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  • 1. Abraham, N G
    et al.
    Brunner, E J
    Eriksson, J W
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Robertson, R P
    Metabolic syndrome: psychosocial, neuroendocrine, and classical risk factors in type 2 diabetes2007Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1113, s. 256-275Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article summarizes some aspects of stress in the metabolic syndrome at the psychosocial, tissue, and cellular levels. The metabolic syndrome is a valuable research concept for studying population health and social-biological translation. The cluster of cardiovascular risk factors labeled the metabolic syndrome is linked with low socioeconomic status. Systematic differences in diet and physical activity contribute to social patterning of the syndrome. In addition, psychosocial factors including chronic work stress are linked with its development. Psychosocial factors could lead to metabolic perturbations and increase cardiovascular risk via activation of neuroendocrine responses, for example, in the autonomic nervous system and in several hormonal pathways. High glucocorticoid levels will promote lipid storage in visceral rather than subcutaneous adipose tissue. Adipocytes secrete several proinflammatory cytokines, which considered major contributors to increase in oxidants and cell injury. Upregulation of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and peroxidase in the early development of diabetes produces a decrease in oxidative-mediated injury. Increased HO activity is associated with a significant decrease in superoxide, endothelial cell shedding and blood pressure. Finally, it is proposed that overexpression of glutathione peroxidase in beta cells may protect beta cell deterioration from oxidative stress during development of diabetes and hyperglycemia and this may result in attenuation of beta cell failure. If this proves to be the case, then the scene will be set to develop glutathione peroxidase mimetics for use in preclinical and clinical trials.

  • 2. Araç, Demet
    et al.
    Aust, Gabriela
    Calebiro, Davide
    Engel, Felix B
    Formstone, Caroline
    Goffinet, André
    Hamann, Jörg
    Kittel, Robert J
    Liebscher, Ines
    Lin, Hsi-Hsien
    Monk, Kelly R
    Petrenko, Alexander
    Piao, Xianhua
    Prömel, Simone
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Schwartz, Thue W
    Stacey, Martin
    Ushkaryov, Yuri A
    Wobus, Manja
    Wolfrum, Uwe
    Xu, Lei
    Langenhan, Tobias
    Dissecting signaling and functions of adhesion G protein-coupled receptors2012Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1276, nr 1, s. 1-25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise an expanded superfamily of receptors in the human genome. Adhesion class G protein-coupled receptors (adhesion-GPCRs) form the second largest class of GPCRs. Despite the abundance, size, molecular structure, and functions in facilitating cell and matrix contacts in a variety of organ systems, adhesion-GPCRs are by far the most poorly understood GPCR class. Adhesion-GPCRs possess a unique molecular structure, with extended N-termini containing various adhesion domains. In addition, many adhesion-GPCRs are autoproteolytically cleaved into an N-terminal fragment (NTF, NT, α-subunit) and C-terminal fragment (CTF, CT, β-subunit) at a conserved GPCR autoproteolysis-inducing (GAIN) domain that contains a GPCR proteolysis site (GPS). These two features distinguish adhesion-GPCRs from other GPCR classes. Though active research on adhesion-GPCRs in diverse areas, such as immunity, neuroscience, and development and tumor biology has been intensified in the recent years, the general biological and pharmacological properties of adhesion-GPCRs are not well known, and they have not yet been used for biomedical purposes. The "6th International Adhesion-GPCR Workshop," held at the Institute of Physiology of the University of Würzburg on September 6-8, 2012, assembled a majority of the investigators currently actively pursuing research on adhesion-GPCRs, including scientists from laboratories in Europe, the United States, and Asia. The meeting featured the nascent mechanistic understanding of the molecular events driving the signal transduction of adhesion-GPCRs, novel models to evaluate their functions, and evidence for their involvement in human disease.

  • 3.
    Beier, Frank
    et al.
    Institute Experimental Medicine, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.
    Lammi, Mikko
    Institute Experimental Medicine, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.
    Bertling, Wolf
    Institute for Genetics, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    von der Mark, Klaus
    Institute Experimental Medicine, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.
    Transcriptional regulation of the human type X collagen gene expression.1996Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 785, s. 209-211, artikkel-id 8702131Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 4.
    Berzina, L.
    et al.
    Department of Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Saduaskaite-Kühne, Vaiva
    Laboratory of Pediatric Endocrinology, Kaunas University of Medicine, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Nelson, Nina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Shtauvere-Brameus, A.
    Department of Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sanjeevi, C. B.
    Department of Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    DR3 is associated with type 1 diabetes and blood group ABO incompatibility2002Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 958, s. 345-348Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Type 1 diabetes is associated with autoimmunity against pancreatic β cells. ABO incompatibility is associated with ABO immunization during pregnancy. Type 1 diabetes is associated with certain HLA DR and DQ haplotypes. The mechanism by which blood group incompatibility is associated with the risk of type 1 diabetes is not known. We propose that certain HLA alleles contribute to the development of both type 1 diabetes and ABO blood group incompatibility. We studied 57 children with ABO blood group incompatibility, 118 children with type 1 diabetes, and 98 age- and sex-matched unrelated healthy controls from Linköping. Typing of HLA DQA1, DQB1, and DRB1 was done on DNA extracted from peripheral blood, by PCR amplification, manual dot-blotting onto nylon membranes, synthetic sequence-specific oligonucleotide (SSO) probe 3′ end-labeling with 32P-dCTP, and hybridization followed by stringency washes and autoradiography. We observed that DR3 allele was more frequent in patients with ABO incompatibility when compared to healthy controls (OR = 2.7, Pc < 0.05). Patients with type 1 diabetes had significantly higher frequency of DR3, DQ2, DR4, and DQ8 alleles when compared to healthy controls. No significant difference was observed in frequency of DR3 between ABO blood group incompatibility and type 1 diabetes patients. We conclude that DR3 is associated with both the development of type 1 diabetes and ABO incompatibility.

  • 5. Berzina, L
    et al.
    Shtauvere-Brameus, S
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Barn.
    Sanjeevi, CB
    Newborn screening for high-risk human leukocyte antigen markers associated with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: The ABIS study2002Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 958, s. 312-316Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus is associated with specific high-risk HLA DQ and DR haplotypes and islet cell antibodies. IDDM susceptibility in Caucasians is more strongly associated with DQ2/DQ8 (DQA1*0501-DQB1*0201/DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302) and DQ6 (B1*0604) than with DRB1*03/DRB1*04, while a single copy of DQ6 (B1*0602) gives sufficient protection against type 1 diabetes. As a part of the ABIS (All Babies in Southeast Sweden) study we have done typing of DQA1, DQB1, and DRB1 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the second exon of the genes, manually dot-blotting onto nylon membranes synthetic sequence-specific oligonucleotide (SSO) probes, 3' end-labeling with 32P-dCTP, and hybridization followed by stringency washes and autoradiography using the SSO probe. Among 3756 newborns born in southeast Sweden we have found the high-risk genotype DQ2/DR3-DO8/DR4 to be present in 1%, haplotype DQ8/DR4 in 7.8%, and haplotype DQ2/DR3 in 9.6%. DQ2/DR3 or DQ8/DR4 was carried by 16.4% of newborns, the low-risk DQ6 molecule was carried by newborns as follows: DQ2/DR3-DQ6/DR15, 1.3%, DQ8/DR4-DQ6/DR15, 1.3%, and DQ6/DR15, 9.4%. We conclude from our results that the high incidence of IDDM in Sweden is at least in part due to increased prevalence of high-risk HLA haplotypes compared to protective haplotypes (20% vs. 13%) in the general population.

  • 6.
    Brocki, Karin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Placing neuroanatomical models of executive function in a developmental context: Imaging and imaging-genetic strategies2008Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1129, s. 246-255Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Bäckström, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Andreén, Lotta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Birzniece, Vita
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Bixo, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Björn, Inger
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Haage, David
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Isaksson, Monica
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Johansson, Inga-Maj
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Lindblad, Charlott
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Lundgren, Per
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Nyberg, Sigrid
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Ödmark, Inga-Stina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Strömberg, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Sundström-Poromaa, Inger
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Turkmen, Sahruh
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Wahlström, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Wang, Mingde
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Wihlbäck, Anna-Carin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Zhu, Di
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Zingmark, Elisabeth
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Pathogenesis in menstrual cycle-linked CNS disorders.2003Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1007, s. 42-53Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 8. Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca
    et al.
    Jonell, Malin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Guerry, Anne
    Lambin, Eric F
    Morgan, Alexis J
    Pennington, Derric
    Smith, Nathan
    Franch, Jane Atkins
    Polasky, Stephen
    Ecosystem service information to benefit sustainability standards for commodity supply chains2015Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1355, s. 77-97Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing base of information about ecosystem services generated by ecologists, economists, and other scientists could improve the implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of commodity-sourcing standards being adopted by corporations to mitigate risk in their supply chains and achieve sustainability goals. This review examines various ways that information about ecosystem services could facilitate compliance with and auditing of commodity-sourcing standards. We also identify gaps in the current state of knowledge on the ecological effectiveness of sustainability standards and demonstrate how ecosystem-service information could complement existing monitoring efforts to build credible evidence. This paper is a call to the ecosystem-service scientists to engage in this decision context and tailor the information they are generating to the needs of the standards community, which we argue would offer greater efficiency of standards implementation for producers and enhanced effectiveness for standard scheme owners and corporations, and should thus lead to more sustainable outcomes for people and nature.

  • 9. Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca
    et al.
    Jonell, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Guerry, Anne
    Lambin, Eric F.
    Morgan, Alexis J.
    Pennington, Derric
    Smith, Nathan
    Franch, Jane Atkins
    Polasky, Stephen
    Ecosystem service information to benefit sustainability standards for commodity supply chains2015Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1355, s. 77-97Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing base of information about ecosystem services generated by ecologists, economists, and other scientists could improve the implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of commodity-sourcing standards being adopted by corporations to mitigate risk in their supply chains and achieve sustainability goals. This review examines various ways that information about ecosystem services could facilitate compliance with and auditing of commodity-sourcing standards. We also identify gaps in the current state of knowledge on the ecological effectiveness of sustainability standards and demonstrate how ecosystem-service information could complement existing monitoring efforts to build credible evidence. This paper is a call to the ecosystem-service scientists to engage in this decision context and tailor the information they are generating to the needs of the standards community, which we argue would offer greater efficiency of standards implementation for producers and enhanced effectiveness for standard scheme owners and corporations, and should thus lead to more sustainable outcomes for people and nature.

  • 10.
    Dircksen, Heinrich
    et al.
    University of Bonn, Germany.
    Heyn, Uwe
    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone-like peptides in crab and locust peripheral intrinsic neurosecretory cells1998Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 839, s. 392-394Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11. Do Rego, Jean-Luc
    et al.
    Seong, Jae Young
    Burel, Delphine
    Luu-The, Van
    Larhammar, Dan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi
    Pelletier, Georges
    Tonon, Marie-Christine
    Vaudry, Hubert
    Steroid biosynthesis within the frog brain: a model of neuroendocrine regulation2009Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1163, s. 83-92Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is now clear evidence that the brain, similar to the adrenal gland, gonads, and placenta, is a steroidogenic organ. Notably in the frog brain, the presence of various steroidogenic enzymes has been detected by immunohistochemistry in specific populations of neurons and/or glial cells. These steroidogenic enzymes are biologically active, as shown by the ability of brain tissue explants to convert [(3)H]pregnenolone into various radiolabeled steroids. The frog brain has also been extensively used as a model to study the mechanism of regulation of neurosteroidogenesis by neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. It has been demonstrated that the biosynthesis of neurosteroids is inhibited by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), acting through GABA(A) receptors, and neuropeptide Y, acting through Y1 receptors, and is stimulated by the octadecaneuropeptide (ODN), acting through central-type benzodiazepine receptors, triakontatetraneuropeptide (TTN), acting through peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors, and vasotocin, acting through V1a-like receptors. These data indicate that some of the neurophysiological effects of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides may be mediated through modulation of neurosteroid biosynthesis.

  • 12. Elmqvist, Thomas
    et al.
    Colding, Johan
    Barthel, Stephan
    Borgström, Sara
    Duit, Andreas
    Lundberg, Jakob
    Andersson, Erik
    Ahrné, Karin
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö.
    Folke, Carl
    Bengtsson, Janne
    The Dynamics of Social-Ecological Systems in Urban Landscapes2004Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1023, s. 308-322Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses social-ecological dynamics in the greater metropolitan area of Stockholm County, Sweden, with special focus on the National Urban Park (NUP). It is part of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) and has the following specific objectives: (1) to provide scientific information on biodiversity patterns, ecosystem dynamics, and ecosystem services generated; (2) to map interplay between actors and institutions involved in management of ecosystem services; and (3) to identify strategies for strengthening social-ecological resilience. The green areas in Stockholm County deliver numerous ecosystem services, for example, air filtration, regulation of microclimate, noise reduction, surface water drainage, recreational and cultural values, nutrient retention, and pollination and seed dispersal. Recreation is among the most important services and NUP, for example, has more than 15 million visitors per year. More than 65 organizations representing 175,000 members are involved in management of ecosystem services. However, because of population increase and urban growth during the last three decades, the region displays a quite dramatic loss of green areas and biodiversity. An important future focus is how management may reduce increasing isolation of urban green areas and enhance connectivity. Comanagement should be considered where locally managed green space may function as buffer zones and for management of weak links that connect larger green areas; for example, there are three such areas around NUP identified. Preliminary results indicate that areas of informal management represent centers on which to base adaptive comanagement, with the potential to strengthen biodiversity management and resilience in the landscape.

  • 13.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Beijer International Institute of Ecolological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Borgström, Sara
    CTM, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Duit, Andreas
    CTM, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Jakob
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Erik
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ahrné, Karin
    Department of Ecology and Crop Production Science, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Janne
    Department of Ecology and Crop Production Science, Uppsala, Sweden .
    The Dynamics of Social-Ecological Systems in Urban Landscapes2004Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1023, s. 308-322Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses social-ecological dynamics in the greater metropolitan area of Stockholm County, Sweden, with special focus on the National Urban Park (NUP). It is part of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) and has the following specific objectives: (1) to provide scientific information on biodiversity patterns, ecosystem dynamics, and ecosystem services generated; (2) to map interplay between actors and institutions involved in management of ecosystem services; and (3) to identify strategies for strengthening social-ecological resilience. The green areas in Stockholm County deliver numerous ecosystem services, for example, air filtration, regulation of microclimate, noise reduction, surface water drainage, recreational and cultural values, nutrient retention, and pollination and seed dispersal. Recreation is among the most important services and NUP, for example, has more than 15 million visitors per year. More than 65 organizations representing 175,000 members are involved in management of ecosystem services. However, because of population increase and urban growth during the last three decades, the region displays a quite dramatic loss of green areas and biodiversity. An important future focus is how management may reduce increasing isolation of urban green areas and enhance connectivity. Comanagement should be considered where locally managed green space may function as buffer zones and for management of weak links that connect larger green areas; for example, there are three such areas around NUP identified. Preliminary results indicate that areas of informal management represent centers on which to base adaptive comanagement, with the potential to strengthen biodiversity management and resilience in the landscape.

  • 14.
    Eriksson, Barbro
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Endokrin tumörbiologi.
    Bergström, Mats
    Sundin, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Juhlin, Claes
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Örlefors, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Onkologisk endokrinologi.
    Öberg, Kjell
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Onkologisk endokrinologi. onk endo.
    Långström, Bengt
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för nuklearmedicin och PET.
    The role of PET in localization of neuroendocrine and adrenocortical tumors2002Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 970, s. 159-169Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Positron emission tomography (PET) supplies a range of labeled compounds to be used for the characterization of tumor biochemistry. Some of these have proved to be of value for clinical diagnosis, treatment follow up, and clinical research. The first routinely used PET tracer in oncology, 18F-labeled deoxyglucose (FDG), was successfully used for diagnosis of cancer, reflecting increased expression of glucose transporter in cancerous tissue. This tracer, however, usually does not show sufficient uptake in well-differentiated tumors such as neuroendocrine tumors. We developed a tracer more specific to neuroendocrine tumors—the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) labeled with 11C—and demonstrated increased uptake and irreversible trapping of this tracer in carcinoid tumors. The uptake was so selective and the resolution was so high that we could detect more liver and lymph node metastases with PET than with CT or octreotide scintigraphy. To further improve the method, especially to reduce the high renal excretion of the tracer producing streaky artifacts in the area of interest, we introduced premedication by the decarboxylase inhibitor carbidopa, leading to a six-fold decreased renal excretion while the tumor uptake increased three-fold, hence improving the visualization of the tumors.

    11C-labeled l-DOPA was evaluated as an alternative tracer, especially for endocrine pancreatic tumors, which usually do not demonstrate enhanced urinary serotonin metabolites. However, only half of the EPTs, mainly functioning tumors, could be detected with l-DOPA. Instead 5-HTP seems to be a universal tracer for EPT and foregut carcinoids. With new, more sensitive PET cameras, larger field of view and procedures for whole-body coverage, the PET examination with 5-HTP is now routinely performed as reduced whole-body PET examinations with coverage of the thorax and abdomen. With this method we have been able to visualize small neuroendocrine lesions in the pancreas and thorax (e.g., ACTH-producing bronchial carcinoids) not detectable by any other method, including octreotide scintigraphy, MRI, and CT. Another tracer, the 11β-hydroxylase inhibitor, metomidate labeled with 11C, was developed to simplify diagnosis and follow-up of patients with incidentalomas. A large series of patients with incidentally found adrenal masses have been investigated and so far all lesions of adrenocortical origin have been easily identified because of exceedingly high uptake of 11C-metomidate, whereas noncortical lesions showed very low uptake. In addition, adrenocortical cancer shows high uptake, suggesting that this PET tracer can be used for staging purposes.

  • 15.
    Eriksson, Barbro
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Lilja, A
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Bjurling, Pernilla
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Bergström, M
    Lindner, Karin J
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Långström, Bengt
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för biokemi och organisk kemi.
    Öberg, Kjell
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Positron-emission tomography as a radiological technique in neuroendocrine gastrointestinal tumors1994Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 733, s. 446-452Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 16.
    Gimm, Oliver
    et al.
    Department of General, Visceral and Vascular Surgery, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, 06097 Halle/Saale, Germany.
    Krause, Ulf
    Institute of Pathology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, 06097 Halle/Saale, Germany.
    Brauckhoff, Michael
    Department of General, Visceral and Vascular Surgery, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, 06097 Halle/Saale, Germany.
    Hoang-Vu, Cuong
    Department of General, Visceral and Vascular Surgery, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, 06097 Halle/Saale, Germany.
    Dralle, Henning
    Department of General, Visceral and Vascular Surgery, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, 06097 Halle/Saale, Germany.
    Distinct expression of galectin-3 in pheochromocytomas.2006Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1073, s. 571-7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Unless distant metastases or local invasion are present, the diagnosis of malignant pheochromocytoma is challenging. Hence, biological markers are sought after and we thought to examine galectin-3 in such a role. Four malignant and 24 benign (10 sporadic, 14 hereditary) pheochromocytomas were analyzed for the expression of galectin-3. One malignant pheochromocytoma with distant metastases showed strong and one malignant undifferentiated pheochromocytoma with local invasion showed partly strong cytoplasmic staining. Nine of 10 sporadic and all hereditary benign pheochromocytomas had absent/weak staining. One benign sporadic pheochromocytoma had moderate cytoplasmic staining. The distinct expression in various types of pheochromocytomas is intriguing and requires further investigation.

  • 17.
    Grimsholm, Ola
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Guo, Yongzhi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Ny, Tor
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Reumatologi.
    Forsgren, Sture
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Are neuropeptides important in arthritis? Studies on the importance of bombesin/GRP and substance P in a murine arthritis model.2007Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1110, s. 525-538Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Interference with the effects of neuropeptides may be of potential therapeutic value for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Two neuropeptides that can be discussed in this context are bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide (BN/GRP) and substance P (SP). In order to obtain new information on the possible importance of these two peptides, the patterns of immunohistochemical expression of BN/GRP and SP and their related receptors in the mouse knee joint from healthy and arthritic mice were examined. Positive staining for GRP receptor and the SP preferred receptor (the neurokinin-1 receptor [NK-1 R]) was observed in articular chondrocytes. On the whole, there was a decrease in immunoreactions for both the GRP- and the NK-1 receptors in the articular chondrocytes in joints exhibiting severe arthritis. Staining for BN/GRP and GRP receptor was seen in the inflammatory infiltrates of the arthritic joints. New evidence for the occurrence of marked effects of BN/GRP concerning both the articular chondrocytes and the inflammatory process is obtained in this study. With these findings and previous observations of neuropeptide expression patterns and functions we discuss the possibility that interventions with the effects of BN/GRP, SP, and other neuropeptides might be worthwhile in RA.

  • 18.
    Gullberg, Elisabet
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Kirurgi.
    Söderholm, Johan D
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Kirurgi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Kirurgi- och onkologicentrum, Kirurgiska kliniken i Östergötland med verksamhet i Linköping, Norrköping och Motala.
    Peyer's patches and M cells as potential sites of the inflammatory onset in Crohn's disease2006Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1072, s. 218-232Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical observations suggest that the sites of initial inflammation in ileal Crohn's disease (CD) are the lymphoid follicles, where the aphtoid lesions originate from small erosions of the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE). Lymphoid follicles and Peyer's patches (PPs) consist of a number of B-cell follicles with intervening T cell areas. The T cell follicular area is also populated by dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages. A single layer of epithelial cells covering each follicle forms a dome between the surrounding villi. This FAE differs from normal villus epithelium in several ways that make the epithelial cells of the FAE more exposed to the luminal contents, more accessible to antigens, and in closer contact with the immune system. The most prominent feature is the presence of specialized M cells, which are optimized for antigen adherence and transport. M cells play an important role in the surveillance of the intestinal lumen, but also provide a route of entry for various pathogens. In this article we review the current knowledge on the epithelial phenotype of the human FAE, and changes of the FAE and M cells in intestinal inflammation, leading to a hypothesis of the role of the FAE and M cells in the pathogenesis of CD.

  • 19. Gupta, M
    et al.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Barn- och ungdomskliniken i Linköping.
    Sanjeevi, CB
    Frequency of MICA in all babies in southeast Sweden (ABIS) positive for high-risk HLA-DQ associated with type 1 diabetes2004Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1037, s. 138-144Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease known to occur in genetically susceptible individuals after exposure to certain unknown environmental factors. HLA-DR3-DQ2 or DR4-DQ8 are established genetic markers for the disease. MHC class I chain-related gene-A (MICA) gene polymorphism has been proposed to be associated with T1DM. To identify the environmental factors and for implementing intervention trials to prevent T1DM, it is important to screen subjects at genetically increased risk for developing T1DM. The All Babies in Southeast Sweden (ABIS) study aims to assess the risk of future progression to T1DM in the general child population. In the present report, we studied the frequency of MICA alleles among newborn babies carrying high-risk HLA DQ2 or DQ8. Of 2821 newborns, we found 563 subjects positive for DQ2, 583 subjects positive for DQ8, 133 subjects positive for DQ2-DQ8 (heterozygous), and 1013 subjects positive for either DQ2 or DQ8. Of these 1013 babies, we typed 499 babies for MICA. Frequency of MICA5 was 38% among DQ8+9 35% among for DQ2-DQ8 (heterozygous) positives, and 22.5% among DQ2+ babies. Frequency of MICA5.1 was 81% among DQ+, 62% among DQ8+, and 71% among DQ2.-DQ8 (heterozygous) positives. Frequency of MICA6 was between 20% and 22% among the three groups. Frequency of MICA5/5.1 was 19% among DQ2-DQ8 (heterozygous) positives and between 12% and 13% among those positive for DQ2, DQ89 DQ2, or DQ8. The results from genetic typing in this study would be useful, in conjunction with results from autoantibody analysis that are prospectively being followed-up in all the babies, to develop an approach for identifying children at risk for developing T1DM. Inclusion of MICA typing in addition to HLA could be useful for screening of genetic markers associated with T1DM.

  • 20.
    Gustafsson Stolt, Ulrica
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Liss, Per-Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Parents want to know if their child is at high risk of getting diabetes2003Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1005, s. 395-399Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Not least among professionals, voices have been raised against screening research projects, which have been regarded as involving a risk of being unethical as they may disturb, scare, or even harm the included people without giving enough benefit. This problem with large-scale screening should be especially pronounced if increased risk of a serious disease like type 1 diabetes is identified when no effective prevention is available, and even more problematic if children were involved. ABIS (All Babies in Southeast Sweden) is a screening project including 17,000 newborn babies in the general population, followed prospectively to identify children at risk to get diabetes, and to study the influence of environmental factors causing the disease process. Four hundred randomly selected ABIS families received a questionnaire on attitudes and ethical questions regarding the project to be answered anonymously: 293/400 (73.3%) answered; 279/293 (95.3%) stated that they regarded it their right to be informed of results in the study and 278/293 (94.9%) said they really want to know. In fact, 254/293 (86.7%) report wanting to know if their child has increased risk of getting diabetes even if there is no preventive measure available. This clear result supports the view that this type of study may well be ethically justified as long as informed consent can be given based on adequate understanding and voluntariness. The results may have implications for the design of future screening studies.

  • 21.
    Haitina, Tatjana
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap. Farmakologi 3.
    Klovins, Janis
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap. Farmakologi 3.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap. Farmakologi 3.
    Pharmacological characterization of melanocortin receptors in fish suggests an important role for ACTH2005Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1040, nr Apr, s. 337-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: The melanocortin (MC) receptor subtypes have distinctive characteristic binding profiles. We found that the trout and Fugu MC4 receptors have similar affinity for α-MSH and β-MSH and a much higher affinity for ACTH than does the human MC4 receptor. The Fugu MC1 and the trout and Fugu MC5 receptors also have higher affinity for ACTH-derived peptides than α-, β-, or γ-MSH. It is tempting to speculate that ACTH-derived peptides may have played an important role as “original” ligands at the MC receptors, while the specificity of the different subtypes for the α-, β-, and γ-MSH peptides may have appeared at later stages during vertebrate evolution.

  • 22. Hanson, Lars A
    et al.
    Korotkova, Marina
    Lundin, Samuel
    Håversen, Liljana
    Silfverdal, Sven-Arne
    Mattsby-Baltzer, Inger
    Strandvik, Birgitta
    Telemo, Esbjörn
    The transfer of immunity from mother to child.2003Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 987, s. 199-206Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The newborn's immune system grows fast from a small size at birth by exposure primarily to the intestinal microflora normally obtained from the mother at and after birth. While building up its immune system, the infant is supported by the transplacental IgG antibodies, which also contain anti-idiotypic antibodies, possibly also actively priming the offspring. The second mode of transfer of immunity occurs via the milk. Numerous major protective components, including secretory IgA (SIgA) antibodies and lactoferrin, are present. The breastfed infant is better protected against numerous common infections than the non-breastfed. Breastfeeding also seems to actively stimulate the infant's immune system by anti-idiotypes, uptake of milk lymphocytes, cytokines, etc. Therefore, the breastfed child continues to be better protected against various infections for some years. Vaccine responses are also often enhanced in breastfed infants. Long-lasting protection against certain immunological diseases such as allergies and celiac disease is also noted.

  • 23.
    Haugaard-Kedström (published under the name Haugaard-Jönsson), Linda M.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Hossain, M. Akhter
    Daly, Norelle L.
    Bathgate, Ross A.D.
    Wade, John D.
    Craik, David J.
    Rosengren, K. Johan
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Structural Properties of Relaxin Chimeras: NMR Characterization of the R3/I5 Relaxin Peptide2009Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1160, s. 27-30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Relaxin-3 interacts with high potency with three relaxin family peptide receptors (RXFP1, RXFP3, and RXFP4). Therefore, the development of selective agonist and antagonist analogs is important for in vivo studies characterizing the biological significance of the different receptor-ligand systems and for future pharmaceutical applications. Recent reports demonstrated that a peptide selective for RXFP3 and RXFP4 over RXFP1 can be generated by the combination of the relaxin-3 B chain with the A chain from insulin-like peptide 5 (INSL5), creating an R3/I5 chimera. We have used NMR spectroscopy to determine the three-dimensional structure of this peptide to gain structural insights into the consequences of combining chains from two different relaxins. The R3/I5 structure reveals a similar backbone conformation for the relaxin-3 B chain compared to native relaxin-3, and the INSL5 A chain displays a relaxin/insulin-like fold with two parallel helices. The findings indicate that binding and activation of RXFP3 and RXFP4 mainly require the B chain and that the A chain functions as structural support. RXFP1, however, demonstrates a more complex binding mechanism, involving both the A chain and the B chain. The creation of chimeras is a promising strategy for generating new structure-activity data on relaxins.

  • 24.
    Johansson, AnnaKarin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Omvårdnad. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Hermansson, Göran
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Barn- och ungdomskliniken i Linköping.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Barn- och ungdomskliniken i Linköping.
    Tobacco Exposure and Diabetes-Related Autoantibodies in Children Results from the ABIS Study2008Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1150, s. 197-199Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Passive smoking has decreased in recent years ("increased hygiene"). Less environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) gives increased hygiene that, if the hygiene hypothesis is true, in turn might give more autoimmune diseases. The presence of auto antibodies is considered to be an early indicator of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Because tobacco exposure may influence the immune system, we analyzed the relation between passive smoking and development of autoantibodies. A subsample (n = 8794) of the children in the ABIS study was used for this analysis. The parents answered questionnaires on smoking from pregnancy and onwards, and blood samples from the children aged 2.5-3 years were analyzed for GADA and IA-2A. Results showed that there was no significant difference in the prevalence of GADA or IA-2A (> 95 percentile) between tobacco-exposed and nonexposed children. It was concluded that passive smoking does not seem to influence development of diabetes-related autoantibodies early in life.

  • 25.
    Johansson, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Norrgård, Örjan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Forsgren, Sture
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Are neurotrophins important in ulcerative colitis?2007Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1107, s. 290-299Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Neurotrophins are known to have growth, survival-promoting, and healing effects. The importance of neurotrophins in ulcerative colitis (UC) is, however, unclear. Recent studies in our group revealed that an occurrence of marked changes in neurotrophin expression patterns was related to a worsening of the disease process. There was thus an upregulation for the lamina propria cells but a downregulation in nerve structures concerning neurotrophin expressions in severe UC. The observations show that changes in the neurotrophin system are a part of the disease process in UC and are of interest as treatments interfering with neurotrophin effects in other situations have been found to have trophic and healing effects.

  • 26.
    Jönsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Norrgård, Orjan
    Hansson, Magnus
    Forsgren, Sture
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Decrease in binding for the neuropeptide VIP in response to marked inflammation of the mucosa in ulcerative colitis2007Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1107, s. 280-289Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is involved in the neuroimmunomodulation of the intestine. In the present study, specimens from the sigmoid colon of ulcerative colitis (UC) and non-UC patients were examined for immunohistochemistry and in vitro receptor autoradiography. Marked occurrence of VIP binding was observed in the mucosa. However, there were very low levels of binding in areas showing pronounced inflammation/derangement. The study shows that marked derangement of the mucosa leads to a distinct decrease in VIP binding. Thus, it is possible that a decrease in trophic and anti-inflammatory VIP effects occurs in areas exhibiting a very marked inflammation.

  • 27.
    Kapusta, Aurelie
    et al.
    Univ Utah, Sch Med, Dept Human Genet, Salt Lake City, UT 84132 USA..
    Suh, Alexander
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Evolution of bird genomes-a transposon's-eye view2017Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1389, nr 1, s. 164-185Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Birds, the most species-rich monophyletic group of land vertebrates, have been subject to some of the most intense sequencing efforts to date, making them an ideal case study for recent developments in genomics research. Here, we review how our understanding of bird genomes has changed with the recent sequencing of more than 75 species from all major avian taxa. We illuminate avian genome evolution from a previously neglected perspective: their repetitive genomic parasites, transposable elements (TEs) and endogenous viral elements (EVEs). We show that (1) birds are unique among vertebrates in terms of their genome organization; (2) information about the diversity of avian TEs and EVEs is changing rapidly; (3) flying birds have smaller genomes yet more TEs than flightless birds; (4) current second-generation genome assemblies fail to capture the variation in avian chromosome number and genome size determined with cytogenetics; (5) the genomic microcosm of bird-TE "arms races" has yet to be explored; and (6) upcoming third-generation genome assemblies suggest that birds exhibit stability in gene-rich regions and instability in TE-rich regions. We emphasize that integration of cytogenetics and single-molecule technologies with repeat-resolved genome assemblies is essential for understanding the evolution of (bird) genomes.

  • 28. Keim, Paul
    et al.
    Johansson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Wagner, David M
    Molecular epidemiology, evolution, and ecology of Francisella.2007Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1105, s. 30-66Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tularemia is a disease caused by several subspecies of Francisella tularensis, although the severity of the disease varies greatly from subspecies to subspecies. Currently, there are four recognized subspecies (tularensis, holarctica, mediasiatica, and novicida), in addition to a second Francisella species, F. philomiragia. It is clear from molecular sampling of the environment that these human pathogens are a mere fraction of the Francisella diversity. Taxonomic nomenclature is now being based upon several DNA-sequence-based approaches and this advance provides for robust phylogenetic models that are guiding the systematics of this genus. This in turn allows for better molecular epidemiological investigations and more precise ecological analysis. Tularemia ecology is still only partially understood, with many knowledge gaps about the disease reservoir and vectors. Molecular analysis has identified a major population split within F. tularensis subsp. tularensis that points toward distinctive ecological adaptations, vectors, and host species. Current medical practice does not rely upon subspecies or subpopulation identification, although this information may have predictive value for clinical outcome, especially in the United States. Combined molecular and epidemiological analyses suggest that the population split in F. tularensis subsp. tularensis matches two distinct human diseases in the United States with different mortality rates. DNA-sequence-based typing of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica from tularemia outbreaks in Europe and the United States proves regional identity among isolates and also demonstrates that this subspecies successfully disseminated worldwide in recent evolutionary time.

  • 29.
    Keita, Åsa V.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Kirurgi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Söderholm, Johan D.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Kirurgi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Kirurgiska kliniken US.
    Barrier dysfunction and bacterial uptake in the follicle-associated epithelium of ileal Crohns disease2012Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1258, nr 1, s. 125-134Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to control uptake across the mucosa and protect from harmful substances in the gut lumen is defined as intestinal barrier function. The etiology of Crohns disease is unknown, but genetic, environmental, and immunological factors all contribute. The frontline between these factors lies in the intestinal barrier. The most important inflammation-driving environmental factor in Crohns disease is the microbiota, where Esherichia coli strains have been assigned a key role. The first observable signs of Crohns disease are small aphtoid ulcers over Peyers patches and lymphoid follicles. The overlaying follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) is specialized for luminal sampling and is an entry site for antigens and bacteria. We have demonstrated increased E. coli uptake across the FAE in Crohns disease, which may initiate inflammation. This short review will discuss barrier dysfunction and bacteria in the context of ileal Crohns disease, and how the FAE might be the site of initial inflammation.

  • 30.
    Kerr, Margaret
    et al.
    University of Montreal.
    Tremblay, Richard E.
    University of Montreal.
    Pagani-Kurtz, Linda
    University of Montreal.
    Vitaro, Frank
    University of Montreal.
    Disruptiveness, inhibition, and withdrawal as predictors of boys’ delinquency and depression1996Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 794, s. 367-368Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 31. Kimberling, W. J.
    et al.
    Weston, M. D.
    Pieke Dahl, S.
    Kenyon, J. B.
    Shugart, Y. Y.
    Möller, Claes
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Davenport, S. L. H.
    Martini, A.
    Milani, M.
    Smith, R. J.
    Genetic studies of Usher syndrome1991Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 630, nr 1, s. 167-175Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 32. Kivling, A
    et al.
    Nilsson, L
    Fälth-Magnusson, K
    Söllvander, S
    Johansson, C
    Faresjö, Maria
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för naturvetenskap och biomedicin. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Biomedicinsk plattform.
    Diverse FOXP3 expression in children with type 1 diabetes and celiac disease2008Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1150, s. 273-277Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 33.
    Kivling, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Nilsson, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Barn- och ungdomskliniken i Linköping.
    Fälth-Magnusson, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Barn- och ungdomskliniken i Linköping.
    Sollvander, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Johanson, Calle
    Ryhov Jonkoping City Hospital.
    Faresjö, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Diverse FOXP3 Expression in Children with Type 1 Diabetes and Celiac Disease2008Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1150, s. 273-277Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Imbalance between different types of T lymphocytes, such as T helper (Th) and regulatory T cells (Tregs), has been reported to play a part in the pathogenesis behind such autoimmune diseases as type 1 diabetes (T1D) and celiac disease (CD). Defects in Tregs are proposed to at least partly explain the imbalance of Th cells found in children with immunologic diseases. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 24 children with T1D and/or CD, and reference children (that is, those without any of these diseases) were stimulated with disease-associated antigens (insulin, gluten, transglutaminase [tTG]), and phytohemagglutinin (PHA). The mRNA expression of the Treg-associated marker FOXP3 was analyzed with multiplex real-time RT-PCR. Children with T1D showed both a low spontaneous (P < 0.05) and PHA-induced (P < 0.01) expression of FOXP3 mRNA compared to children with CD. Children with T1D also had a low PHA-induced FOXP3 mRNA expression compared to the group of children diagnosed with both T1D and CD (P < 0.05). Spontaneous (P < 0.05) and PHA-induced (P < 0.05) FOXP3 mRNA expression was high in children with CD compared to reference children. In contrast, stimulation with insulin tended to induce high FOXP3 mRNA expression in T1D children compared to reference children (P = 0.057). In conclusion, children with only T1D generally showed a lower FOXP3 mRNA expression than did children with CD, or with T1D in combination with CD, which suggests impaired regulation of the immune system in children with T1D.

  • 34.
    Koch, Christian A
    et al.
    Division of Endocrinology and Nephrology, University of Leipzig, Germany.
    Gimm, Oliver
    Department of Surgery, University of Halle, Germany.
    Vortmeyer, Alexander O
    National Institutes of Health, NINDS, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
    Al-Ali, Haifa K
    Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Leipzig, Germany.
    Lamesch, Peter
    Department of Surgery, Sankt Georg Hospital, Leipzig, Germany.
    Ott, Rudolf
    Department of Surgery II, University of Leipzig, Germany.
    Kluge, Regine
    Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, Germany.
    Bierbach, Uta
    Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University of Leipzig, Germany.
    Tannapfel, Andrea
    Ruhr University of Bochum, Bochum, Germany.
    Does the expression of c-kit (CD117) in neuroendocrine tumors represent a target for therapy?2006Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1073, s. 517-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Neuroendocrine tumors are very heterogeneous, develop from a variety of tissues, and can be difficult to diagnose. Without the clinical manifestation of metastases, it is often difficult to characterize them as malignant. Even so-called completely (R0) resected tumors can spread clinically visible metastases within a few months after initial surgery. Treatment options for neuroendocrine tumors including pheochromocytoma are limited. Molecular targeted therapies using tyrosine kinase inhibitors might prove to be helpful in patients with these tumors. In an immunohistochemical study, we examined KIT in 26 pheochromocytomas, 8 of which were malignant (3 adrenal pheochromocytomas, 5 paragangliomas). KIT expression was found in one of these 8 malignant tumors. This 2.5-cm-large adrenal pheochromocytoma originated from a woman with neurofibromatosis type 1 and spread into spine, skull, and lung. KIT expression could be demonstrated in 5% of tumor cells. On the basis of KIT expression immunohistochemically, we treated patients with neuroendocrine (i.e., medullary thyroid cancer) and other tumors with imatinib 400 mg per day, but without efficacy after 2 months of therapy. Similar results were shown by other investigators. Therefore, monotherapy with imatinib may not be efficacious in patients with neuroendocrine tumors that express KIT. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as sorafenib that targets several receptors in addition to KIT may be more efficacious in treating patients with neuroendocrine tumors.

  • 35.
    Koch, Stefan
    et al.
    Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA.
    Nusrat, Asma
    Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA.
    Dynamic regulation of epithelial cell fate and barrier function by intercellular junctions2009Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1165, s. 220-227Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the intestine, a single layer of epithelial cells effectively separates potentially harmful luminal content from the underlying tissue. The importance of an intact mucosal layer is highlighted by pathological disorders of the gut such as inflammatory bowel disease, in which disruption of the epithelial barrier leads to severe inflammation of the submucosal tissue compartments. Epithelial barrier function is provided by tightly regulated intercellular junctions, which consist of a plethora of membrane-associated and transmembrane proteins organized in discreet, spatially restricted complexes. Classically, these complexes are known to be dynamic seals for fluids and small molecules, as well as to provide mechanical strength by anchoring cell-cell contacts to the cytoskeleton. Rather than just acting as simple gates and adapters, however, junctional complexes themselves can relay extracellular stimuli to the epithelium and initiate cellular responses such as differentiation and apoptosis. In this review, we will highlight recent studies by our group and others which discuss how junctional proteins can promote outside-to-inside signaling and modulate epithelial cell fate. Unraveling the complex crosstalk between epithelial cells and their intercellular junctions is essential to understanding how epithelial barrier function is maintained in vivo and might provide new strategies for the treatment of inflammatory disorders of the intestine.

  • 36. Koch, Sven
    et al.
    Larbi, Anis
    Ozcelik, Dennis
    Solana, Rafael
    Gouttefangeas, Cécile
    Attig, Sebastian
    Wikby, Anders
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för naturvetenskap och biomedicin. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Åldrande - livsvillkor och hälsa.
    Strindhall, Jan
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för naturvetenskap och biomedicin. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Åldrande - livsvillkor och hälsa. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Biomedicinsk plattform.
    Franceschi, Claudio
    Pawelec, Graham
    Cytomegalovirus infection: a driving force in human T cell immunosenescence.2007Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, nr 1114, s. 23-35Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 37.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D.
    Department of Physiology and Medical Biophysics Biomedical Center University of Uppsala S‐751 23 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Effects of TRH on blood flow and the microcirculation.1989Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 553, s. 353-69Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 38.
    Kristiansson, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Allmänmedicin och klinisk epidemiologi.
    Holding, C
    Hughes, S
    Haynes, D
    Does human relaxin-2 affect peripheral blood mononuclear cells to increase inflammatory mediators in pathologic bone loss?2005Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1041, s. 317-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that relaxin stimulates bone resorption by regulating the production of several mediators that stimulate osteoclast formation. The levels of mediators were measured in response to differing relaxin concentrations in supernatants from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and normal human osteoblasts. Although all cell types expressed mRNA for the relaxin receptor (LGR7), only PBMCs responded to relaxin at physiologic levels by increasing tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β secretion. The findings indicate that PBMCs should be studied in relation to the effect of relaxin on inflammation and bone destruction caused by osteoclasts.

  • 39. Kristiansson, Per
    et al.
    Holding, Christopher
    Hughes, S
    Haynes, David
    Does human relaxin-2 affect peripheral blood mononuclear cells to increase inflammatory mediators in pathologic bone loss?2005Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1041, s. 317-319Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 40.
    Kurz, Tino
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Farmakologi.
    Leake, Alan
    von Zglinicki, Thomas
    Brunk, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Patologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk patologi och klinisk genetik.
    Lysosomal redox-active iron is important for oxidative stress-induced DNA damage2004Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1019, s. 285-288Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Data show that specifically chelating lysosomal redox-active iron can prevent most H2O2-induced DNA damage. Lysosomes seem to contain the major pool of redox-active labile iron within the cell. Under oxidative stress conditions, this iron may then relocate to the nucleus and play an important role for DNA damage by taking part in Fenton reactions.

  • 41.
    Larhammar, Dan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    Dreborg, Susanne
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    Larsson, Tomas A
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    Sundström, Görel
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    Early duplications of opioid receptor and Peptide genes in vertebrate evolution2009Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1163, s. 451-453Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The opioid receptor family in mammals has four members called delta, kappa, mu, and NOP (the nociceptin/orphanin receptor). We show here that they arose from a common ancestral gene through quadruplication of a large chromosomal region, presumably in the two basal vertebrate tetraploidizations. The four opioid peptide precursor genes have a more complicated evolutionary history involving chromosomal rearrangements but nevertheless seem to have arisen in the same time period as the receptors. Thus the system of opioid peptides and receptors was already established approximately 450 Ma at the dawn of gnathostome evolution.

  • 42.
    Larhammar, Dan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Sundström, Görel
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Dreborg, Susanne
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Ocampo Daza, Daniel
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Larsson, Tomas A
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Major genomic events and their consequences for vertebrate evolution and endocrinology2009Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1163, nr 1, s. 201-208Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Comparative studies of proteins often face the problem of distinguishing a true orthologue (species homologue) from a paralogue (a gene duplicate). This identification task is particularly challenging for endocrine peptides and neuropeptides because they are short and usually have several invariant positions. For some peptide families, this has led to a terminology with peptide names relating to the first species where a specific peptide sequence was determined, such as chicken or salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone, or names that highlight amino acid differences, e.g., Lys-vasopressin. With accumulating information from multiple species, such a terminology becomes almost impenetrable for nonexperts and difficult even for aficionados. The sequenced genomes offer a new way to distinguish orthologues and paralogues, namely by location of the genes relative to neighboring genes on the chromosomes. In addition, the genome databases can ideally provide a complete listing of the family members in each species. Many vertebrate gene families have expanded in the two basal tetraploidizations (2R) and the teleost fish third tetraploidization (3R), after which some vertebrate lineages have lost some of the duplicates. We review here some peptide families (neuropeptide Y, oxytocin-vasopressin, and somatostatin) where genomic information helps simplify nomenclature. This approach is useful also for other gene families, such as peptide receptors.

  • 43.
    Larsson, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Willander, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Autobiographical Odor Memory2009Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1170, s. 318-323Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This overview focuses on autobiographical odor memory and how information evoked by the olfactory sense may differ from memories evoked by visual or verbal information. Three key topics are addressed: (a) age distributions of evoked memories; (b) phenomenological experience; and (c) semantic processing. Current evidence suggests that memories triggered by olfactory information are localized to the first decade of life (< 10 years) rather than to young adulthood (10–30 years) which is the typical finding for memories evoked by verbal and visual information. Further, empirical evidence indicates that odor evoked memories are more emotional, associated with stronger feelings of being brought back in time, and have been thought of less often as compared to memories evoked by other sensory cues. Finally, previous observations of a significant impact of semantic influences on olfactory processing may also be generalized to retrieval of odor evoked autobiographical information. Specifically, both the age distribution and phenomenological qualities are affected by explicit knowledge of the odor cue. Taken together, the overall pattern of findings indicates that personal memories evoked by olfactory information are different from memories evoked by verbal or visual information.

  • 44.
    Li, Wei
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa.
    Hellsten, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicin och kirurgi.
    Nyhalah, JD
    Yuan, Ximing
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin.
    Enhanced expression of natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 in atherosclerotic lesions may be associated with oxidized lipid-induced apoptosis2004Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1030, s. 202-207Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The natural resistance-associated macrophage proteins (Nramps) can modulate inflammatory reactions. Nramps are not only responsible for intracellular divalent metal transport but also determine the macrophage functions in inflammatory processes. In the present study we tested whether Nramp1 is involved in macrophage apoptosis induced by oxidized lipids in atherogenesis. Arterial segments of Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits were used for an examination of Nramp1 mRNA by in situ RT-PCR and macrophage immunohistochemistry. Annexin V/PI staining and terminal dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) techniques were used for apoptosis detection. We found that, in macrophage-rich areas (positive to RMA-11) of the rabbit atherosclerotic aorta, there were lesion-dependent increases in Nramp1 mRNA, which are mainly apoptotic foamy macrophages that are positive to TUNEL staining. U937 cells were treated with 7 beta-hydroxycholesterol (7 beta-OH) in the presence or absence of the redox-active iron chelator desferrioxamine (DFO) or 1,10-phenanthroline. The cellular iron chelators considerably reduced, whereas iron compounds enhanced, 7 beta-OH-induced apoptosis and necrosis. DFO also decreased mRNA levels of Nramp1, whereas both iron compounds and 7 beta-OH dramatically enhanced the expression of Nramp1 mRNA, particularly among 7 beta-OH-induced apoptotic cells. We conclude that the enhanced expression of Nramp1 in macrophage regions of atherosclerotic lesions may be associated with ferrous iron-enhanced, oxidized lipid-induced apoptosis. This finding reveals a novel function of Nramp1 in atherogenesis.

  • 45.
    Li, Wei
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa.
    Xu, Lihua
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Experimentell patologi.
    Yuan, Ximing
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin.
    Macrophage hemoglobin scavenger receptor and ferritin accumulation in human atherosclerotic lesions2004Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1030, s. 196-201Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We previously proposed that erythrophagocytosis and iron metabolism by macrophages may contribute to iron-driven oxidative stress in atherogenesis. Recent studies have indicated that the macrophage hemoglobin scavenger receptor (HbSR/CD 163) is a key molecule in the process of removing hemoglobin released from senescent erythrocytes. In this study we investigated crythrophagocytosis and its relation to ferritin accumulation and the involvement of CD163 in ferritin induction in human atheroma lesions. Normal and atherosclerotic human arterial segments obtained at autopsy and surgery were collected for iron histochemistry, hemoglobin and ferritin immunohistochemistry, and computerized image analysis. The lesion-dependent accumulation of ferritin and hemoglobin was seen in atherosclerotic carotid and coronary arteries. The immunoreactivity of hemoglobin was significantly correlated to the same regions of ferritin immunoreactivity on serial sections. The staining intensity of hemoglobin and ferritin was also significantly correlated. Hemoglobin deposition is often associated with microvessels adjacent to the lipid core areas in advanced lesions, where most CD68-positive macrophages were. CD163 expression appeared in both early and advanced lesions. The accumulation of tissue iron and ferritin also frequently occurs in CD163-positive and vessel-rich regions in the advanced atheroma. Although they were not always correspondingly positive on the serial sections, tissue iron and ferritin were significantly correlated. We conclude that erythrophagocytosis and hemoglobin catabolism by macrophages contribute to iron deposition and ferritin induction in human atheroma. The involvement of CD163 during ferritin induction may play an important role in modulating inflammatory processes in atherogenesis.

  • 46.
    Li, Wei
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa.
    Yuan, Ximing
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin.
    Increased expression and translocation of lysosomal cathepsins contribute to macrophage apoptosis in atherogenesis2004Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1030, s. 427-433Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been recently reported that atherosclerotic lesions in both humans and mice express several lysosomal proteases, including cathepsins B, D, L, and S, which may affect plaque development and stability. The mechanisms responsible for the extralysosomal expression of lysosomal cathepsins and the related atherogenic implications remain unknown. We rind that the lesion-dependent expression of cathepsins B and L is mainly in macrophage-infiltrated areas of human carotid atheroma. These enzymes appear in the cytoplasm and nuclei of apoptotic macrophages (normally confined to the lysosomal compartment) and in the extracellular areas. After exposure to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) or 7 beta-hydroxycholesterol (7 beta-OH), macrophages initially transform into foam cells and then undergo apoptotic cell death. The oxidized lipids induce lysosomal destabilization, with leakage to the cytosol of lysosomal enzymes (cathepsins B, D, and L), as detected by cytochemistry and immunocytochemistry. A remarkable increase in cathepsin D mRNA levels was observed after 7 beta-OH exposure. Like macrophages within atheroma, intralysosomal cathepsins B and L are translocated to the cytoplasm and nuclei of 7B-OH-exposed cells. Our results suggest that endocytosed oxLDL and oxysterols not only destabilize the acidic vacuolar compartment but also cause the upregulation and translocation of lysosomal cathepsins, which may act as cleaving enzymes during the apoptotic process. The increased macrophage apoptosis and nuclear and matrix degradation by lysosomal enzymes in atheroma may play important roles in plaque development and rupture.

  • 47. Liebscher, Ines
    et al.
    Ackley, Brian
    Araç, Demet
    Ariestanti, Donna M
    Aust, Gabriela
    Bae, Byoung-Il
    Bista, Bigyan R
    Bridges, James P
    Duman, Joseph G
    Engel, Felix B
    Giera, Stefanie
    Goffinet, André M
    Hall, Randy A
    Hamann, Jörg
    Hartmann, Nicole
    Lin, Hsi-Hsien
    Liu, Mingyao
    Luo, Rong
    Mogha, Amit
    Monk, Kelly R
    Peeters, Miriam C
    Prömel, Simone
    Ressl, Susanne
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Sigoillot, Séverine M
    Song, Helen
    Talbot, William S
    Tall, Gregory G
    White, James P
    Wolfrum, Uwe
    Xu, Lei
    Piao, Xianhua
    New functions and signaling mechanisms for the class of adhesion G protein-coupled receptors2014Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1333, s. 43-64Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The class of adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs), with 33 human homologs, is the second largest family of GPCRs. In addition to a seven-transmembrane α-helix-a structural feature of all GPCRs-the class of aGPCRs is characterized by the presence of a large N-terminal extracellular region. In addition, all aGPCRs but one (GPR123) contain a GPCR autoproteolysis-inducing (GAIN) domain that mediates autoproteolytic cleavage at the GPCR autoproteolysis site motif to generate N- and a C-terminal fragments (NTF and CTF, respectively) during protein maturation. Subsequently, the NTF and CTF are associated noncovalently as a heterodimer at the plasma membrane. While the biological function of the GAIN domain-mediated autocleavage is not fully understood, mounting evidence suggests that the NTF and CTF possess distinct biological activities in addition to their function as a receptor unit. We discuss recent advances in understanding the biological functions, signaling mechanisms, and disease associations of the aGPCRs.

  • 48.
    Ljungberg, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Korpela, Riita
    Valio Ltd, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ilonen, Jorma
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland and Immunogenetics Laboratory, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Vaarala, Outi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Department of Viral Diseases and Immunology, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Probiotics for the Prevention of Beta Cell Autoimmunity in Children at Genetic Risk of Type 1 Diabetes—the PRODIA Study2006Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1079, s. 360-364Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The final aim of the PRODIA study is to determine whether the use of probiotics during the first 6 months of life decreases the appearance of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM)-associated autoantibodies in children with genetic risk for T1DM. A pilot study including 200 subjects was planned to show whether the use of probiotics during the first 6 months of life is safe and feasible. The prevalence of autoantibodies among the study subjects at 6, 12, and 24 months of age was at levels close to the expected and the clinical follow-up did not either indicate problems in the feasibility of the study.

  • 49.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Barn- och ungdomskliniken i Linköping.
    Why diabetes incidence inereases- A unifying theory2006Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1079, s. 374-382Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a wide spectrum within the diabetes syndrome. Type I diabetes may have a slow progression with good residual insulin secretion and without autoantibodies, while phenotypic type 2 diabetes may have autoantibodies. A single patient may have traits of both types of diabetes. Their incidence increases in parallel. The etiology is mainly unknown, but environmental factors play an important role in genetically predisposed individuals. The search for just one single cause of manifest diabetes may be confusing. Different mechanism may be important in different parts of the world. Furthermore, certain mechanisms may lead to islet inflammation while other/additional mechanisms may increase insulin demand and cause insulin deficiency with manifestation of clinical diabetes. Several hypothesis of etiology may fit different parts of the disease process. Thus, increased hygiene may contribute to an imbalance of the immune system, facilitating autoimmune reactions when virus infections, or proteins like cow's milk or gluten, provoke. Increased insulin demand because of rapid growth, or insulin resistance caused by stress, infections, puberty, etc., lead to beta cell stress, antigen presentation and may cause both an autoimmune reaction in genetically predisposed individuals, and insulin deficiency leading to manifest diabetes in individuals who have lost beta cell function. Vitamins may modulate the immune process, but we know too little to give vitamin substitution. However, we do know that low physical exercise, obesity, and stress, increases insulin demand resulting in insulin deficiency. Now we can therefore intervene to prevent the diabetic syndrome.

  • 50.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Gustafsson Stolt, Ulrica
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Liss, Per-Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Svensson, Tommy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap, Avdelningen för sociologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Mothers of children in ABIS, a population-based screening for prediabetes, experience few ethical conflicts and have a positive attitude2002Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 958, s. 376-381Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Screening is supposed to create less anxiety among first-degree relatives of diabetic patients where the risk of developing diabetes already is well known. It has also been argued that screening of a general child population should never be performed unless identified high-risk individuals can be offered intervention to prevent diabetes. However, the empirical data are scarce, especially regarding what opinions patients or their parents have of these matters/issues themselves. We have therefore tried to evaluate mothers' attitudes to and ethical views on participation in a research screening for prediabetes in an unselected birth cohort. All 21,700 mothers of children in southeast Sweden born between 1 October 1997 and 1 October 1999 were asked to participate in ABIS (All Babies in Southeast Sweden). They were given information about the design of the study and that HLA types and autoantibodies will be determined in order to predict diabetes, but that no prevention of diabetes will be offered unless future studies show effective methods. After informed consent, 78.6% of mothers let their babies participate (17,055 children) despite a quite laborious study protocol. Explorative in-depth semistructured interviews were performed in 21 mothers, of whom 15 were strategically selected to get as many various attitudes as possible and of whom 6 chose not to participate in ABIS. All interviewed mothers were positive to the ABIS project. We conclude that a well-designed screening program to detect individuals in the general population with high risk of developing diabetes does not evoke anxiety nor severe ethical conflicts.

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