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  • 1.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khan, Yaqoob
    National Centre for Physics, Quaid-e-Azam University Campus, Islamabad, Pakistan .
    Hussain, Sajjad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Anions effect on the low temperature growth of ZnO nanostructures2012In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 86, no 12, p. 1998-2001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seed mediated aqueous chemical growth (ACG) route was used for the growth of ZnO nanostructures on Si substrate in four different growth mediums. The growth medium has shown to affect the morphology and the size of the different nanostructures. We observed that the medium containing zinc nitrate anions yields the nanorods, in a medium containing zinc acetate anions nano-candles are obtained. While in a medium containing zinc chloride anions ZnO nano-discs were obtained and in a medium containing zinc sulfate anions nano-flakes are achieved. Growth in these different mediums has also shown effect on the optical emission characteristics of the different ZnO nanostructures.

  • 2. Alberdi, Alberto
    et al.
    Hatto, Peter
    Diaz, Beatriz
    Csillag, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Tribological behavior of nanocomposite coatings based on fullerene-like structures2011In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 85, no 12, p. 1087-1092Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new group of nanocomposite coatings based on integrating inorganic fullerene-like material (IFLM) structures into conventional coating matrices. Such coatings have been developed within the scope of the European funded FOREMOST project (FP6-NMP3-CT-2005-515840). Regarding the synthesis of these nanocomposite coatings based on fullerene-like components, two alternative routes were explored: introducing preformed IFLMs into the coating deposition process or forming the fullerene-like components in situ during the coating deposition process. Both methods have been demonstrated to be technically feasible, depending on the nature of the coating matrix or the desired fullerene-like structure. These new materials allow some independent control of tribological properties usually known as antagonists (very high load bearing capacity with a very low friction coefficient). In the case of unidirectional movement, under dry conditions, the best coatings developed in FOREMOST displayed a coefficient of friction in air within the range 0.04-0.10, depending on the degree of humidity and the test conditions. Pure sliding laboratory tests indicate that for some industrial applications fullerene-like nanocomposite coatings can give significant reductions in wear and friction coefficient when compared to similar coatings without fullerene-like components. The lubrication mechanisms through which these fullerene-like structures improve friction and prevent wear are also discussed in this paper.

  • 3.
    Ali, Sharafat
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Paul, Biplab
    Linköping University.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköping University.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University.
    Novel transparent Mg-Si-O-N thin films with high hardness and refractive index2016In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 131, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing demand for glass materials with better mechanical and optical properties for display and electronic applications. This paper describes the deposition of novel thin films of Mg-Si-O-N onto float glass substrates. Amorphous thin films in the Mg-Si-O-N system with high nitrogen and magnesium contents were deposited by reactive RF magnetron co-sputtering from Mg and Si targets in Ar/N2/O2 gas mixtures. The thin films studied span an unprecedented range of compositions up to 45 at% Mg and 80 at% N out of cations and anions respectively. Thin films in the Mg-Si-O-N system were found to be homogeneous and transparent in the visible region. Mechanical properties like hardness (H) and reduced elastic modulus (Er) show high values, up to 21 GPa and 166 GPa respectively. The refractive index (1.87-2.00) increases with increasing magnesium and nitrogen contents.

  • 4.
    Ali, Sharafat
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Paul, Biplab
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Novel transparent Mg-Si-O-N thin films with high hardness and refractive index2016In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing demand for glass materials with better mechanical and optical properties for display and electronic applications. This paper describes the deposition of novel thin films of Mg-circle divide-Si-O-N onto float glass substrates. Amorphous thin films in the Mg-Si-O-N system with high nitrogen and magnesium contents were deposited by reactive RF magnetron co-sputtering from Mg and Si targets in Ar/N-2/O-2 gas mixtures. The thin films studied span an unprecedented range of compositions up to 45 at% Mg and 80 at% N out of cations and anions respectively. Thin films in the Mg-Si-O-N system were found to be homogeneous and transparent in the visible region. Mechanical properties like hardness (H) and reduced elastic modulus (Er) show high values, up to 21 GPa and 166 GPa respectively. The refractive index (1.87-2.00) increases with increasing magnesium and nitrogen contents. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 5. Andersson, LP
    et al.
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Initial etching in an RF butane plasma1978In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 28, p. 449-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Andersson, LP
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Evwaraye, AO
    Electrical characteristics of sputtering - induced defects in n-type silicon1977In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 28, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Andersson, Matilda
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Högström, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Urbonaite, Sigita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Furlan, Andrej
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Nyholm, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Deposition and characterization of magnetron sputtered amorphous Cr-C films2012In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 86, no 9, p. 1408-1416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin films in the Cr-C system with carbon content of 25-85 at.% have been deposited using non-reactive DC magnetron sputtering from elemental targets. Analyses with X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy confirm that the films are completely amorphous. Also, annealing experiment show that the films had not crystallized at 500 degrees C. Furthermore, X-ray spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy show that the films consist of two phases, an amorphous CrCx phase and an amorphous carbon (a-C) phase. The presence of two amorphous phases is also supported by the electrochemical analysis, which shows that oxidation of both chromium and carbon contributes to the total current in the passive region. The relative amounts of these amorphous phases influence the film properties. Typically, lower carbon content with less a-C phase leads to harder films with higher Young's modulus and lower resistivity. The results also show that both films have lower currents in the passive region compared to the uncoated 316L steel substrate. Finally, our results were compared with literature data from both reactively and non-reactively sputtered chromium carbide films. The comparison reveals that non-reactive sputtering tend to favour the formation of amorphous films and also influence e.g. the sp(2)/sp(3) ratio of the a-C phase. 

  • 8.
    Askari, SJ
    et al.
    Department of High Tech Thin Films, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing.
    Akhtar, Farid
    Department of High Tech Thin Films, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing.
    Islam, S.H.
    Department of High Tech Thin Films, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing.
    Qi, H
    Department of High Tech Thin Films, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing.
    Tang, WZ
    Department of High Tech Thin Films, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing.
    Lu, FX
    Department of High Tech Thin Films, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing.
    Two-step growth of high-quality nano-diamond films using CH 4/H 2 gas mixture2007In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 81, no 5, p. 713-717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diamond films with fine grain size and good quality were successfully deposited on pure titanium substrate using a novel two-step growth technique in microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (MWPCVD) system. The films were grown with varying the methane (CH4) concentration at the stage of bias-enhanced nucleation (BEN) and nano-diamond film deposition. It was found that nano-diamond nuclei were formed at a relatively high methane concentration, causing a secondary nucleation at the accompanying growth step. Nano-diamond film deposition on pure titanium was always very hard due to the high diffusion coefficient of carbon in Ti, the big difference between thermal expansion coefficients of diamond and Ti, the complex nature of the interlayer created during diamond deposition, and the difficulty in achieving very high nucleation density. A smooth and well-adhered nano-diamond film was successfully obtained on pure Ti substrate. Detailed experimental results on the synthesis, characterization and successful deposition of the nano-diamond film on pure Ti are discussed

  • 9. Atanassov, A
    et al.
    Baleva, M
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Goranova, E
    Grazing incident asymmetric X-ray diffraction of beta-FeSi2 layers, produced by ion beam synthesis2004In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 76, no 02-Mar, p. 277-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The crystal structure of beta-FeSi2 phase, prepared by ion beam synthesis (IBS) method, followed by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) is investigated by grazing incident asymmetric X-ray diffraction (GIAXRD). The X-ray spectra, obtained at different grazing angles, indicated that the beta-FeSi2 phase is formed in the whole implantation range. From the comparison of the reflections intensities ratios, it is found that in the metal-deficient regions, where the beta-FeSi2 phase is present in the form of precipitates, the crystallites orientation is influenced by the one of the silicon substrates, while the orientation in the metal-rich region is different and depends on the annealing temperature. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 10. Azarov, A. Yu.
    et al.
    Titov, A. I.
    Karaseov, P. A.
    Kucheyev, S. O.
    Hallén, Anders
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Kuznetsov, A. Yu.
    Svensson, B. G.
    Pathak, A. P.
    Structural damage in ZnO bombarded by heavy ions2010In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 84, no 8, p. 1058-1061Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of implantation parameters on damage build-up in ZnO bombarded with Bi and Er ions is studied by Rutherford backscattering/channelling spectrometry. The results show that the damage accumulation behaviour in ZnO is different dramatically from that in other semiconductors. In particular, a variation of implantation parameters, such as collision cascade density, sample temperature and ion flux, has only a minor influence on the damage accumulation in the crystal bulk for the case of such heavy ions. Moreover, an intermediate damage peak, between the surface and bulk defect peaks, is observed for all the irradiation conditions studied. The cascade density affects the behaviour of this intermediate peak with increasing ion dose.

  • 11.
    Barankova, Hana
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. BB Plasma Design AB, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bardos, Ladislav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. BB Plasma Design AB, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Silins, Kaspars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bardos, A.
    BB Plasma Design AB.
    Reactive Deposition of TiN Films by Magnetron with Magnetized Hollow Cathode Enhanced Target2018In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 152, p. 123-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetized Hollow Cathode Activated Magnetron in which the target is coupled with the hollow cathode magnetized by the magnetic field of the magnetron was tested in the reactive process of TiN deposition. Increased deposition rate compared to the Ti metal deposition rate was confirmed. The depositions as well as optical measurements were performed at several pressures in the reactor. The results of the TiN reactive deposition are presented and discussed, including the TiN deposition in pure nitrogen.

  • 12.
    Bardos, Ladislav
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Barankova, Hana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Plasma processes at atmospheric and low pressures2008In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 83, no 3, p. 522-527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last few decades there has been an intense development in non-equilibrium ("cold") plasma surface processing systems at atmospheric pressure. This new trend is stimulated mainly to decrease equipment costs by avoiding expensive pumping systems of conventional low-pressure plasma devices. This work summarizes physical and practical limitations where atmospheric plasmas cannot compete with low-pressure plasma and vice-versa. As the processing conditions for atmospheric plasma are rather different from reduced pressure systems in many cases these conditions may increase final equipment costs substantially. In this work we briefly review the main principles, advantages and drawbacks of atmospheric plasma for a better understanding of the capabilities and limitations of the atmospheric plasma processing technology compared with conventional low-pressure plasma processing. 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 13. Barklund, AM
    et al.
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Katardjiev, IV
    Nender, C
    Carlsson, P
    Ion-assisted selective deposition of aluminium for via-hole interconnections1993In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 44, no 3-4, p. 197-201Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Barklund, AM
    et al.
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Bardos, L
    Patterning of silicon wafers using the plasma jet dry etching technique1990In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 41, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Baránková, Hana
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bárdos, Ladislav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Effect of the electrode material on the atmospheric plasma conversion of NO in air mixtures2010In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 84, no 12, p. 1385-1388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is widely used for conversion of hazardous gases. Results from different laboratories confirm importance of energy non-equilibrium in the plasma where dominant energy carriers are electrons and a dominant chemistry is based on formation and interactions of radicals. Because of rather high electric fields required for generation and sustaining of air discharges at atmospheric pressure many plasma systems were found rather to create a lot of NO instead of removing it. A widely supported way to clean NO and NO2 from air mixtures is a plasma assisted catalytic reduction where the cold plasma is combined with the solid-state catalyst. In an ideal case the plasma acts as an oxidation catalyst where an atomic oxygen from air oxidizes NO to NO2 and the solid-state catalysts are then capable to convert all NO2 to N-2 and O-2. In most cases it is also necessary to involve auxiliary gases, e.g., propylene, to make the process efficient enough. This work introduces an original cold plasma system based on atmospheric hollow cathodes generated by a nanopulse DC power with controllable voltage and pulse frequency. The system was optimized in both the geometry and the applied power. However, the material of electrodes was found to be the most important factor affecting the plasma performance and consequently the chemical kinetics. A 100% conversion of NO to NO2 was achieved with a graphite electrode, without using any auxiliary gas and without catalyst. Plasma performance and conversion efficiency are compared for several electrode materials.

  • 16.
    Baránková, Hana
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bárdos, Ladislav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Optimization and performance of atmospheric Fused Hollow Cathodes2013In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 87, p. 128-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental results on the atmospheric hollow cathode plasma generation and performance, using a special configuration with tunable wall separations, are presented. The influence of the gas and type of the power used for generation on the optimum size of the cathode slit is investigated. The experimental results are in agreement with the hollow cathode model. The plasma source/plasma reactor design is of utmost importance for control of plasma-chemical kinetics. An example of the atmospheric hollow cathode plasma application for the NOx conversion is given. The energy consumption and plasma characteristics are discussed.

  • 17.
    Batool, S S
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Imran, Z
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Pakistan Inst. Engn. and Appl Sci, Pakistan.
    Israr Qadir, Muhammad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jamil Rana, Sadaf
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Usman, M
    Pakistan Institute Engn and Appl Science, Pakistan .
    Jamil, H
    Pakistan Institute Engn and Appl Science, Pakistan .
    Rafiq, M A
    Pakistan Institute Engn and Appl Science, Pakistan .
    Hasan, M M
    Pakistan Institute Engn and Appl Science, Pakistan .
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Silica nanofibers based impedance type humidity detector prepared on glass substrate2013In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 87, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Impedance type relative humidity detector is fabricated by depositing electrospun silica nanofibers on glass substrate. The silica nanofibers with an average diameter similar to 150 nm and length similar to 100 mu m were used. Thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetric analysis confirm that the accurate annealing temperature is 500 degrees C for complete removal of PVP. Humidity detecting devices were fabricated by defining titanium electrodes on top of the silica nanofibers. The performance of silica nanofibers humidity detectors was tested by AC electrical measurements at 40-90% relative humidity. The response and the recovery times were 5 s and 3 s, respectively, between 40% and 90% relative humidity. Contribution of dipoles, space charge polarization, relaxation of these dipoles and low frequency dispersion phenomenon were observed during impedance measurements.

  • 18.
    Berg, Sören
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Andersson, LP
    Norström, H
    Grusell, E
    Substrate surface damages by RF sputtering1977In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 189-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Berg, Sören
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Gelin, B
    Svärdström, Anders
    Babulanam, SM
    Influence of substrate material on the initial thin film growth during ion deposition from a glow discharge1984In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 34, no 10/11, p. 969-973Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Berg, Sören
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Nender, C
    Gelin, B
    Ion assisted selective deposition of thin films1988In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 38, no 8-10, p. 621-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Beshkova, M.
    et al.
    Bulgarian Academic Science, Bulgaria.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Device applications of epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide2016In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 128, p. 186-197Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphene has become an extremely hot topic due to its intriguing material properties allowing for ground-breaking fundamental research and applications. It is one of the fastest developing materials during the last several years. This progress is also driven by the diversity of fabrication methods for graphene of different specific properties, size, quantity and cost. Graphene grown on SiC is of particular interest due to the possibility to avoid transferring of free standing graphene to a desired substrate while having a large area SiC (semi-insulating or conducting) substrate ready for device processing. Here, we present a review of the major current explorations of graphene on SiC in electronic devices, such as field effect transistors (FET), radio frequency (RF) transistors, integrated circuits (IC), and sensors. The successful role of graphene in the metrology sector is also addressed. Typical examples of graphene on SiC implementations are illustrated and the drawbacks and promises are critically analyzed. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 22.
    Beshkova, Milena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sublimation epitaxy of 3C-SiC grown at Si- and C-rich conditions2012In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 86, no 10, p. 1595-1599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    3C-SiC layers have been grown by using sublimation epitaxy at a source temperature of 2000 degrees C, under vacuum conditions (andlt;10(-5) mbar) on well oriented (on-axis) 6H-SiC (0001) substrates. Close space sublimation growth geometry has been used in a RF-heated furnace employing high-purity graphite crucible with a possibility to change the growth environment from Si vapor-rich to C vapor-rich. The optical microscopy in transmission mode reveals continuous 3C-domains for 3C-SiC with less than 0.4% 6H-inclusions for the layer grown at Si-rich conditions, and separate 3C-SiC domains for the layer grown at C-rich conditions. The type of 6H-inclusions for layers with continuous domain structure investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is discussed. 2Theta-omega scan shows 0006 and 111 peaks coming from the substrate and the layer, respectively with a higher intensity of the 111 peak for 3C-SiC grown at Si-rich conditions which is related with the continuous character of the 3C-SiC domains.

  • 23.
    Beshkova, Milena
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Zakhariev, Z.
    Abrashev, M.V.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Kakanakova-Georgieva, Anelia
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Low-pressure sublimation epitaxy of AlN films - growth and characterization2004In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 76, p. 143-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial layers of aluminum nitride have been grown at temperatures 1900-2400degreesC on 10 x 10 mm(2) 4H-SiC substrate via sublimation recondensation in an RF heated graphite furnace. The source material was polycrystalline sintered AlN. A maximum growth rate of about 100 mum/h was achieved at 2400degreesC and seed to source distance of 1 mm. The surface morphology reflects the hexagonal symmetry of the seed suggesting an epitaxial growth. This was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The spectra showed very strong and well-defined (0002) reflection position at around 36.04degrees in symmetric Theta-2Thetascans for all samples. Micro-Raman spectroscopy reveals that the films have a wurtzite structure. It is evidenced by the appearance of the A(1) (TO) (at 601 cm(-1)) and E-2((2)) (at 651 cm(-1)) lines in the spectra. Secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) results showed a low concentration of carbon incorporation in the AlN films. A correlation between the growth conditions and properties of the AlN layers was established.

  • 24. Birch, J.
    et al.
    Eriksson, F.
    Johansson, G. A.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Recent advances in ion-assisted growth of Cr/Sc multilayer X-ray mirrors for the water window2002In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 68, no 3, p. 275-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cr/Sc multilayer X-ray mirrors intended for normal incidence reflection in the water window wavelength range, lambda=[2.4-4.4 nm], have been grown by ion-assisted sputter deposition and characterized using soft and hard X-ray reflectivity. By extracting low-energy ions, with energies, E-ion, ranging from 9 to 113 eV and with ion-to-metal flux ratios, Phi, between 0.76 and 23.1, from the sputtering plasma to the growing film, the nano-structure of the multilayer interfaces could be modified. A significantly increased soft X-ray reflectivity, using lambda = 3.374 nm, for Cr/Sc multilayers with layer thicknesses in the range 0.4-2.8 nm, was obtained when high ion-to-metal flux ratios, Phi(Cr) = 7.1 and Phi(Sc) = 23.1, and low energy ions, E-ion = 9eV, were used. An experimental reflectivity of 5.5% was obtained at 76degrees for a multilayer with 400 bi-layers. Simulations of the reflectivity data showed that the interface widths are < 0.425 nm. It could be concluded that roughness of low spatial frequency is reduced at lower ion energies than the high spatial frequency which was eliminated at the expense of intermixing at the interfaces at higher ion energies. The predicted performance of normal incidence multilayer mirrors grown at optimum conditions and designed for lambda = 3.374 and 3.115 nm indicates possible reflectivities of 6.5% and 14%, respectively.

  • 25.
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Berg, Sören
    Östling, M
    Petersson, S
    Stoichiometry determination of reactively sputtered titanium-silicide1982In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 32, no 10/11, p. 665-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26. Blom, Hans-Olof
    et al.
    Norström, H
    Nender, C
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    DC-etching of polysilicon with fluorine chemistry1988In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 38, no 8-10, p. 813-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27. Carter, G
    et al.
    Nobes, MJ
    Katardjiev, Ilia V
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    The theory of ion beam polishing and machining1993In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 44, no 3-4, p. 303-309Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    CHAKAROV, DV
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    KASEMO, B
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    WATER-ADSORPTION ON GRAPHITE(0001)1995In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 46, no 8-10, p. 1109-1112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wafer adsorption on the clean graphite (0001) surface has been studied by high-resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). At 85 K H2O adsorbs non-dissociatively forming hydrogen-bonded aggregates. The structure and the growth mode of water clusters depend on the substrate temperature and the coverage. At all coverages, above a few per cent of a monolayer (ML), the desorption is characterized by zero-order kinetics, while the HREEL spectra reveal a threshold coverage approximately 1 ML when the average co-ordination of the H2O molecules changes. Isothermal measurements of the desorption rate and HREELS measurements at elevated temperatures suggest an irreversible phase transition from amorphous to crystalline ice at approximately 135 K.

  • 29. CHAUHAN, HS
    et al.
    ILVER, L
    NILSSON, PO
    KANSKI, J
    KARLSSON, Ulf O
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    THE ELECTRONIC-STRUCTURE OF CD(0001) AS STUDIED BY PHOTOEMISSION, INVERSE PHOTOEMISSION AND COMPUTATIONS1990In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 41, no 1-3, p. 531-532Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Donchev, V.
    et al.
    Faculty of Physics, Dept. Condensed Matter Phys., S., Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Ivanov, Tzv.
    Faculty of Physics, Dept. Condensed Matter Phys., S., Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Angelov, M.
    Faculty of Physics, Dept. Condensed Matter Phys., S., Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Germanova, K.
    Faculty of Physics, Dept. Condensed Matter Phys., S., Sofia, Bulgaria.
    High-temperature excitons in GaAs quantum wells embedded in AlAs/GaAs superlattices2000In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 478-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of GaAs quantum wells embedded in short-period AlAs/GaAs superlattices have been measured at 2 K and at room temperature. Two approaches have been applied in order to investigate the mechanisms of radiative recombination in these structures. In the first one, we studied the excitation density dependence of the PL intensity. In the second approach a line-shape analysis of the PL spectra is performed by means of a statistical model, which includes both free exciton, and free carrier recombinations. The fit based on this model reproduces with high accuracy the experimental spectra and allows to assess the relative contributions of excitons and free carriers to the radiative recombination process. The results of both approaches indicate the predominance of free excitons in the radiative recombination at room temperature.

  • 31.
    Ehiasarian, A.P.
    et al.
    Materials Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Howard Street, Sheffield S1 1WB, United Kingdom.
    New, R.
    Materials Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Howard Street, Sheffield S1 1WB, United Kingdom.
    Munz, W.-D.
    Münz, W.-D., Materials Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Howard Street, Sheffield S1 1WB, United Kingdom.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Kouznetsov, V.
    Chemfilt R and D AB, Kumla Gårdsvägen 28, SE-145 63 Norsborg, Sweden.
    Influence of high power densities on the composition of pulsed magnetron plasmas2002In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 147-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of high power pulses with peak voltage of -2 kV and peak power density of 3 kWcm-2 to magnetron plasma sources is a new development in sputtering technology. The high power is applied to ordinary magnetron cathodes in pulses with short duration of typically some tens of microseconds in order to avoid a glow-to-arc transition. High plasma densities are obtained which have been predicted to initiate self-sputtering. This study concerns Cr and Ti cathodes and presents evidence of multiply charged metal ions as well as of Ar ions in the dense plasma region of the high power pulsed magnetron discharge and a substantially increased metal ion production compared to continuous magnetron sputtering. The average degree of ionisation of the Cr metal deposition flux generated in the plasma source was 30% at a distance of 50 cm. Deposition rates were maintained comparable to conventional magnetron sputtering due to the low pressure of operation of the pulsed discharge - typically 0.4 Pa (3mTorr) of Ar pressure was used. Observations of the current-voltage characteristics of the discharge confirmed two modes of operation of the plasma source representing conventional pulsed sputtering at low powers (0.2 kWcm-2) and pulsed self-sputtering at higher powers (3 kWcm-2). The optical emission from the various species in the plasma showed an increase in metal ion-to-neutral ratio with increasing power. The time evolution within a pulse of the optical emission from Ar0, Cr0, Cr1+, and Cr2+ showed that at low powers Cr and Ar excitation develops simultaneously. However, at higher powers a distinct transition from Ar to Cr plasma within the duration of the pulse was observed. The time evolution of the discharge at higher powers is discussed. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 32.
    Elhag, Sami
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Habit-modifying additives and their morphological consequences on photoluminescence and glucose sensing properties of ZnO nanostructures, grown via aqueous chemical synthesis2015In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 116, p. 21-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Generally, the anisotropic shape of inorganic nano-crystal can be influenced by one or more of different parameters i.e. kinetic energy barrier, temperature, time, and the nature of the capping molecules. Here, different surfactants acting as capping molecules were used to assist the aqueous chemical growth of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures on Au coated glass substrates. The morphology, crystal quality and the photoluminescence (PL) properties of the ZnO nanostructures were investigated. The PL properties of the prepared ZnO nanostructures at room temperature showed a dominant UV luminescence peak, while the "green yellow" emissions were essentially suppressed. Moreover, the ZnO nanostructures were investigated for the development of a glucose biosensor. An adsorbed molecule has direct contribution on the glucose oxidase/ZnO/Au sensing properties. We show that the performance of a ZnO-based biosensor can be improved by tailoring the properties of the ZnO biomolecule interface through engineering of the morphology, effective surface area, and adsorption capability.

  • 33. Engstrom, C.
    et al.
    Berlind, Torun
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Ivanov, I.P.
    Cypress Semiconductor Corporation, 2401 East 86th Street, Bloomington, MN 55425, United States.
    Kirkpatrick, S.R.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Mat. Res. and Analysis, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 255 WSEC, Lincoln, NE 68588-0656, United States.
    Rohde, S.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Mat. Res. and Analysis, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 255 WSEC, Lincoln, NE 68588-0656, United States.
    Design, plasma studies, and ion assisted thin film growth in an unbalanced dual target magnetron sputtering system with a solenoid coil2000In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 107-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An original design and solution to the problem of magnetic field interactions in a vacuum chamber between two unbalanced magnetron sputtering sources and a solenoid coil serving to increase plasma density in near substrate position, is presented. By changing the solenoid coil current strength and direction, plasma growth conditions in an argon discharge and Ti-magnetron cathodes were found to vary in a broad region. Langmuir probe analysis shows that an increase in the coil current from 0 to 6 A caused plasma and substrate floating potentials to change from -7 to -30 V and from +1 to -10 V, respectively, as well as increasing the ion densities to a biased substrate from 0.2 to 5.2 mA cm-2 for each of the magnetrons. By using a ferro-powder magnetic field model, as well as finite element method analysis, we demonstrate the interference of the three magnetic fields - those of the two magnetrons and the solenoid coil. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the microstructure and morphology of Ti-films grown under different ion bombardment conditions. At low Ar-ion-to-Ti-atom arrival rate ratios, Jion/Jn to approximately 1.5, at the substrate, variations of the ion energy, Eion, from 8 to 70 eV has only a minor effect on the microstructure and film preferred crystallographic orientation, resulting in an open/porous structure with defect-rich grains. At a higher Jion/Jn value of approximately 20, films with a well-defined dense structure were deposited at ion energies of 80 eV. The increase in ion flux also resulted in changes of the Ti film preferred orientation, from an (0 0 0 2) preferred orientation to a mixture of (0 0 0 2) and (1 0 1¯ 1) orientations.

  • 34.
    Eriksson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemical and Optical Sensor Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Petersson, Lars-Gunnar
    Tekniska högskolan.
    The water-forming reaction on thin, SiO2 supported, palladium films1990In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 41, no 1-3, p. 137-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The water-forming reaction has been studied on thin Pd films, evaporated on planar SiO2 substrates. The nominal film thickness varied between 5 and 100 Å. The studies were performed in uhv by means of mass spectrometry, UPS and work function measurements in the temperature range 323–523 K. The film structure was also studied with TEM. The results are compared with previous measurements on 1000 Å, thick, homogeneous Pd films. The structure of the thin Pd films changed dramatically during cyclic H2 and O2 exposures, from that of a continuous film with cracks to that of drop-like metal particles. These structural changes are not observed on the thick (1000 Å) Pd films. Even though there are large structural changes, the water-forming reaction looks qualitatively the same as on a thick Pd film. The total water production however, decreases with decreasing film thickness. We believe that some minor qualitative differences in the water-forming reaction for different nominal Pd film thicknesses, are due to the increasing PdSiO2 boundary as the thickness is reduced.

  • 35. Eriksson, SÅ
    et al.
    Westman, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    A simple/universal rf-generator module system for use in plasma processing1985In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 35, no 12, p. 539-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36. Fogelberg, J.
    et al.
    Dannetun, Helen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Petersson, L.-G.
    A hydrogen sensitive palladium metal-oxide-semiconductor device as sensor for dissociating NO in H2-atmospheres1990In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 41, p. 705-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Pd-MOS structure can be used as a sensitive analytical tool in the study of dissociating oxygen containing molecules. Nitric oxide has been studied as a test case. Initially NO adsorbs very effectively and dissociatively on polycrystalline Pd at temperatures above 473 K. At this temperature H2O, N2O and N2 desorbs during an NO exposure in a hydrogen background. After such exposure the surface is probably left with only residual nitrogen atoms adsorbed on the surface. Below 390 K the dissociation probability is insignificant.

  • 37.
    Fondell, Mattis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Gorgoi, M.
    von Fieandt, Linus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Boman, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Lindblad, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Phase control of iron oxides grown in nano-scale structures on FTO and Si(100): Hematite, maghemite and magnetite2015In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 117, p. 85-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate that iron oxide in the form of hematite, suitable as absorption material in photo-electrochemical cells, can be produced by pulsed chemical vapour deposition. By choosing carbon monoxide or nitrogen as carrier gases in the process the phase and granularity of the grown material can be controlled. The choice of carrier gas affect the decomposition rate of iron pentacarbonyl used as iron precursor. The iron oxide phase is also dependent on the chosen substrate, here fluorine doped tin oxide and crystalline silicon have been used. Regardless of the substrate nitrogen yields hematite, whereas carbon monoxide gives, magnetite on Si and maghemite on fluorine doped tin oxide. A combination of Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used for characterization of the crystalline phase and chemical composition in the films. Scanning electron microscopy were used to visualise the deposited films' nano-structure.

  • 38. Gelin, B
    et al.
    Barklund, AM
    Nender, C
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Patterning with the use of ion assisted selective deposition1990In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 41, no 4-6, p. 1074-1076-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Peak amplitude of target current determines deposition rate loss during high power pulsed magnetron sputtering2016In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Film growth rates during DCMS and HIPIMS sputtering in Ar are measured for ten technologically relevant elemental target materials: Al, Si, Ti, Cr, Y, Zr, Nb, Hf, Ta, and W, spanning wide range of masses, ionization energies, and sputter yields. Surprisingly, the ratio of power-normalized HIPIMS and DCMS rates a decays exponentially with increasing peak target current density J(T)(max) for all metals. The effect of J(T)(max) on alpha is dramatic: alpha approximate to 1 in the limit of lowest J(T)(max) values tested (0.04 A/cm(2)) and decreases to only 0.12 with J(T)(max) similar to 3 A/cm(2). With the exception of Al and Si, alpha(J(T)(max)) curves overlap indicating that the debated rate loss in HIPIMS is to large extent determined by the peak amplitude of the HIPIMS target current for all tested metals. Back attraction of ionized target species is responsible for such large variation in a. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 40.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, M
    Seco Tools AB.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Selection of metal ion irradiation for controlling Ti1-xAlxN alloy growth via hybrid HIPIMS/magnetron co-sputtering2012In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 86, no 8, p. 1036-1040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate, for the first time, the growth of metastable single-phase NaCl-structure high-AlN-content Ti1-xAlxN alloys (x andlt;= 0.64) which simultaneously possess high hardness and low residual stress. The films are grown using a hybrid approach combining high-power pulsed magnetron (HPPMS/HIPIMS) and dc magnetron sputtering of opposing metal targets. With HIPIMS applied to the Al target, Aln+ ion irradiation (dominated by Aln+) of the growing film results in alloys 0.55 andlt;= x andlt;= 0.60 which exhibit hardness H similar to 30 GPa and low stress sigma = 0.2-0.7 GPa, tensile. In sharp contrast, films with corresponding AlN concentrations grown with HIPIMS applied to the Ti target, giving rise to Tin+ ion irradiation (with a significant Ti2+ component), are two-phase - cubic (Ti,Al)N and hexagonal AlN - with low hardness, H = 18-19 GPa, and high compressive stress ranging up to 2.7 GPa. Annealing alloys grown with HIPIMS applied to the Al target results in age hardening due to spinodal decomposition; the hardness of Ti0.41Al0.59N increases from 30 to 33 GPa following a 900 degrees C anneal.

  • 41.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Materials Science Department and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, USA.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Materials Science Department and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, USA; Department of Physics, University of Illinois, Urbana, USA.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Strategy for tuning the average charge state of metal ions incident at the growing film during HIPIMS deposition2015In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 116, p. 36-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy and time-dependent mass spectrometry is used to determine the relative number density of singly- and multiply-charged metal-ion fluxes incident at the substrate during high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) as a function of the average noble-gas ionization potential. Ti is selected as the sputtering target since the microstructure, phase composition, properties, and stress-state of Ti-based ceramic thin films grown by HIPIMS are known to be strongly dependent on the charge state of Tin+ (n = 1, 2, …) ions incident at the film growth surface. We find that the flux of Tin+ with n > 2 is insignificant; thus, we measure the Ti2+/Ti+ integrated flux ratio JTi2+ =JTi+ at the substrate position as a function of the choice of noble gase Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, as well as Ne/Ar, Kr/Ar, and Xe/Ar mixtures – supporting the plasma. We demonstrate that by changing noble-gas mixtures, JTi2+ varies by more than two orders of magnitude with only a small change in JTi+ . This allows the ratio JTi2+ =JTi+ to be continuously tuned from less than 0.01 with Xe, which has a low first-ionization potential IP1, to 0.62 with Ne which has a high IP1. The value for Xe, IP1Xe= 12.16 eV, is larger than the first ionization potential of Ti, IP1Ti= 6.85 eV, but less than the second Ti ionization potential, IP2Ti= 13.62 eV. For Ne, however, IP1Ne= 21.63 eV is greater than both IP1Ti and IP2Ti. Therefore, the high-energy tail of the plasma-electron energy distribution can be systematically adjusted, allowing JTi2+/JTi+ to be controllably varied over a very wide range.

  • 42.
    Grusell, E
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    The floating potential of a metal surface under bombardment of ions from a cold cathode grid1978In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 28, p. 329-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Gudmundsson, Jon Tomas
    University of Iceland.
    The high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge as an ionized physical vapor deposition tool2010In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 84, no 12, p. 1360-1364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various magnetron sputtering tools have been developed that provide a high degree of ionization of the sputtered vapor referred to as ionized physical vapor deposition (IPVD). The ions can be controlled with respect to energy and direction as they arrive to the growth surface which allows for increased control of film properties during growth. Here, the design parameters for IPVD systems are briefly reviewed. The first sputter based IPVD systems utilized a secondary plasma source between the target and the substrate in order to generate a highly ionized sputtered vapor. High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) is a recent sputtering technique that utilizes IPVD where a high density plasma is created by applying high power pulses at low frequency and low duty cycle to a magnetron sputtering device. A summary of the key experimental findings for the HiPIMS discharge is given. Measurements of the temporal and spatial behavior of the plasma parameters indicate electron density peak, that expands from the target with a fixed velocity. The discharge develops from an inert sputtering gas dominated to a sputtered vapor dominated during the pulse. The high electron density results in a high degree of ionization of the deposition material.

  • 44. Hafiz, M
    et al.
    Mgbenu, E
    Tove, PA
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Norde, Herman
    Petersson, CS
    Investigations of metal contacts to amorphous evaporated Ge films1977In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 193-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Hellgren, Niklas
    et al.
    Messiah Coll, Dept Math Phys & Stat, Mechanicsburg, PA 17055 USA.
    Thörnberg, Jimmy
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys IFM, Thin Film Phys Div, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Zhirkov, Igor
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys IFM, Thin Film Phys Div, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Sortica, Mauricio A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys IFM, Thin Film Phys Div, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden;Univ Illinois, Frederick Seitz Mat Res Lab, Urbana, IL 61801 USA;Univ Illinois, Dept Mat Sci, Urbana, IL 61801 USA.
    Greene, J. E.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys IFM, Thin Film Phys Div, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden;Univ Illinois, Frederick Seitz Mat Res Lab, Urbana, IL 61801 USA;Univ Illinois, Dept Mat Sci, Urbana, IL 61801 USA;Natl Taiwan Univ Sci & Technol, Mat Sci Dept, Taipei 10607, Taiwan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys IFM, Thin Film Phys Div, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Rosen, Johanna
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys IFM, Thin Film Phys Div, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    High-power impulse magnetron sputter deposition of TiBx thin films: Effects of pressure and growth temperature2019In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 169, article id 108884Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Titanium boride, TiBx thin films are grown in pure Ar discharges by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) from a compound TiB2 target Film compositions are determined by time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry as a function of deposition temperature (T-s = 25-900 degrees C) and Ar pressure (p(Ar) = 0.67-2.67 Pa, 5-20 mTorr). For reference, films are also grown by direct current magnetron sputtering (dcMS) under similar conditions. The HiPIMS waveform, average target power P-T, and resulting film compositions are strongly dependent not only on P-Ar, but also on T-s. At high pressures the effect of varying T-s on P-T is minimal, while at lower P-Ar the effect of T-s is more pronounced, due to substrate-temperature-induced gas rarefaction. Films grown by HiPIMS at 0.67 Pa are understoichiometric, with B/Ti = 1.4-1.5, while at 2.67 Pa, B/Ti decreases from 2.4 to 1.4 as T-s increases from 25 to 900 degrees C. dcMS-deposited films are overstoichiometric (B/Ti similar or equal to 3) when grown at low pressures, and near-stoichiometric (B/Ti similar or equal to r 1.9-2.2) for higher P-Ar. All experimental results are explained by differences in the ionization potentials of sputtered Ti and B atoms, together with P-Ar- and T-s-dependent gas-phase scattering.

  • 46.
    Hellgren, Niklas
    et al.
    Messiah Coll, PA 17055 USA.
    Thörnberg, Jimmy
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhirkov, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sortica, Maurico A.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA; Natl Taiwan Univ Sci and Technol, Taiwan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    High-power impulse magnetron sputter deposition of TiBx thin films: Effects of pressure and growth temperature2019In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 169, article id UNSP 108884Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Titanium boride, TiBx thin films are grown in pure Ar discharges by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) from a compound TiB2 target Film compositions are determined by time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry as a function of deposition temperature (T-s = 25-900 degrees C) and Ar pressure (p(Ar) = 0.67-2.67 Pa, 5-20 mTorr). For reference, films are also grown by direct current magnetron sputtering (dcMS) under similar conditions. The HiPIMS waveform, average target power P-T, and resulting film compositions are strongly dependent not only on P-Ar, but also on T-s. At high pressures the effect of varying T-s on P-T is minimal, while at lower P-Ar the effect of T-s is more pronounced, due to substrate-temperature-induced gas rarefaction. Films grown by HiPIMS at 0.67 Pa are understoichiometric, with B/Ti = 1.4-1.5, while at 2.67 Pa, B/Ti decreases from 2.4 to 1.4 as T-s increases from 25 to 900 degrees C. dcMS-deposited films are overstoichiometric (B/Ti similar or equal to 3) when grown at low pressures, and near-stoichiometric (B/Ti similar or equal to r 1.9-2.2) for higher P-Ar. All experimental results are explained by differences in the ionization potentials of sputtered Ti and B atoms, together with P-Ar- and T-s-dependent gas-phase scattering.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-08-17 15:22
  • 47.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Junaid, Muhammad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Serban, Alexandra
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sandström, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nucleation and core-shell formation mechanism of self-induced InxAl1−xN core-shell nanorods grown on sapphire substrates by magnetron sputter epitaxy2016In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 131, p. 39-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nucleation of self-induced nanorod and core-shell structure formation by surface-induced phase separation have been studied at the initial growth stage. The growth of well-separated core shell nanorods is only found in a transition temperature region (600 degrees C amp;lt;= T amp;lt;= 800 degrees C) in contrast to the result of thin film growth outside this region (T amp;lt; 600 degrees C or T amp;gt; 800 degrees C). Formation of multiple compositional domains, due to phase separation, after similar to 20 nm InxAl1-xN epilayer growth from sapphire substrate promotes the core-shell nanorod growth, showing a modified Stranski-Krastanov growth mode. The use of VN seed layer makes the initial growth of the nanorods directly at the substrate interface, revealing a Volmer-Weber growth mode. Different compositional domains are found on VN template surface to support that the phase separation takes place at the initial nucleation process and forms by a self-patterning effect. The nanorods were grown from In-rich domains and initiated the formation of core-shell nanorods due to spinodal decomposition of the InxAl1-xN alloy with a composition in the miscibility gap.

  • 48.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Editorial2012In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 86, no 8, p. 1013-1013Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 49.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Editorial Material: SPECIAL ISSUE CELEBRATING VOLUME 1002014In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 100, no SI, p. 1-1Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 50.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Thermal stability of nitride thin films2000In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 57, no 1Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a review of the thermal stability of state-of-the-art transition metal nitride thin films synthesized by physical vapour deposition techniques. Nitrides are successfully applied as wear-protection coatings for tools and mechanical components, decorative coatings, electrical contacts, and diffusion barriers in electronic devices. The aspects for thermal stability are on phase equilibrium, metal, nitrogen and impurity diffusion, recrystallization, phase separation, interfacial reactions, and oxidation. Microstructurally engineered structures are considered including single-crystals, nanolaminates, metastable alloys, and films in a state of compressive intrinsic stress. Titanium nitride is discussed in detail as a model system for the studies, but results are given also for NbN, AlN, BN, CNx, CrN, TiN-TiB2, Ti(C,N), and (Ti,Al)N films. More than 150 references are included. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

123 1 - 50 of 105
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