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  • 1.
    Andersson K, Pernille
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    The effect of gaze on consumers’ encounter evaluation2016In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 372-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The research concerns the effect of frontline employees’ averted or direct gaze on consumers’ evaluation of the encounter. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that in normal interactions, a direct or averted gaze affects people’s evaluation of others. The question was whether this finding would hold true in commercial interactions.

    Design/methodology/approach – The authors conducted three experiments using a written scenario with a photograph among a total sample of 612 participants.

    Findings – This research showed that consumers’ social impression of the frontline employees mediated the effect of the employees’ gazing behaviour on consumers’ emotions and satisfaction with the encounters. The findings also showed that averting gaze had a negative effect on consumers’ first impression of the frontline employee, which affected consumers’ satisfaction with the encounter. The findings also showed that a direct gaze had a negative effect on encounter satisfaction when consumers sought to purchase embarrassing products.

    Originality/value – The research demonstrated that the effect of gaze on encounter satisfaction was mediated by the social impression and moderated by consumers’ approach/avoidance motivation.

  • 2.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Forslund, Helena
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Persdotter Isaksson, Maria
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Exploring logistics-related environmental sustainability in large retailers2016In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 38-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to explore and illustrate ways in which the world’s largest retailers describe their logistics-related environmental considerations, their environmental indicators applied to measure the effects of these considerations and their environmental consciousness in their CSR reports.Design/methodology/approach– Classification models are developed via a literature review on logistics-related environmental considerations, indicators and consciousness. A content analysis approach is then applied to examine CSR reports from 12 of the world’s largest retailers.Findings– Few retailers show environmental considerations in all logistics activities, but purchasing is especially well described. Even if many retailers claim to use the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) framework, no one uses is completely. Judging consciousness from CSR reports raised a number of questions.Research limitations/implications– A contribution to theory is the development of two classification models. The first provides a description structure for environmental considerations related to logistics activities. The second expands the GRI indicator framework by incorporating a structure for logistics activities.Practical implications– The classification models developed can be an important mean for managers and also consumers to judge the environmental sustainability of retailers by their CSR reports.Social implications– The study makes a social contribution with its input on sustainability and especially environmental issues.Originality/value– Few studies have focused upon environmentally sustainable logistics in retail chains, and even fewer address how to measure environmental sustainability in this context.

  • 3.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forslund, Helena
    Department of Accounting and Logistics, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Persdotter Isaksson, Maria
    School of Business and Economics, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Exploring logistics-related environmental sustainability in large retailers2016In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 38-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore and illustrate ways in which the world’s largest retailers describe their logistics-related environmental considerations, their environmental indicators applied to measure the effects of these considerations and their environmental consciousness in their CSR reports.

    Design/methodology/approach – Classification models are developed via a literature review on logistics-related environmental considerations, indicators and consciousness. A content analysis approach is then applied to examine CSR reports from 12 of the world’s largest retailers.

    Findings – Few retailers show environmental considerations in all logistics activities, but purchasing is especially well described. Even if many retailers claim to use the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) framework, no one uses is completely. Judging consciousness from CSR reports raised a number of questions.

    Research limitations/implications – A contribution to theory is the development of two classification models. The first provides a description structure for environmental considerations related to logistics activities. The second expands the GRI indicator framework by incorporating a structure for logistics activities.

    Practical implications – The classification models developed can be an important mean for managers and also consumers to judge the environmental sustainability of retailers by their CSR reports.

    Social implications – The study makes a social contribution with its input on sustainability and especially environmental issues.

    Originality/value – Few studies have focused upon environmentally sustainable logistics in retail chains, and even fewer address how to measure environmental sustainability in this context.

  • 4.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Cargo theft at non-secure parking locations2015In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 432, no 1, p. 204-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the patterns of reported cargo thefts at

    non-secure parking facilities in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (EMEA) with respect to stolen

    value, frequency, incident category, and modi operandi.

    Design/methodology/approach – This study is based on a system-theoretical approach that

    emphasizes on a holistic rather than an atomistic view. The research method used in this paper is

    deductive; the analysis is based on data obtained from the incident information service (IIS), a database

    of transport-related crimes from the Transported Asset Protection Association (TAPA) in the EMEA

    region. The results are analysed and discussed within a frame of reference based on supply chain risk

    management (SCRM) and criminology theories.

    Findings – We found that 97 per cent of all attacks during a stop occur at non-secure parking

    locations. Cargo thefts at these locations are more of a volume crime than high-value thefts. Seasonal

    variations were seen in these thefts, and the most common type was an intrusion on weekdays

    during winter.

    Research limitations/implications – This study is limited by the content of and the classifications

    within the TAPA EMEA IIS database.

    Practical implications – This paper is directly relevant to the current EU discussions regarding the

    creation of a large number of secure parking facilities in the region.

    Originality/value – This is one of the first papers in the field of SCRM that utilizes actual crime

    statistics reported by the industry to analyse the occurrence of cargo theft by focusing on the

    non-secure parking aspect in the transport chain.

  • 5.
    Elg, Ulf
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Hultman, Jens
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business, Avdelningen för ekonomi. Lunds universitet.
    CSR: retailer activities vs consumer buying decisions2016In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 640-657Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate how a retailer’s corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities and image influence consumer perceptions regarding the firm’s social responsibility, and how CSR aspects influence consumers buying decisions in store for a specific product.

    Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative case study method is used, including interviews, document studies and observations. The CSR approach of a Swedish retailer is investigated at corporate level and in the store, and how this interacts with the views of consumers as they make decisions regarding the purchase of a disposable product.

    Findings – The authors propose the concept CSR identity to capture the internal efforts and positioning that a retailer attempts to achieve. Store activities and external independent stakeholders will have a main influence on whether the identity is regarded as credible by consumers. Furthermore, factors such as self-image and influences from the social network will influence whether a consumer will be committed to prioritize CSR aspects in the store.

    Practical implications – Gaps between the retailer and the consumer perspective on CSR, particularly relevant for disposable, low-involvement products are identified. It is critical for retailers to be aware of and address these gaps.Originality/value – The study captures corporate level, store level and consumer behaviour for a single retailer and is able to reflect upon how specific activities from the retailer interact with consumer attitudes and activities in the store. The authors connect various streams of research on CSR andretailing into one consistent framework.

  • 6.
    Ellström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Supplier integration in the assortment management of builders’ merchants2015In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 43, no 7, p. 634-651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore supplier integration in the assortment management of builders’ merchants (BMs) by identifying potential factors enabling supplier integration and potential factors mediating the success of supplier integration.

    Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative case study method was used, in which interviews and participative observations were conducted with a timber supplier and BMs in the UK.

    Findings – The likelihood that a supplier and a retailer will implement supplier integration is positively affected by the retailer’s format as a large chain with several product categories represented in its stores and the retailer’s trust in the supplier. Effectiveness and efficiency of supplier integration is mediated by the number of different retail formats represented by the retailers, the ability of the supplier to determine cost drivers in its operations and a homogeneous market, meaning that local circumstances have limited effect on demand.

    Research limitations/implications – The findings are exploratory and further testing of the propositions, using a wider empirical sample, is required. The paper extends theories relating to resource complementarity and suggests that a resource complementarity framework can be applied in relationships other than alliances.

    Practical implications – This paper suggests when incorporation of supplier resources is possible to implement and when it is likely to succeed.

    Originality/value – This paper uses a contingency perspective to explore supplier integration and targets individual buyer-supplier relationships. It uses a dyadic perspective and considers how supplier integration affects the dyad, rather than only the buyer.

  • 7.
    Forslund, Helena
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Exploring logistics performance management in supplier/retailer dyads2014In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 205-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The first purpose of this study is to explore logistics performance management practices and lessons learned in some supplier/retailer dyads across retail industries. A second purpose is to suggest a continued research agenda for logistics performance management across retail industries.

    Design/methodology/approach – Case studies are conducted in four supplier/retailer dyads in different retailing industries in Sweden. The analysis is of a cross-case character and uses a pattern matching approach.

    Findings – Large differences in practices within and between dyads are found. Some problems were indicated: lack of trust; difficulties in developing a collaborative culture; difficulties in relating metrics to customer value and lacking IT support. A previously unknown obstacle, the internal collaboration with category management, was identified. A good example was found in an industry standard. State-of-the-art descriptions, international comparisons, exploring the interface with the stores and combating identified problems were found to be relevant topics for continued research.

    Research limitations/implications – The limitations are mainly related to the small number of cases, but since the purpose of this study is exploratory, this should be acceptable. The theoretical contribution is a first step in the expansion of knowledge on logistics performance management from manufacturing to retailing companies.

    Practical implications – The practical contribution includes insights in the shape of descriptions and lessons learned in different retail industries.

    Originality/value – No identified study has explored logistics performance management as a whole across retail industries with a dyadic approach.

  • 8.
    Forslund, Helena
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Performance management process integration in retail supply chains2015In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 43, no 7, p. 652-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to explore and generate propositions of factors that affect the degree of performance management process integration in retail supply chains.

    Design/methodology/approach– The performance management processes of two retail supply chains were explored and their degree of process integration was classified. Differences in the degree of performance management process integration and affecting factors lead to the generation of five propositions.

    Findings– Dependence, brand importance, business process integration, performance demand and the existence of a performance management standard seem to be positively related to the degree of performance management process integration in the relation. Both factors that affect process integration in general and performance management process integration specifically are included. Some insights on integration in a vertically integrated retail chain were provided.

    Research limitations/implications– This study has specified the knowledge in process integration to the performance management process and expanded it into a retail context. It has generated a number of propositions on factors that affect the degree of performance management process integration, including a factor that was not found in previous research on manufacturing supply chains. The contribution to process integration theory is however limited until the propositions are validated in a broader study.

    Practical implications– Knowledge in affecting factors is useful when “performance management managers” need to communicate integration ambitions with other managers within and outside their own company. The detailed descriptions of performance management processes and integration practices can serve as inspiring benchmarks, as in the daily groceries supply chain, where the industry standard is especially interesting. They can also indicate practices to avoid, as in the home textiles supply chain. Another managerial take-away is the need to handle each relation, manufacturer-wholesaler and wholesaler-retailer store, with their specific affecting factors in specific ways.

    Originality/value– Previous knowledge on performance management process integration is mainly based on manufacturing companies. This study expands existing knowledge into a retail context.

  • 9.
    Guan, Wei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Classification and retail positioning into strategic groups: The case of DIY retailers and builders' merchants in Sweden2012In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 40, no 8, p. 570-591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – To understand the potential for various types of retailers, it is essential to appreciate retailer' positioning in the marketplace. Positioning has a critical effect on retailers' competitiveness and performance. Despite the significance and popularity of retail positioning, a few gaps remain that prompt the need for this research. First, little has been written about positioning in the building materials distribution industry, as compared with other retail sectors. Second, the retail classification literature has rarely included positioning as a dimension of retailer characteristics, although, in essence, they are both ways to understand retailer strategy and behaviour. To fill these research gaps, the objective of this research is to contribute to retail positioning research, using the Swedish building material distribution industry as a study setting. Specifically, it has two key goals: to develop a classification framework focusing on the Swedish building material distribution market; and to analyse those distributors by strategic groups and identify their common business priorities.

    Design/methodology/approach – This research looked at a majority of building material distributors in the Swedish market. A total of 23 interviews were conducted with managing directors or similar from case companies. Interviews ranged from 40 to 90 minutes in duration. This research adapted materials developed for other purposes in order to enhance and strengthen primary data.

    Findings – This study develops a classification framework of building material distributors and provides an overview of distributors operating in the Swedish markets. Drawing on theory from retail positioning and classification, the research result suggests that the studied distributors can be classified into three strategic groups: DIY-service focused; DIY-cost focused; and builders' merchant (BM)-service focused. Research also showed that distinguishing building material distributor by customer type is not as effective as it once was; there is a trend of internationalisation in the Swedish building material distribution industry; and distributors exert growing central control over certain areas, such as purchasing and marketing.

    Originality/value – The building material distribution industry attracts little research attention when compared to other sectors, for instance food and grocery retailing. Given this, the value of this article lies in identifying the leading companies in Sweden and offering strategic analysis of their business developments and focus. Insights into building material distributors' supply requirements are provided.

  • 10.
    Hagberg, Johan
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Sundström, Malin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nicklas, Egels-Zandén
    Göteborgs universitet.
    The digitalization of retailing: an exploratory framework2016In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 44, no 7, p. 694-712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Purpose – Digitalization denotes an on-going transformation of great importance for the retail sector. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the phenomenon of the digitalization of retailing by developing a conceptual framework that can be used to further delineate current transformations of the retailerconsumer interface.

    Design/methodology/approach – This paper develops a framework for digitalization in the retail-consumer interface that consists of four elements: exchanges, actors, offerings, and settings. Drawing on the previous literature, it describes and exemplifies how digitalization transforms each of these elements and identifies implications and proposals for future research.

    Findings – Digitalization transforms the following: retailing exchanges (in a number of ways and in various facets of exchange, including communications, transactions, and distribution); the nature of retail offerings (blurred distinctions between products and services, what constitutes the actual offering and how it is priced); retail settings (i.e. where and when retailing takes place); and the actors who participate in retailing (i.e. retailers and consumers, among other parties).

    Research limitations/implications – The framework developed can be used to further delineate current transformations of retailing due to digitalization. The current transformation has created challenges for research, as it demands sensitivity to development over time and insists that categories that have been taken for granted are becoming increasingly blurred due to greater hybridity.

    Originality/value – This paper addresses a significant and on-going transformation in retailing and develops a framework that can both guide future research and aid retail practitioners in analysing retailing’s current transformation due to digitalization.

  • 11.
    Helmefalk, Miralem
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Congruency as a mediator in an IKEA retail setting: products, services and store image in relation to sensory cues2016In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 44, no 9, p. 956-972Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse and discuss how sensory cues are preferred in relation to products, service and store image in a retail context and why retailers should consider the importance of congruence in a retail setting.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Four qualitative focus group discussions were conducted, following a semi-structured interview guide. A total of 24 participants discussed how and why a lighting department in an IKEA store in Sweden could be regarded as more appealing than the traditional layout.

    Findings

    The findings indicate that congruency works as a mediator between a retail setting, sensory cues, products, service and store image. Consumers prefer, compare and categorize sensory cues in relation to the specific product in the department, the service offered by the firm and the store image.

    Originality/value

    A model is developed that conceptualizes congruency as a mediator in a retail setting, which provides an opportunity to further explore external influences on congruency in retail settings, both conceptually and empirically.

  • 12.
    Helmefalk, Miralem
    et al.
    Department of Marketing, School of Business and Economics, Linneaus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Berndt, Adele
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC).
    Shedding light on the use of single and multisensory cues and their effect on consumer behaviours2018In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 46, no 11-12, p. 1077-1091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Retail stores are required to provide a stimulating in-store experience for customers and do this by developing various strategies. One strategy implemented by retailers is the use of sensory cues to encourage consumers to engage with the environment and the products on display and available for purchase. Conducted in a lighting department, the purpose of this paper is to consider how retailers can employ a multisensory cue, which is formed by combining three single cues to positively impact consumer behaviours – specifically time spent, touching and purchase.

    Design/methodology/approach: The study comprised an experimental design, which implemented single congruent visual, auditory and olfactory cues that formed a multisensory cue. Consumer behaviour outcomes of these cues were measured using objective measures.

    Findings: The results show that a multisensory cue impacts time spent and purchasing, but no evidence of it affecting touching was noted. In the case of the single cues, auditory and scent cues impacted time spent, but their effect was not to the extent of the multisensory cue, which was superior.

    Research limitations/implications: The study focussed on one product category within a general furnishing store, thus limiting the extent to which the findings can be generalised.

    Practical implications: The effect of a multisensory cue exceeded that of single cues, emphasising the need for retailers to consider and develop a multisensory retail environment.

    Originality/value: While research into the effect of single cues on consumer behaviours has shown positive effects, research into a multisensory cue, especially in a real-retail setting, is relatively scarce.

  • 13.
    Helmefalk, Miralem
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Berndt, Adele
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Shedding light on the use of single and multisensory cues and their effect on consumer behaviours2018In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 46, no 11-12, p. 1077-1091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Retail stores are required to provide a stimulating in-store experience for customers and do this by developing various strategies. One strategy implemented by retailers is the use of sensory cues to encourage consumers to engage with the environment and the products on display and available for purchase. Conducted in a lighting department, the purpose of this paper is to consider how retailers can employ a multisensory cue, which is formed by combining three single cues to positively impact consumer behaviours - specifically time spent, touching and purchase. Design/methodology/approach The study comprised an experimental design, which implemented single congruent visual, auditory and olfactory cues that formed a multisensory cue. Consumer behaviour outcomes of these cues were measured using objective measures. Findings The results show that a multisensory cue impacts time spent and purchasing, but no evidence of it affecting touching was noted. In the case of the single cues, auditory and scent cues impacted time spent, but their effect was not to the extent of the multisensory cue, which was superior. Research limitations/implications The study focussed on one product category within a general furnishing store, thus limiting the extent to which the findings can be generalised. Practical implications The effect of a multisensory cue exceeded that of single cues, emphasising the need for retailers to consider and develop a multisensory retail environment. Originality/value While research into the effect of single cues on consumer behaviours has shown positive effects, research into a multisensory cue, especially in a real-retail setting, is relatively scarce.

  • 14.
    Hernant, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Andersson, Thomas
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Hilmola, Olli-Pekka
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. Kouvola Research Unit, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta, Finland.
    Managing retail chain profitability based on local competitive conditions: Preliminary analysis2007In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 35, no 11, p. 912-935Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract:

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to describe the determinants of profitability in terms of the strategic profitability model (the Du Pont model), depicting the “route” to high profitability in grocery retail stores located in market areas possessing dissimilar competitive conditions. Design/methodology/approach – Different physical characteristics (e.g. store formats) have traditionally been used as control criteria, but it is argued in this paper that management principles in retail chains should be based on different clusters of stores, formed from local competitive conditions. The paper proposes a clustering method based on five indicators of local competition. The research results are derived from local competitive conditions and the performance of 168 supermarkets, located in Sweden, and controlled by one retail chain. Findings – The paper identifies four clusters of local markets labeled monopoly, fleet market, venue, and duopoly, based on local competitive conditions. The findings show that the “route” to profitability significantly differs between the clusters. In monopoly the route to high profitability goes through high-gross margin, while in fleet market the key figures are low cost, large number of shoppers per week, and high productivity. Venue and duopoly both gain from high-average transactions per shopper. Practical implications – Supermarkets under different competitive conditions have different critical success factors and would probably be better managed, supported and evaluated on a different basis, i.e. retail chains need to adjust their approach to their supermarkets depending on local competitive conditions. Originality/value – Based on the findings the paper proposes unique management strategies for different clusters of local markets to further enhance current strength areas.

  • 15.
    Hjort, Klas
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Lantz, Björn
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    (R)e-tail borrowing of party dresses: an experimental study2012In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 40, no 12, p. 997-1012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The main purpose of this study is to increase the understanding of consumer behaviour with respect to (r)e-tail borrowing, performed under different (more or less generous) delivery and return policies. Design/methodology/approach – The study was designed as a randomised controlled experiment with a random sample strategy. Among the 192,482 Swedish customers who had made an order at nelly.com during the previous 12 months and were to receive the quarterly nelly.com newsletter in November 2010 by e-mail, 4,000 were randomly selected and randomised into four groups of 1,000 in each group. Findings – The experiment revealed certain purchase and return patterns that support the conclusion that (r)e-tail borrowing behaviour exists in fashion e-commerce. Evidence was also found that lenient delivery and returns policies seem to reinforce (r)e-tail borrowing behaviour, albeit not always in expected ways. Practical implications – Differences in delivery and return policies seem to impact consumer purchase and return behaviour differently depending on the type of item. Therefore a more differentiated view of how to apply them is suggested. Offering the same delivery and return policies to all types of customers and products is generally not optimal with respect to profitability. Originality/value – The paper illustrates the need to consider both delivery and returns policies together with customer and product categories simultaneously when applying them in an e-commerce context.

  • 16.
    Hultén, Bertil
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Sensory cues and shoppers' touching behaviour: the case of IKEA2012In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 273-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The presented research aims to depict shoppers' touching behaviour in relation to the introduction of visual and olfactory sensory cues at point-of-purchase in a retail setting. In the field of retailing research, there is a paucity of knowledge on how visual and olfactory sensory cues impact on consumers' touch behaviour.

    Design/methodology/approach – The author presents a review of theoretically relevant work from retailing and consumer psychology, and an original study examining the impact of visual and olfactory sensory cues on consumer touch behaviour. The study was a field experiment in the glass department of the Swedish retailer IKEA. The design was quasi-experimental with a convenience sample of shoppers assigned to a control group (n=451) and an experimental group (n=435).

    Findings – In the reported study, the author finds significant differences between shoppers' touching behaviour in a manipulated point-of-purchase compared to a conventional one. The findings show that visual and olfactory sensory cues have a positive impact on shoppers' touching behaviour, purchase intentions and total sale.

    Research limitations/implications – The findings demonstrate that sensory cues exert a positive impact on consumers' desire to touch. Sensory cues frame consumers' affective responses and decision making through involving the sense of touch.

    Practical implications – The findings provide guidelines for managers of retail and service outlets, concerning the benefits of sensory cues in enhancing shoppers' touching behaviour at point-of-purchase.

    Originality/value – The research demonstrates that the introduction of visual and olfactory sensory cues impact consumers' touch behaviour at point-of-purchase in a retail setting.

  • 17.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Lagin, Madelen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Wennström, Johanna
    Town centre cooperation: Changing perception of property owners2017In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 45, no 11, p. 1200-1212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate if, and how, different stakeholders perceive property owners (PO) have changed their activities in a town centre after increased competition, and if this has led to a different perception of the PO' stakeholder group. Design/methodology/approach – A comparative follow-up case study is conducted through semi-structured interviews on changes in the town centre management (TCM) stakeholders' perceptions of the role, benefit, and contribution of PO. The interviews are carried out before and after the establishment of a big-box retailer, which makes it possible to analyse possible changes in the perceptions in relation to the overall role of the PO when retail competition increases. Findings – A limited number of PO and local authorities have started working more strategically and proactively by creating a time-restricted alliance that goes beyond the work of the TCM organisation. Although the activities of the PO have increased, this is not fully understood by everyone in the town centre, especially the retailers. Research limitations/implications – In comparison with other studies, this study clearly indicates that the property owner plays a key strategic role in enabling town centre development. This role is broader than what the original TCM literature suggests and is based on the aspects of resource coordination and distribution. Practical implications – In order to create the opportunity to develop a town centre in the long run, it is of strategic importance that the PO are in agreement with the development plans. In addition, it is necessary to consider those members who should be part of the strategic alliance. Originality/value – By conducting a comparative follow-up case study, the authors are able to contribute with a deeper understanding of how stakeholders' perceptions change over time. The authors extend the current literature by showing that the PO are a key stakeholder due to their organisational resources and their ability to facilitate town centre development. © 2017 Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 18.
    Jocevski, Milan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics. Polytech Univ Milan, Milan, Italy..
    Arvidsson, Niklas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Miragliotta, Giovanni
    Polytech Univ Milan, Dept Engn Management, Milan, Italy..
    Ghezzi, Antonio
    Polytech Univ Milan, Dept Engn Management, Milan, Italy..
    Mangiaracina, Riccardo
    Polytech Univ Milan, Dept Engn Management, Milan, Italy..
    Transitions towards omni-channel retailing strategies: a business model perspective2019In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 78-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Digitalisation has been identified as a driving force behind retail sector transformation. The purpose of this paper is to provide a deeper understanding of how omni-channel strategies link to the digitalisation phenomenon. The study is explorative in nature and aims to expand existing knowledge by using a business model (BM) perspective. Design/methodology/approach The study uses a qualitative approach. Data collection involved a questionnaire answered by 13 firms from three retail segments (i.e. fashion, consumer electronics and bookstores and media) and a group discussion with senior managers. The data were complemented with information from websites, applications and available online reports. Findings The findings present empirical insights about different strategic and BM approaches to omni-channel retailing and highlight examples of pioneering retailers from the Italian market. The proposed framework consolidates earlier studies and puts forward three dimensions for a successful transition to omni-channel retailing BMs: a seamless customer experience, an integrated analytics system and an effective supply chain and logistics. Originality/value First, this paper applies a BM perspective as a novel approach for analysing a transition to omni-channel retailing. Second, it is based on empirical analysis of three retail segments, which provide new insights into omni-channel strategies in the retailing literature.

  • 19.
    Nilsson, Elin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Gothenburg Universtiy.
    Marell, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Nordvall, Anna-Carin
    Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Importance ratings of grocery store attributes2015In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 63-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive set of grocery store attributes that can be standardized and used in empirical research aiming at increasing retailers´ understanding of determinants of grocery store choice, and assessing how the relative importance of the attributes is affected by consumer socio-demographic characteristics and shopping behaviour.

    Design/methodology/approach: An Internet survey of 1,575 Swedish consumers was conducted. A large set of attributes was rated by the participants on seven-point scales with respect to their importance for choice of grocery store. Principal component analysis resulted in a reduced set of reliably measured aggregated attributes. This set included the attractiveness attributes price level, supply range, supply quality, service quality, storescape quality, facilities for childcare, and closeness to other stores, and the accessibility attributes easy access by car, easy access by other travel modes, and availability (closeness to store and opening hours).

    Findings: The results showed that accessibility by car is the most important grocery store attribute, storescape quality and availability the next most important and facilities for childcare the least important. It was also found that socio-demographic factors and shopping behaviour have an impact on the importance of the store attributes.

    Originality/value: A comprehensive set of attractiveness and accessibility attributes of grocery stores that can be standardized and used in empirical research is established. The results are valid for the Swedish-European conditions that differ from the conditions in North America where most previous research has been conducted. The results reveal the relative importance grocery-shopping consumers place on controllable attractiveness attributes compared to uncontrollable accessibility attributes as well as the relative importance of the attributes within each category.

  • 20.
    Nilsson, Elin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Gothenburg Universtiy.
    Marell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Nordvall, Anna-Carin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Importance ratings of grocery store attributes2015In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 63-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive set of grocery store attributes that can be standardized and used in empirical research aiming at increasing retailers´ understanding of determinants of grocery store choice, and assessing how the relative importance of the attributes is affected by consumer socio-demographic characteristics and shopping behaviour.

    Design/methodology/approach: An Internet survey of 1,575 Swedish consumers was conducted. A large set of attributes was rated by the participants on seven-point scales with respect to their importance for choice of grocery store. Principal component analysis resulted in a reduced set of reliably measured aggregated attributes. This set included the attractiveness attributes price level, supply range, supply quality, service quality, storescape quality, facilities for childcare, and closeness to other stores, and the accessibility attributes easy access by car, easy access by other travel modes, and availability (closeness to store and opening hours).

    Findings: The results showed that accessibility by car is the most important grocery store attribute, storescape quality and availability the next most important and facilities for childcare the least important. It was also found that socio-demographic factors and shopping behaviour have an impact on the importance of the store attributes.

    Originality/value: A comprehensive set of attractiveness and accessibility attributes of grocery stores that can be standardized and used in empirical research is established. The results are valid for the Swedish-European conditions that differ from the conditions in North America where most previous research has been conducted. The results reveal the relative importance grocery-shopping consumers place on controllable attractiveness attributes compared to uncontrollable accessibility attributes as well as the relative importance of the attributes within each category.

  • 21.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Department of Management/MAPP, Aarhus University.
    Decompression zone deconstructed: Products located at the store entrance do have an impact on sales2018In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 46, no 11-12, p. 1108-1116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Researchers have hypothesized that products located at the decompression zone of a store (the entrance area where customers adjust to the retail environment) do not influence sales of these particular products, because customers do not register things that are too close to store entrances. The purpose of this paper is to examine the validity of such a decompression zone account in actual field settings, and hence investigate whether or not placing products at the store entrance would increase customers’ likelihood to purchase these products. Design/methodology/approach: Two field studies with a total sample of 715 customers were conducted, in which the entrance area of a home goods store was manipulated using a two-group quasi-experimental design. In Study 1, customers were (vs were not) exposed to candles and candle holders at the store entrance. In Study 2, an employee greeted customers at the store entrance with (vs without) the store’s products nearby. Findings: Study 1 found that customers who were (vs were not) exposed to candles and candle holders at the store entrance purchased a significantly larger number of both these products. Study 2 replicated and generalized these findings. Although customers in the employee + products condition spent less money than customers in the employee-alone condition, the former group still purchased a significantly larger number of candles and candle holders. These findings go directly against a decompression zone account, but are consistent with research on exposure effects. Originality/value: This paper is the first to empirically examine the validity of the decompression zone account in real retail settings. The paper also fills a more general gap in the store atmospherics literature, as only a very limited number of studies have dealt with the external parts of the retail environment, such as the store entrance area.

  • 22.
    Sandberg, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Coordination mechanisms in the store opening process2014In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 482-499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – For many retailers organic growth through the opening of new stores is a crucial cornerstone of the business model. The purpose of this paper is to explore the store opening process conducted by retail companies. The research questions cover: first, the role and organisation of the establishment function in charge of the process; second, the activities and functions involved in the process; and third, the coordination mechanisms applied during the process.

    Design/methodology/approach – This research considers the store opening process as a company-wide project, managed by an establishment function, in which internal functions as well as external suppliers need to be coordinated. A multiple case study of eight retail companies is presented, focusing on the organisation of the establishment function, a mapping of the store opening process and the application of coordination mechanisms.

    Findings – The role and organisation of the establishment function is described and the store opening process is summarised into 11 main activities to be conducted by either the establishment function or other involved functions. During the store opening process six different coordination mechanisms are utilised, including mutual adjustments and direct supervision, as well as different types of standardisation.

    Originality/value – This research seeks to improve our understanding for the store opening process and how it can be managed and controlled in an effective manner.

  • 23.
    Sandberg, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Understanding logistics-based competition in retail: a business model perspective2013In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 176-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Logistics scholars, as well as strategic management scholars, have in recent years shown that capabilities in logistics and supply chain management may be the foundation for a company's sustainable competitive advantage. It can be argued that beside product-, production-, or market-oriented companies, there are also flow-oriented companies, in which the business models are based on superior logistics performance. The purpose of this study is to explore the characteristics of logistics-based competition, i.e. how a logistics-based business model is designed.

    Design/methodology/approach – The research is based on a case study at a German do-it-yourself retailer. The case company can be considered as a best practice company when it comes to logistics-based competition, where a committed top management team guarantees the importance of logistics in the strategic development of the company.

    Findings – Logistics-related characteristics of the three business model components – external environment, internal factors and offering – are elaborated.

    Originality/value – This research adds to existing theory by developing the meaning of logistics-based competition. The strategic role of logistics is described through a business model approach.

  • 24.
    Sandberg, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The role of top management in supply chain management practices2010In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 57-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Despite the often stated importance, little about top management's role in supply chain management (SCM) practices is known. The purpose of this paper is therefore to explore the role of top management in two retail companies that successfully utilise opportunities given by SCM practices.Design/methodology/approach – As an empirical basis for the research, two Swedish retail companies are explored. Members of the top management teams have been interviewed about their role in the company and their priorities.Findings – The top management role is described by introducing four archetypes; the supply chain thinker, the relationship manager, the controller and the organiser for the future.Originality/value – This paper adds to existing theory by giving a more detailed description of top management's role in SCM practices, i.e. how SCM practices could actually be managed, and, in the extension, to the understanding for what is needed to implement more SCM practices in real existing companies and supply chains.

  • 25.
    Vakulenko, Yulia
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Hellström, Daniel
    Lund University.
    Oghazi, Pejvak
    Linnaeus University.
    Customer value in self-service kiosks: a systematic literature review2018In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 507-527Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a cohesive overview of the available self-service and customer value literature, identify customer value in self-service kiosks (SSKs), and analyze this value from the customer experience perspective. Design/methodology/approach The study comprises a systematic literature review of available works on customer value. Findings The paper presents conclusions on the SSK's technological forms, presence in industries, and conceptual state. The review also provides a cohesive inventory of customer value elements in SSKs. The in-depth analysis proposes two alternative models of the customer value creation process: linear and circular. Research limitations/implications The study reveals gaps stemming from the inconsistency and fragmented nature of previous research on customer value in SSKs. The gaps are treated as opportunities for future studies. Practical implications By identifying new sources of competitive advantage and new ways to improve customer service strategies and experience management, the findings support managerial decision making at the stages of considering, implementing, and improving SSK networks. Originality/value This study is the first to systematically review and provide an inventory of customer value elements in SSKs. It, therefore, offers new perspectives on customer value creation using self-service technology.

  • 26.
    Vakulenko, Yulia
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hellström, Daniel
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Oghazi, Pejvak
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Customer value in self-service kiosks: a systematic literature review2018In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 507-527Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a cohesive overview of the available self-service and customer value literature, identify customer value in self-service kiosks (SSKs), and analyze this value from the customer experience perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The study comprises a systematic literature review of available works on customer value. Findings: The paper presents conclusions on the SSK’s technological forms, presence in industries, and conceptual state. The review also provides a cohesive inventory of customer value elements in SSKs. The in-depth analysis proposes two alternative models of the customer value creation process: linear and circular. Research limitations/implications: The study reveals gaps stemming from the inconsistency and fragmented nature of previous research on customer value in SSKs. The gaps are treated as opportunities for future studies. Practical implications: By identifying new sources of competitive advantage and new ways to improve customer service strategies and experience management, the findings support managerial decision making at the stages of considering, implementing, and improving SSK networks. Originality/value: This study is the first to systematically review and provide an inventory of customer value elements in SSKs. It, therefore, offers new perspectives on customer value creation using self-service technology.

  • 27.
    Veflen Olsen, Nina
    et al.
    Nofima.
    Sallis, James
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Processes and Outcomes of Distributor Brand New Product Development: An Exploratory Examination2010In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 379-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Most new product development (NPD) studies focus on manufacturer brands; few consider distributor brands. This paper investigates whether NPD processes and outcomes differ between manufacturers and distributors. 

    Design/methodology/approach - Interviews within the grocery industry in Norway and analysis of sales numbers from an AC Nielsen ScanTrack database illustrate that through different NPD processes manufacturers and distributors reach different outcomes.

    Findings – Distributors differ from manufacturers in the NPD process in several ways: more in-store interaction resulting in very market-driven products. They usually outsource technical development, and launch brands with substantially less market communication through fewer marketing channels. Distributors, who mostly develop copycat products of large volume manufacturer brands, have lower failure rates. More surprising, the study reveals that distributor brands achieve faster growth in market share than manufacturer brands when brand concentration is low, and some low volume distributor brands have a higher average retail price than manufacturer brands, indicating that different private label categories exist.

    Research limitations/implications –The sample had only three product categories (pizza, juice, and jam). Replication with other categories in other industries would help validate the results. The distributor NPD process and outcomes are still not well understood, and as distributors move into more value-added products it will evolve, requiring further research.

    Originality/value – This is one of the first empirical investigations of differences in NPD processes and outcomes between manufacturer and distributer brands. It also shows the effect of brand concentration on distributor brand growth.

  • 28.
    Wahlberg, Olof
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Small town centre attractiveness: evidence from Sweden2016In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 465-488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the qualities of a small town centre and how such centres can enhance their attractiveness. Design/methodology/approach – A convenience sampling procedure was used to administer a web survey to visitors of a small Swedish town. Importance-performance analysis and statistical methods were used to analyse quality attributes and quality dimensions. Correlation analysis was run to measure the relationship between centre attractiveness and shopping loyalty. Findings – The variety of retail outlets is what is most valued by visitors to a small town centre, followed by the provision of events and non-commercial activities and the design and maintenance of the physical environment in the centre. Surprisingly, the interpersonal behaviour has less impact on the perceived attractiveness than the aforementioned quality dimensions. Visitors' shopping loyalty is significantly related to the perceived attractiveness. Research limitations/implications – The study is a one-off study based upon a small Swedish town, but it is indicative of global shopping trends. Practical implications – Implications for town centre management to enhance the attractiveness of the business district of a small town. Social implications – Traditional town centres have been props for the surrounding societies, providing anscillary services beside retailing. When retail moves to out-of-town retail locations, this could lead to the erosion of interpersonal communications and central services for citizens. Originality/value – Pioneering research on small Swedish town shopping.

  • 29.
    Yaklef, Ali
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Does the Internet compete with or complement bricks-and-mortar bank branches?2001In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 272-281Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Öner, Özge
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Which retail services are co-located?2014In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 281-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Which retail services are co-located in space? Is it possible to categorize retail stores of different kinds with respect to their location pattern? Acknowledging the spatial dependency between different and similar kinds of retailing activities, the aim of this paper is to find if and to what extent co-location is present in a retail market and what kind of retailing activities are co-located.

    Design/methodology/approach – The authors analyse the co-location of different types of retail stores in Sweden by using geo-coded data. The data they use allows them to pinpoint each establishment in Sweden down to a 250 by 250m square in space. First, they identify a measure of co-location for each retail service by utilizing pairwise correlations between the different retail service establishments with respect to the squares in which they are present. Later, by using the finest level of industrial categorization for all physical retailing activities (and limiting their geographical unit to the Stockholm metropolitan market), they perform factor analysis to nest these retailing activities under relevant categories based on their co-location pattern.

    Findings – In this analysis the authors obtain four major factors for the squares with retail stores, in which several kinds of retail activities are nested. These factors reveal a certain degree of location commonality for the markets in question.

    Originality/value – The authors' empirical design is based on a highly disaggregated spatial information and the methodology is novel in a sense that it has not been used to address a similar question. Rather than sampling, the authors use the total population, where they take all physical retailing activities into account to be able to draw a general picture for the co-location phenomena in the entire retail market.

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