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  • 1.
    Degerman, Mari
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Larsson, C.
    Linköping University.
    Anward, J.
    Linköping University.
    When metaphors come to life: At the interface of external representations, molecular phenomena, and student learning2012In: International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, ISSN 1306-3065, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 563-580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grasping the dynamics of molecular phenomenon appears to be rather challenging for students in the context of life science. To pursue the origin of such difficulties this paper investigates students' (n=43) meaning making, in interaction with peers and an animation, of the dynamic process of ATP-synthase. To support this inquiry we introduce the CharM-framework (Characteristics of Metaphors), which accounts for students' experiences of metaphors while interacting with external representations (ERs) when trying to make meaning of molecular phenomena. Student-expressed metaphors are outlined and related to the animator's intentions while designing the animation. The analysis shows that some of the used metaphors possess in-built problematic characteristics that could act as potential problems for learning. For example, the metaphors machine and watermill possess problematic characteristics that are a possible reason for students' difficulties with unders-tanding the ATP-synthesis as a reversible and non-deterministic process. Furthermore, we also conclude that students' use of metaphors is highly influenced by the ER, which is designed according to the animator's internal representation of the scientific phenomenon and his intentions. The challenge associated with designing educational representations that sufficiently represent molecular processes is somewhat similar to the challenge student face while linking the characteristics of metaphors to the molecular processes. The CharM-framework can assist in the design process by allowing designers to reflect on how ERs could be interpreted or misinterpreted and also guide teachers' choice of educational representations. © 2012 IJESE.

  • 2.
    Gustafsson, Barbro
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Öhman, Johan
    Örebro universitet.
    DEQUAL: A Tool for Investigating Deliberative Qualities in Students’ Socioscientific Conversations2013In: International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, ISSN 1306-3065, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 319-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    School is assumed to equip students with subject knowledge and contribute to their development as human beings and democratic citizens as well. In this article, the democratic dimension of the teaching assignment is brought to the fore, and an analysis tool for investigating students’ conversations on socioscientific issues that emphasises democratic aspects is presented. The DEQUAL-tool, where the acronyms stand for DEliberative QUALities, comprises both the content-related and formal aspects of the conversations, with a specific emphasis on the collective expressions of democratic qualities like questioning, consideration for others and conveying different dimensions and arguments. DEQUAL is based on an intersubjective and communicative understanding of democracy and meaning-making, and is theoretically inspired by John Dewey’s and Jürgen Habermas’ views on these matters. The development and function of DEQUAL is clarified using excerpts from upper secondary school students talking about how living in a certain place influences the greenhouse effect. By pointing out characteristics, strengths and weaknesses of students’ group-conversations, this methodological proposal can provide further guidance for an integrative understanding of the teacher’s assignment in science education.

  • 3.
    Hasslöf, Helen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
    Ekborg, Margareta
    Lärande och samhälle, Malmö högskola, Malmö.
    Malmberg, Claes
    School of Teacher Education. Halmstad University, Halmstad.
    Discussing sustainable development among teachers :: an analysis from a conflict perspective2014In: International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, ISSN 1306-3065, Vol. 9, p. 41-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Education for Sustainable Development has been discussed as problematic, as a top down directive promoting an "indoctrinating" education. The concept of the intertwined dimensions (economic, social-cultural, and environmental) of sustainable development is seen both as an opportunity and as a limitation for pluralistic views of sustainability. In this paper we study possibilities that allow different perspectives of sustainability to emerge and develop in discussions. We focus on the conflicting perspectives of the intertwined dimensions in some main theoretical models in combination with the use of Wertsch's function of speech framework to construct a conflict reflection tool. As an illustrative case, we apply this conflict reflection tool to an analysis of a discussion among seven secondary school teachers on climate change. The results in this particular example show the dynamics of speech genre and content in developing different perspectives. We conclude our paper with a discussion of the conflicting view of the integrated dimensions of sustainability in relation to an agonistic pluralistic approach, and we consider its relevance in an educational context.

  • 4.
    Hasslöf, Helen
    et al.
    Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Ekborg, Margareta
    Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Malmberg, Claes
    Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Discussing sustainable development among teachers: An analysis from a conflict perspective2014In: International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, ISSN 1306-3065, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 41-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Education for Sustainable Development has been discussed as problematic, as a top down directive promoting an "indoctrinating" education. The concept of the intertwined dimensions (economic, social-cultural, and environmental) of sustainable development is seen both as an opportunity and as a limitation for pluralistic views of sustainability. In this paper we study possibilities that allow different perspectives of sustainability to emerge and develop in discussions. We focus on the conflicting perspectives of the intertwined dimensions in some main theoretical models in combination with the use of Wertsch's function of speech framework to construct a conflict reflection tool. As an illustrative case, we apply this conflict reflection tool to an analysis of a discussion among seven secondary school teachers on climate change. The results in this particular example show the dynamics of speech genre and content in developing different perspectives. We conclude our paper with a discussion of the conflicting view of the integrated dimensions of sustainability in relation to an agonistic pluralistic approach, and we consider its relevance in an educational context. © 2006-2014 by iSER, International Society of Educational Research. All Rights Reserved.

  • 5.
    Nauzeer, Salim
    et al.
    Open University of Mauritius, MAURITIUS.
    Jaunky, Vishal Chandr
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Motivation and Academic Performance: A SEM Approach2019In: International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, ISSN 1306-3065, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 41-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many models in educational have tried to clarify the causal relationships of motivation variables on student performance, by presenting hypothesized models, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) under structural equation modeling (SEM). Based on the literature, this model inspected the most robust stimuli of motivation: intrinsic, extrinsic, amotivation, self-efficacy and achievement motivation alongside with other variables like parental education, location, musculoskeletal pain (MSP), student body mass index (BMI), bag weights and tuition. SEM (unmodified and modified) is used to clarify the interrelationships of these variables and their relative contributions to academic performance. The sample consists of 324 students from Forest-Side State Secondary School (Boys). The results show that as predicted the latent variable motivation, mother education, private tuition and weights of bags have direct effects on students‘ performance using the modified standardized coefficients.

  • 6.
    Nauzeer, Salim
    et al.
    Open University of Mauritius, Moka, MAURITIUS.
    Jaunky, Vishal Chandr
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ramesh, Vani
    REVA University Bangalore, INDIA.
    Efficiency Assessment of Secondary Schools in Mauritius: A DEA Approach2018In: International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, ISSN 1306-3065, Vol. 13, no 10, p. 865-880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of the quantitative approach to the evaluation of educational units there is an emerging interest in discerning the factors that affect the performance of a school. The data envelopment analysis (DEA) methodology provides an effective agenda for evaluating the efficiency of educational units, such as the secondary schools, in the presence of multiple inputs and outputs. In this paper we evaluate the performance of Mauritian colleges through DEA. The data deal with overall % passes at school certificate and higher school certificate in all secondary colleges for the year 2016. The 141 colleges are bunched on the foundation of factors such as school facilities and school population. The analysis results indicate that efficiency of colleges ranged between 0 and 1 with an average of 0.872(CRS) and 0.909(VRS) using Tobit model. The second stage analysis found that the location, zone, types of colleges, teacher-student ratio, student-class ratio, college status and canteen have significant effect on school’s performance.

  • 7.
    Ojala, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Regulating worry, promoting hope: How do children, adolescents, and young adults cope with climate change2012In: International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, ISSN 1306-3065, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 537-561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning about global problems, such as climate change, is not only a cognitive endeavor, but also involves emotions evoked by the seriousness and complexity of these problems. Few studies, however, have explored how young people cope with emotions related to cli-mate change. Since coping strategies could be as important as the emotions themselves in influencing whether young people will acquire knowledge concerning climate change, as well as ethical sensibility and action competence, it is argued that it is important for teach-ers to gain insight into how young people cope with this threat. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore how Swedish young people – in late childhood/early adolescence (n=90), mid to late adolescence (n=146), and early adulthood (n=112) – cope with worry and pro-mote hope in relation to climate change. A questionnaire containing both open-ended and Likert-type questions was used. Using thematic analysis, several coping strategies were identified, for instance, de-emphasizing the seriousness of climate change, distancing, hyperactivation, positive reappraisal, trust in different societal actors, problem-focused cop-ing, and existential hope. Furthermore, the results show that the children used less problem-focused coping and more distancing to cope with worry than the two older groups. Con-cerning sources of hope, the children used less positive reappraisal and instead placed trust in researchers and technological development to a higher degree than the two older groups. Practical implications for education for sustainable development are discussed.

  • 8.
    Ojala, Maria
    Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Regulating worry, promoting hope: How do children, adolescents, and young adults cope with climate change?2012In: International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, ISSN 1306-3065, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 537-561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning about global problems, such as climate change, is not only a cognitive endeavor, but also involves emotions evoked by the seriousness and complexity of these problems. Few studies, however, have explored how young people cope with emotions related to cli-mate change. Since coping strategies could be as important as the emotions themselves in influencing whether young people will acquire knowledge concerning climate change, as well as ethical sensibility and action competence, it is argued that it is important for teach-ers to gain insight into how young people cope with this threat. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore how Swedish young people – in late childhood/early adolescence (n=90), mid to late adolescence (n=146), and early adulthood (n=112) – cope with worry and pro-mote hope in relation to climate change. A questionnaire containing both open-ended and Likert-type questions was used. Using thematic analysis, several coping strategies were identified, for instance, de-emphasizing the seriousness of climate change, distancing, hyperactivation, positive reappraisal, trust in different societal actors, problem-focused cop-ing, and existential hope. Furthermore, the results show that the children used less problem-focused coping and more distancing to cope with worry than the two older groups. Con-cerning sources of hope, the children used less positive reappraisal and instead placed trust in researchers and technological development to a higher degree than the two older groups. Practical implications for education for sustainable development are discussed.

  • 9.
    Stadig Degerman, Mari
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Larsson, Caroline
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier.
    Anward, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation.
    When metaphors come to life: at the interface of external representations, molecular processes and student learning2012In: International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, ISSN 1306-3065, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 563-580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When studying the molecular aspect of the life sciences, learners must be introduced to somewhat inaccessible phenomena that occur at the sub-micro scale. Despite the difficulties, students need to be familiar with and understand the highly dynamic nature of molecular processes. Thus, external representations1 (ERs) can be considered unavoidable and essential tools for student learning. Besides meeting the challenge of interpreting external representations, learners also encounter a large array of abstract concepts2, which are challenging to understand (Orgill & Bodner, 2004). Both teachers and learners use metaphorical language as a way to relate these abstract phenomena to more familiar ones from everyday life. Scientific papers, as well as textbooks and popular science articles, are packed with metaphors, analogies and intentional expressions. Like ERs, the use of metaphors and analogies is inevitable and necessary when communicating knowledge concerning molecular phenomena. Therefore, a large body of published research related to metaphors concerns science teachers’ and textbook writers’ interpretation and use of metaphors (Harrison & Treagust, 2006). In this paper we present a theoretical framework for examining metaphorical language use in relation to abstract phenomena and external representations. The framework was verified by using it to analyse students’ meaning-making in relation to an animation representing the sub-microscopic and abstract process of ATP-synthesis in Oxidative Phosphorylation. We seek to discover the animator’s intentions while designing the animation and to identify the metaphors that students use while interacting with the animation. Two of these metaphors serve as examples of a metaphor analysis, in which the characteristics of metaphors are outlined. To our knowledge,  no strategies to identify and understand the characteristics, benefits, and potential pitfalls of particular metaphors have, to date, been presented in science education research. Our aspiration is to contribute valuable insights into metaphorical language use at the interface between external representations, molecular processes, and student learning.

  • 10.
    Stadig Degerman, Mari
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Caroline
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Anward, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    When metaphors come to life: at the interface of external representations, molecular processes and student learning2012In: International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, ISSN 1306-3065, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 563-580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When studying the molecular aspect of the life sciences, learners must be introduced to somewhat inaccessible phenomena that occur at the sub-micro scale. Despite the difficulties, students need to be familiar with and understand the highly dynamic nature of molecular processes. Thus, external representations1 (ERs) can be considered unavoidable and essential tools for student learning. Besides meeting the challenge of interpreting external representations, learners also encounter a large array of abstract concepts2, which are challenging to understand (Orgill & Bodner, 2004). Both teachers and learners use metaphorical language as a way to relate these abstract phenomena to more familiar ones from everyday life. Scientific papers, as well as textbooks and popular science articles, are packed with metaphors, analogies and intentional expressions. Like ERs, the use of metaphors and analogies is inevitable and necessary when communicating knowledge concerning molecular phenomena. Therefore, a large body of published research related to metaphors concerns science teachers’ and textbook writers’ interpretation and use of metaphors (Harrison & Treagust, 2006). In this paper we present a theoretical framework for examining metaphorical language use in relation to abstract phenomena and external representations. The framework was verified by using it to analyse students’ meaning-making in relation to an animation representing the sub-microscopic and abstract process of ATP-synthesis in Oxidative Phosphorylation. We seek to discover the animator’s intentions while designing the animation and to identify the metaphors that students use while interacting with the animation. Two of these metaphors serve as examples of a metaphor analysis, in which the characteristics of metaphors are outlined. To our knowledge,  no strategies to identify and understand the characteristics, benefits, and potential pitfalls of particular metaphors have, to date, been presented in science education research. Our aspiration is to contribute valuable insights into metaphorical language use at the interface between external representations, molecular processes, and student learning.

  • 11.
    Öhman, Johan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Barbro
    Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, Sverige.
    DEQUAL: a tool for investigating deliberative qualities in students’ socioscientific conversations2013In: International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, ISSN 1306-3065, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 319-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    School is assumed to equip students with subject knowledge and contribute to their development as human beings and democratic citizens as well. In this article, the democratic dimension of the teaching assignment is brought to the fore, and an analysis tool for investigating students’ conversations on socioscientific issues that emphasises democratic aspects is presented. The DEQUAL-tool, where the acronyms stand for DEliberative QUALities, comprises both the content-related and formal aspects of the conversations, with a specific emphasis on the collective expressions of democratic qualities like questioning, consideration for others and conveying different dimensions and arguments. DEQUAL is based on an intersubjective and communicative understanding of democracy and meaning-making, and is theoretically inspired by John Dewey’s and Jürgen Habermas’ views on these matters. The development and function of DEQUAL is clarified using excerpts from upper secondary school students talking about how living in a certain place influences the greenhouse effect. By pointing out characteristics, strengths and weaknesses of students’ group-conversations, this methodological proposal can provide further guidance for an integrative understanding of the teacher’s assignment in science education.

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