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  • 1.
    Bergman, Daniel
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Hansson-Hamlin, Helene
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ström Holst, Bodil
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Investigation of interference from canine anti-mouse antibodies in hormone immunoassays.2019In: Veterinary clinical pathology, ISSN 0275-6382, E-ISSN 1939-165XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Canine anti-mouse antibodies are a potential source of immunoassay interference, but erroneous immunoassay results are not always easily identifiable. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a marker for the presence of gonads in dogs, but elevated AMH concentrations in neutered dogs could also be caused by antibody interference. For other assays, a discrepant result obtained after antibody precipitation might indicate antibody interference.

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate if canine anti-mouse antibodies are a source of erroneous results in the AMH assay and if antibody precipitation with polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a useful tool for detecting antibody interference in a variety of immunoassays used in the veterinary clinical laboratory.

    METHODS: Twenty-nine positive and 25 negative samples for anti-mouse antibodies were analyzed for AMH, canine total thyroxine (TT4 ), canine thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and progesterone before and after treatment with PEG. Results that differed by more than four SDs from the intra-assay coefficients of variation were considered discrepant. Elevated AMH concentrations in neutered dogs with anti-mouse antibodies and no visible gonads present were considered evidence of interference.

    RESULTS: Evidence of antibody interference was found in two samples analyzed for AMH. The presence of anti-mouse antibodies did not lead to a higher proportion of discrepant results after PEG treatment for any of the immunoassays. The overall incidence of discrepant results for healthy controls was very high (73%).

    CONCLUSIONS: Canine anti-mouse antibodies are a source of erroneous AMH results. Antibody precipitation with PEG is not a useful tool for detecting interference caused by such antibodies.

  • 2.
    Bergman, Daniel
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Hansson-Hamlin, Helene
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Svensson, Anna
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Holst, Bodil Ström
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Prevalence of interfering antibodies in dogs and cats evaluated using a species-independent assay.2018In: Veterinary clinical pathology, ISSN 0275-6382, E-ISSN 1939-165X, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 205-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Interfering antibodies in human serum and plasma are known to react with mammalian antibodies in immunoassays and cause false-positive test results. Although this phenomenon was recently shown in companion animals, knowledge regarding immunoassay interference in veterinary medicine is very limited.

    OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to set up a species-independent immunoassay procedure to detect interference in serum samples, to screen for interference in a cross-section of canine and feline patient samples from an animal hospital, and to determine if the detected interference could be neutralized using an immunoassay based on nonmammalian reagents.

    METHODS: A 2-site sandwich-type interference assay was set up using commercially available mouse reagents. A total of 369 serum samples from 320 dogs and 263 samples from 218 cats were analyzed using the interference assay. Multiple samples were submitted from 36 dogs and 39 cats. Nineteen samples identified as interference-positive were analyzed in an assay using chicken antibodies.

    RESULTS: Interference was detected in samples from 28 dogs (9%) and 10 cats (5%) screened with the interference assay. Except for 1 cat, consistent results were obtained for all 75 dogs and cats that submitted more than 1 sample. The interference was eliminated when analyzed in the chicken-based assay (P < .001).

    CONCLUSIONS: Substances with reactivity toward mouse IgG can be detected in serum samples from dog and cat patients using a 2-site interference assay. The detected substances are most likely interfering antibodies, possibly originating from immunization with other mammalian species.

  • 3. Hansson-Hamlin, Helene
    et al.
    Rönnelid, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Clinical Immunology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Detection of antinuclear antibodies by the Inno-Lia ANA update test in canine systemic rheumatic disease2010In: Veterinary clinical pathology, ISSN 0275-6382, E-ISSN 1939-165X, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 215-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Certain systemic autoimmune diseases in dogs are characterized by high titers of circulating antinuclear antibodies (ANA), which can be demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF). In an earlier study of IIF-ANA-positive dogs, the Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion (DID) test was used to identify specific autoantibodies. The DID test has largely been replaced with line blot tests in human diagnostic settings. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate whether the line blot assay Inno-Lia ANA update test is a useful tool in demonstrating ANA specificities in canine patients with previously diagnosed IIF-ANA-positive rheumatic disorders. Methods: Serum samples from 3 clinically healthy control dogs and 20 canine patients with clinical signs of systemic rheumatic disease and documented positive results for IIF-ANA and DID tests were included in the study. The Inno-Lia ANA update assay was performed with an anti-canine detection antibody. Results: Six serum samples that had DID positivity with anti-spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNP) reactivity showed reactivity to multiple snRNP proteins in the Inno-Lia test. Samples from 2 dogs that had other types of DID positivity also had clear SmB reactivity and 1 had weak reactivity to RNP-70K. The other serum samples, including controls, were negative. Conclusions: Using the Inno-Lia ANA update test, multiple snRNP specificities were demonstrated in some canine patients with autoimmune rheumatic disorders. Other canine autoantibodies may exist that are not detected by this test. Further studies are necessary to characterize the target antigen(s) of these remaining autoantibodies in canine sera.

  • 4. Holst, Bodil S.
    et al.
    Kushnir, Mark M.
    Bergquist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for analysis of endogenous steroids in the luteal phase and early pregnancy in dogs: a pilot study2015In: Veterinary clinical pathology, ISSN 0275-6382, E-ISSN 1939-165X, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 552-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Blood samples from dogs are often limited in volume, only allowing few steroids to be quantified with immunoassays. In addition, immunoassays may be compromised by interferences such as anti-reagent antibodies. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) can be used for the simultaneous quantitation of several steroids. This has not been described in dogs before. Objectives The aims were to use LC-MS/MS to study steroid profiles in early pregnancy and luteal phase in dogs, and to determine if differences exist between pregnant (P) and nonpregnant (NP) dogs. Methods Nine female dogs were included, 4 during a NP luteal phase, 4 during a P luteal phase, and one during one NP and one P luteal phase. Blood samples were collected around the time of the LH surge (Day 0) and on Day 26. Serum was analyzed for 5 classes of steroids, including glucocorticoids, androgens, estrogens, pregnanes, and progestins, using LC-MS/MS methods. Results The concentration of progesterone was significantly higher on Day 26 in P than in NP bitches. Distribution of concentrations of glucocorticoids, androgens, estrogens, or pregnanes in P and NP dogs were not statistically different. The predominating glucocorticoid was cortisol, and dihydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) was the predominating androgen. Concentration of estrone was comparable to oestradiol, whereas concentrations of pregnenolone were higher than those of 17-OH pregnenolone. Conclusions Only concentration of progesterone differed between P and NP bitches, being significantly higher on Day 26 in P than in NP bitches. LC-MS/MS offers interesting possibilities for studies of canine reproductive endocrinology.

  • 5.
    Strage, Emma M.
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Theodorsson, Elvar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Strom Holst, Bodil
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Lilliehook, Inger
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Lewitt, Moira S.
    University of West Scotland, Scotland.
    Insulin-like growth factor I in cats: validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and determination of biologic variation2015In: Veterinary clinical pathology, ISSN 0275-6382, E-ISSN 1939-165X, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 542-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) measurements are used in veterinary medicine for diagnosing growth hormone disorders. IGF-I assays are subject to interference by IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP) which may not be efficiently removed by standard extraction methods. Adding excess IGF-II during analysis may improve accuracy. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to validate a commercial human IGF-I ELISA which uses excess IGF-II for feline samples and to evaluate biologic variation. Methods: Precision was determined by calculating the coefficient of variation (CV). Accuracy was determined by recovery after removal of IGFBP, addition of IGF-I, and linear dilution after the addition of IGFBP. Biologic variation was determined by repeated sampling in 7 cats. Results: There was interference by IGFBP in the high measuring range, resulting in falsely low IGF-I concentrations. This was overcome by the addition of high concentrations of IGF-II. Untreated serum had a measured/expected ratio of 98-115% compared to serum where IGFBP had been removed. Recovery after the addition of IGF-I was 83-112%. Inter and intra-assay CVs ranged from 2.4% to 5.0% which is within the minimum acceptance criteria based on biologic variation. The reference interval of IGF-I was wide (90-1207 ng/mL) and there was a significant association between body weight and ln IGF-I (P &lt; .000001). Conclusions: This human ELISA is suitable for feline samples, but interfering IGFBP can cause falsely low concentrations. It is recommended to dilute samples such that IGF-I is &lt; 28 ng/mL on the standard curve to grant for sufficient IGF-II for binding of interferent IGFBP.

  • 6.
    Tvedten, Harold W.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Univ Anim Hosp, Uppsala, Sweden.
    What is your diagnosis?: Unusual cells in feline blood2018In: Veterinary clinical pathology, ISSN 0275-6382, E-ISSN 1939-165X, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 313-314Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7. Öberg, Josefine
    et al.
    Fall, Tove
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lilliehöök, Inger
    Validation of a species-optimized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determination of serum concentrations of insulin in dogs2011In: Veterinary clinical pathology, ISSN 0275-6382, E-ISSN 1939-165X, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 66-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Measurement of canine serum insulin has relied on methods developed to measure human insulin. A species-optimized test for measurement of serum insulin in dogs is now commercially available.

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to validate the canine ELISA for determination of serum insulin concentration in dogs.

    METHODS: Precision was determined by evaluating intra- and interassay coefficient of variation (CV), and accuracy was determined by dilution and spike recovery studies. A method comparison study with samples from 34 clinically healthy dogs and 73 dogs examined for various illnesses and disorders ("patients") was performed using the canine ELISA and an ELISA for human insulin. Biologic relevance of the canine assay was evaluated by measuring insulin in samples collected from 8 healthy dogs after administration of glucagon. A stability study was preformed with 6 samples stored at 20°C, 4-8°C, and -20°C.

    RESULTS: For the canine ELISA, intra- and interassay CVs were 4.3-7.8% and 4.4-7.7%, respectively. Mean recovery after dilution was 99% and recovery after spiking with porcine insulin was 116%. The canine and human ELISAs correlated well (r(2) =.94 for healthy dogs, r(2) =.88 for patient samples). After glucagon injection serum insulin concentrations increased significantly in 8 dogs. Insulin was stable for 30 days in 6 serum samples stored at -20°C and in most samples for 8 days at 4-8°C. Insulin was stable for <3 days at room temperature (20°C).

    CONCLUSIONS: The new canine serum insulin ELISA had good precision and accuracy and correlated well with the previously used assay.

1 - 7 of 7
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