 4, article id 27Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22. Harvey, E. Therese
    et al.
    Walve, Jakob
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlson, Bengt
    Kratzer, Susanne
    The Effect of Optical Properties on Secchi Depth and Implications for Eutrophication Management2019In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 5, p. 1-19, article id 496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful management of coastal environments requires reliable monitoring methods and indicators. Besides Chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a), water transparency measured as Secchi Depth (ZSD) is widely used in Baltic Sea management for water quality assessment as eutrophication indicator. However, in many coastal waters not only phytoplankton but also coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) influence the under-water light field, and therefore the ZSD. In this study all three main optical variables(CDOM, Chl-a and SPM [organic and inorganic]) as well as ZSD were measured in three Swedish regions: the Bothnian Sea, the Baltic Proper and the Skagerrak in 2010-2014. Regional multiple regressions with Chl-a, CDOM and inorganic SPM as predictors explained the variations in ZSD well (R2adj = 0.53-0.84). Commonality analyses of the regressions indicated considerable differences between regions regarding the contribution of each factor to the variance, R2adj, in ZSD. CDOM explained most of the variance in the Bothnian Sea and the Skagerrak; in general, Chl-a contributed only modestly to the ZSD. In the Baltic Proper the largest contribution was from the interaction of all three variables. As expected, the link between Chl-a and ZSD was much weaker in the Bothnian Sea with high CDOM absorption and SPM concentration. When applying the Swedish EU Water Framework Directive threshold for Good/Moderate Chl-a status in the models it was shown that ZSD is neither a sufficient indicator for eutrophication, nor for changes in Chl-a. Natural coastal gradients in CDOM and SPM influence the reference conditions for ZSD and other eutrophication indicators, such as the depth distribution of macro-algae. Hence, setting targets for these indicators based on reference Chl-a concentrations and simple Chl-a to ZSD relationships might in some cases be inappropriate and misleading due to overestimation of water transparency under natural conditions.

  • 23.
    Hjerne, Olle
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Hajdu, Susanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Larsson, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Downing, Andrea S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Climate Driven Changes in Timing, Composition and Magnitude of the Baltic Sea Phytoplankton Spring Bloom2019In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, article id 482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spring phytoplankton blooms contribute a substantial part to annual production, support pelagic and benthic secondary production and influence biogeochemical cycles in many temperate aquatic systems. Understanding environmental effects on spring bloom dynamics is important for predicting future climate responses and for managing aquatic systems. We analyzed long-term phytoplankton data from one coastal and one offshore station in the Baltic Sea to uncover trends in timing, composition and size of the spring bloom and its correlations to environmental variables. There was a general trend of earlier phytoplankton blooms by 1-2 weeks over the last 20 years, associated with more sunshine and less windy conditions. High water temperatures were associated with earlier blooms of diatoms and dinoflagellates that dominate the spring bloom, and decreased diatom bloom magnitude. Overall bloom timing, however, was buffered by a temperature and ice related shift in composition from early blooming diatoms to later blooming dinoflagellates and the autotrophic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum. Such counteracting responses to climate change highlight the importance of both general and taxon-specific investigations. We hypothesize that the predicted earlier blooms of diatoms and dinoflagellates as a response to the expected temperature increase in the Baltic Sea might also be counteracted by more clouds and stronger winds. A shift from early blooming and fast sedimenting diatoms to later blooming groups of dinoflagellates and M. rubrum at higher temperatures during the spring period is expected to increase energy transfers to pelagic secondary production and decrease spring bloom inputs to the benthic system, resulting in lower benthic production and reduced oxygen consumption.

  • 24.
    Hoarfrost, Adrienne
    et al.
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Marine Sci, Chapel Hill, NC 27515 USA;Rutgers State Univ, Dept Biochem & Microbiol, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 USA.
    Balmonte, John Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Univ N Carolina, Dept Marine Sci, Chapel Hill, NC 27515 USA.
    Ghobrial, Sherif
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Marine Sci, Chapel Hill, NC 27515 USA.
    Ziervogel, Kai
    Univ New Hampshire, Inst Study Earth Oceans & Space, Durham, NH 03824 USA.
    Bane, John
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Marine Sci, Chapel Hill, NC 27515 USA.
    Gawarkiewicz, Glen
    Woods Hole Oceanog Inst, Dept Phys Oceanog, Woods Hole, MA 02543 USA.
    Arnosti, Carol
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Marine Sci, Chapel Hill, NC 27515 USA.
    Gulf Stream Ring Water Intrusion on the Mid-Atlantic Bight Continental Shelf Break Affects Microbially Driven Carbon Cycling2019In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, article id 394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Warm core, anticyclonic rings that spin off from the Gulf Stream circulate through the region directly offshore of the Mid-Atlantic Bight. If a warm core ring reaches the continental shelf break, its warm, highly saline water may subduct under cooler, fresher continental shelf surface water, resulting in subsurface waters at the shelf break and over the upper continental slope with high temperatures and salinities and distinct physical and chemical properties characteristic of Gulf Stream water. Such intruding water may also have microbial communities with distinct functional capacities, which may in turn affect the rate and nature of carbon cycling in this coastal/shelf environment. However, the functional capabilities of microbial communities within ring intrusion waters relative to surrounding continental shelf waters are largely unexplored. We investigated microbial community capacity to initiate organic matter remineralization by measuring hydrolysis of a suite of polysaccharide, peptide, and glucose substrates along a transect oriented across the Mid-Atlantic Bight shelf, shelf break, and upper slope. At the outermost sampling site, warm and salty water derived from a Gulf Stream warm core ring was present in the lower portion of the water column. This water exhibited hydrolytic capacities distinct from other sampling sites, and exhibited lower heterotrophic bacterial productivity overall. Warm core rings adjacent to the Mid-Atlantic Bight shelf have increased in frequency and duration in recent years. As the influence of warm core rings on the continental shelf and slope increases in the future, the rate and nature of organic matter remineralization on the continental shelf may also shift.

  • 25.
    Humborg, Christoph
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Geibel, Marc C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Sun, Xiaole
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    McCrackin, Michelle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Stranne, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Sokolov, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Norkko, Alf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Norkko, Joanna
    High Emissions of Carbon Dioxide and Methane From the Coastal Baltic Sea at the End of a Summer Heat Wave2019In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, article id 493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The summer heat wave in 2018 led to the highest recorded water temperatures since 1926 - up to 21 degrees C - in bottom coastal waters of the Baltic Sea, with implications for the respiration patterns in these shallow coastal systems. We applied cavity ring-down spectrometer measurements to continuously monitor carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) surface-water concentrations, covering the coastal archipelagos of Sweden and Finland and the open and deeper parts of the Northern Baltic Proper. This allowed us to (i) follow an upwelling event near the Swedish coast leading to elevated CO2 and moderate CH 4 outgassing, and (ii) to estimate CH4 sources and fluxes along the coast by investigating water column inventories and air-sea fluxes during a storm and an associated downwelling event. At the end of the heat wave, before the storm event, we found elevated CO2 (1583 mu atm) and CH4 (70 nmol/L) concentrations. During the storm, a massive CO2 sea-air flux of up to 274 mmol m(-2) d(-1) was observed. While water-column CO2 concentrations were depleted during several hours of the storm, CH4 concentrations remained elevated. Overall, we found a positive relationship between CO2 and CH4 wind-driven sea-air fluxes, however, the highest CH4 fluxes were observed at low winds whereas highest CO2 fluxes were during peak winds, suggesting different sources and processes controlling their fluxes besides wind. We applied a box-model approach to estimate the CH4 supply needed to sustain these elevated CH4 concentrations and the results suggest a large source flux of CH4 to the water column of 2.5 mmol m(-2) d(-1). These results are qualitatively supported by acoustic observations of vigorous and widespread outgassing from the sediments, with flares that could be traced throughout the water column penetrating the pycnocline and reaching the sea surface. The results suggest that the heat wave triggered CO2 and CH4 fluxes in the coastal zones that are comparable with maximum emission rates found in other hot spots, such as boreal and arctic lakes and wetlands. Further, the results suggest that heat waves are as important for CO2 and CH4 sea-air fluxes as the ice break up in spring.

  • 26.
    Kadin, Martina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Casini, Michele
    Gardmark, Anna
    Torres, Maria Angeles
    Otto, Saskia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Hamburg, Germany.
    Trophic Interactions, Management Trade-Offs and Climate Change: The Need for Adaptive Thresholds to Operationalize Ecosystem Indicators2019In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, article id UNSP 249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) is commonly applied to achieve sustainable use of marine resources. For EBM, regular ecosystem-wide assessments of changes in environmental or ecological status are essential components, as well as assessments of the effects of management measures. Assessments are typically carried out using indicators. A major challenge for the usage of indicators in EBM is trophic interactions as these may influence indicator responses. Trophic interactions can also shape trade-offs between management targets, because they modify and mediate the effects of pressures on ecosystems. Characterization of such interactions is in turn a challenge when testing the usability of indicators. Climate variability and climate change may also impact indicators directly, as well as indirectly through trophic interactions. Together, these effects may alter interpretation of indicators in assessments and evaluation of management measures. We developed indicator networks - statistical models of coupled indicators - to identify links representing trophic interactions between proposed food-web indicators, under multiple anthropogenic pressures and climate variables, using two basins in the Baltic Sea as a case study. We used the networks to simulate future indicator responses under different fishing, eutrophication and climate change scenarios. Responsiveness to fishing and eutrophication differed between indicators and across basins. Almost all indicators were highly dependent on climatic conditions, and differences in indicator trajectories > 10% were found only in comparisons of future climates. In some cases, effects of nutrient load and climate scenarios counteracted each other, altering how management measures manifested in the indicators. Incorporating climate change, or other regionally non-manageable drivers, is thus necessary for an accurate interpretation of indicators and thereby of EBM measure effects. Quantification of linkages between indicators across trophic levels is similarly a prerequisite for tracking effects propagating through the food web, and, consequently, for indicator interpretation. Developing meaningful indicators under climate change calls for iterative indicator validations, accounting for natural processes such as trophic interactions and for trade-offs between management objectives, to enable learning as well as setting target levels or thresholds triggering actions in an adaptive manner. Such flexible strategies make a set of indicators operational over the long-term and facilitate success of EBM.

  • 27.
    Karlsson, Konrad
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Ecosystem Effects of Morphological and Life History Traits in Two Divergent Zooplankton Populations2018In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 5, article id 408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the ecosystem effects of locally adapted populations. The filter feeding copepod Eurytemora affinis is an abundant and important zooplankton in coastal waters that consist of a cryptic species complex with locally adapted populations. We used a mesocosm setup to investigate population and ecosystem interactions of two populations from the Baltic Sea with different morphology and life history traits. One population is laterally wider, larger-sized, more fecund, and have higher growth rate than the other. The experimental ecosystems varied in algae community (pelagic algae, and pelagic algae + benthic diatoms) with two resource supply scenarios. Results showed that the large-sized population is a more effective grazer. In low resource supply the small-sized population starved, whereas the large-sized population was unaffected, resulting in a larger population increase of both nauplii and copepodites than for the small-sized population. Addition of benthic diatoms to the pelagic algae community had much more negative effects on the reproduction of the large-sized population. This suggests that the large-sized population feeds near benthic to a greater extent than the small-sized population, and that filamentous benthic diatoms interfere with the grazing process. Despite the negative effects of benthic diatoms, the large-sized population could maintain similar or higher reproduction than the small-sized population. In addition, the high grazing efficiency of the large-sized population resulted in a different community composition of algae. Specifically, flagellated species and small sized benthic diatoms were more grazed upon by the large-sized population. Our results show that morphologically divergent, yet phylogenetically closely related zooplankton populations can have different ecosystem functions, and in turn have different population increase in response to resource supply and algae community.

  • 28.
    Kyryliuk, Dmytro
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Kratzer, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Summer Distribution of Total Suspended Matter Across the Baltic Sea2019In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 5, article id 504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are three optical in-water components that, besides water itself, govern the under-water light field: phytoplankton, total suspended matter (TSM), and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). In essence, it is the spectral absorption and scattering properties of each optical component that govern the underwater light field, and also the color of the sea that we can perceive, and that can also be measured remotely from space. The Baltic Sea is optically dominated by CDOM, apart from cyanobacteria blooms that often cover most of the Baltic proper during summer. Remote sensing images of TSM reveal large-and mesoscale features and currents, especially in the Southern Baltic, which are influenced both by atmospheric Rossby waves and the Coriolis force. In coastal waters, the optical properties are strongly influenced by inorganic suspended matter, which may originate from coastal erosion and from run-off from land, streams, and rivers. In this paper, we evaluate the distribution of TSM across the Baltic Sea using remote sensing data and statistically compare the TSM loads in the different Helsinki Commission (HELCOM)-defined basins. The total suspended matter (TSM) loads during summer vary substantially in the different basins, with the south-eastern Baltic overall being most influenced by cyanobacteria blooms. The Gdansk basin and the Gulf of Riga were distinguished both by relatively high TSM loads with high standard deviations, indicating strong fluvial input and/or resuspension of sediments. We also evaluate a coastal TSM transect in Himmerfjärden bay, which is located at the Swedish East coast in the Western Gotland Basin. The effect of wind-wave stirring on the distribution of TSM from source (shore) to sink (open sea) can be assessed using satellite data from European Space Agency’s (ESA) MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) mission (2002–2012) with 300 m resolution. The TSM transect data from areas with low wind exposure and a stable thermocline showed a gradient distribution perpendicular to the coast for summer seasons 2009, 2010, 2011, and a 3-year summer composite, confirming a previous bio-optical study from the Western Gotland basin.

  • 29. Lee, Craig M.
    et al.
    Starkweather, Sandy
    Eicken, Hajo
    Timmermans, Mary-Louise
    Wilkinson, Jeremy
    Sandven, Stein
    Dukhovskoy, Dmitry
    Gerland, Sebastian
    Grebmeier, Jacqueline
    Intrieri, Janet M.
    Kang, Sung-Ho
    McCammon, Molly
    Nguyen, An T.
    Polyakov, Igor
    Rabe, Benjamin
    Sagen, Hanne
    Seeyave, Sophie
    Volkov, Denis
    Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka
    Chafik, Léon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Dzieciuch, Matthew
    Goni, Gustavo
    Hamre, Torill
    King, Andrew Luke
    Olsen, Are
    Raj, Roshin P.
    Rossby, Thomas
    Skagseth, Øystein
    Søiland, Henrik
    Sørensen, Kai
    A Framework for the Development, Design and Implementation of a Sustained Arctic Ocean Observing System2019In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, article id 451Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid Arctic warming drives profound change in the marine environment that have significant socio-economic impacts within the Arctic and beyond, including climate and weather hazards, food security, transportation, infrastructure planning and resource extraction. These concerns drive efforts to understand and predict Arctic environmental change and motivate development of an Arctic Region Component of the Global Ocean Observing System (ARCGOOS) capable of collecting the broad, sustained observations needed to support these endeavors. This paper provides a roadmap for establishing the ARCGOOS. ARCGOOS development must be underpinned by a broadly endorsed framework grounded in high-level policy drivers and the scientific and operational objectives that stem from them. This should be guided by a transparent, internationally accepted governance structure with recognized authority and organizational relationships with the national agencies that ultimately execute network plans. A governance model for ARCGOOS must guide selection of objectives, assess performance and fitness-to-purpose, and advocate for resources. A requirements-based framework for an ARCGOOS begins with the Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs) that underpin the system. SBAs motivate investments and define the system's science and operational objectives. Objectives can then be used to identify key observables and their scope. The domains of planning/policy, strategy, and tactics define scope ranging from decades and basins to focused observing with near real time data delivery. Patterns emerge when this analysis is integrated across an appropriate set of SBAs and science/operational objectives, identifying impactful variables and the scope of the measurements. When weighted for technological readiness and logistical feasibility, this can be used to select Essential ARCGOOS Variables, analogous to Essential Ocean Variables of the Global Ocean Observing System. The Arctic presents distinct needs and challenges, demanding novel observing strategies. Cost, traceability and ability to integrate region-specific knowledge have to be balanced, in an approach that builds on existing and new observing infrastructure. ARCGOOS should benefit from established data infrastructures following the Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reuseable Principles to ensure preservation and sharing of data and derived products. Linking to the Sustaining Arctic Observing Networks (SAON) process and involving Arctic stakeholders, for example through liaison with the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC), can help ensure success.

  • 30. Liblik, Taavi
    et al.
    Naumann, Michael
    Alenius, Pekka
    Hansson, Martin
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Lips, Urmas
    Nausch, Gunther
    Tuomi, Laura
    Wesslander, Karin
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Laanemets, Jaan
    Viktorsson, Lena
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Propagation of Impact of the Recent Major Baltic Inflows From the Eastern Gotland Basin to the Gulf of Finland2018In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 5, article id UNSP 222Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Lindh, Markus
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Sensitivity of Bacterioplankton to Environmental Disturbance: A Review of Baltic Sea Field Studies and Experiments2018In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 5, article id UNSP 361Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32. Lindh, Markus V.
    et al.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Sensitivity of Bacterioplankton to Environmental Disturbance: A Review of Baltic Sea Field Studies and Experiments2018In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 5, article id UNSP 361Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterioplankton communities regulate energy and matter fluxes fundamental to all aquatic life. The Baltic Sea offers an outstanding ecosystem for interpreting causes and consequences of bacterioplankton community composition shifts resulting from environmental disturbance. Yet, a systematic synthesis of the composition of Baltic Sea bacterioplankton and their responses to natural or human-induced environmental perturbations is lacking. We review current research on Baltic Sea bacterioplankton dynamics in situ (48 articles) and in laboratory experiments (38 articles) carried out at a variety of spatiotemporal scales. In situ studies indicate that the salinity gradient sets the boundaries for bacterioplankton composition, whereas, regional environmental conditions at a within-basin scale, including the level of hypoxia and phytoplankton succession stages, may significantly tune the composition of bacterial communities. Also the experiments show that Baltic Sea bacteria are highly responsive to environmental conditions, with general influences of e.g. salinity, temperature and nutrients. Importantly, nine out of ten experiments that measured both bacterial community composition and some metabolic activities showed empirical support for the sensitivity scenario of bacteria - i.e., that environmental disturbance caused concomitant change in both community composition and community functioning. The lack of studies empirically testing the resilience scenario, i.e., experimental studies that incorporate the long-term temporal dimension, precludes conclusions about the potential prevalence of resilience of Baltic Sea bacterioplankton. We also outline outstanding questions emphasizing promising applications in incorporating bacterioplankton community dynamics into biogeochemical and food-web models and the lack of knowledge for deep-sea assemblages, particularly bacterioplankton structure-function relationships. This review emphasizes that bacterioplankton communities rapidly respond to natural and predicted human-induced environmental disturbance by altering their composition and metabolic activity. Unless bacterioplankton are resilient, such changes could have severe consequences for the regulation of microbial ecosystem services.

  • 33.
    Lindh, Markus V.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sensitivity of Bacterioplankton to Environmental Disturbance: A Review of Baltic Sea Field Studies and Experiments2018In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 5, p. 1-17, article id UNSP 361Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterioplankton communities regulate energy and matter fluxes fundamental to all aquatic life. The Baltic Sea offers an outstanding ecosystem for interpreting causes and consequences of bacterioplankton community composition shifts resulting from environmental disturbance. Yet, a systematic synthesis of the composition of Baltic Sea bacterioplankton and their responses to natural or human-induced environmental perturbations is lacking. We review current research on Baltic Sea bacterioplankton dynamics in situ (48 articles) and in laboratory experiments (38 articles) carried out at a variety of spatiotemporal scales. In situ studies indicate that the salinity gradient sets the boundaries for bacterioplankton composition, whereas, regional environmental conditions at a within-basin scale, including the level of hypoxia and phytoplankton succession stages, may significantly tune the composition of bacterial communities. Also the experiments show that Baltic Sea bacteria are highly responsive to environmental conditions, with general influences of e.g. salinity, temperature and nutrients. Importantly, nine out of ten experiments that measured both bacterial community composition and some metabolic activities showed empirical support for the sensitivity scenario of bacteria - i.e., that environmental disturbance caused concomitant change in both community composition and community functioning. The lack of studies empirically testing the resilience scenario, i.e., experimental studies that incorporate the long-term temporal dimension, precludes conclusions about the potential prevalence of resilience of Baltic Sea bacterioplankton. We also outline outstanding questions emphasizing promising applications in incorporating bacterioplankton community dynamics into biogeochemical and food-web models and the lack of knowledge for deep-sea assemblages, particularly bacterioplankton structure-function relationships. This review emphasizes that bacterioplankton communities rapidly respond to natural and predicted human-induced environmental disturbance by altering their composition and metabolic activity. Unless bacterioplankton are resilient, such changes could have severe consequences for the regulation of microbial ecosystem services.

  • 34.
    Lough, Alastair J. M.
    et al.
    Univ Southampton, Natl Oceanog Ctr Southampton, Ocean & Earth Sci, Southampton, Hants, England;Natl Oceanog Ctr, European Way, Southampton, Hants, England.
    Connelly, Douglas P.
    Natl Oceanog Ctr, European Way, Southampton, Hants, England.
    Homoky, William B.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Earth Sci, Oxford, England.
    Hawkes, Jeffrey A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry. Univ Southampton, Natl Oceanog Ctr Southampton, Ocean & Earth Sci, Southampton, Hants, England.
    Chavagnac, Valerie
    Univ Toulouse, GET CNRS UMR5563, Geosci Environement Toulouse, Toulouse, France.
    Castillo, Alain
    Univ Toulouse, GET CNRS UMR5563, Geosci Environement Toulouse, Toulouse, France.
    Kazemian, Majid
    Diamond Light Source Ltd, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Nakamura, Ko-ichi
    Natl Inst Adv Ind Sci & Technol, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Araki, Tohru
    Diamond Light Source Ltd, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Kaulich, Burkhard
    Diamond Light Source Ltd, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Mills, Rachel A.
    Univ Southampton, Natl Oceanog Ctr Southampton, Ocean & Earth Sci, Southampton, Hants, England.
    Diffuse Hydrothermal Venting: A Hidden Source of Iron to the Oceans2019In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, article id 329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iron (Fe) limits primary productivity and nitrogen fixation in large regions of the world's oceans. Hydrothermal supply of Fe to the global deep ocean is extensive; however, most of the previous work has focused on examining high temperature, acidic, focused flow on ridge axes that create "black smoker" plumes. The contribution of other types of venting to the global ocean Fe cycle has received little attention. To thoroughly understand hydrothermal Fe sources to the ocean, different types of vent site must be compared. To examine the role of more diffuse, higher pH sources of venting, a hydrothermal plume above the Von Damm vent field (VDVF) was sampled for Total dissolvable Fe (unfiltered, TDFe), dissolved Fe (< 0.2 mu m, dFe) and soluble Fe (< 0.02 mu m, sFe). Plume particles sampled in situ were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and soft X-ray spectromicroscopy. The VDVF vents emit visibly clear fluids with particulate Fe (TDFe-dFe, > 0.2 mu m) concentrations up to 196 nmol kg(-1) comparable to concentrations measured in black smoker plumes on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Colloidal Fe (cFe) and sFe increased as a fraction of TDFe with decreasing TDFe concentration. This increase in the percentage of sFe and cFe within the plume cannot be explained by settling of particulates or mixing with background seawater. The creation of new cFe and sFe within the plume from the breakdown of pFe is required to close the Fe budget. We suggest that the proportional increase in cFe and sFe reflects the entrainment, breakdown and recycling of Fe bearing organic particulates near the vents. Fe plume profiles from the VDVF differ significantly from previous studies of "black smoker" vents where formation of new pFe in the plume decreases the amount of cFe. Formation and removal of Fe-rich colloids and particles will control the amount and physico-chemical composition of dFe supplied to the deep ocean from hydrothermal systems. This study highlights the differences in the stabilization of hydrothermal Fe from an off-axis diffuse source compared to black smokers. Off-axis diffuse venting represent a potentially significant and previously overlooked Fe source to the ocean due to the difficulties in detecting and locating such sites.

  • 35. Martin Miguez, Belen
    et al.
    Novellino, Antonio
    Vinci, Matteo
    Claus, Simon
    Calewaert, Jan-Bart
    Vallius, Henry
    Schmitt, Thierry
    Pititto, Alessandro
    Giorgetti, Alessandra
    Askew, Natalie
    Iona, Sissy
    Schaap, Dick
    Pinardi, Nadia
    Harpham, Quillon
    Kater, Belinda J.
    Populus, Jacques
    She, Jun
    Palazov, Atanas Vasilev
    McMeel, Oonagh
    Oset, Paula
    Lear, Dan
    Manzella, Giuseppe M. R.
    Gorringe, Patrick
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Simoncelli, Simona
    Larkin, Kate
    Holdsworth, Neil
    Arvanitidis, Christos Dimitrios
    Jack, Maria Eugenia Molina
    Montero, Maria del Mar Chaves
    Herman, Peter M. J.
    Hernandez, Francisco
    The European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet): Visions and Roles of the Gateway to Marine Data in Europe2019In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, article id UNSP 313Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36. Meier, H. E. Markus
    et al.
    Edman, Moa
    Eilola, Kari
    Placke, Manja
    Neumann, Thomas
    Andersson, Helen C.
    Brunnabend, Sandra-Esther
    Dieterich, Christian
    Frauen, Claudia
    Friedland, Rene
    Gröger, Matthias
    Gustafsson, Bo G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Gustafsson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Isaev, Alexey
    Kniebusch, Madline
    Kuznetsov, Ivan
    Müller-Karulis, Bärbel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Naumann, Michael
    Omstedt, Anders
    Ryabchenko, Vladimir
    Saraiva, Sofia
    Savchuk, Oleg P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Assessment of Uncertainties in Scenario Simulations of Biogeochemical Cycles in the Baltic Sea2019In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, article id 46Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following earlier regional assessment studies, such as the Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin and the North Sea Region Climate Change Assessment, knowledge acquired from available literature about future scenario simulations of biogeochemical cycles in the Baltic Sea and their uncertainties is assessed. The identification and reduction of uncertainties of scenario simulations are issues for marine management. For instance, it is important to know whether nutrient load abatement will meet its objectives of restored water quality status in future climate or whether additional measures are required. However, uncertainties are large and their sources need to be understood to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of measures. The assessment of sources of uncertainties in projections of biogeochemical cycles based on authors' own expert judgment suggests that the biggest uncertainties are caused by (1) unknown current and future bioavailable nutrient loads from land and atmosphere, (2) the experimental setup (including the spin up strategy), (3) differences between the projections of global and regional climate models, in particular, with respect to the global mean sea level rise and regional water cycle, (4) differing model-specific responses of the simulated biogeochemical cycles to long-term changes in external nutrient loads and climate of the Baltic Sea region, and (5) unknown future greenhouse gas emissions. Regular assessments of the models' skill (or quality compared to observations) for the Baltic Sea region and the spread in scenario simulations (differences among projected changes) as well as improvement of dynamical downscaling methods are recommended.

  • 37. Meier, H. E. Markus
    et al.
    Edman, Moa K.
    Eilola, Kari J.
    Placke, Manja
    Neumann, Thomas
    Andersson, Helén C.
    Brunnabend, Sandra-Esther
    Dieterich, Christian
    Frauen, Claudia
    Friedland, René
    Gröger, Matthias
    Gustafsson, Bo G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Gustafsson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Isaev, Alexey
    Kniebusch, Madline
    Kuznetsov, Ivan
    Müller-Karulis, Bärbel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Omstedt, Anders
    Ryabchenko, Vladimir
    Saraiva, Sofia
    Savchuk, Oleg P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Assessment of Eutrophication Abatement Scenarios for the Baltic Sea by Multi-Model Ensemble Simulations2018In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 5, article id 440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To assess the impact of the implementation of the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) on the future environmental status of the Baltic Sea, available uncoordinated multi-model ensemble simulations for the Baltic Sea region for the twenty-first century were analyzed. 

    The scenario simulations were driven by regionalized global general circulation model (GCM) data using several regional climate system models and forced by various future greenhouse gas emission and air- and river-borne nutrient load scenarios following either reference conditions or the BSAP. To estimate uncertainties in projections, the largest ever multi-model ensemble for the Baltic Sea comprising 58 transient simulations for the twenty-first century was assessed. Data from already existing simulations from different projects including regionalized GCM simulations of the third and fourth assessment reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change based on the corresponding Coupled Model Intercomparison Projects, CMIP3 and CMIP5, were collected.

    Various strategies to weigh the ensemble members were tested and the results for ensemble mean changes between future and present climates are shown to be robust with respect to the chosen metric. Although (1) the model simulations during the historical period are of different quality and (2) the assumptions on nutrient load levels during present and future periods differ between models considerably, the ensemble mean changes in biogeochemical variables in the Baltic proper with respect to nutrient load reductions are similar between the entire ensemble and a subset consisting only of the most reliable simulations.

    Despite the large spread in projections, the implementation of the BSAP will lead to a significant improvement of the environmental status of the Baltic Sea according to both weighted and unweighted ensembles. The results emphasize the need for investigating ensembles with many members and rigorous assessments of models’ performance.

  • 38.
    Meier, Markus
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Edman, Moa
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Eilola, Kari
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Placke, Manja
    Neumann, Thomas
    Andersson, Helén
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Brunnabend, Sandra-Esther
    Dieterich, Christian
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Frauen, Claudia
    Friedland, Rene
    Groger, Matthias
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Gustafsson, Bo G.
    Gustafsson, Erik
    Isaev, Alexey
    Kniebusch, Madline
    Kuznetsov, Ivan
    Mueller-Karulis, Baerbel
    Omstedt, Anders
    Ryabchenko, Vladimir
    Saraiva, Sofia
    Savchuk, Oleg P.
    Assessment of Eutrophication Abatement Scenarios for the Baltic Sea by Multi-Model Ensemble Simulations2018In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 5, article id UNSP 440Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Meier, Markus
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Edman, Moa
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Eilola, Kari
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Placke, Manja
    Neumann, Thomas
    Andersson, Helén
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Brunnabend, Sandra-Esther
    Dieterich, Christian
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Frauen, Claudia
    Friedland, Rene
    Groger, Matthias
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Gustafsson, Bo G.
    Gustafsson, Erik
    Isaev, Alexey
    Kniebusch, Madline
    Kuznetsov, Ivan
    Muller-Karulis, Barbel
    Naumann, Michael
    Omstedt, Anders
    Ryabchenko, Vladimir
    Saraiva, Sofia
    Savchuk, Oleg P.
    Assessment of Uncertainties in Scenario Simulations of Biogeochemical Cycles in the Baltic Sea2019In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, article id UNSP 46Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    O’Donovan, Sarit
    et al.
    Centre for Marine and Environmental Research, University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal.
    Mestre, Nélia C.
    Centre for Marine and Environmental Research, University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal.
    Abel, Serena
    Centre for Marine and Environmental Research, University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal.
    Fonseca, Tainá G.
    Centre for Marine and Environmental Research, University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal.
    Carteny, Camilla C.
    Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Cormier, Bettie
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. UMR CNRS 5805 EPOC, University of Bordeaux, Talence, France.
    Keiter, Steffen H.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bebianno, Maria J.
    Centre for Marine and Environmental Research, University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal.
    Ecotoxicological Effects of Chemical Contaminants Adsorbed to Microplastics in the Clam Scrobicularia plana2018In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 5, article id 143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although microplastics are distributed globally in the marine environment, a great deal of unknowns relating to their ecotoxicological effects on the marine biota remain. Due to their lipophilic nature, microplastics have the potential to adsorb persistent organic pollutants present in contaminated regions, which may increase their detrimental impact once assimilated by organisms. This study investigates the ecotoxicological effects of exposure to low-density polyethylene (LDPE) microplastics (11 - 13 µm), with and without adsorbed contaminants (benzo[a]pyrene - BaP and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid - PFOS), in the peppery furrow shell clam, Scrobicularia plana. Environmentally relevant concentrations of contaminants (BaP - 16.87±0.22 µg g-1 and PFOS - 70.22±12.41 µg g-1) were adsorbed to microplastics to evaluate the potential role of plastic particles as a source of chemical contamination once ingested. S. plana were exposed to microplastics, at a concentration of 1 mg L-1, in a water-sediment exposure setup for 14 days. Clams were sampled at the beginning of the experiment (day 0) and after 3, 7 and 14 days. BaP accumulation, in whole clam tissues, was analysed. A multi-biomarker assessment was conducted in the gills, digestive gland, and haemolymph of clams to clarify the effects of exposure. This included the quantification of antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) and biotransformation (glutathione-S-transferases) enzyme activities, oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation levels), genotoxicity (single and double strand DNA breaks), and neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase activity). Results suggest a potential mechanical injury of gills caused by ingestion of microplastics that may also affect the analysed biomarkers. The digestive gland seems less affected by mechanical damage caused by virgin microplastic exposure, with the MP-adsorbed BaP and PFOS exerting a negative influence over the assessed biomarkers in this tissue.

  • 41.
    Perry, Diana
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Staveley, Thomas A. B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Gullström, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Habitat Connectivity of Fish in Temperate Shallow-Water Seascapes2018In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 4, article id 440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Movements of organisms comprise a fundamental aspect of coastal habitat connectivity. Determining the distribution and co-existence of habitat specialists and generalists in shallow-water seascapes leads to a better understanding of the strength of connectivity-driven community patterns in coastal areas. In this study, unbaited Remote Underwater Video (RUV) systems were used to examine habitat usage and connectivity of fish within six shallow-water coastal seascapes on the Swedish west coast. Within each seascape, video sampling was conducted at three different shallow-water habitats: seagrass meadows, rock-macroalgae and unvegetated areas, in June 2014. Comparative analyses showed that the shallow-water fish community was similar in adjacent habitats within a seascape, though abundances of fish were higher within the structurally complex habitats. All habitats were dominated by juveniles, highlighting the importance of the coastal seascape for early fish life stages. The findings demonstrate that adjacent shallow-water habitats in temperate coastal waters are linked through similar species utilization and that the coastal matrix could be regarded in terms of a seascape nursery for fish. The study highlights the importance of considering shallow-water seascape connectivity in coastal conservation planning and management.

  • 42.
    Pittura, Lucia
    et al.
    Laboratorio di Ecotossicologia e Chimica ambientale, Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell’Ambiente, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy.
    Avio, Carlo G.
    Laboratorio di Ecotossicologia e Chimica ambientale, Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell’Ambiente, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy.
    Giuliani, Maria E.
    Laboratorio di Ecotossicologia e Chimica ambientale, Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell’Ambiente, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy.
    d’Errico, Giuseppe
    Laboratorio di Ecotossicologia e Chimica ambientale, Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell’Ambiente, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Cormier, Bettie
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. UMR Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 5805 EPOC, University of Bordeaux, Talence, France.
    Gorbi, Stefania
    Laboratorio di Ecotossicologia e Chimica ambientale, Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell’Ambiente, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy.
    Regoli, Francesco
    Laboratorio di Ecotossicologia e Chimica ambientale, Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell’Ambiente, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy; Consorzio Interuniversitario per le Scienze del Mare, CoNISMa, ULR Ancona, Ancona, Italy.
    Microplastics as Vehicles of Environmental PAHs to Marine Organisms: Combined Chemical and Physical Hazards to the Mediterranean Mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis2018In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 5, no Apr, article id 103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ubiquitous occurrence of microplastics (MPs) in the marine environment is raising concern for interactions with marine organisms. These particles efficiently adsorb persistent organic pollutants from surrounding environment and, due to the small size, they are easily available for ingestion at all trophic levels. Once ingested, MPs can induce mechanical damage, sub- lethal effects and various cellular responses, further modulated by possible release of adsorbed chemicals or additives. In this study, ecotoxicological effects of MPs and their interactions with benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), chosen as a model compound for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in Mediterranean mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Organisms were exposed for four weeks to 10 mg/L of low-density polyethylene (LD-PE) microparticles (2.34x107 particles/L, size range 20-25 µm), both virgin and pre-contaminated with BaP (15µg/g). Organisms were also exposed for comparison to BaP dosed alone at 150 ng/L, corresponding to the amount adsorbed on microplastics. Tissue localization of microplastics was histologically evaluated; chemical analyses and a wide battery of biomarkers covering molecular, biochemical and cellular levels allowed to evaluate BaP bioaccumulation, alterations of immune system, antioxidant defenses, onset of oxidative stress, peroxisomal proliferation, genotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Obtained data were elaborated within a quantitative weight of evidence (WOE) model which, using weighted criteria, provided synthetic hazard indices, for both chemical and cellular results, before their integration in a combined index. Microplastics were localized in haemolymph, gills and especially digestive tissues where a potential transfer of BaP from MPs was also observed. Significant alterations were measured on the immune system, while more limited effects occurred on the oxidative status, neurotoxicity and genotoxicity, with a different susceptibility of analyzed pathways, depending on tissue, time and typology of exposure. Molecular analyses confirmed the general lack of significant variations on transcriptional activity of antioxidant and stress genes. The overall results suggest that microplastics induce a slight cellular toxicity under short-term (28 days) exposure conditions. However, modulation of immune responses, along with bioaccumulation of BaP, pose the still unexplored risk that these particles, under conditions of more chronic exposure (months to years) or interacting with other stressors, may provoke long-term, subtle effects on organisms’ health status.

  • 43. Placke, Manja
    et al.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Graewe, Ulf
    Neumann, Thomas
    Frauen, Claudia
    Liu, Ye
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Long-Term Mean Circulation of the Baltic Sea as Represented by Various Ocean Circulation Models2018In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 5, article id UNSP 287Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Savchuck, Oleg P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Large-Scale Nutrient Dynamics in the Baltic Sea, 1970–20162018In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 5, article id 95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea is one of the world's marine areas well-covered by both long-term observations and oceanographic studies. It is also a large coastal area in which eutrophication had already been recognized half a century ago. While the mechanisms of eutrophication are largely understood, several features are less recognized and sometimes neglected, including: (a) natural and anthropogenic North-South and East-West nutrient gradients within the drainage basin and marine ecosystems; (b) the compensatory potential of the interconnectivity between the Baltic Sea basins; (c) long nutrient residence times and high buffer capacity of the system, resulting in slow responses to nutrient load reductions. Particularly important is the interaction of (d) naturally occurring saltwater inflows sporadically ventilating deep water layers and (e) a partly man-made intensification of biological oxygen consumption. Resulting redox alterations of biogeochemical nitrogen and phosphorus cycles are locked in a “vicious circle” that promotes cyanobacterial nitrogen fixation, thereby hindering nitrogen load reduction and sustaining an elevated trophic state. This tight coupling of natural environmental variation and human impacts complicates both scientific studies and management recommendations. Our primary objective is to describe all these features and mechanisms with the best available data on nutrient loads, and unique estimates of the basin-wide nutrient pools. These data are presented as both long-term time series and empirical nutrient budgets. The analysis is supplemented by results of biogeochemical modeling. A second, more practical objective is to make these time series available to the community.

  • 45.
    Steinhoff, Tobias
    et al.
    Helmholtz Ctr Ocean Res Kiel, GEOMAR, Kiel, Germany;NORCE Norwegian Res Ctr AS, Bjerknes Ctr Climate Res, Bergen, Norway.
    Gkritzalis, Thanos
    Flanders Marine Inst, Oostende, Belgium.
    Lauvset, Siv K.
    NORCE Norwegian Res Ctr AS, Bjerknes Ctr Climate Res, Bergen, Norway;Univ Bergen, Geophys Inst, Bergen, Norway;Bjerknes Ctr Climate Res, Bergen, Norway.
    Jones, Steve
    Univ Bergen, Geophys Inst, Bergen, Norway;Bjerknes Ctr Climate Res, Bergen, Norway.
    Schuster, Ute
    Univ Exeter, Coll Life & Environm Sci, Exeter, Devon, England.
    Olsen, Are
    Univ Bergen, Geophys Inst, Bergen, Norway;Bjerknes Ctr Climate Res, Bergen, Norway.
    Becker, Meike
    Univ Bergen, Geophys Inst, Bergen, Norway;Bjerknes Ctr Climate Res, Bergen, Norway.
    Bozzano, Roberto
    Natl Res Council Italy, Inst Study Anthrop Impacts & Sustainabil Marine E, Genoa, Italy.
    Brunetti, Fabio
    Ist Nazl Oceanog & Geofis Sperimentale, Trieste, Italy.
    Cantoni, Carolina
    Natl Res Council Italy, Inst Marine Sci, Trieste, Italy.
    Cardin, Vanessa
    Ist Nazl Oceanog & Geofis Sperimentale, Trieste, Italy.
    Diverres, Denis
    Ctr IRD Bretagne, Plouzane, France.
    Fiedler, Bjoern
    Helmholtz Ctr Ocean Res Kiel, GEOMAR, Kiel, Germany.
    Fransson, Agneta
    Norwegian Polar Res Inst, Fram Ctr, Tromso, Norway.
    Giani, Michele
    Ist Nazl Oceanog & Geofis Sperimentale, Trieste, Italy.
    Hartman, Sue
    Natl Oceanog Ctr, Southampton, Hants, England.
    Hoppema, Mario
    Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Alfred Wegener Inst, Bremerhaven, Germany.
    Jeansson, Emil
    NORCE Norwegian Res Ctr AS, Bjerknes Ctr Climate Res, Bergen, Norway.
    Johannessen, Truls
    Univ Bergen, Geophys Inst, Bergen, Norway;Bjerknes Ctr Climate Res, Bergen, Norway.
    Kitidis, Vassilis
    Plymouth Marine Lab, Plymouth, Devon, England.
    Körtzinger, Arne
    Helmholtz Ctr Ocean Res Kiel, GEOMAR, Kiel, Germany.
    Landa, Camilla
    Univ Bergen, Geophys Inst, Bergen, Norway;Bjerknes Ctr Climate Res, Bergen, Norway.
    Lefevre, Nathalie
    Univ Paris 06, UPMC, Sorbonne Univ, LOCEAN IPSL Lab,CNRS,IRD,MNHN, Paris, France.
    Luchetta, Anna
    Natl Res Council Italy, Inst Marine Sci, Trieste, Italy.
    Naudts, Lieven
    Royal Belgian Inst Nat Sci, Operat Directorate Nat Environm, Oostende, Belgium.
    Nightingale, Philip D.
    Plymouth Marine Lab, Plymouth, Devon, England.
    Omar, Abdirahman M.
    NORCE Norwegian Res Ctr AS, Bjerknes Ctr Climate Res, Bergen, Norway.
    Pensieri, Sara
    Natl Res Council Italy, Inst Study Anthrop Impacts & Sustainabil Marine E, Genoa, Italy.
    Pfeil, Benjamin
    Univ Bergen, Geophys Inst, Bergen, Norway;Bjerknes Ctr Climate Res, Bergen, Norway.
    Castano-Primo, Rocio
    Univ Bergen, Geophys Inst, Bergen, Norway;Bjerknes Ctr Climate Res, Bergen, Norway.
    Rehder, Gregor
    Leibniz Inst Baltic Sea Res Warnemunde, Rostock, Germany.
    Rutgersson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Sanders, Richard
    Natl Oceanog Ctr, Southampton, Hants, England.
    Schewe, Ingo
    Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Alfred Wegener Inst, Bremerhaven, Germany.
    Siena, Giuseppe
    Ist Nazl Oceanog & Geofis Sperimentale, Trieste, Italy.
    Skjelvan, Ingunn
    NORCE Norwegian Res Ctr AS, Bjerknes Ctr Climate Res, Bergen, Norway.
    Soltwedel, Thomas
    Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Alfred Wegener Inst, Bremerhaven, Germany.
    van Heuven, Steven
    Univ Groningen, Ctr Isotope Res, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Watson, Andrew
    Univ Exeter, Coll Life & Environm Sci, Exeter, Devon, England.
    Constraining the Oceanic Uptake and Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases by Building an Ocean Network of Certified Stations: The Ocean Component of the Integrated Carbon Observation System, ICOS-Oceans2019In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, article id 544Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Research Infrastructure Consortium "Integrated Carbon Observation System" (ICOS) aims at delivering high quality greenhouse gas (GHG) observations and derived data products (e.g., regional GHG-flux maps) for constraining the GHG balance on a European level, on a sustained long-term basis. The marine domain (ICOS-Oceans) currently consists of 11 Ship of Opportunity lines (SOOP - Ship of Opportunity Program) and 10 Fixed Ocean Stations (FOSs) spread across European waters, including the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans and the Barents, North, Baltic, and Mediterranean Seas. The stations operate in a harmonized and standardized way based on community-proven protocols and methods for ocean GHG observations, improving operational conformity as well as quality control and assurance of the data. This enables the network to focus on long term research into the marine carbon cycle and the anthropogenic carbon sink, while preparing the network to include other GHG fluxes. ICOS data are processed on a near real-time basis and will be published on the ICOS Carbon Portal (CP), allowing monthly estimates of CO2 air-sea exchange to be quantified for European waters. ICOS establishes transparent operational data management routines following the FAIR (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable) guiding principles allowing amongst others reproducibility, interoperability, and traceability. The ICOS-Oceans network is actively integrating with the atmospheric (e.g., improved atmospheric measurements onboard SOOP lines) and ecosystem (e.g., oceanic direct gas flux measurements) domains of ICOS, and utilizes techniques developed by the ICOS Central Facilities and the CP. There is a strong interaction with the international ocean carbon cycle community to enhance interoperability and harmonize data flow. The future vision of ICOS-Oceans includes ship-based ocean survey sections to obtain a three-dimensional understanding of marine carbon cycle processes and optimize the existing network design.

  • 46.
    Stewart, Joshua D.
    et al.
    Scripps Inst Oceanog, USA;Manta Trust, UK.
    Jaine, Fabrice R. A.
    Sydney Inst Marine Sci, Australia;Macquarie Univ, Australia.
    Armstrong, Amelia J.
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Armstrong, Asia O.
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Bennett, Michael B.
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Burgess, Katherine B.
    Univ Queensland, Australia;Marine Megafauna Fdn, USA.
    Couturier, Lydie I. E.
    Univ Brest, France.
    Croll, Donald A.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA.
    Cronin, Melissa R.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA.
    Deakos, Mark H.
    Hawaii Assoc Marine Educ & Res, USA.
    Dudgeon, Christine L.
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Fernando, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Manta Trust, Dorchester, UK;Blue Resources Trust, Sri Lanka.
    Froman, Niv
    Manta Trust, UK.
    Germanov, Elitza S.
    Marine Megafauna Fdn, USA;Murdoch Univ, Australia.
    Hall, Martin A.
    Inter Amer Trop Tuna Commiss, USA.
    Hinojosa-Alvarez, Silvia
    Univ Barcelona, Spain.
    Hosegood, Jane E.
    Manta Trust, UK;Bangor Univ, UK.
    Kashiwagi, Tom
    Marine Megafauna Fdn, USA;Southern Illinois Univ Carbondale, USA.
    Laglbauer, Betty J. L.
    Univ Azores, Portugal.
    Lezama-Ochoa, Nerea
    AZTI Tecnalia Marine Res Div, Spain.
    Marshall, Andrea D.
    Marine Megafauna Fdn, USA.
    McGregor, Frazer
    Murdoch Univ, Australia.
    di Sciara, Giuseppe Notarbartolo
    Tethys Res Inst, Italy.
    Palacios, Marta D.
    Inst Politecn Nacl CICIMAR, Mexico.
    Peel, Lauren R.
    Manta Trust, UK;Univ Western Australia, Australia;Save Our Seas Fdn, Switzerland;Australian Inst Marine Sci, Australia.
    Richardson, Anthony J.
    Univ Queensland, Australia;CSIRO Oceans & Atmosphere Ecosci Precinct, Australia.
    Rubin, Robert D.
    Pacific Manta Res Grp, USA.
    Townsend, Kathy A.
    Univ Sunshine Coast, Australia.
    Venables, Stephanie K.
    Marine Megafauna Fdn, USA;Univ Western Australia, Australia.
    Stevens, Guy M. W.
    Manta Trust, UK.
    Research Priorities to Support Effective Manta and Devil Ray Conservation2018In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 5, p. 1-27, article id UNSP 314Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manta and devil rays are filter-feeding elasmobranchs that are found circumglobally in tropical and subtropical waters. Although relatively understudied for most of the Twentieth century, public awareness and scientific research on these species has increased dramatically in recent years. Much of this attention has been in response to targeted fisheries, international trade in mobulid products, and a growing concern over the fate of exploited populations. Despite progress in mobulid research, major knowledge gaps still exist, hindering the development of effective management and conservation strategies. We assembled 30 leaders and emerging experts in the fields of mobulid biology, ecology, and conservation to identify pressing knowledge gaps that must be filled to facilitate improved science-based management of these vulnerable species. We highlight focal research topics in the subject areas of taxonomy and diversity, life history, reproduction and nursery areas, population trends, bycatch and fisheries, spatial dynamics and movements, foraging and diving, pollution and contaminants, and sub-lethal impacts. Mobulid rays remain a poorly studied group, and therefore our list of important knowledge gaps is extensive. However, we hope that this identification of high priority knowledge gaps will stimulate and focus future mobulid research.

  • 47. Stoll, Joshua S.
    et al.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fabinyi, Michael
    Farr, Emily R.
    Seafood Trade Routes for Lobster Obscure Teleconnected Vulnerabilities2018In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 5, article id UNSP 239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliance on international seafood markets leaves small-scale fishers and fishing economies vulnerable to distant disturbances that can negatively affect market prices and trigger social, economic, and environmental crises at local levels. This paper examines the role of seafood trade routes and re-exports in masking such market linkages. We employ a network approach to map the global trade routes of lobster (Homarus spp.) from small-scale producers in North America to terminal markets and evaluate the extent to which intermediary nations act to obscure producer-market relationships. In taking this approach, we provide a method for systematically measuring teleconnectivity created through seafood trade routes, and thus making explicit vulnerabilities to small-scale fisheries from this teleconnectivity. Our empirical analysis shows that the perceived trade diversification of lobster producers is masking increased dependencies on a reduced number of end-markets, particularly in Asia. These results suggest, paradoxically, that the apparent diversification of trade partnerships may actually amplify, rather than reduce, the vulnerabilities of small-scale fishers associated with international trade by making risk harder to identify and anticipate. We discuss our results in the context of local fisheries and global seafood trade and describe key impediments to being able to monitor market dependencies and exposure to potential vulnerabilities.

  • 48.
    van Wirdum, Falkje
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Wienholz, D.
    University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Kotthoff, U.
    University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Moros, M.
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Rostock, Germany.
    Fanget, A. -S
    University of Perpignan, Perpignan, France.
    Seidenkrantz, M. -S
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Andrén, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Middle to late holocene variations in salinity and primary productivity in the central Baltic Sea: A multiproxy study from the landsort deep2019In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, article id 51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic forcing has led to an increased extent of hypoxic bottom areas in the Baltic Sea during recent decades. The Baltic Sea ecosystem is naturally prone to the development of hypoxic conditions due to its geographical, hydrographical, geological, and climate features. Besides the current spreading of hypoxia, the Baltic Sea has experienced two extensive periods of hypoxic conditions during the Holocene, caused by changing climate conditions during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM; 8–4.8 cal ka BP) and the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; 1–0.7 cal ka BP). We studied the variations in surface and bottom water salinity and primary productivity and their relative importance for the development and termination of hypoxia by using microfossil and geochemical data from a sediment core retrieved from the Landsort Deep during IODP Expedition 347 (Site M0063). Our findings demonstrate that increased salinity was of major importance for the development of hypoxic conditions during the HTM. In contrast, we could not clearly relate the termination of this hypoxic period to salinity changes. The reconstructed high primary productivity associated with the hypoxic period during the MCA is not accompanied by considerable increases in salinity. Our proxies for salinity show a decreasing trend before, during and after the MCA. Therefore, we suggest that this period of hypoxia is primarily driven by increasing temperatures due to the warmer climate. These results highlight the importance of natural climate driven changes in salinity and primary productivity for the development of hypoxia during a warming climate.

  • 49. Voss, Rudi
    et al.
    Quaas, Martin F.
    Stoeven, Max T.
    Schmidt, Jörn O.
    Tomczak, Maciej T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Möllmann, Christian
    Ecological-Economic Fisheries Management Advice—Quantification of Potential Benefits for the Case of the Eastern Baltic COD Fishery2017In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 4, article id 209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fishing is a social and economic activity, and consequently socio-economic considerations are important for resource management. While this is acknowledged in the theory of Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM) and its sector-specific development Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management (EBFM), currently applied fishery management objectives often ignore economic considerations. Year-to-year management, however, implicitly responds to short-term economic interests, and consequently, regularly resorts to tactical short-term rather than strategic long-term decisions. The aim of this article is to introduce a new way of estimating management advice referred to as an “ecologically-constrained Maximum Economic Yield” (eMEY) strategy, which takes into account ecological criteria as well as short- to medium-term economic costs. We further illustrate what net cost reductions per year are possible applying the eMEY strategy compared with the existing way of setting total allowable catches (TACs). The eMEY approach aims at maximizing the economic benefits for the fishery as well as society (consumers), while safeguarding precautionary stock sizes. Using an age-structured optimization model parameterized for the Eastern Baltic cod case study, we find that application of eMEY advice results in more stability in catch advice. Quantification and visualization of the costs of deviating from eMEY advice offers a transparent basis for evaluating decision-making outcomes. The costs of overfishing are mainly borne by the commercial fishery, while fishing less than optimal is particularly costly for the processing industry and consumers. To foster the uptake of our eMEY approach in current advice given by the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) and the EU fishery management system, we suggest an easy-to-implement scheme of providing integrated advice, also accounting for economic considerations.

  • 50.
    Watson, James R.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Oregon State University, United States.
    Fuller, Emma C.
    Castrucci, Frederic S.
    Samhouri, Jameal F.
    Fishermen Follow Fine-Scale Physical Ocean Features for Finance2018In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 5, article id UNSP 46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The seascapes on which many millions of people make their living and secure food have complex and dynamic spatial features-the figurative hills and valleys-that influence where and how people work at sea. Here, we quantify the physical mosaic of the surface ocean by identifying Lagrangian Coherent Structures for a whole seascape-the U.S. California Current Large Marine Ecosystem-and assess their impact on the spatial distribution of fishing. We observe that there is a mixed response: some fisheries track these physical features, and others avoid them. These spatial behaviors map to economic impacts, in particular we find that tuna fishermen can expect to make three times more revenue per trip if fishing occurs on strong Lagrangian Coherent Structures. However, we find no relationship for salmon and pink shrimp fishing trips. These results highlight a connection between the biophysical state of the oceans, the spatial patterns of human activity, and ultimately the economic welfare of coastal communities.

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