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  • 1.
    Andersson, Kent
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bang, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Marcus, Carina
    SAAB Aerosystems.
    Persson, Björn
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Sturesson, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Jensen, Eva
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Hult, Gunnar
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Military utility: A proposed concept to support decision-making2015In: Technology in society, ISSN 0160-791X, E-ISSN 1879-3274, Vol. 43, p. 23-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A concept called Military Utility is proposed for the study of the use of technology in military operations. The proposed concept includes a three-level structure representing key features and their detailed components. On basic level the Military Utility of a technical system, to a military actor, in a specific context, is a compound measure of the military effectiveness, of the assessed technical system's suitability to the military capability system and of the affordability. The concept is derived through conceptual analysis and is based on related concepts used in social sciences, the military domain and Systems Engineering. It is argued that the concept has qualitative explanatory powers and can support military decision-making regarding technology in forecasts, defense planning, development, utilization and the lessons learned process. The suggested concept is expected to contribute to the development of the science of Military-Technology and to be found useful to actors related to defense.

  • 2.
    Assefa, Getachew
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Social sustainability and social acceptance in technology assessment: a case study on energy technologies2007In: Technology in society, ISSN 0160-791X, E-ISSN 1879-3274, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 63-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses an approach for assessing indicators for the social sustainability of technical systems developed within a Swedish technology assessment tool called ORWARE. Social sustainability is approached from the perspective of one of its ingredients, namely social acceptance. The research takes the form of a case study on energy technologies conducted in the municipality of Kil in west central Sweden. Three indicators—knowledge, perception, and fear associated with four chains of energy technologies—are assessed using a questionnaire.

    The questionnaire results indicate that respondents have such a low level of information and knowledge about new energy technologies that they are unable to discriminately rank them. This was found to hamper participation in discussions and decision making about technologies for which public funds would be spent.

    The importance of assessing social indicators by engaging members of society is discussed, and an assessment approach is developed. The need to present results together with ecological and economic indicators is emphasised in order to avoid suboptimization.

  • 3. Carlsen, H.
    et al.
    Dreborg, K.H.
    Godman, Marion
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Johansson, Linda
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Wikman-Svahn, P.
    Assessing socially disruptive technological change2010In: Technology in society, ISSN 0160-791X, E-ISSN 1879-3274, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 209-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The co-evolution of society and potentially disruptive technologies makes decision guidance on such technologies difficult. Four basic principles are proposed for such decision guidance. None of the currently available methods satisfies these principles, but some of them contain useful methodological elements that should be integrated in a more satisfactory methodology. The outlines of such a methodology, multiple expertise interaction, are proposed. It combines elements from several previous methodologies, including (1) interdisciplinary groups of experts that assess the potential internal development of a particular technology; (2) external scenarios describing how the surrounding world can develop in ways that are relevant for the technology in question; and (3) a participatory process of convergence seminars, which is tailored to ensure that several alternative future developments are taken seriously into account. In particular, we suggest further development of a bottom-up scenario methodology to capture the co-evolutionary character of socio-technical development paths.

  • 4.
    Edquist, Charles
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Systems of Innovation: Theory and Policy for the Demand Side1999In: Technology in society, ISSN 0160-791X, E-ISSN 1879-3274, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 63-79Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    A note on social engineering and the public perception of technology2006In: Technology in society, ISSN 0160-791X, E-ISSN 1879-3274, Vol. 28, p. 389-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    "Social engineering" has lost its positive connotations and is now mostly used pejoratively. It is in general associated with paternalism and with simplistic application of theory, but neither of these is characteristic of engineering. It is therefore recommended that the unreflected pejorative use of the term should be discontinued. Unmotivated interference in other people's lives should be criticized for what it is, without perpetuating misunderstandings about the nature of engineering.

  • 6.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Technology and the notion of sustainability2010In: Technology in society, ISSN 0160-791X, E-ISSN 1879-3274, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 274-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some of the difficulties connected with the concept of sustainable development can be resolved if we distinguish between sustainability of different types of assets, in particular between those that pertain to technological uses and those that do not. A weak concept of sustainability is appropriate for the former and a strong concept for the latter. Furthermore, time discounting is appropriate (in the relatively short run) for the former but not for the latter. It is concluded that instead of choosing between weak and strong sustainability, the two notions should be included in the same analysis, since they are needed to account for different kinds of assets.

  • 7.
    Irandoust, Manuchehr
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business, Avdelningen för ekonomi.
    Innovations and renewables in the Nordic countries: a panel causality approach2018In: Technology in society, ISSN 0160-791X, E-ISSN 1879-3274, Vol. 54, p. 87-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most studies on the relationship between technological innovations and renewable energy consumption have focused on the role of technological innovations in the link between energy consumption and economic growth, with no deep analysis of direct causality between renewable energy and technological innovation. This study examines the direct causal relationship between technological innovation and renewables in the four Nordic countries by using the bootstrap panel Granger causality approach that accounts for both cross-sectional dependence and slope heterogeneity across countries. The results show a unidirectional causality running from technological innovations to renewable energy in Denmark and Norway, and a unidirectional causality running from renewables to innovations in Sweden and Finland. The main reasons of the divergent results could be energy mix, role of nuclear energy, the different economic structures, and role of policies. The policy implications are that technological innovations play an effective role in renewable energy consumption and renewable energy itself spurs innovations. Thus, speeding up the transition to renewable energy requires investment in technological innovations.

  • 8.
    Johansson, Sara
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Andersson, Martin
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Human capital and the structure of regional export flows2010In: Technology in society, ISSN 0160-791X, E-ISSN 1879-3274, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 230-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the influences of human capital endowments on the structure of regional export flows. Since the development of each export product is assumed to be associated with innovation activity requiring human capital inputs, the core hypothesis tested in this paper is that cross-regional variations in endowments of human capital influence the extensive margin (number of export products) rather than the intensive margin (average export value per product). The hypothesis is tested in a crossregional regression model applied to aggregate and within-industry export flows from Swedish regions. The empirical results confirm the theoretical prediction that the response of regional export flows to cross-regional variations in human capital increases the extensive margin. To the extent that the regional human capital endowment affects the intensive margin, the effect is a higher average price per export product.

  • 9. Mulder, K.
    et al.
    Kaijser, Arne
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    The dynamics of technological systems integration: Water management, electricity supply, railroads and industrialization at the Göta Älv2014In: Technology in society, ISSN 0160-791X, E-ISSN 1879-3274, Vol. 39, p. 88-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, technological innovation is often called upon to deliver solutions to the sustainable development challenges that the world faces. The integration of different technological systems is promoted as a main option for that goal. By integrating systems, waste from one system can be used as feedstock for another system, equipment can be used more efficiently by economies of scale, and/or the service that can be provided to customers, can increase.Integration of technological systems is not just a technological challenge. Systems integration creates new social interdependencies which imply that the previously unrelated systems lose part of their autonomy. Autonomy of a system is a valuable asset that allows a system some flexibility when it is confronted with changing conditions. Integration implies that institutional frameworks have to be created to balance the interests of previously unrelated actors. Moreover, the technological as well as the social complexity of an integrating system increases, which makes it harder to manage.This paper studies the process of systems integration and its related process of creating new institutional frameworks by analyzing the introduction of large scale hydropower in Western Sweden and developments that were triggered in this complex systems integration. In 1910, the first large scale hydropower station was opened in the Göta Älv river at Trollhättan. The hydropower station was close to the Gothenburg-Stockholm railway line, which was planned to be electrified. The seasonal excess of electricity was sold at a low price. This attracted industries that depended on cheap electricity, and Trollhättan became a center for metallurgical and electrochemical industry.The hydropower plant owners aimed at completely regulating the river in order to optimize power production. However, this implied that the interests of riparians, agriculture, river transport and fisheries would become subordinate to power production. Creating an institutional framework for this integration lasted 21 years.This historical analysis identifies three main elements which enabled (or impeded) systems integration. These were: spatial conditions that provided options for integration, expected efficiency gains in relation to the anticipated loss of autonomy for the integrating systems, social processes among the actors involved. Different degrees as well as different types of systems integration were discerned and the paper develops a typology of systems integration processes.

  • 10. Räsänen, Minna
    et al.
    Moberg, Ņsa
    Picha, Malin
    Borggren, Clara
    Meeting at a distance: Experiences of media companies in Sweden2010In: Technology in society, ISSN 0160-791X, E-ISSN 1879-3274, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 264-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solutions based on information and communication technology (ICT) have been put forward as a possible means to decrease greenhouse gases, e.g. through replacing travel. However, their success depends on how the ICT solutions are implemented and put into practice. This study sought to identify and discuss conditions for business meetings at a distance. Practices that facilitate and those that prevent meeting at a distance were examined in four Swedish media companies. Time and financial savings were identified as the main forces driving companies and individuals to consider meeting at a distance. Appropriate technology, infrastructure and confidence in using and handling the equipment were also necessary for meeting at a distance. Environmental considerations within the companies appeared to be a side-effect rather than a direct driver. Understanding such conditions is crucial in striving for change. It is suggested that companies consider the everyday practices their employees are engaged in and reflect on the broader context within which these practices take place.

  • 11.
    Räsänen, Minna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Picha, Malin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media (closed 20111231). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Borggren, Clara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Meeting at a distance: Experiences of media companies in Sweden2010In: Technology in society, ISSN 0160-791X, E-ISSN 1879-3274, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 264-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solutions based on information and communication technology (ICT) have been put forward as a possible means to decrease greenhouse gases, e.g. through replacing travel. However, their success depends on how the ICT solutions are implemented and put into practice. This study sought to identify and discuss conditions for business meetings at a distance. Practices that facilitate and those that prevent meeting at a distance were examined in four Swedish media companies. Time and financial savings were identified as the main forces driving companies and individuals to consider meeting at a distance. Appropriate technology, infrastructure and confidence in using and handling the equipment were also necessary for meeting at a distance. Environmental considerations within the companies appeared to be a side-effect rather than a direct driver. Understanding such conditions is crucial in striving for change. It is suggested that companies consider the everyday practices their employees are engaged in and reflect on the broader context within which these practices take place.

  • 12.
    Sanne, Johan M.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Learning from adverse events in the nuclear power industry: Organizational learning, policy making and normalization2012In: Technology in society, ISSN 0160-791X, E-ISSN 1879-3274, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 239-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nuclear power accidents repeatedly reveal that the industry has an incomplete understanding of the complex risks involved in its operation. Through analyzing the investigation of a nuclear power incident in Sweden in 2006, I show how the industry’s learning practices shape recurrent normalization of risk regulation after such surprises. Learning is shaped through institutionalized measures of sufficiency and particular “risk objects” (e.g. human factors and safety culture) created through learning from previous events. Subsequent regulatory measures are shaped through improvement scripts associated with these risk objects. These learning practices exclude alternative conceptual perspectives to understand and address safety-critical incidents. Latent risks will therefore produce similar events in the future. The article contributes to the literature on organizational learning, policy making, sensemaking and normalization in complex systems. To improve learning from incidents and regulation in high-hazard industries, social scientists and a wider circle of stakeholders should be included in the regulatory and post-incident examination processes.

  • 13.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mediators in action: Organizing sociotechnical system change2013In: Technology in society, ISSN 0160-791X, E-ISSN 1879-3274, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 267-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To extend and deepen the roles of mediators in relation to sociotechnical change, this article first suggested an analytical approach which thereafter was used for analysing two cases illustrating two Swedish mediating organizations in different sectors at different time periods: the half state-/half industry funded Research Institute for Water and Air Protection, IVL, in the 1960s and 70s; and the Swedish Urban Network Association, SUNA, in the early years of the 21st century. We found that the associated sociotechnical systems changed through the actions of mediators and their organization of time-spatial specific settings. The mediator concept contributed to our understanding of these changes through a number of visible processes of translating rather than transferring specific knowledge, by functioning as a single entrance to knowledge, by supporting the selection processes, and sometimes by bridging knowledge in unforeseen ways. Overall, the mediating actors took on roles to promote the system and encouraged actors within the system to connect and develop both the system as such.

  • 14.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    et al.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Mediators in action: Organizing sociotechnical system change2013In: Technology in society, ISSN 0160-791X, E-ISSN 1879-3274, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 267-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To extend and deepen the roles of mediators in relation to sociotechnical change, this article first suggested an analytical approach which thereafter was used for analysing two cases illustrating two Swedish mediating organizations in different sectors at different time periods: the half state-/half industry funded Research Institute for Water and Air Protection, IVL, in the 1960s and 70s; and the Swedish Urban Network Association, SUNA, in the early years of the 21st century. We found that the associated sociotechnical systems changed through the actions of mediators and their organization of time-spatial specific settings. The mediator concept contributed to our understanding of these changes through a number of visible processes of translating rather than transferring specific knowledge, by functioning as a single entrance to knowledge, by supporting the selection processes, and sometimes by bridging knowledge in unforeseen ways. Overall, the mediating actors took on roles to promote the system and encouraged actors within the system to connect and develop both the system as such.

  • 15.
    Öbrand, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Holmström, Jonny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Newman, Mike
    Alliance Manchester Business School, The University of Manchester; Turku School of Economics, The University of Turku, Finland.
    Navigating Rumsfeld's quadrants: A performative perspective on IT risk management2018In: Technology in society, ISSN 0160-791X, E-ISSN 1879-3274, Vol. 53, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we contribute to risk management theory by investigating the internal dynamics of IT risks in contemporary organizations. We explore how digitization of previously physical organizational con- texts trigger risk by conceptualizing risk management from a performative perspective and the assumption that risks are sociomaterial by nature. Through an exploratory case study of the risk man- agement practices at a paper and pulp factory, we analyze the different epistemic strategies employed by the practitioners as proactive, reactive and adaptive. We discuss how and why these strategies emerge as a result of the sociomaterial configurations. 

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