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  • 1.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Elfgren Boström, Malin
    Karlstad Univ, Dept Psychol & Social Studies, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Leaders as emotional managers: Emotion management in response organisations during a hostage taking in a Swedish prison2015In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 697-711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop a deeper understanding of how leaders manage their own and others' emotions in professional crisis management organizations during severely demanding episodes. The empirical case is a hostage drama that occurred in a small Swedish town. Although staff at the local prison were situationally prepared and trained in incident exercises, two inmates with knives fled the prison after taking a warden hostage.

    Design/methodology/approach - A grounded theory approach was used. In all, 14 informants from four Swedish authorities were interviewed on the basis of their involvement in the hostage drama.

    Findings - According to the analysis, an emergency response leader's emotion management is framed by an organizationally embedded emotional regime which is summed up in two core themes: focus on the task and do not let emotions interfere; and provide the task force with maximum physical and psychological security. The leader's emotion management within this framework consists of two interdependent processes, one more organization oriented and one more individual oriented.

    Research limitations/implications - Small sample, lack of representativeness, and lack of illumination of possible gender-related aspects.

    Practical implications - The suggested model may be valuable in educational settings.

    Originality/value - A new integrative, theoretical process model of leadership and emotion management in complex, stressful operations.

  • 2.
    Andersen, Jon Aarum
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Barking up the wrong tree: on the fallacies of the transformational leadership theory2015In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 765-777Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that the magnitude of interest in and of enthusiasm for transformational leadership is out of proportion with its weaknesses.

    Findings: The theory has some grave problems: there are conceptual limitations; managerial leadership is conflated with political leadership; the theory is presented as a universal as well as a contingency theory; the claim that transformational leaders are more effective is not empirically supported; and the use of the term “followers” rather than “subordinates” creates confusion in the study of formal organizations. Finally, and perhaps most fundamentally, does transformational leadership theory qualify as a managerial leadership theory?

    Research limitations/implications: Transformational leadership is a political leadership theory and thus less relevant for managerial leadership.

    Originality/value: This paper addresses the theoretical limitations of the transformational leadership theory as well as the lack of empirical support regarding the effectiveness of transformational leaders.

  • 3.
    Andersen, Jon Aarum
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    On “followers” and the inability to define2019In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 274-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Scholars’ability to do research based on the notions of “follower” and “followership” is questioned when studying formal leadership in organizations. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

    Design/methodology/approach: Critical comments are presented on the usefulness of the notions of followers and followership.

    Findings: There are no evidence that followership exists other than some scholars’ perception of something that they have been unable to define. The conclusion is that the inability to define these notions is tantamount to the inability to research them.

    Research limitations/implications: The literature review contains no new empirical data.

    Originality/value: The paper stresses that study objects which are not theoretically and empirically defined cannot be investigated

  • 4.
    Andersen, Jon Aarum
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Servant leadership and transformational leadership: from comparisons to farewells2018In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 762-774Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to question the usefulness of comparisons between theories on servant leadership and transformational leadership.

    Design/methodology/approach: A review of scholarly works on these two theories is presented from the original works of Greenleaf, Burns and Bass to the current research.

    Findings: Based on the four categories of construct clarity, two competing alternatives are identifiable in the scholarship of both servant and transformational leadership. There are thus 16 versions of each theory.

    Research limitations/implications: The literature review contains no new empirical data. The many versions available today of each theory do not make comparisons meaningful. The prevalence of several versions of theories on servant leadership and transformational leadership implies that they are no longer specific and useful theories.

    Originality/value: Critical comments are presented on the usefulness of comparisons between servant leadership and transformational leadership. Thus, the value of these theories is also questioned.

  • 5.
    Andersen, Jon Aarum
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Lilllehammer University College, Lillehammer, Norway.
    When the servant-leader comes knocking …2009In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 4-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to scrutinise the concept of servant leadership from a business administration (management) point-of-view.

    Design/methodology/approach: A review of scholarly works on servant-leadership is presented.

    Findings: A generally accepted definition of servant-leadership is not available. There are no generally accepted instruments for measuring servant-leadership. It is unclear whether some leaders are servant-leaders while others are not, and whether leaders can be servant-leaders to different degrees. The positive effects of servant-leadership on organisational outcomes, a consideration highly relevant to management, have not been empirically established. Some studies have shown negative effects of servant-leadership on organisational effectiveness.

    Research limitations/implications: This literature review contains no empirical data.

    Practical implications: The argument that servant-leaders should be in charge of private companies and public organisations appears to be contrary to theoretical and empirical considerations. Servant-leaders, whose concerns are primarily focused on subordinates rather than customers (or citizens), are hardly able to attain organisational goals.

    Originality/value: The paper offers critical comments on the conceptual and empirically usefulness of servant-leadership when applied to business enterprises and public agencies.

  • 6.
    Andersen, Jon Aarum
    Lilllehammer University College, Lillehammer, Norway.
    When the servant-leader comes knocking …2009In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 4-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to scrutinise the concept of servant leadership from a business administration (management) point-of-view.

    Design/methodology/approach – A review of scholarly works on servant-leadership is presented.

    Findings – A generally accepted definition of servant-leadership is not available. There are no generally accepted instruments for measuring servant-leadership. It is unclear whether some leaders are servant-leaders while others are not, and whether leaders can be servant-leaders to different degrees. The positive effects of servant-leadership on organisational outcomes, a consideration highly relevant to management, have not been empirically established. Some studies have shown negative effects of servant-leadership on organisational effectiveness.

    Research limitations/implications – This literature review contains no empirical data.

    Practical implications – The argument that servant-leaders should be in charge of private companies and public organisations appears to be contrary to theoretical and empirical considerations. Servant-leaders, whose concerns are primarily focused on subordinates rather than customers (or citizens), are hardly able to attain organisational goals.

    Originality/value – The paper offers critical comments on the conceptual and empirically usefulness of servant-leadership when applied to business enterprises and public agencies.

  • 7.
    Andersen, Jon Aarum
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Faculty of Social Sciences, Lillehammer University College, Lillehammer, Norway.
    Hansson, Per
    Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    At the end of the road?: On differences between women and men in leadership behavior2011In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 328-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This study aims to explore behavioural differences between women and men in managerial positions and suggest explanations for differences and similarities.

    Design/methodology/approach – In order to eliminate any effects of organizational differences on leadership behaviour, this study had public managers responding to questionnaires that measured their leadership style, decision-making style, and motivation profile.

    Findings – Statistical analyses of data from three groups of Swedish public managers (n=385) revealed virtually no significant differences in behaviour between female and male managers. Regardless of whether there is a female or male majority of employees or a female or male majority of managers, no effect on leadership behaviour occurs.

    Originality/value – A number of studies indicate that managers' behaviour is different in different types of organizations. This study suggests, therefore, that, independent of gender, organizational and demographic characteristics modify leadership behaviours, thus explaining similarities in leadership behaviour.

  • 8.
    Andersen, Jon Aarum
    et al.
    Lillehammer University College, Norway.
    Hansson, Per
    Uppsala University.
    At the end of the road?: On differences between women and men in leadership behavior2011In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 328-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This study aims to explore behavioural differences between women and men in managerial positions and suggest explanations for differences and similarities.

    Design/methodology/approach – In order to eliminate any effects of organizational differences on leadership behaviour, this study had public managers responding to questionnaires that measured their leadership style, decision-making style, and motivation profile.

    Findings – Statistical analyses of data from three groups of Swedish public managers (n=385) revealed virtually no significant differences in behaviour between female and male managers. Regardless of whether there is a female or male majority of employees or a female or male majority of managers, no effect on leadership behaviour occurs.

    Originality/value – A number of studies indicate that managers' behaviour is different in different types of organizations. This study suggests, therefore, that, independent of gender, organizational and demographic characteristics modify leadership behaviours, thus explaining similarities in leadership behaviour.

  • 9.
    Andersen, Jon Aarum
    et al.
    Faculty of Social Sciences, Lillehammer University College, Lillehammer, Norway.
    Hansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    At the end of the road? On differences between women and men in leadership behaviour2011In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 428-441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This study aims to explore behavioural differences between women and men in managerial positions and suggest explanations for differences and similarities.

    Design/methodology/approach – In order to eliminate any effects of organizational differences on leadership behaviour, this study had public managers responding to questionnaires that measured their leadership style, decision-making style, and motivation profile.

    Findings – Statistical analyses of data from three groups of Swedish public managers (n=385) revealed virtually no significant differences in behaviour between female and male managers. Regardless of whether there is a female or male majority of employees or a female or male majority of managers, no effect on leadership behaviour occurs.

    Originality/value – A number of studies indicate that managers' behaviour is different in different types of organizations. This study suggests, therefore, that, independent of gender, organizational and demographic characteristics modify leadership behaviours, thus explaining similarities in leadership behaviour.

  • 10.
    Augustsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Olofsdotter, Gunilla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Wolvén, Lars-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Swedish Managers in TWA Act as Boundary Spanners2010In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 4-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract:

     

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to highlight the complexity of manpower management in temporary work agencies (TWA). The aim is to investigate to which extent the managers reflects the features of boundary spanners.

     

    Design/methodology/approach – The results come from a case study where manpower managers at one of the biggest TWAs in Sweden are interviewed.

     

    Findings – TWAs' boundary-spanning managers mediate between the opinions of the clients, the TWAs, and the individual temps as well as balancing between trust and risk. The findings reveal the relevance of the managers' application of a flexible and a dialectical approach when delivering service to clients, the TWA and the temps. This flexible approach means being able to simultaneously embrace these three perspectives of interests. A dialectical approach involves being able to: systematically balance between the opposing pair of trust and risk and search for the most functional option and not relate others' opinions to one's own personal values.

     

    Research limitations/implications – The interview data come from a case study at only one TWA and it is collected in a limited number of interview subjects.

     

    Practical implications – The results can provide useful information for recruiters of manpower managers in a TWA when choosing staff members that can enhance strategic management of temps. The results can also be of assistance for managers when interacting with both customers and temps.

     

    Originality/value – The paper contributes to the literature by an analysis of the complex working conditions under which manpower managers in TWAs work.

  • 11. Birkeland Nielsen, M.
    et al.
    Eid, J.
    Mearns, K.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Authentic leadership and its relationship with risk perception and safety climate2013In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 34, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This study aims to examine how authentic leadership relates to risk perception in safety critical organizations (SCOs). It is hypothesized that authentic leaders influence risk perception through the mediating effect of safety climate.

    Design/methodology/approach – Using a survey design, the variables were assessed in a cross-sectional sample of 293 offshore oil installation workers from a single company.

    Findings – The authors’ findings show that follower ratings of authentic leadership are negatively related to risk perception and positively associated with ratings of safety climate. Controlling for personality characteristics and leadership responsibility among respondents, the results confirm the hypothesis in that safety climate mediates the relationship between authentic leadership and risk perception. Safety climate had the strongest relationship with risk perception when assessed as a higher order construct.

    Originality/value – This study is one of the first to investigate the relationship between authentic leadership and safety. The results indicate that authentic leadership and safety climate are important factors that relate to risk perception in SCOs. The authors’ findings suggest that SCOs should consider recruiting and developing authentic leaders to foster positive safety climates and risk management.

  • 12.
    Brunåker, Svante
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Kurvinen, Jaana
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Intrapreneurship, local initiatives in organizational change processes2006In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 118-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This paper has its focus on local initiatives in developing the work organization. Local initiatives describe how shop floor workers and middle managers initiate organizational change by developing ideas emerging in the daily operations. The purpose of this article is to elaborate on how and why such local initiatives emerge and develop.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper combines theories about entrepreneurship and organizational change as a framework to understand local initiatives. Local initiatives contribute to the understanding of organizational change processes by emphasizing not only the voice of the managerial discourse but also the voice of local actors. The empirical findings are based on interviews in a paper pulp plant.

    Findings – Local initiatives are a way for shop floor workers and middle managers to translate work procedures into something that makes sense in their own context of daily operations. The intrapreneur acts not as a change agent for someone else's intentions but as a self appointed actor who initiates and drives the process of creating unequivocal interpretations of equivocal events.

    Research limitations/implications – The findings are based on a single case study.

    Practical implications – The paper stresses the importance for managers to find ways to deal with local initiatives. Generating and collecting ideas is the easy part, the challenge is to do something with the ideas received.

    Originality/value – A model is suggested that describes four different approaches to organizational change.

  • 13.
    Cacioppe, Ron
    et al.
    Integral Leadership Centre, Graduate School of Management, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia.
    Edwards, Mark G.
    Integral Leadership Centre, Graduate School of Management, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia.
    Seeking the Holy Grail of organisational development: A synthesis of integral theory, spiral dynamics, corporate transformation and action inquiry2005In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 86-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - There are several stage-based models of organisational development (OD) that provide a systematic overview of the developmental potential of organisations. This paper compares four such models - Ken Wilber's integral theory, the spiral dynamics model of Don Beck and Chris Cowan, Richard Barrett's corporate transformation model, and William Torbert's action inquiry model - with the aim of presenting an integrated account of the stages of OD.

    Design/methodology/approach - Integral theory is used as the basis for considering the theoretical scope of these other models of OD. The integral framework is specifically designed to recognise the valid insights of other models of organisational change and, as such, is well suited for situating those insights in a comprehensive and coherent approach for mapping the developmental paths of organisations. The models considered represent some of the more innovative OD approaches.

    Findings - From the comparative analysis an integral model for OD is described. The description includes a new definition of OD which is based on integral theory's core developmental principles.

    Research limitations/implications - The proposed framework provides a means for assessing the scope and specificity of other approaches to OD. It also provides criteria for distinguishing between those approaches that are concerned with incremental or continuous change and those that focus on transformative development.

    Practical implications - The comparative analysis and resulting framework will assist practitioners and consultants in the OD field in developing a better understanding of the relationships between various stage-based approaches to OD. Originality/value - This paper provides a comprehensive framework that can assist in comparing and situating the many approaches to OD that are currently available.

  • 14.
    Danielsson, Erna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The roles of followers: an exploratory study of follower roles in a Swedish context2013In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 34, no 8, p. 708-723Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to draw a more nuanced picture of what characterizes followership in an organization. Design/methodology/approach - This exploratory study including seven depth interviews conducted with Swedish armed forces personnel at various levels - both officers and civilians on what characterizes followers. Additional two group discussions were conducted with employees; one representing followers and one representing middle management. Findings - The paper provides empirical insights about three follower roles - workmate, colleague, and co-worker and how they correspond to individual-related and organization-related categories. The most prominent feature of the role of workmate is work solidarity. The characteristic of the colleague is professional loyalty. Finally, the co-worker is looked upon as exercising leadership by extension. Research limitations/implications - Because of the chosen research approach, the research results may lack generalizability. Researchers are encouraged to test the proposed propositions further, and to further investigate the relationships between other followers' roles - such as temporary agency worker, flexible worker, and expert. Practical implications - The paper includes implications for the leader-follower relations, first, how management should lead subordinates in an organization. Second, there are ramifications for how followers' work is best organized. Finally, the paper verifies the importance of individual-related categories, not only between leaders and followers, but also between followers. Originality/value - The paper argues that followers should not only be seen in terms of traits or labels, but as the product of relations within organizations. Followers' actions are restrained by the frame of their positions. This has an impact on the development of the followers' roles.

  • 15.
    Florén, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). Department for Project Management and FENIX Research Program, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden & Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tell, Joakim
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    The emergent prerequisites of managerial learning in small firm networks2004In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 25, no 3/4, p. 292-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Descriptive studies have shown that co-operation in networks produces better possibilities for higher-level learning than small firms can organise on their own. Previous studies of learning in networks, however, have not considered how the prerequisites for higher-level learning develop over time in networks. This paper reports on a seven-year participant observational study of two different network constellations. A conclusion from the study is that the learning in networks of small-firm owner/managers is based on trust and has emergent prerequisites. These prerequisites are reciprocity between learning actors, the learning actors’ receptive and confronting capacity, and the transparency of the dialogue in the networks. Over time these prerequisites develop and create better opportunities for higher-level learning.

  • 16.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum. Department of Public Health, Hedmark University College, Elverum, Norway.
    Leadership: Is bad stronger than good?2016In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 690-710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – The purpose of this paper is to investigate if the thesis “bad is stronger than good” also holds true for a number of leadership issues, more specifically: trust in the immediate leader, emotional exhaustion, work atmosphere and propensity to leave.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – Questionnaire responses were obtained from military personnel in Estonia, Sweden, Switzerland and the Netherlands (n=625).

    Findings

    – Multiple regression analyses revealed a certain pattern. Constructive leadership behaviours showed stronger positive associations with trust in the immediate supervisor and work atmosphere, than destructive leadership behaviours showed negative associations. On the other hand, destructive leadership behaviours showed stronger positive associations with emotional exhaustion and propensity to leave, than constructive leadership behaviours showed negative associations. This suggests that constructive leadership behaviours possibly have a greater impact on positive phenomenon and/or phenomenon associated with work-related relationships. On the other hand, destructive leadership behaviours appear to have a greater impact on negative phenomena with a stronger personal meaning. The results also show that the passive forms of destructive leadership are the behaviours that had the strongest impact on the investigated dependent variables.

    Research limitations/implications

    – Limitations related to item construction, common method variance, response set tendencies, translation of the instruments, and lack of response rate are discussed.

    Practical implications

    – The results emphasize the importance of focusing on both constructive and destructive leadership at the selection stage, as well as during training of military leaders. Focusing on them separately obstructs optimal leader development and prevents leaders from gaining authentic self-knowledge. The results also point at the importance of including both aspects of leadership in leader evaluation processes.

    Originality/value

    – The use of both constructive and destructive leadership behaviours with respondents from multiple nations in the same analysis.

  • 17.
    Halvarsson Lundkvist, Agneta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lindskog, Pernilla
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Ståhl, Jenny
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Andersson, Karin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Melin, Martin
    Management Martin Melin AB, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Barth, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Svensson, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping, Sweden.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Conditions Enabling Development in National Lean Programmes2016In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this article is to identify work practices and activities at programme and local levels which constitute conditions that enable development in workplace development programmes (WPDPs). These are introduced by public agencies as change agents that provide the resources for local organizational change. Design/methodology/approach – The study constituted separate interactive research projects in three WPDPs conducted through a total of 256 interviews and documentation from meetings. The findings were compared in a qualitative content analysis. Findings – The outcomes of development processes in the programmes and local Lean implementation are enabled by the interplay of three conditions: a) organized learning activities with the stakeholders involved, b) key stakeholders’ active ownership and c) support for employee participation. The three conditions thus support programme management in leading the programme development processes. Research limitations/implications - The findings operationalize broad theoretical concepts. However, the research projects involved were not originally designed for this comparative study, which created some difficulties when performing the analysis. The longitudinal design and vast amount of data partly compensate for this. Practical implications – This knowledge will be helpful in the formation of new WPDPs that support local organizational development and for those who lead such processes. Originality/value – The novelty of the findings is the operationalization of broad theoretical concepts, such as the conditions that support development programmes. Moreover, this article shows a set of work practices and activities that management may be used in organizing WPDPs.

  • 18. Hasson, Henna
    et al.
    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Medical Management Centre, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Shared or different realities: Self-other agreement on constructive and passive leadership and employee outcomes2020In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 37-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the consequences of self-other agreement (SOA) between leaders and subordinates on constructive and passive leadership behaviors for employee well-being, performance and perception of learning climate.

    Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaire ratings of 76 leaders and 211 subordinates in a forest industrial company on full-range leadership and subordinate ratings of well-being, work performance and learning climate have been used in this paper. The data were analyzed using polynomial regression with response surface analysis.

    Findings: SOA on constructive leadership (transformational leadership and contingent reward) was related to subordinates' perception of a positive learning climate. SOA on passive leadership (management-by-exception passive) reduced subordinates' performance, while disagreement reduced their well-being.

    Practical implications: It is important to give leaders feedback on their own and their subordinates’ ratings of not only constructive leadership behaviors but also passive behaviors.

    Originality/value: The study demonstrates how SOA on leaders' constructive and passive leadership behaviors impacts employees' well-being, performance and work climate.

  • 19.
    Hasson, Henna
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Learning Informat Management & Eth, Med Management Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden.;Ctr Epidemiol & Community Med, Unit Implementat & Evaluat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. Karolinska Inst, Dept Learning Informat Management & Eth, Med Management Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Learning Informat Management & Eth, Med Management Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden.;Umea Univ, Umea, Sweden..
    Shared or different realities Self-other agreement on constructive and passive leadership and employee outcomes2020In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 37-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the consequences of self-other agreement (SOA) between leaders and subordinates on constructive and passive leadership behaviors for employee well-being, performance and perception of learning climate. Design/methodology/approach Questionnaire ratings of 76 leaders and 211 subordinates in a forest industrial company on full-range leadership and subordinate ratings of well-being, work performance and learning climate have been used in this paper. The data were analyzed using polynomial regression with response surface analysis. Findings SOA on constructive leadership (transformational leadership and contingent reward) was related to subordinates' perception of a positive learning climate. SOA on passive leadership (management-by-exception passive) reduced subordinates' performance, while disagreement reduced their well-being. Originality/value The study demonstrates how SOA on leaders' constructive and passive leadership behaviors impacts employees' well-being, performance and work climate.

  • 20.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Cigars, whiskey, and winning: A qualitative analysis of Kaltman's analysis of General Ulysses S. Grant's leadership2002In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 45-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A model of successful leadership was developed using a qualitative research method in a reanalysis of Kaltman’s analysis of General Ulysses S. Grant’s leadership. The model rests on a person by situation interactional perspective but has a person-oriented focus. It suggests that leader actions are affected by task-related competence, management competence, and social competence. These competencies, in turn, are affected by the leader’s physical shape, psychological base, and value base. The model was related to two leading models in the field: situational leadership and transformational leadership. The study constitutes an attempt to elicit tacit knowledge and put it into a scientific framework.

  • 21.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership, Swedish National Defence College, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Brandebo, Maria Fors
    Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership, Swedish National Defence College, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership, Swedish National Defence College, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Destrudo‐L: Development of a short scale designed to measure destructive leadership behaviours in a military context2012In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 383-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a short and easy to use yet psychometrically sound instrument designed to measure destructive leadership behaviours in a military context.

    First, examples of destructive leadership behaviours in a military context were collected using a qualitative approach. Second, these examples were operationalised and pilot tested, which resulted in a 20-item questionnaire called Destrudo-L. Third, data were collected from three Swedish military groups (n=428). Dimensionality of the instrument was analysed using structural equation modelling. Conventional psychometric assessments of reliability and validity were performed.

    A nested hierarchical model with a general factor and the following specific factors emerged: arrogant, unfair; threats, punishments, overdemands; ego?oriented, false; passive, cowardly; and uncertain, unclear, messy. Meaningful subgroup differences and relationships with a criterion variable (lack of motivation/propensity to leave) were found. More use of active forms was reported by subordinates of younger military commanders and more use of passive forms was marked by subordinates of senior military managers.

    The instrument is easy to administer and interpret (norm values are provided) and can be used in leader evaluation, as well as leader development, contexts.

    The main contribution is methodological - the development of a new scale. Additional findings are a strong positive correlation between active and passive forms of destructive leadership behaviours in a military context, as well as significant differences between groups with different ranks.

  • 22.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Carlstedt, Leif
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Andersson, Jens
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Andersson, Lars
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Danielsson, Erna
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Johansson, Ann
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Johansson, Eva
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Robertson, Ingemar
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Michel, P-O.
    A comprehensive system for leader evaluation and development2003In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 16-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to describe the development of a theoretical model for leader evaluation and development, an instrument based on this model, and a strategy for large scale implementation in the Swedish armed forces. The model rests on an interactional person by situation paradigm. It emphasises “developmental leadership”, which is inspired by transformational and functionalistic leadership approaches. The developmental leadership questionnaire (DLQ) was operationalised from the model and refined through structural equation modelling. The model and the DLQ will be used for three purposes: yearly evaluation of all personnel in the Swedish armed forces; yearly planning dialogues between each employee and his or her nearest supervisor; and a tool for leadership training. The implementation strategy includes an initial course in developmental leadership for all colonels. This is followed by the selection and training of local trainers, who, in turn, initiate the comprehensive programme locally. The system should be fully implemented by 2005.

  • 23.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Fors, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Destrudo-L: Development of a short scale designed to measure destructive leadership behaviours2012In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 383-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a short and easy to use yet psychometrically sound instrument designed to measure destructive leadership behaviours in a military context.

    Design/methodology/approach – First, examples of destructive leadership behaviours in a military context were collected using a qualitative approach. Second, these examples were operationalised and pilot tested, which resulted in a 20-item questionnaire called Destrudo-L. Third, data were collected from three Swedish military groups (n=428). Dimensionality of the instrument was analysed using structural equation modelling. Conventional psychometric assessments of reliability and validity were performed.

    Findings – A nested hierarchical model with a general factor and the following specific factors emerged: arrogant, unfair; threats, punishments, overdemands; ego-oriented, false; passive, cowardly; and uncertain, unclear, messy. Meaningful subgroup differences and relationships with a criterion variable (lack of motivation/propensity to leave) were found. More use of active forms was reported by subordinates of younger military commanders and more use of passive forms was marked by subordinates of senior military managers.

    Practical implications – The instrument is easy to administer and interpret (norm values are provided) and can be used in leader evaluation, as well as leader development, contexts.

    Originality/value – The main contribution is methodological – the development of a new scale. Additional findings are a strong positive correlation between active and passive forms of destructive leadership behaviours in a military context, as well as significant differences between groups with different ranks.

  • 24.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Bakken, B.
    Indirect leadership: A quantitative test of a qualitatively developed model2007In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 28, no 8, p. 771-778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the applicability of a previously developed model of indirect leadership (qualitative Grounded Theory case study) in a broader military context.

    Design/methodology/approach – The model was operationalised to specific questionnaires for high-level managers, middle-level managers, and lower-level employees. Data were obtained from 147 Norwegian and 134 Swedish military officers, representing all three levels, and serving in the Army and Air Force respectively.

    Findings – The theoretical model of indirect leadership was partly supported. Higher importance was attributed to image-oriented top-down influence, rather than to action-oriented influence via directly subordinate commanders, which may be understood using developmental, transformational, and authentic leadership formulations. Meaningful patterns of subgroup differences were obtained.

    Research limitations/implications – Indirect leadership is complex and bottom-up influences were not taken into account, not all aspects of the top-down influence process were covered, only military contexts were studied, and no meaningful analysis of possible gender-related differences was possible in this male-dominated context.

    Practical implications – The obtained support of the theoretical model legitimises its use as a tool in higher military management education and coaching.

    Originality/value – The measurement tools of indirect leadership and the quantitatively based support of a Grounded Theory model with a how-focus on indirect leadership.

  • 25. Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Alvinius, Aida
    Bakken, Björn
    Indirect leadership: a quantitative test of a qualitatively developed model2007In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 28, no 8, p. 771-784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the applicability of a previously developed model of indirect leadership (qualitative Grounded Theory case study) in a broader military context.Design/methodology/approach – The model was operationalised to specific questionnaires for high-level managers, middle-level managers, and lower-level employees. Data were obtained from 147 Norwegian and 134 Swedish military officers, representing all three levels, and serving in the Army and Air Force respectively.Findings – The theoretical model of indirect leadership was partly supported. Higher importance was attributed to image-oriented top-down influence, rather than to action-oriented influence via directly subordinate commanders, which may be understood using developmental, transformational, and authentic leadership formulations. Meaningful patterns of subgroup differences were obtained.Research limitations/implications – Indirect leadership is complex and bottom-up influences were not taken into account, not all aspects of the top-down influence process were covered, only military contexts were studied, and no meaningful analysis of possible gender-related differences was possible in this male-dominated context.Practical implications – The obtained support of the theoretical model legitimises its use as a tool in higher military management education and coaching.Originality/value – The measurement tools of indirect leadership and the quantitatively based support of a Grounded Theory model with a how-focus on indirect leadership.

  • 26.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Vrbanjac, Aida
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Björkman, Torsten
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Indirect leadership in a military context: A qualitative study on how to do it2005In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 215-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – To develop a theoretical understanding of how indirect leadership is done in a military context.

    Design/methodology/approach – A grounded theory approach was used. Twenty-two high-level Swedish commanders, and six of their subordinates were interviewed.

    Findings – A model was developed which suggests that indirect leadership can be understood as consisting of two simultaneous processes. One is action-oriented and consists of interacting with a link (usually a small group of directly subordinate managers) which passes the messages down to lower organisational levels. The other influence process is image-oriented and consists of being a role model. Both processes are filtered through a “lens” which consists of the relative impact of a safety culture on the activities. In the favourable case, the employees at the lower levels trust both the link and the higher management. This appears to be a necessary condition for commitment and active participation. In the unfavourable case, there is a lack of trust. This breeds redefinitions of the messages and a necessity for relying on reward and punishment to obtain obedience.

    Research limitations/implications – Lack of representativeness, indirect influence from lower to higher levels, as well as possible gender-related aspects, not studied.

    Practical implications – The suggested model may be a valuable tool in higher management education.

    Originality/value – The identification of two co-occurring pathways of influence.

  • 27. Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Vrbanjac, Aida
    Björkman, Torsten
    Indirect leadership in a military context: a qualitative study on how to do it2005In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 215-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – To develop a theoretical understanding of how indirect leadership is done in a military context.Design/methodology/approach – A grounded theory approach was used. Twenty-two high-level Swedish commanders, and six of their subordinates were interviewed.Findings – A model was developed which suggests that indirect leadership can be understood as consisting of two simultaneous processes. One is action-oriented and consists of interacting with a link (usually a small group of directly subordinate managers) which passes the messages down to lower organisational levels. The other influence process is image-oriented and consists of being a role model. Both processes are filtered through a “lens” which consists of the relative impact of a safety culture on the activities. In the favourable case, the employees at the lower levels trust both the link and the higher management. This appears to be a necessary condition for commitment and active participation. In the unfavourable case, there is a lack of trust. This breeds redefinitions of the messages and a necessity for relying on reward and punishment to obtain obedience.Research limitations/implications – Lack of representativeness, indirect influence from lower to higher levels, as well as possible gender-related aspects, not studied.Practical implications – The suggested model may be a valuable tool in higher management education.Originality/value – The identification of two co-occurring pathways of influence.

  • 28.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Outsourcing services in turbulent contexts: Lessons from a multinational systems provider2006In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 296-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Describes challenges and problems of outsourcing services at firms that are also adopting service logic and, based on an empirical study, provides lessons regarding how they can be managed.

    Design/methodology/approach – One in-depth longitudinal study of a leading systems provider has been carried out and data from between 1997 and 2003 has been utilised, consisting of 92 interviews, documents, and insider observations. Over 20 outsourcing projects were studied and the analysis was conducted both for the individual projects and across the different projects, in an iterative cycle back and forth between data on different levels and between data and theory. The aim was to search for patterns in the observed processes and glean lessons related to the outsourcing of services on an organisational level.

    Findings – Based on a literature review, three outsourcing challenges and how they should be managed are presented: the internal change challenge, the strategy formation challenge, and the customer-relationship challenge. Four selected project stories are then presented; illustrating empirically how the outsourcing challenges can be managed. The project stories illustrate how difficult it can be to select a detailed sourcing strategy and implement it in a linear fashion.

    Practical implications – Three main lessons learned during the research are described. First, the change process should be iterative and interactive. Second, all outsourcing and partnering initiatives should be coordinated. Third, the customer-relationship should be nurtured during the outsourcing process.

    Originality/value – An unusual in-depth study of the process and challenges of outsourcing product services at an industrial firm; providing rich illustrations and empirically-based advice regarding how the challenges of outsourcing can be managed.

  • 29.
    Norrman Brandt, Eva
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    Kjellström, Sofia
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    Andersson, Ann-Christine
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    Transformational change by a post-conventional leader2019In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 457-471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine people’s experience of a change process and if and how post-conventional leadership principles are expressed in the change process.

    Design/methodology/approach: The study used a retrospective exploratory qualitative design. In total, 19 semi-structured interviews and 4 workshops were conducted and analyzed in accordance with a thematic qualitative analysis.

    Findings: The post-conventional leadership appears to have facilitated an organizational transformation where explorative work methods aimed at innovation and improvement as well as holistic understanding was used. Dispersed power and mandate to employees, within set frames and with clear goals, created new ways of organizing and working. The leader showed personal consideration, acknowledged the importance of the emotionally demanding aspects of change and admitted the leader’s own vulnerability. Balance between challenge and support created courage to take on new roles and responsibilities. Most employees thrived and grew with the possibilities given, but some felt lack of support and clear directions.

    Practical implications: Inspiration from this case on work methods and involvement of employees can be used on other change efforts.

    Social implications: This study provides knowledge on leadership capabilities needed for facilitation of transformational change.

    Originality/value: Few transformational change processes by post-conventional leaders are thoroughly described, and this study provides in-depth descriptions of post-conventional leadership in transformational change. 

  • 30.
    Sandahl, Christer
    et al.
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Lundin, Josi
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Söderhjelm, Teresa Martha
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The experimental understanding group-and-leader managerial course: long-term follow up2019In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 151-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report on the results of an experiential leader development course titled understanding group-and-leader (UGL).

    Design/methodology/approach – The study sample consisted of 61 course participants (the managers) and 318 subordinate raters. The development leadership questionnaire (DLQ) was used to measure the results of the course. The measurements were made on three occasions: shortly before the course, one month after the course and six months after the course.

    Findings – The managers’ self-evaluations did not change significantly after the course. However, the subordinate raters’ evaluations of their managers indicated a positive trend in the scales of developmental leadership and conventional-positive leadership one month and six months after the course.

    Research limitations/implications – The study was based on a comparatively small sample with a number of drop-outs. The study lacked a control condition.

    Practical implications – From an organizational point of view, it could be argued that it is justifiable to send managers to such a course, as there is a good chance for an improvement in their leadership style as rated by subordinates.

    Social implications – The integration of group processes and leadership behavior in the context of experiential learning seems to be a fruitful path to leader development.

    Originality/value – Longitudinal studies on the results of experiential learning for managers are sparse. This is the first quantitative evaluation of a course that more than 80,000 individuals have taken.

  • 31.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    Sustainable leadership ethics: a continuous and iterative process2007In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 251-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – The objective of this article is to develop and describe a conceptual framework of sustainable leadership ethics.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – The paper provides a description of the inputs, actions and outputs of sustainable leadership ethics.

    Findings

    – Sustainable leadership ethics is a process. In addition, it is continuous and iterative. The inputs, actions and outputs construct the dynamics of this continuous process.

    Research limitations/implications

    – The conceptual framework aspires to be highly dynamic. The ultimate outcome is dependent upon the evolution of time and contexts. It is also dependent upon and provides reference to the behaviours and perceptions of people. It provides guidance on what and how to address sustainable leadership ethics in research. It provides a descriptive framework.

    Practical implications

    – The framework proposes sustainable leadership ethics to be a continuous and an iterative process. There is no actual end of the process, but a constant reconnection to the initiation of successive process iterations of the sustainable leadership ethics. The conceptual framework also provides guidance on what and how to address sustainable leadership ethics in practice. It serves as a managerial framework.

    Originality/value

    – It contributes to create a structure for sustainable leadership ethics in both research and practice.

  • 32.
    Söderhjelm, Teresa Martha
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Sandahl, Christer
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Björklund, Christina
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Palm, Kristina
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    The importance of confidence in leadership role: a qualitative study of the process following two Swedish leadership programmes2018In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 114-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understand the influence of leadership programmes on leaders and co-workers, as well as which mechanisms are involved in the process.

    Design/methodology/approach – An analysis was done into 431 free-text answers to questionnaires given to 120 participants in two different leadership programmes and their co-workers six months after their participation, using a grounded theory inspired approach.

    Findings – The result is a model, linking internal psychological and external behavioural aspects, with the central outcome that leaders gained more confidence in their leadership role through theoretical models learned, and reflection.

    Research limitations/implications – The course participants as well as the co-workers seemed to experience a positive leadership development indicating a value of participating in the courses.

    Practical implications – Confidence in leadership role seems important for having positive outcomes of leadership. Although this needs further research, it is something organisations should consider when working with leadership questions.

    Social implications – The co-workers perceived their leaders to be calmer, more open for discussions, and willing both to give and receive feedback post training. There appears to be an increase in trust both in the leader and reciprocally from the leader in the co-workers.

    Originality/value – Until now there has not been any systematic research into the effects on participants and co-workers following the programmes, despite the fact that over 100,000 have participated in the courses.

  • 33.
    Wallo, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Work and Working Life. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ellström, Per-Erik
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Work and Working Life. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kock, Henrik
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Work and Working Life. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Leadership as a balancing act between performance- and development-orientation: a study of managers’ and co-workers’ understanding of leadership in an industrial organisation2013In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 222-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this article is to revisit data from a previous study of leadership in an industrial company that was in the process of implementing a process-oriented, team-based form of organisation. Based on these data, it aims to explore the assumption that process-orientation implies “new” leadership behaviours and relationships with co-workers. More specifically, it aims to focus on analysing how the managers and co-workers understood and practised the ideas about leadership for learning and development that were introduced in connection with the new production organisation. The purpose is also to determine what factors constrained and facilitated these leadership practises.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study was conducted with a large industrial company using case study methodology. The empirical material consists of 35 qualitative interviews with production managers (n=4), first-line managers (n=14), and operators (n=17).

    Findings – The results indicate that performance-oriented leadership with a focus on facilitating adaptive learning is emphasised more than development-oriented leadership, which facilitates critical reflection and innovative learning. Furthermore, the study suggests that the administrative workload greatly limits the potential for development-oriented leadership. Overall, first-line managers appear to have more in common with system administrators than leaders.

    Practical implications – This study highlights the need to find a balance between performance and development in organisations. Specifically, there is a need for leaders to create opportunities and support for increased developmental learning at work. It is also necessary to emphasise critical reflection both in connection with daily operations and in the formal education of co-workers and leaders.

    Originality/value – This study demonstrates the gap between the rhetoric of new leadership and the organisational realities that leaders experience in their daily work. At the same time, the study points to the dual nature of leadership for learning and the constraints on its realisations in practise.

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