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  • 1. Andersson, Fredrik W.
    et al.
    Gullberg Brännström, Susanne
    Mörtvik, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Long-term scarring effect of neither working nor studying2018In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 190-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - It is increasingly important to study labour market outcomes for people who are not in employment, education, or training (NEET). Where most studies focus solely on young people, the purpose of this paper is to include both younger and older NEETs to find out if there is any long-term scarring effect, and if the effect is different between these two groups.

    Design/methodology/approach - This study uses a twin-based estimation method for the first time to measure the long-term effect of economic inactivity on income. The analysis is based on biological twins, in order to control for individuals' unobservable heterogeneity. It is assumed that twins are similar to each other and the only unobservable heterogeneity is at the family level. Register-based data from Statistics Sweden is used.

    Findings - The result indicates a significant negative income effect for those who have been in NEET, and is larger for those who have been in NEET for several consecutive periods of time. Individuals who were in NEET during 2001-2003 had on average 62 per cent lower income compared with their twin in 2011. The corresponding number for individuals who were in NEET for just one period was 33 per cent. Hence, time in NEET reduces income. The results show that the long-term scarring effect is not affected by age.

    Originality/value - This study utilises for the first time a twin-based estimation method to measure the long-term effect of inactivity. Most studies focus solely on young people, but the authors also include an older group of people.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Occupational choice and returns to self-employment among immigrants2011In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 900-922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Self-employment has been stressed as a way for immigrants to enter and improve their situation in the labour market. However, research shows that some people who become self-employed revert to wage employment or unemployment. The purpose of the paper is to study the labour market consequences of temporary self-employment on paid employment among immigrants.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper uses micro-econometric methods to estimate the effect of self-employment, relative to continued wage employment, on earnings and employment opportunities in 2006. The paper also identifies the type of wage earner that temporarily enters self-employment.

    Findings – The paper finds that, relative to continued wage employment, self-employment, with few exceptions, does not improve outcomes in the wage sector of immigrants and may in fact be associated with lower earnings and difficulties in returning to paid employment.

    Practical implications – The results indicate that encouraging immigrant wage earners to become self-employed should be done with care, since self-employment does not necessarily improve subsequent labour market outcomes.

    Originality/value – This study will be valuable to those who are interested in the economic consequences of immigrant self-employment.

  • 3.
    Anxo, Dominique
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ericson, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Herbert, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Beyond retirement: who stays at work after the standard age of retirement?2019In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 917-938Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Drawing on a unique combination of longitudinal administrative data and a postal survey, the purpose of this paper is to identify the socio-economic factors and individual characteristics that affect senior citizens' decision to continue working on the Swedish labour market after the standard retirement age. Design/methodology/approach By using standard econometric techniques (multinomial logit model) on a large representative sample of 20,000 senior citizens residing in Sweden, the auhtors analyse the extent to which socio-economic factors and individual characteristics including personality traits affect the decision of senior citizens to delay retirement and to continue working after the standard retirement age. Findings The results of our estimations show clearly that good health, high educational attainment/high-skilled jobs, good psychosocial work environment, employment status (to be self-employed), personality traits (extraversion, openness to experience and conscientiousness) as well as industrial sectors (agriculture, healthcare and transport) are strong predictors of the continuation of work after the standard retirement age (65 years old). Originality/value To the best of the authors' knowledge, the paper is the first attempt in Sweden to analyse jointly a large range of factors influencing the decision to remain in the labour force after the standard/normal pension age, including psychosocial working conditions and personality traits.

  • 4.
    Anxo, Dominique
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Ericson, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Jolivet, Annie
    Working longer in European countries: underestimated and unexpected effects2012In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 612-628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to analyse the main evolutions and the current situation of the 50-74 year olds on the labour market in eight European countries (Denmark France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Sweden, Poland and the UK). Design/methodology/approach - Based on a cross-country comparative approach, this overview draws on detailed analysis of the situation of older workers and public policies in each of the selected countries but also on a wide range of available studies and statistics on employment and welfare outcomes. Findings - The eight selected countries display similarities: a u-shaped pattern of employment rates of older workers (55-64 years old) over the last 40 years, with an increase since the mid 1990s, the later exit of higher educated workers and the higher prevalence of non-standard employment contracts among older workers. On the other hand, considerable disparities can be observed regarding the gender gap in employment rate, current employment rates, self-employment and part-time employment among older workers. Social implications - Specific questions will be more acute with the effective postponement of retirement: increasing inequalities between groups of older workers, increasing uncertainty about the age of retirement, the way to keep lower educated workers in their jobs, sustainable working conditions, increasing risks of age discrimination, and impact of care of older relatives. Originality/value - This paper offers a synthetic overview with a special attention paid to the main features of the countries' exit patterns at the end of the working life, the prevailing public policies and the specificity of the different national employment and societal models.

  • 5.
    Behrenz, Lars
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Althin, Rikard
    Efficiency and productivity of employment offices:: evidence from Sweden2005In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 196-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This paper aims to measure the efficiency and productivity of Swedish employment offices.

    Design/methodology/approach – Using four inputs, five outputs, and two quality attributes the efficiency and productivity of 253 Swedish employment offices are evaluated using models of relative technical efficiency and Malmquist productivity indices. The results are computed as solutions to linear programming problems for the 1992-1995 periods.

    Findings – Results of the study find that the mean efficiency across offices varies between 74 and 78 percent. The mean productivity change demonstrates a decrease of 11 percent during the 1992-1993 period, and an increase of 7 and 13 percents during 1993-1994 and 1994-1995 respectively.

    Research limitations/implications – Different background characteristics of job seekers could possibly bias the result for some of the offices. Further research could use a dynamic model where different job seeker characteristics are taken into consideration.

    Practical implications – The paper provides an opportunity for inefficient/low productivity offices to study how offices identified as more efficient are producing their services.

    Originality/value – This paper demonstrates how efficiency and productivity could be measured in a multi-input, multi-output employment office service sector setting where quality aspects are allowed to play a part.

  • 6.
    Bergemann, Annette
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Caliendo, Marco
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Zimmermann, Klaus F.
    The threat effect of participation in active labor market programs on job search behavior of migrants in Germany2011In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 32, no 7, p. 777-795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Labor market programs may affect unemployed individuals' behavior before they enroll. The aim of this paper is to study whether such ex ante effects differ according to ethnic origin.

    Design/methodology/approach - The authors apply a method that relates self-reported perceived treatment rates and job search behavioral outcomes, such as the reservation wage or search intensity, to each other. German native workers are compared with migrants with a Turkish origin or Central and Eastern European (including Russian) background. Job search theory is used to derive theoretical predictions. The ex ante effect of the German active labor market program (ALMP) system is examined using the novel IZA Evaluation Data Set which includes self-reported assessments of the variables of interest as well as an unusually detailed amount of information on behavior, attitudes and past outcomes.

    Findings - It is found that the ex ante threat effect on the reservation wage and search effort varies considerably among the groups considered.

    Originality/value - The study is the first to investigate whether migrants and natives react similarly to the expectation of participating in an ALMP, and whether migrants of different regions of origin react similarly or not.

  • 7. Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Reshid, Abdulaziz Abrar
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Neighborhood signaling effects, commuting time, and employment: Evidence from a field experiment2018In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 534-549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether there is unequal treatment in hiring depending on whether a job applicant signals living in a bad (deprived) neighborhood or in a good (affluent) neighborhood.

    Design/methodology/approach - The authors conducted a field experiment where fictitious job applications were sent to employers with an advertised vacancy. Each job application was randomly assigned a residential address in either a bad or a good neighborhood. The measured outcome is the fraction of invitations for a job interview (the callback rate).

    Findings - The authors find no evidence of general neighborhood signaling effects. However, job applicants with a foreign background have callback rates that are 42 percent lower if they signal living in a bad neighborhood rather than in a good neighborhood. In addition, the authors find that applicants with commuting times longer than 90 minutes have lower callback rates, and this is unrelated to the neighborhood signaling effect.

    Originality/value - Empirical evidence of causal neighborhood effects on labor market outcomes is scant, and causal evidence on the mechanisms involved is even more scant. The paper provides such evidence.

  • 8.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Reshid, Abdulaziz
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Neighborhood signaling effects, commuting time, and employment: evidence from a field experiment2018In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 534-549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    We investigate whether there is unequal treatment in hiring depending on whether a job applicant signals living in a bad (deprived) neighborhood or in a good (affluent) neighborhood.

    Design/methodology/approach

    We conducted a field experiment where fictitious job applications were sent to employers with an advertised vacancy. Each job application was randomly assigned a residential address in either a bad or a good neighborhood. The measured outcome is the fraction of invitations for a job interview (the callback rate).

    Findings

    We find no evidence of general neighborhood signaling effects. However, job applicants with a foreign background have callback rates that are 42 percent lower if they signal living in a bad neighborhood rather than in a good neighborhood. In addition, we find that applicants with commuting times longer than 90 minutes have lower callback rates, and this is unrelated to the neighborhood signaling effect.

    Originality/value

    Empirical evidence of causal neighborhood effects on labor market outcomes is scant, and causal evidence on the mechanisms involved is even more scant. We provide such evidence.

  • 9. De Jong, Jeroen
    et al.
    De Cuyper, Nele
    De Witte, Hans
    Silla, Inmaculada
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Motives for accepting temporary employment: A typology2009In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 237-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This paper aims to offer a typology of temporary workers, based on their motives for accepting their work arrangement, which includes voluntary, involuntary and stepping-stone motives, and relate this typology to various individual and work-related variables. Design/methodology/approach – Latent class analysis of 645 European workers was used to construct a typology of temporary workers. Variation of individual and work-related variables between types of temporary workers was analyzed using ANOVA. Findings – The analyses suggest that there are three types of workers: involuntary temporary workers highlight the involuntary motive and the stepping-stone motive; the stepping-stone type stresses the stepping-stone motive only, and the non-involuntary group disagrees with all three motives. Moreover, the groups differed significantly on important work-related variables such as occupational position, tenure, employability, and work-involvement. However, differences in individual variables were limited. Research limitations/implications – The research puts forward a more complex typology of temporary workers than is usually suggested. Moreover, the study shows a non-involuntary group for which temporary employment can become a trap, and hence these workers should be targeted by future policy and interventions. Originality/value – The research offers a typology of temporary workers, which is founded on motivation theory, and existing research on motives for accepting temporary employment.

  • 10.
    Eliason, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Assistant and auxiliary nurses in crisis times Earnings, employment, and income effects of female job loss in the Swedish public sector2014In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 1159-1184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the earnings, employment and income effects of job displacement among female assistant and auxiliary nurses - two hard-hit female-dominated occupations - in Sweden during the economic crisis of the 1990s. Design/methodology/approach - Using register data, assistant and auxiliary nurses who were displaced due to mass-layoffs during the crisis years were identified, as well as an appropriate control group. The study population could be followed for a maximum of 13 years. Mean effects were estimated using a propensity score weighted fixed effect estimator. In a supplementary analysis, propensity score weighted quantile effects were estimated. Findings - Job loss among women in the public sector seems to have had similar earnings and employment consequences as previously found for job loss among men in the private sector. However, the social insurance system replaced a majority of the lost earnings. Moreover, a distributional analysis revealed that the income and earnings losses were limited to the lower part of the distributions. Social implications - Budget consolidation measures to restore health to public finances in the aftermath of the Great Recession are likely to have long-lasting adverse consequences for some. Although many of those losing their jobs are likely to quickly regain employment at a comparable earnings level, the unlucky few may bear most of the costs. Originality/value - The author is aware of no previously published research that has investigated either the impact of job displacement in the public sector or the distributional effect of job displacement.

  • 11.
    Forde, Chris
    et al.
    Leeds University Business School, United Kingdom.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    Leeds University Business School, United Kingdom.
    Employers’ use of low-skilled migrant workers: Assessing the implications for human resource management2009In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 437-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the implications for HRM of employers’ use of migrants in low-skilled work in a UK-based firm. Is the use of migrant workers for low skilled work associated with "soft" or "hard" approaches to HRM? How do employers recruit migrant workers? What career progression paths are available to these workers in firms? What are the expectations and aspirations of migrant workers? Design/methodology/approach - The paper examines these issues through a case study of a UK-based employer using large numbers of migrant workers. The paper draws on data from a survey of migrant workers in the firm conducted in 2006, and from interviews with managers and migrant workers within this firm, conducted between 2005 and 2006. Findings - The paper highlights the "hard" HRM strategy pursued by the company in order to maintain a competitive advantage based on low labour costs and substitutability of workers. A contradiction is noted between the desire of the firm to retain migrant workers with a strong work ethic and gain high commitment, on the one hand, and their continued attempt to compete on the basis on minimal labour costs and follow a "hard" approach to HRM, on the other. Practical implications - The paper points to the importance of analysis of employers’ use of migrants and the strategies they are adopting towards using these workers. Developing an understanding of these strategies is critical to understanding the social and economic experiences of migrant workers. Originality/value - The paper combines qualitative and quantitative research through an intensive case study to illuminate the implications for HRM of employers’ use of migrants in low-skilled jobs. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 12.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Predicted earnings and the propensity for self-employment - evidence from Sweden2009In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 349-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of the predicted earnings differential between self-employment and wage-employment on self-employment propensities in Sweden using a large data set from the year 2003.

    Design/methodology/approach – The analysis in the paper is based on the presumption that the individual chooses to work in either the self-employed or the wage-employed sector. The separate earnings functions for the self-employed and the wage-employed are estimated in order to predict an individual's earnings in each sector. In order to overcome selectivity problems a Heckman approach is used at this stage. Finally, a structural probit model, where the difference in predicted earnings from the two sectors is included as an independent variable, is estimated.

    Findings – The main result is that the predicted differential between self-employment and wage-employment earnings plays an important role for the self-employment decision and that an increase in this earnings differential will lead to a higher self-employment rate and to an increase in total employment in Sweden.

    Originality/value – The policy relevance of this question is evident since previous research has shown that self-employed individuals do not only create jobs for themselves but also for others. Thus, an increase in the earnings from self-employment relative to the earnings from wage-employment will increase the self-employment rate as well as total employment.

  • 13. Hammarstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Immigrants' relative earnings in Sweden: A quantile regression approach2007In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 456-473Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Löfmark, Monika Hjeds
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Nationalekonomi.
    Search strategies of the unemployed in the Russian Federation2008In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 523-538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of job search and human capital of the unemployed in the Russian Federation for obtaining a job the following year.

  • 15.
    Månsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Elg, Ulf
    Lunds universitet.
    Jonnergård, Karin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Gender-based career differences among young auditors in Sweden2013In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 572-583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to examine whether or not gender-related differences affect the likelihood of promotion. Design/methodology/approach - The research is done on a unique dataset on the Swedish audit industry, an industry with a well-defined and well-known career ladder. We apply an ordered probit model to take all steps in the career ladder into consideration simultaneously. Findings - Females are on average less likely to be promoted. Separate regressions for males and females identified that the estimated promotion probability increases for males as an effect of having a child, but decreases more for males than females if males are highly involve in the care of these children. Thus, females who are involved in childcare are penalised by lower probability of promotion; however, males who are highly involved in childcare have much more to lose in terms of promotion than females do. For a family, this becomes a question of how to lose the least. Originality/value - Having access to unique data, from a policy perspective our study gives some new insight into the uneven distribution between genders of career interruptions related to childcare.

  • 16.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ethnic concentration and economic outcomes of natives and second-generation immigrants2016In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 157-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the link between childhood neighbourhood ethnic composition and short- and long-run economic outcomes of second-generation immigrants and natives in Sweden.

    Design/methodology/approach

    We use Swedish longitudinal register data and apply regression analysis methods to investigate the correlation between three ethnic neighbourhood variables(share of immigrants, share of immigrants with the same ethnic background and share of immigrants with other descent) in childhood with short- and long-run economic outcomes (earnings, unemployment, reliance on social assistance and educational attainment).

    Findings

    The results show that second-generation immigrants raised in immigrant-dense neighbourhoods have a lower probability to continue to higher education, whereas, their earnings, unemployment and social assistance tendencies are unaffected. On the contrary, natives' earnings and educational attainment are negatively correlated with, and the probability of social assistance and unemployment are positively associated with a high immigrant concentration. Moreover, the social assistance and unemployment of non-Nordic second-generation immigrants appears to be negatively correlated with the neighbourhood share of co-ethnics and positively correlated with the neighbourhood proportion of other ethnic groups. Overall, we find that the results are very similar in the short- and long-run.

    Originality/value

    This paper expands the literature on children and ethnic segregation and in contrast to earlier research in this context, it focuses on second-generation immigrants and their performance in comparison to natives. This study contributes to this research area by investigating a large variety of outcomes, looking at both immigrant, own-ethnic group and other-ethnic group concentration and including both short- and long-run correlations.

  • 17.
    Ohlsson, Henry
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Storrie, Donald
    Long-term effects of public policy for displaced workers in Sweden: Shipyard workers in the west and miners in the north2012In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 514-538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to study the long-term effects of policy measures for displaced workers. The focus is on the individuals affected by the closure of the Uddevalla Shipyard in western Sweden in 1,985 and the cutbacks at the LKAB mines in northern Sweden in 1983.

    Design/methodology/approach - These workers not only experienced job loss, but were also target groups for extraordinary labour market policies. Using register data from Statistics Sweden (labour market status, earnings, education etc.), the authors follow those affected until 1999, comparing their experiences with the development of a large sample of other workers who lost their jobs because of plant closures in 1987-1988 but who did not receive extraordinary measures.

    Findings - Estimations of the net effect of the extraordinary measures find that they did have positive long-term effects for the displaced shipyard workers and miners. They have higher employment, not higher unemployment, and higher earnings than the comparison group.

    Originality/value - The authors are not aware of any previous research on the effects of labour market policy addressing displacement in the long term.

  • 18.
    Pettersson, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Instead of bowling alone?: Unretirement of pensioners in Sweden2014In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 35, no 7, p. 1016-1037Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to study the re-entry to the workforce of fully retired persons (unretirement) and whether the decision to resume work depends primarily on social or economic reasons.

     Design/methodology/approach - Using Swedish register data for already retired individuals older than 55, the incidence of unretirement is studied. Determinant factors behind the decision to re-enter the labor force is analyzed in a binary response logit model. 

    Findings - Unretirement varies between 6 and 14 percent under two different definitions. We find support for higher pension income to decrease the probability to unretire. Other determinants, such as marital status, largely support an interpretation that unretirement is a life-style decision rather than a response to an experienced negative economic situation post retirement. 

    Research limitations/implications - Due to data limitations, the focus in this study is on the extensive margin (the event of returning to the labor force) and not on hours of work post re-entry. 

    Social implications - If older persons that are physically able to work also want to work and succeed in finding work when they demand so, unretirement is welfare enhancing. However, if unretirement is an effect of unexpected realizations post retirement, any increase in the number of persons facing such unexpected shocks implies an increase in the uncertainty of life as retired. 

    Originality/value - Research on unretirement is scarce and has previously been performed exclusively on US survey data. Knowing the determinants of unretirement is important to know if and how incentives to unretire should be designed.

  • 19.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Agerström, Jens
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Implicit Prejudice and Ethnic Minorities:  Arab-Muslims in Sweden2009In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 30, no 1/2, p. 43-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The aim of this paper is to examine whether Swedish employers implicitly/automatically hold negative attitudes toward Arab-Muslims, an ethnic minority group subjected to substantial labor market discrimination in Sweden and, more specifically, associate members of this minority group with lower work productivity, as compared with native Swedes.

    Design/methodology/approach – Adapted versions of the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwaldet al., 1998) designed to measure implicit attitudes and productivity stereotypes toward Arab-Muslims were used. Corresponding explicit measures were administered.

    Findings – The results clearly show that employers have stronger negative implicit attitudes toward Arab-Muslims relative to native Swedes as well as implicitly perceiving Arab-Muslims to be less productive than native Swedes. Notably, the explicit measures reveal much weaker negative associations.

    Practical implications – Since Arab-Muslims are automatically perceived as being less productive, the present findings suggest that negative implicit productivity stereotypes could have significant effects on labor market outcomes, such as when employers make hiring decisions. Given that many hiring decisions are presumably based on “gut-feelings”, implicit attitudes and stereotypes, more so than their explicit counterparts, may exert a substantial impact on how employers contemplate and make decisions regarding human resources.

    Originality/value – Whereas traditional research has focused on self-conscious, explicit work-related attitudes toward various ethnic minority groups, the study offers a novel approach to understanding work-related prejudice

  • 20.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Employment effects of union-bargained minimum wages: evidence from Sweden’s retail sector2015In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 694-710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of collectively agreed increases in minimum wages for manual workers on employment transitions and hours.

    Design/methodology/approach– The econometric approach relies on the identification of workers affected by minimum wage changes, depending on their position in the wage distribution and contrasts outcomes for these workers to those for unaffected workers, with slightly higher wages.

    Findings– The analysis suggests that separations increase as minimum wages increase and that substitution between worker groups in response to changes in minimum wages is important in retail. In general, though, hours do not change much as minimum wages increase.

    Research limitations/implications– Analyses that deal with employment consequences of increasing minimum wages but disregard hours may exaggerate the overall decline in employment to the extent that job losses are concentrated among low-paid, part-time workers.

    Practical implications– With union-bargained minimum wages, unions and employers need to carefully consider the effects of increasing rates on employment.

    Social implications– The findings that there is a trade-off between higher wages among the low-paid and employment loss and that employment to some extent is reshuffled between individuals should be important from a welfare perspective.

    Originality/value– The literature on employment effects of minimum wages is large, but very few studies are concerned with union-bargained minimum wages. The assumptions of the econometric model are tested in a novel way by imposing fictitious minimum wages on lower-level non-manuals in the same industry, with turnover characteristics similar to those of manuals but covered by a different collective agreement with non-binding actual minimum wages.

  • 21. Skedinger, Per
    et al.
    Widerstedt, Barbro
    Cream skimming in employment programmes for the disabled?: Evidence from Sweden2007In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 28, no 8, p. 694-714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to analyse recruitment to sheltered employment for the disabled, with particular attention to cream skimming, i.e. whether the most able candidates are picked by programme organisers.

    Design/methodology/approach– In this paper recruitment practices and incentive structures at the state‐owned Samhall company, Sweden's main provider of sheltered employment, are discussed. An econometric analysis is performed on a random sample of 10,000 unemployed individuals, exploring the quality of the data on disability and the determinants of recruitment to the company. The findings regarding recruitment are related to Samhall's objectives.

    Findings– The findings in this paper regarding cream skimming is mixed; the prioritised groups, i.e. individuals with intellectual or psychic disabilities, are more likely to be hired than some, but not all, disability groups. Individuals without disabilities tend to be recruited by the company, which suggests creaming and is contrary to the guidelines.

    Research limitations/implications– The paper sees that the fact that disability tends to be difficult to define should be taken into account when recruitment practices to employment programmes for the disabled are analysed.

    Practical implications– The paper found that objectives and screening procedures in employment programmes for the disabled should be assessed carefully in order to avoid excessive cream skimming.

    Originality/value– The paper shows that most studies on cream skimming do not consider programmes for the disabled, although the potential for harmful cream skimming may be larger than in mainstream programmes. Unlike previous studies the role of disability characteristics for recruitment is explicitly taken into account and these are related to programme objectives.

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