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  • 1. Attina, Fulvio
    et al.
    Boin, Arjen
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Designing EU Crisis Management Capacities: Filling the Glass2014In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 129-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union (EU) has modest but promising capacities to assist member states overwhelmed by disaster through its Civil Protection Mechanism. The EU also routinely sends civil and military missions to hotspots outside EU territory. But these capacities do not suffice in the face of transboundary crises: threats that cross geographical and policy borders within the Union. Examples include epidemics, financial crises, floods, and cyber terrorism. Nation states cannot cope with these threats without international collaboration. In this article, we explore the EU's efforts to develop transboundary crisis management capacities. We describe these budding capacities, explain their policy origins, and explore their future potential.

  • 2.
    Backman, Sarah
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Rhinard, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    The European Union’s Capacities for Managing Crises2017In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 261-271Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Berlin, Johan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Carlström, Eric D.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, postgraduate level. Göteborgs universitet, Sahlgrenska Akademin, Institute of Health and Care Sciences.
    The Three-Level Collaboration Exercise: Impact of Learning and Usefulness2015In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 257-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine the emergency personnel’s perception of the effects of exercises, with regard to learning and usefulness. The exercises were quasi-experimental and constructed in such a way that employees from different organizations overlapped each other’s tasks. This was accomplished by: having asymmetries included in the scenarios, repeating exercise procedures and testing different strategies, which were discussed at joint seminars. The exercises were compared to a similar study, published in this journal, of nonquasi-experimental but merely traditional exercises. Surveys were distributed and collected from emergency personnel in connection with seven exercises. At the exercises, 94.3% of the personnel thought that the exercises had a focus on collaboration (traditional exercises, 75.6%).

  • 4.
    Berlin, Johan M.
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Institute of Health and Care Sciences.
    Carlström, Eric
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Nursing.
    The 90-Second Collaboration: A Critical Study of Collaboration Exercises at Extensive Accident Sites2008In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 177-185Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Berlin, Johan M
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Carlström, Eric D
    Sahlgrenska Akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Collaboration exercices; what do they contribute ?: a study of learning and usefulness2015In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 11-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to study whether exercises contribute to learning that can be useful in actual emergency work. It reports the findings of a study about professional emergency personnel’s perceptions of the impact of collaboration exercises. Surveys were distributed and collected from emergency personnel in conjunction with three collaboration exercises that took place in Sweden in spring 2012. The survey included personnel holding different positions within the police department, fire department and ambulance services. Among them were also operational personnel such as officers. A total of 94 professional emergency personnel agreed to participate by answering the survey. The response rate was 95%.The study shows that collaborative elements in exercises contribute to perceived learning (R2 = 0:53), and that learning, in turn, has a perceived beneficial effect on actual emergency work (R2 = 0:26).The perceived results of collaboration,learning and their impact on actual emergency work, however, are moderate.The exercises were characterised by long waiting times and gave few opportunities to practise different strategies. Only a few respondents felt that they learned something about the collaborating organisations’ ways of communicating and prioritising. Many also thought that the exercises were more useful for command officers than for operational personnel.Thus, the study shows that by strengthening the collaborative elements of the exercises, the perception of the participants’ actual emergency work can be developed.

  • 6.
    Boin, Arjen
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Preparing for the World Risk Society: Towards a New Security Paradigm for the European Union2009In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 285-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The world of crises and disasters is changing rapidly. We are witnessing new types of adversity. In addition, modern societies have become increasingly vulnerable to disruptions, new and old. This new world demands new types of responses, which nation states cannot produce alone. Nation states will have to cooperate to protect their citizens from these threats. This article investigates the role of the European Union in the development of new safety and security arrangements. It identifies conceptual building blocks for a new security paradigm and offers design principles that can facilitate a shared way of thinking and acting in the safety and security domain

  • 7. Boin, Arjen
    et al.
    Rhinard, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History. Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Sweden.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Managing Transboundary Crises: The Emergence of European Union Capacity2014In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 131-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union (EU) has modest but promising capacities to assist member states overwhelmed by disaster through its Civil Protection Mechanism. The EU also routinely sends civil and military missions to hotspots outside EU territory. But these capacities do not suffice in the face of transboundary crises: threats that cross geographical and policy borders within the Union. Examples include epidemics, financial crises, floods, and cyber terrorism. Nation states cannot cope with these threats without international collaboration. In this article, we explore the EU's efforts to develop transboundary crisis management capacities. We describe these budding capacities, explain their policy origins, and explore their future potential.

  • 8. Boin, Arjen
    et al.
    Rhinard, Mark
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Managing Transboundary Crises: The Emergence of European Union Capacity2014In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 131-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union (EU) has modest but promising capacities to assist member states overwhelmed by disaster through its Civil Protection Mechanism. The EU also routinely sends civil and military missions to hotspots outside EU territory. But these capacities do not suffice in the face of transboundary crises: threats that cross geographical and policy borders within the Union. Examples include epidemics, financial crises, floods, and cyber terrorism. Nation states cannot cope with these threats without international collaboration. In this article, we explore the EU's efforts to develop transboundary crisis management capacities. We describe these budding capacities, explain their policy origins, and explore their future potential.

  • 9.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    et al.
    KTH. FOI Swedish Def Res Agcy, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Granasen, Magdalena
    Lindquist, Sinna
    Narganes Quijano, Maribel
    Nilsson, Susanna
    Trnka, Jiri
    Informing crisis alerts using social media: Best practices and proof of concept2018In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 28-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social media has become an integrated part of human communication, both as a means to establish and maintain social relationships, and as a means of sharing and co-creating information. Social media comes with an array of possibilities for individuals as well as organizations, corporations, and authorities. Within the field of crisis communication, social media possibilities such as online sharing and social networking have had an impact on the way crisis information is disseminated and updated. This paper addresses the issues related to using social media for communicating crisis information and broadcasting alert messages to the general population, discusses the role of social media in future pan-European crisis alerting, and presents a prototype system demonstrating the possibilities. An extensive systematic literature review was carried out to identify factors that affect the use of social media for alerting and warning. These factors were mirrored in experiences, collected through interviews, obtained by emergency management organizations in three European countries (Sweden, Czech Republic, and Spain). The factors finally form the basis for suggestions and recommendations regarding the design of technological tools for both communication and information collection to serve as an integral part of a future pan-European crisis alerting system.

  • 10.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Department of Social Sciences, Växjö University.
    Management of Third World Crises inAdverse Partnership: Theory and Practice,Imtiaz Bokhari, Oxford University Press,Karachi (1997), 333 pp.2000In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 125-127Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Nationalism and Politics: The Political Behavior of Nation States2002In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 231-232Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Växjö University.
    Nationalism and Politics: The Political Behavior of Nation States, Martha L. Cottam and Richard W. Cottam, Lynne Rienner Publishers, Boulder, CO (2001) ,305 pp.2002In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 152-154Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Danielsson, Erna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Following Routines: A Challenge in Cross-Sectorial Collaboration2016In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 36-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine how personnel from three different organizations

    create meaning and intend to act in a potentially dangerous situation.The article reports

    an experiment depicting a bomb at an elderly care center and the participants were to

    describe the situation and decide how to act.The participants were personnel from the

    police, rescue services and an elderly care centre.The findings show that participants had

    different types of understanding of the situation and how to act.The personnel at the

    elderly care centre were confused by the situation but they were familiar with their work

    routines.The emergency organizations were familiar with the situation and the task, but

    not with the work routines.

  • 14.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Crises as Learning Triggers: exploring a Conceptual Framework of Crisis-Induced Learning2009In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 179-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article contributes to the debate on organizational learning from crisis by shedding light on the phenomenon of crises as learning triggers. To unveil theoretical patterns of how organizational crisis-induced learning may appear and develop, I suggest a conceptual framework based on concept categories and answers to four fundamental questions: what lessons are learned (single- or double-loop)?; what is the focus of the lessons (prevention or response)?; when are lessons learned (intra- or intercrisis)?; is learning blocked from implementation or carried out (distilled or implemented)? The framework's applicability is explored in a study of how a Swedish utility and the city of Stockholm responded to two large-scale blackouts in Stockholm. The final sections suggest four propositions for further research.

  • 15.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Hansén, Dan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Learning from Crises and Major Accidents: From Post-Crisis Fantasy Documents to Actual Learning in the Heat of Crisis2009In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 143-145Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Ekman, Olof
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    National Perspectives in Multinational Headquarters: The Case of EUFOR Tchad/RCA2012In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 190-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies of the European Union crisis management capability argue for establishing a permanent Operations Headquarters (OHQ) instead of the temporary alternatives currently available. These studies picture temporary OHQs as slow starters hampered by multiple interests and a lack of common grounds. This paper corroborates these studies by reporting on the empirical findings of a year-long case study of the EUFORTchad/RCA OHQ. The combined results of observations, interviews, and surveys indicate that national perspectives not only existed in the OHQ, but were also asymmetric in the sense that staff members from France and Ireland nations displayed stronger national perspectives than staff members from other nations. However, the general trust between staff members seems to have been largely unaffected by this. The findings also indicate a process of familiarization spanning over several months. This paper argues that temporary multinational headquarters are likely to work around frictions and mature into well-functioning organization, but that this is a time-consuming process in which national parallel chains of command may remain. Prior training should prepare staff members for this. In addition, leading nations need to understand their strong visibility and to be careful not to dominate the day-to-day staff work.

  • 17.
    Enander, Ann
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hede, Susanne
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Lajksjö, Örjan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Why worry?: Motivation for crisis preparedness work among municipal leaders in Sweden2015In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of the responsibility for societal safety and crisis preparedness rests with local municipal leaders. These tasks are demanding, and often insufficiently prioritized and supported. The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing motivation to work with these issues, and to explore relationships among such factors. Two datasets, formed the basis of the analysis. From the qualitative analysis, a model was developed describing three main categories of motivational factors: person-related, organizational and activity-related. Actual crisis experience was found to influence factors in all three categories. Differences regarding motivational forces could be identified among different roles among officials. Self-determination theory is applied to the model, illustrating possible ways to influence motivation for work with preparedness issues.

  • 18.
    Enander, Ann
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Lajksjö, Örjan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Tedfeldt, Eva-Lena
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    A Tear in the Social Fabric: Local Communities Dealing with Socially Generated Crises2010In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 39-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to develop knowledge about demands and experiences relating to management of socially generated crises in local communities. Interviews were conducted in four municipalities with experiences of such situations, e.g., widely publicized murders, suicides or cases of sexual abuse. A modified grounded theory analysis of the interviews identified six central themes. Two themes pertained to the actual event and its consequences; two concerned the management of the crisis; and two themes focused on reactions and needs among those involved. Basic tensions were identified between confidentiality and openness, between support and accountability and between empathy and distancing. Similarities and differences in relation to management of other kinds of crises are discussed.

  • 19.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Södertörn University College, Avdelning 1, Political science.
    Cyberplagues, IT, and Security: Threat Politics in the Information Age.2001In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Journal of Contingencies & Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 211-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The swiftness and considerable political impact of the widespread conceptualisation of IT as a security problem makes it a particularly fruitful case for analysing threat politics – how and why some threat images but not others end up on the political agenda. A conceptual framework combining theories of framing, securitisation, agenda setting and policy diffusion is developed, which is applied to the case of IT security policy in Sweden. The analysis emphasises the impact of the end of the Cold War, the uncertainty following the breakthrough of the information age, the tradition of focusing on information and technological development in military affairs, the adaptability to ‘widened security thinking’ within the military-bureaucratic establishment, and the lack of opposition to the securitisation of IT.

  • 20.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Södertörn University College, Avdelning 1, Political science.
    [Review of] "Security: A New Framework for Analysis": Barry Buzan, Ole Waever and Jaap de Wilde:2001In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, no 1, p. 61-63Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Conceptions of emergency calls: emergency communication in an age of mobile communication and prevalence of anxiety2010In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 165-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a mobile communication environment, people’s interactions with public emergency assistance organizations become transformed. Sociologists argue that we live in an age when fear and anxiety are increasingly evident in public discourse; this paper explores Swedish conceptions of emergency calls, in light of this trend. A qualitative study examined eight focus groups, each containing 36 Swedish citizens aged 16–71 years, concerning various uses of mobile telephony. The paper concludes that citizen mobile telephony use places great demands on the public safety answering point (PSAP). Consumer expectations are dominated by increased necessity for trustworthy and helpful interaction with PSAP operators.

  • 22.
    Eriksson, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science. Univ Örebro, Media & Commun Studies, Örebro.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science. Swedish Def Univ, CRISMART, Dept Secur Strategy & Leadership, Stockholm.
    Facebook and Twitter in Crisis Communication: A Comparative Study of Crisis Communication Professionals and Citizens2016In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 198-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This mixed-methods study presents a comparative analysis of the use and perceived usefulness of Facebook and Twitter, among Swedish citizens and crisis communication professionals, as crisis communication tools and information sources. The use and perceived usefulness of Facebook and Twitter are not congruent and consistent between the two different groups, according to the overall study. Communication professionals, for example, report higher levels of perceived usefulness regarding Facebook's potential as a crisis communication tool than do the citizens. Taken together, the results show that researchers (within social media and crisis communication) and crisis managers both need to deal with the fact that social media is not a homogenous phenomenon with a single coherent role in crisis management and communication research and practice.

  • 23.
    Eriksson, Mats
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. DEMICOM, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    DEMICOM, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership, CRISMART, Swedish Defence University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Facebook and Twitter in Crisis Communication: A Comparative Study of Crisis Communication Professionals and Citizens2016In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 198-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This mixed-methods study presents a comparative analysis of the use and perceived usefulness of Facebook and Twitter, among Swedish citizens and crisis communication professionals, as crisis communication tools and information sources. The use and per-ceived usefulness of Facebook and Twitter are not congruent and consistent betweenthe two different groups, according to the overall study. Communication professionals, for example, report higher levels of perceived usefulness regarding Facebook’s potential as a crisis communication tool than do the citizens. Taken together, the results show that researchers (within social media and crisis communication) and crisis managers both need to deal with the fact that social media is not a homogenous phenome non with a single coherent role in crisis management and communication research and practice.

  • 24.
    Eriksson, Mats
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Örebro; Mittuniversitetet, Sundsvall.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Facebook and Twitter in Crisis Communication: A Comparative Study of Crisis Communication Professionals and Citizens2016In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 198-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This mixed-methods study presents a comparative analysis of the use and perceived usefulness of Facebook and Twitter, among Swedish citizens and crisis communication professionals, as crisis communication tools and information sources. The use and perceived usefulness of Facebook and Twitter are not congruent and consistent between the two different groups, according to the overall study. Communication professionals, for example, report higher levels of perceived usefulness regarding Facebook’s potential as a crisis communication tool than do the citizens. Taken together, the results show that researchers (within social media and crisis communication) and crisis managers both need to deal with the fact that social media is not a homogenous phenomenon with a single coherent role in crisis management and communication research and practice.

  • 25.
    Hansén, Dan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Effects of Buzzwords on Experiential Learning: the Swedish Case of ‘Shared Situation Awareness’.2009In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 169-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article takes an interest in the effects of buzzwords in the lesson-drawing efforts of governmental bureaucracy. Buzzwords are viewed here as policy ideas for which policy makers are enthusiastic beyond subjecting them to critical scrutiny. They are in that sense detrimental to policy-oriented learning and lesson-drawing in the long run. They can, however, serve as heuristic devices in the short run; the reason for their usage and spreading may be that they pinpoint recurring structural problems (however, not solutions). This argument is corroborated by a case study on the effects of the buzzword ‘shared situation awareness’, which has been overly tractable in the Swedish crisis management system for a number of years.

  • 26.
    Heidenstrøm, Nina
    et al.
    University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Kvarnlöf, Linda
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Coping with blackouts: A practice theory approach to household preparedness2018In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 272-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article focuses on how rural households cope with blackouts caused by winter storms. We approach household preparedness using a practice theory perspective, and argue that preparedness is mundanely preformed as part of everyday practices. The data material consists of at home visits to 14 households from Norway and Sweden. The results demonstrate that households cope with blackouts by activating and mobilising competences, meanings and materials belonging to different practices, and that this is an ongoing process to ensure the continuation of everyday life during disruption. The article concludes by arguing for the need to bring forward studies on informal preparedness activities, in a research field where household preparedness tends to be framed using a top-down perspective on crisis management.

  • 27.
    Hobbins, Jennifer
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Between autonomy and paternalism: Crisis managers’ views on citizens’ responsibilities in crises and contingencies2017In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 269-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public discussions about the division of responsibilities between state and citizen in crises have led to reformulated policies. These are interpreted and put into practice by crisis managers. Hence, their understandings of citizens’ responsibilities are central for actions and resource allocation. This qualitative study focuses on Swedish crisis managers’ understandings of citizens’ (moral) responsibilities and practices of ‘doing’ responsibilities. Three overarching forms of ‘doing responsibilities’ were found: assignment, assessment, and differentiation. These ways of constructing responsibilities were permeated by two diverging rationales: the autonomy rationale, and the paternalism rationale. The two rationales add up to a partly contradictory complexity which may explain individuals’ differing responsibility-taking. Further, not recognizing this contradiction may negatively affect citizen’s willingness to take responsibility when desired.

  • 28.
    Johansson, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Svedung, Inge
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Cross-sectorial and holistic management approaches in societal risk and safety management: A review of the content in Swedish action programmes for civil protection against accidents2013In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Johansson, Roine
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Danielsson, Erna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB.
    Kvarnlöf, Linda
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Karlsson, Robin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    At the external boundary of a disaster response operation: The dynamics of volunteer inclusion2018In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present article, practices of inclusion of different types of volunteers in the response to a large-scale forest fire in Sweden are studied. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with three types of voluntary actors. The volunteers were organized to different degrees, from members of organizations and participants in emergent groups to organizationally unaffiliated individuals. Organized volunteers were the most easily included, particularly if they were members of voluntary emergency organizations. It was difficult for volunteers lacking relevant organizational affiliation to be included. Disaster response operations are dynamic, conditions change over time, and tensions between different modes, degrees, and levels of inclusion may arise. However, irrespective of changing conditions, practices of inclusion of highly organized volunteers work best.

  • 30.
    Kaneberg, Elvira
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Logistics and Supply Chain Management (CeLS).
    Hertz, Susanne
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Logistics and Supply Chain Management (CeLS).
    Jensen, Leif-Magnus
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Logistics and Supply Chain Management (CeLS).
    Voluntary sector networks in emergency preparedness in developed countries: the case of Sweden2017In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Narby, Petter
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Book Review of "Governing After Crisis: The Politics of Investigation, Accountability and Learning"2009In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 199-200Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Frames of public reaction in crisis2016In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 14-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to identify and analyze the ways in which images and reactions of the public are described and framed in media articles and reports. Reporting from six major events affecting the Swedish public was studied using a thematic method of analysis. The results show three dynamic interrelated processes at work simultaneously in framing the public: identification, characterization and evaluation. A significant contribution of this study is the emphasis on how this often subtle and implicit framing influences the portrayal of human reactions, thus possibly influencing the expectations and evaluations of both the public in general and crisis managers in particular.

  • 33. Olausson, Pär M.
    et al.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Organization and Decision-Making in Enforced Networks: The River Groups in Northern Sweden2017In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 313-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the Swedish experience of network governance in managing flooding and high water flows. The aim was to study the regional responsibility for coordinating risk awareness and risk analysis in terms of information, prevention and actions. The focus was on differences between the Swedish river groups from the coordinators perspective, including their organization and approaches to decision-making. The conclusions reached here are based on interviews with the coordinators of county administrative boards. We argue that the absence of central guidelines in the organization of the river groups and the fact that they are enforced by the government rather than spontaneously formed have had implications for the networks’ effectiveness and for exchanges of experience among the networks.

  • 34.
    Olausson, Pär M.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Organization and Decision-Making in Enforced Networks: The River Groups in Northern Sweden2017In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 313-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the Swedish experience of network governance in managing flooding and high water flows. The aim was to study the regional responsibility for coordinating risk awareness and risk analysis in terms of information, prevention and actions. The focus was on differences between the Swedish river groups from the coordinators perspective, including their organization and approaches to decision-making. The conclusions reached here are based on interviews with the coordinators of county administrative boards. We argue that the absence of central guidelines in the organization of the river groups and the fact that they are enforced by the government rather than spontaneously formed have had implications for the networks' effectiveness and for exchanges of experience among the networks.

  • 35.
    Olofsson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Organizational crisis preparedness in heterogeneous societies: The OCPH model2011In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 215-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The populations of European societies are heterogeneous and a crucial part of effective crisis preparedness is to customize contingency planning and crisis communication to these populations. The aim of this study is therefore to develop a theoretically based model of organizations' crisis preparedness in heterogeneous societies. Through theoretical and empirical analyses the model for 'Organizational Crisis Preparedness in Heterogeneous societies', the OCPH model, is developed. The model provides a theoretical foundation for the understanding of organizational crisis preparedness and also has practical implications: It offers a tool with which to develop organizational contingency planning further. For authorities that supervise municipalities or other local authorities, the OCPH model can be used to analyse and evaluate organizations. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  • 36.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Crisis Communication in Public Organisations: Dimensions of Crisis Communication Revisited2014In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 113-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on crisis communication has traditionally focused on private organisations' reputation and blame avoidance strategies. As a result, there is limited knowledge on crisis communication from the perspective of public organisations. This is troublesome as public organisations have substantial responsibilities for preparing, communicating and managing large-scale crisis events. In order to be able to better conceptualise public organisations' crisis communication, a typology based on communication aims and orientations is introduced. According to the typology, public organisations engage in two dimensions of crisis communication: reputation-oriented vs. resilience-oriented and strategic vs. operational. These dimensions are illustrated and discussed by empirical examples from the Queensland floods of 2010/2011. The paper ends with a discussion on how to understand these dimensions of crisis communication in relation to public organisations' priorities, processes and practices.

  • 37.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Paglia, Eric
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Global Problem: National Accountability: Framing Accountability in the Australian Context of Climate Change2008In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 70-79Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Oscarsson, Olof
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Danielsson, Erna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Unrecognized crisis management-Normalizing everyday work: The work practice of crisis management in a refugee situation2018In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 225-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the practices of crisis management adopted by operative staff when facing a crisis situation in their workplace. This research is based on interviews with personnel from social services and staff from homes for unaccompanied youth. The interviewees asked respondents about their actions in caring for young refugees during the refugee situation. The results are structured around three themes: everyday practices, crisis work, and the process of normalization. Three practices for handling the situation-improvisation, prioritization, and creating alternatives-served as crisis management-as-practice. The staff members' everyday practice for solving problems became the basic method employed during the crisis to normalize everyday work.

  • 39.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Emergency Management in the Swedish Electricity Grid from a Household Perspective2009In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 55-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on households' action space and perceived responsibilities during power outages, and on how municipalities and grid companies understand their own and the households' responsibilities and action space. Results from a case study in the county of Östergötland showed that household responsibilities in terms of preparedness for outages were unclear to the actors. Both municipalities and grid companies expected households to be somewhat prepared. Households, however, believed that they were not responsible for being prepared for power outages, even though they need to be prepared to survive. Often the preparedness concerns material factors, such as investment in auxiliary generating capacity for use in case of outages. How the households perceive outages is important for their capacity to handle and feel comfortable in such situations.

  • 40.
    Palm, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ramsell, Elina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Developing Local Emergency Management by Co-Ordination Between Municipalities in Policy Networks: Experiences from Sweden2007In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 173-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to increase our understanding of how co-operation in inter-municipality policy networks in a Swedish region is established and maintained regarding emergency management. We discuss how a network of five municipalities emerged and took shape. Overall, we conclude that co-ordination and co-operation in municipal emergency management are probably relatively easy to develop, because it is easy for the involved actors to see the benefits. Sharing resources is seen as crucial when establishing and, not least, financing efficient, high-quality emergency management. The municipalities' lack of resources to provide effective emergency services, as required by law, makes them dependent on each other. Limits for co-ordination were connected to distance and other geographical factors. Other limits of equal importance were linked to factors such as culture/tradition, mutual understanding, size of partners, and unwillingness to give up authority as well as a prior barrier for co-operation between small and bigger municipalities.

  • 41.
    Parker, Charles F.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Stern, Eric
    CRISMART, Försvarshögskolan.
    Paglia, Eric
    CRISMART, Försvarshögskolan.
    Brown, Christer
    CRISMART, Försvarshögskolan.
    Preventable Catastrophe? The Hurricane Katrina Disaster Revisited2009In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 206-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article probes the warning-response failures that left the city of New Orleans vulnerable to catastrophic hurricanes and the inability of local, state, and federal authorities to mount an adequate response to the consequences unleashed by Hurricane Katrina. Through an empirical exploration with the help of three broad explanatory ‘cuts’ derived from the relevant interdisciplinary literature – psychological, bureauorganizational, and agenda-political – the authors seek to shed light on the sources of failure that contributed to the various levels of governments’ lack of preparedness and the inadequate collective response to a long-predicted, upper-category hurricane. The article concludes by addressing the question of whether the vulnerabilities and problems that contributed to the Katrina failure are amenable to reform.

  • 42.
    Parker, Charles
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Stern, Eric
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Paglia, Eric
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Brown, Christer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Preventable Catastrophe?: The Hurricane Katrina Disaster Revisited2009In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 206-220Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Persson, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Flood response using complementary early warning information2016In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 253-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this comparative case study was to investigate and compare how Swedish municipalities gather and use warning information from official and unofficial sources at the municipal level, as well as the circumstances under which that process has a chance to succeed. The overall conclusions of the study are that official and unofficial warnings have the potential to play complementary roles for municipalities making decisions about flood response, giving the municipalities a wider perspective and better opportunity to assess risk and to act appropriately. The required resources for using official warnings and getting access to unofficial warning sources are not evenly distributed among municipalities, and a lack of systematization of access to warning information hinders the flood response potential.

  • 44.
    Rosander, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jonson, Carl-Oscar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology.
    Professional confidence in the roles as ambulance and medical incident commander2017In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 289-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate professional confidence in the roles of ambulance and medi- cal incident commander (AIC and MIC), and how it influences achievement of perfor- mance indicators at an incident site. A web survey based on theoretical constructs (e.g., social identity, efficacy, accountability) and questions about prehospital emergency care connected to the roles were used (n = 426 Swedish ambulance nurses and emer- gency medical technicians). The results showed that social identity, independence and occupation were moderators for professional confidence. Organizational support, rela- tional trust and independence were moderators for achieving performance indicators. Strengthening group identification and independence as MIC and independence and support for women as AIC together with a stronger organizational support can increase professional confidence and improve performance.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-01-11 15:22
  • 45.
    Scott, David
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Postpandemic nightmare: a framing analysis of authorities and narcolepsy victims in Swedish press2017In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 91-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore the framing of victims and authorities in Swedish press during the narcolepsy crisis, occurring in the aftermath of the A(H1N1) vaccination campaign. Reporting from five major newspapers was analysed using an inductive and a deductive frame of analysis. The inductive analysis showed that the focus in the reporting on victims was their struggles in everyday life, coping with the disease, while the focus regarding authorities was on criticism and accountability. The deductive analysis revealed the use of a number of framing devices that reinforced the view of victims as vulnerable and authorities as deserving criticism. The underlying significance of the media portrayal and the implications from a crisis communication perspective are discussed.

  • 46.
    Scott, David
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University.
    Postpandemic nightmare: A framing analysis of authorities and narcolepsy victims in Swedish press2017In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 91-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore the framing of victims and authorities in Swedishpress during the narcolepsy crisis, occurring in the aftermath of the A(H1N1) vaccinationcampaign. Reporting from five major newspapers was analysed using an inductiveand a deductive frame of analysis. The inductive analysis showed that the focus in thereporting on victims was their struggles in everyday life, coping with the disease, whilethe focus regarding authorities was on criticism and accountability. The deductive analysisrevealed the use of a number of framing devices that reinforced the view of victimsas vulnerable and authorities as deserving criticism. The underlying significance of themedia portrayal and the implications from a crisis communication perspective are discussed.

  • 47.
    Sparf, Jörgen
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Disability and Vulnerability: Interpretations of Risk in Everyday Life2016In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 244-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Definitions and assessments of social vulnerability are commonly based on systemic relations and processes on a macro level. There is a danger of ascribing vulnerability to someone, regardless of their individual circumstances and personal abilities, thus micro-level information regarding everyday life is also needed. Experiences of risk and attitudes towards vulnerability were explored in five group interviews with a total of 27 disabled individuals. In the contexts of instrumental aids, bodily endurance, and external causes, vulnerability was found to be a ubiquitous primer in everyday decision-making regarding activity attendance and displaying disabilities. The disabled individual’s interpretative framework for risk and vulnerability is shaped by objectifying his / her own body, and by being accustomed to everything taking a long time. The interpretative framework helps in decision-making and in managing any ‘contextual inertia’ involved in stressful situations. By showing how everyday life, individual conditions, and social circumstances are all strictly interconnected, the importance of adapting assessments of vulnerability to the type of study and analysis is highlighted.

  • 48.
    Steigenberger, Norbert
    University of Cologne, Germany.
    Organizing for the Big One: A Review of case studies and a research agenda for multi-agency disaster response2016In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 60-72Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disaster response operations require the cooperation of agencies that seldom interact in their daily operations. The result is a complex coordination problem, which has been in the focus of many case studies. In an effort to facilitate cross-case learning, this study presents a review of empirical studies on the multi-agency coordination of disaster response operations. The review covers 80 empirical studies and highlights the importance of training, expertise, planning and plan enactment, leadership and personal acquaintance between the actors in emergent multi-agency response networks. The analysis results also show that while some areas have received extensive coverage in scholarly publications (e.g., training, skills), a number of important topics have yet to be studied in sufficient depth (e.g., leadership and role taking, plan enactment). Based on these insights, a research agenda is proposed and a number of recommendations for practical disaster response management are made.

  • 49.
    Strandh, Veronica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eklund, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Emergent groups in disaster research: varieties of scientific observation over time and across studies of nine natural disasters2017In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing emphasis on the diversity of disaster volunteering among disaster researchers. Our aim was to review the extent to which, and in what forms, emergent groups in the aftermath of natural disasters are examined as a topic of research. We review previous crisis and disaster management research, focusing particularly on those parts of the disaster research literature which treat with volunteerism. We describe and discuss how this research has evolved 1960–2016, and analyse how different forms of volunteerism, particularly emergent groups, have been researched following nine natural disasters. We utilize the Disaster Research Center typology to systematize and categorize research from different disaster contexts. The review shows that research on disaster management is fraught with an understanding of organization in disaster contexts based on the primacy of established formal organizations. We suggest a more fine-tuned conceptualization of disaster volunteerism and we call for further research on actor motivations.

  • 50.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Wandering Through Crisis and Everyday Organizing; Revealing the Subjective Nature of Interpretive, Temporal and Organizational Boundaries2013In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 17-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results of a 6-year action research study on developing crisis management preparedness in Swedish municipalities reveal strong connections rather than sharp distinctions between crisis and non-crisis on interpretive, temporal and organizational dimensions. Confusion and debate about what is labelled as a crisis, when everyday ends and crisis begins, and who and who are not involved, may illuminate different views on what the scale, scope and inherent complexity of our' system is in crisis and in non-crisis. Crises are not only a brutal audit for the practitioners involved, but also for the scientific theories that explain crisis behaviour. Current definitions of crisis understate the subjective nature of interpretations of crisis and organizing. To better understand the muddiness of organizing, crisis management researchers might aim for portraying more feed-forward messiness in crisis study descriptions and applying less hindsight bias in their analyses. Such images could help practitioners realize that organizing is more complex and less controllable than currently might be pictured and assumed. A deeper exploration of concepts like duality, competing values and complex adaptive systems could serve both practitioners and researchers.

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