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  • 1.
    Abd Alrahman, Chadi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Khodabakhsh, Amir
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Qu, Zhechao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy of high-temperature H2O in a flame2014In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 22, no 11, p. 13889-13895Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate near-infrared cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy of water in a premixed methane/air flat flame. The detection system is based on an Er:fiber femtosecond laser, a high finesse optical cavity containing the flame, and a fast-scanning Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). High absorption sensitivity is obtained by the combination of a high-bandwidth two-point comb-cavity lock and auto-balanced detection in the FTS. The system allows recording high-temperature water absorption spectra with a resolution of 1 GHz and a bandwidth of 50 nm in an acquisition time of 0.4 s, with absorption sensitivity of 4.2 x 10 (9) cm(-1) Hz(-1/2) per spectral element.

  • 2.
    Ako, Thomas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics.
    Yan, Min
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Photonics.
    Qiu, Min
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Photonics.
    Design of invisibility cloaks with an open tunnel2010In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 18, no 26, p. 27060-27066Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we apply the methodology of transformation optics for design of a novel invisibility cloak which can possess an open tunnel. Such a cloak facilitates the insertion (retrieval) of matter into (from) the cloak's interior without significantly affecting the cloak's performance, overcoming the matter exchange bottleneck inherent to most previously proposed cloak designs. We achieve this by applying a transformation which expands a point at the origin in electromagnetic space to a finite area in physical space in a highly anisotropic manner. The invisibility performance of the proposed cloak is verified by using full-wave finite-element simulations. (C) 2010 Optical Society of America

  • 3. Akram, Muhammad Nadeem
    et al.
    Xiang, Yu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Yu, Xingang
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zabel, Thomas
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Hammar, Mattias
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Influence of base-region thickness on the performance of Pnp transistor-VCSEL2014In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 22, no 22, p. 27398-27414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have recently reported a 980nm GaAs-based three terminal Pnp transistor-vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (TVCSEL) operating at room temperature with optical power up to 1.8mW. However, the current gain beta = Delta I-c/Delta I-b was near zero just before lasing and became negative after the lasing threshold. The main cause of the negative current gain was found to be a gradual and position-dependent forward-biasing (saturation) of the base-collector junction with increasing bias even before lasing threshold. In this article, detailed multi-physics device simulations are performed to better understand the device physics, and find ways to avoid the premature saturation of the base-collector junction. We have optimized the thickness of the base region as well as its doping concentration and the location of the quantum wells to ensure that the T-VCSEL is in the active mode throughout its range of operation. That is, the emitter-base junction is forward biased and base-collector junction is reversed biased for sweeping the excess charges out of the base region.

  • 4. Alcusa-Saez, E. P.
    et al.
    Diez, A.
    Rivera-Perez, E.
    Margulis, Walter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Norin, Lars
    ACREO.
    Andres, M. V.
    Acousto-optic interaction in polyimide coated optical fibers with flexural waves2017In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 25, no 15, p. 17167-17173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acousto-optic coupling in polyimide-coated single-mode optical fibers using flexural elastic waves is demonstrated. The effect of the polyimide coating on the acoustooptic interaction process is analyzed in detailed. Theoretical and experimental results are in good agreement. Although the elastic attenuation is significant, we show that acousto-optic coupling can be produced with a reasonably good efficiency. To our knowledge, it is the first experimental demonstration of acousto-optic coupling in optical fibers with robust protective coating.

  • 5.
    Alcusa-Sáez, E. P.
    et al.
    ICMUV Departamento de Física Aplicada y Electromagnetismo, Spain.
    Díez, Antonio
    ICMUV Departamento de Física Aplicada y Electromagnetismo, Spain.
    Rivera-Pérez, E.
    ICMUV Departamento de Física Aplicada y Electromagnetismo, Spain.
    Margulis, Walter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Norin, L.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Andrés, M. V.
    ICMUV Departamento de Física Aplicada y Electromagnetismo, Spain.
    Acousto-optic interaction in polyimide coated optical fibers with flexural waves2017In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 25, no 15, p. 17167-17173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acousto-optic coupling in polyimide-coated single-mode optical fibers using flexural elastic waves is demonstrated. The effect of the polyimide coating on the acousto-optic interaction process is analyzed in detailed. Theoretical and experimental results are in good agreement. Although the elastic attenuation is significant, we show that acousto-optic coupling can be produced with a reasonably good efficiency. To our knowledge, it is the first experimental demonstration of acousto-optic coupling in optical fibers with robust protective coating.

  • 6.
    Amer, Eynas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Gren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Edenharder, Stefan
    Institut für Technische Optik, Universität Stuttgart.
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Stimulated Raman scattering detection for chemically specific time-resolved imaging of gases2016In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 24, no 9, p. 9984-9993Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging technique based on spatial modulation of the pump beam has been used to study gases. The SRS gain signal was separated from the Stokes beam background in the spatial frequency domain. The SRS signal shows linear behaviour with the gas pressure at a range from 1.0 to 8.0 bars. The signal is linearly proportional to the pump beam intensity while it is enhanced with increasing the Stokes beam intensity to a certain limit than it saturates. Further, the chemical specificity of the technique has been investigated. Two sharp peaks with line width at half maximum of about 0.30 nm have been obtained at Stokes beam wavelengths of 629.93 nm and 634.05 nm corresponding to the methane and ethylene gases, respectively. The results show that SRS imaging is a promising technique to provide chemical specificity as well as spatial and temporal information of gaseous species

  • 7.
    Amer, Eynas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Gren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    UV laser interaction with a fluorescent dye solution studied using pulsed digital holography2013In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 21, no 21, p. 25316-25323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A frequency tripled Q-switched Nd-YAG laser (wavelength 355 nm, pulse duration 12 ns) has been used to pump Coumarin 153 dye solved in ethanol. Simultaneously, a frequency doubled pulse (532 nm) from the same laser is used to probe the solvent perpendicularly resulting in a gain through stimulated laser induced fluorescence (LIF) emission. The resulting gain of the probe beam is recorded using digital holography by blending it with a reference beam on the detector. Two digital holograms without and with the pump beam were recorded. Intensity maps were calculated from the recorded digital holograms and used to calculate the gain of the probe beam due to the stimulated LIF. In addition numerical data of the local temperature rise was calculated from the corresponding phase maps using Radon inversion. It was concluded that about 15% of the pump beam energy is transferred to the dye solution as heat while the rest is consumed in the radiative process. The results show that pulsed digital holography is a promising technique for quantitative study of fluorescent species

  • 8. Amotchkina, Tatiana
    et al.
    Trubetskov, Michael K.
    Pervak, Yurij
    Veisz, Laszlo
    Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Pervak, Vladimir
    Stress compensation with antireflection coatings for ultrafast laser applications: from theory to practice2014In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 22, no 24, p. 30387-30393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Each complicated coating, in particular, a dispersive mirror consists of dozens of layers. Thin films layers have mechanical stresses. After summing up stresses from all layers, the resulting stress is high enough to bend even a relatively thick substrate. To avoid this effect we suggest depositing an antireflection coating (AR) at the back-side of the substrate which together with suppression of unwanted reflections from the back side will also compensate this stress. We demonstrate unique, extremely thick and sophisticated AR coating consisting of 71 layers with the total physical thickness of 7.5 µm. This AR coating completely compensates stress from the dispersive mirror coated on the front side and minimizes unwanted reflections.

  • 9.
    Andreasson, Jakob
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Martin, Andrew V.
    Liang, Meng
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Aquila, Andrew
    Wang, Fenglin
    Iwan, Bianca
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Svenda, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Ekeberg, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Hantke, Max
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Bielecki, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Rolles, Daniel
    Rudenko, Artem
    Foucar, Lutz
    Hartmann, Robert
    Erk, Benjamin
    Rudek, Benedikt
    Chapman, Henry N.
    Hajdu, Janos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Barty, Anton
    Automated identification and classification of single particle serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction data2014In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 2497-2510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first hard X-ray laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), produces 120 shots per second. Particles injected into the X-ray beam are hit randomly and in unknown orientations by the extremely intense X-ray pulses, where the femtosecond-duration X-ray pulses diffract from the sample before the particle structure is significantly changed even though the sample is ultimately destroyed by the deposited X-ray energy. Single particle X-ray diffraction experiments generate data at the FEL repetition rate, resulting in more than 400,000 detector readouts in an hour, the data stream during an experiment contains blank frames mixed with hits on single particles, clusters and contaminants. The diffraction signal is generally weak and it is superimposed on a low but continually fluctuating background signal, originating from photon noise in the beam line and electronic noise from the detector. Meanwhile, explosion of the sample creates fragments with a characteristic signature. Here, we describe methods based on rapid image analysis combined with ion Time-of-Flight (ToF) spectroscopy of the fragments to achieve an efficient, automated and unsupervised sorting of diffraction data. The studies described here form a basis for the development of real-time frame rejection methods, e. g. for the European XFEL, which is expected to produce 100 million pulses per hour. (C)2014 Optical Society of America

  • 10.
    Antelius, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Sohlström, Hans
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    An apodized SOI waveguide-to-fiber surface grating coupler for single lithography silicon photonics2011In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 3592-3598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the design, fabrication, and characterization of a grating for coupling between a single mode silica fiber and the TE mode in a silicon photonic waveguide on a silicon on insulator (SOI) substrate. The grating is etched completely through the silicon device layer, thus permitting the fabrication of through-etched surface coupled silicon nanophotonic circuits in a single lithography step. Furthermore, the grating is apodized to match the diffracted wave to the mode profile of the fiber. We experimentally demonstrate a coupling efficiency of 35% with a 1 dB bandwidth of 47 nm at 1536 nm on a standard SOI substrate. Furthermore, we show by simulation that with an optimized buried oxide thickness, a coupling efficiency of 72% and a 1 dB bandwidth of 38 nm at 1550 nm is achievable. This is, to our knowledge, the highest simulated coupling efficiency for single-etch TE-mode grating couplers. In particular, simulations show that apodizing a conventional periodic through-etched grating decreases the back-reflection into the waveguide from 21% to 0.1%.

  • 11.
    Ao, Xianyu
    et al.
    KTH.
    He, Sailing
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electromagnetic Theory.
    Two-stage design method for realization of photonic bandgap structures with desired symmetries by interference lithography2004In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 978-983Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interference lithography for the fabrication of photonic crystals is considered. A two-stage design method for realization of photonic bandgap structures with desired symmetries is developed. An optimal photonic crystal with a large bandgap is searched by adjusting some parameters while keeping some basic symmetry of the unit cell unchanged. A nonlinear programming method is then used to find the optimal electric field vectors of the laser beams and realize the desired interference pattern. The present method is useful for a rational and systematical design of new photonic bandgap structures.

  • 12. Aquila, Andrew
    et al.
    Hunter, Mark S.
    Doak, R. Bruce
    Kirian, Richard A.
    Fromme, Petra
    White, Thomas A.
    Andreasson, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Arnlund, David
    Bajt, Saša
    Barends, Thomas R. M.
    Barthelmess, Miriam
    Bogan, Michael J.
    Bostedt, Christoph
    Bottin, Hervé
    Bozek, John D.
    Caleman, Carl
    Coppola, Nicola
    Davidsson, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    DePonte, Daniel P.
    Elser, Veit
    Epp, Sascha W.
    Erk, Benjamin
    Fleckenstein, Holger
    Foucar, Lutz
    Frank, Matthias
    Fromme, Raimund
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Grotjohann, Ingo
    Gumprecht, Lars
    Hajdu, Janos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Hampton, Christina Y.
    Hartmann, Andreas
    Hartmann, Robert
    Hau-Riege, Stefan
    Hauser, Günter
    Hirsemann, Helmut
    Holl, Peter
    Holton, James M.
    Hömke, André
    Johansson, Linda
    Kimmel, Nils
    Kassemeyer, Stephan
    Krasniqi, Faton
    Kühnel, Kai-Uwe
    Liang, Mengning
    Lomb, Lukas
    Malmerberg, Erik
    Marchesini, Stefano
    Martin, Andrew V.
    Maia, Filipe R.N.C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Messerschmidt, Marc
    Nass, Karol
    Reich, Christian
    Neutze, Richard
    Rolles, Daniel
    Rudek, Benedikt
    Rudenko, Artem
    Schlichting, Ilme
    Schmidt, Carlo
    Schmidt, Kevin E.
    Schulz, Joachim
    Seibert, M. Marvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Soltau, Heike
    Shoeman, Robert L.
    Sierra, Raymond
    Starodub, Dmitri
    Stellato, Francesco
    Stern, Stephan
    Strüder, Lothar
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Ullrich, Joachim
    Wang, Xiaoyu
    Williams, Garth J.
    Weidenspointner, Georg
    Weierstall, Uwe
    Wunderer, Cornelia
    Barty, Anton
    Spence, John C. H.
    Chapman, Henry N.
    Time-resolved protein nanocrystallography using an X-ray free-electron laser2012In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 2706-2716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate the use of an X-ray free electron laser synchronized with an optical pump laser to obtain X-ray diffraction snapshots from the photoactivated states of large membrane protein complexes in the form of nanocrystals flowing in a liquid jet. Light-induced changes of Photosystem I-Ferredoxin co-crystals were observed at time delays of 5 to 10 µs after excitation. The result correlates with the microsecond kinetics of electron transfer from Photosystem I to ferredoxin. The undocking process that follows the electron transfer leads to large rearrangements in the crystals that will terminally lead to the disintegration of the crystals. We describe the experimental setup and obtain the first time-resolved femtosecond serial X-ray crystallography results from an irreversible photo-chemical reaction at the Linac Coherent Light Source. This technique opens the door to time-resolved structural studies of reaction dynamics in biological systems.

  • 13. Arias, Augusto
    et al.
    Etcheverry, Sebastian
    Solano, Pablo
    Staforelli, Juan
    Gallardo, Maria Jose
    Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Helina
    Saavedra, Carlos
    Simultaneous rotation, orientation and displacement control of birefringent microparticles in holographic optical tweezers2013In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 102-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the experimental implementation of a new method for generating multiple dynamical optical tweezers, where each one of them is generated with an independent linear polarization state with arbitrary orientation. This also allows an independent simultaneous polarization-rotation control. The laser beam, both for generating multiple traps and polarization control, has been modulated using a single reflective nematic liquid crystal with parallel alignment. We present experimental results of controlled displacement, orientation and rotation of birefringent particles. In addition, a simple method for estimating and canceling out the primary astigmatism present in the system is presented.

  • 14.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berlind, Torun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johs, Blaine
    JA Woollam Co Inc, NE USA .
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cuticle structure of the scarab beetle Cetonia aurata analyzed by regression analysis of Mueller-matrix ellipsometric data2013In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 21, no 19, p. 22645-22656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since one hundred years it is known that some scarab beetles reflect elliptically and near-circular polarized light as demonstrated by Michelson for the beetle Chrysina resplendens. The handedness of the polarization is in a majority of cases left-handed but also right-handed polarization has been found. In addition, brilliant colors with metallic shine are observed. The polarization and color effects are generated in the beetle exoskeleton, the so-called cuticle. The objective of this work is to demonstrate that structural parameters and materials optical functions of these photonic structures can be extracted by advanced modeling of spectral multi-angle Mueller-matrix data recorded from beetle cuticles. A dual-rotating compensator ellipsometer is used to record normalized Mueller-matrix data in the spectral range 400 – 800 nm at angles of incidence in the range 25–75°. Analysis of data measured on the scarab beetle Cetonia aurata are presented in detail. The model used in the analysis mimics a chiral nanostructure and is based on a twisted layered structure. Given the complexity of the nanostructure, an excellent fit between experimental and model data is achieved. The obtained model parameters are the spectral variation of the refractive indices of the cuticle layers and structural parameters of the chiral structure.

  • 15.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Garcia-Caurel, Enric
    Laboratoire des Physique des Interfaces et Couches Minces, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, France.
    Fallet, C.
    Bioaxial SAS, 40 rue de Paradis, France.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Foldyna, M.
    Laboratoire des Physique des Interfaces et Couches Minces, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, France.
    De Martino, A.
    Laboratoire des Physique des Interfaces et Couches Minces, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, France.
    Ossikovski, R.
    Laboratoire des Physique des Interfaces et Couches Minces, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, France.
    Sum decomposition of Mueller-matrix images and spectra of beetle cuticles2015In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 1951-1966Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spectral Mueller matrices measured at multiple angles of incidence as well as Mueller matrix images are recorded on the exoskeletons (cuticles) of the scarab beetles Cetonia aurata and Chrysina argenteola. Cetonia aurata is green whereas Chrysina argenteola is gold-colored. When illuminated with natural (unpolarized) light, both species reflect left-handed and near-circularly polarized light originating from helicoidal structures in their cuticles. These structures are referred to as circular Bragg reflectors. For both species the Mueller matrices are found to be nondiagonal depolarizers. The matrices are Cloude decomposed to a sum of non-depolarizing matrices and it is found that the cuticle optical response, in a first approximation can be described as a sum of Mueller matrices from an ideal mirror and an ideal circular polarizer with relative weights determined by the eigenvalues of the covariance matrices of the measured Mueller matrices. The spectral and image decompositions are consistent with each other. A regression-based decomposition of the spectral and image Mueller matrices is also presented whereby the basic optical components are assumed to be a mirror and a circular polarizer as suggested by the Cloude decomposition. The advantage with a regression decomposition compared to a Cloude decomposition is its better stability as the matrices in the decomposition are determined a priori. The origin of the depolarizing features are discussed but from present data it is not possible to conclude whether the two major components, the mirror and the circular polarizer are laterally separated in domains in the cuticle or if the depolarization originates from the intrinsic properties of the helicoidal structure.

  • 16. Atlasov, K.A.
    et al.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Rudra, A.
    Dwir, B.
    Kapon, E.
    Wavelength and loss splitting in directly coupled photonic-crystal defect microcavities2008In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 16, no 20, p. 16255-16264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coupling between photonic-crystal defect microcavities is observed to result in a splitting not only of the mode wavelength but also of the modal loss. It is discussed that the characteristics of the loss splitting may have an important impact on the optical energy transfer between the coupled resonators. The loss splitting - given by the imaginary part of the coupling strength - is found to arise from the difference in diffractive outof-plane radiation losses of the symmetric and the antisymmetric modes of the coupled system. An approach to control the splitting via coupling barrier engineering is presented. © 2008 Optical Society of America.

  • 17.
    Atlasow, Kirill A.
    et al.
    Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratory of Physics of Nanostructures, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Calic, Milan
    Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratory of Physics of Nanostructures, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratory of Physics of Nanostructures, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Gallo, Pascal
    Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratory of Physics of Nanostructures, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Rudra, Alok
    n/Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratory of Physics of Nanostructures, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Dwir, Benjamin
    Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratory of Physics of Nanostructures, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Kapon, Eli
    Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratory of Physics of Nanostructures, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Photonic-crystal microcavity laser with site-controlled quantum-wire active medium2009In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 17, no 20, p. 18178-18183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Site-controlled quantum-wire photonic-crystal microcavity laser is experimentally demonstrated using optical pumping. The single-mode lasing and threshold are established based on the transient laser response, linewidth narrowing, and the details of the non-linear power input-output charateristics. Average-power threshold as low as ~240 nW (absorbed power) and spontaneous emission coupling coefficient β~0.3 are derived.

  • 18. Baek, In Hyung
    et al.
    Choi, Sun Young
    Lee, Hwang Woon
    Cho, Won Bae
    Petrov, Valentin
    Agnesi, Antonio
    Pasiskevicius, Valdas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Yeom, Dong-Il
    Kim, Kihong
    Rotermund, Fabian
    Single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber assisted high-power mode-locking of a Ti:sapphire laser2011In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 19, no 8, p. 7833-7838Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on passive mode-locking of a Ti:sapphire laser employing a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber (SWCNT-SA) specially designed and fabricated for wavelengths near 800 nm. Mode-locked pulses as short as 62 fs were generated at a repetition rate of 99.4 MHz. We achieved output powers from the SWCNT-SA mode-locked laser as high as 600 mW with a slope efficiency of 26%. The characteristics of SWCNT-SA-assisted mode-locking were compared with those of Kerr-lens mode-locking without SWCNT-SA.

  • 19.
    Baghban, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Schollhammer, Jean
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gylfason, Kristinn B
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gallo, Katia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum and Biophotonics.
    Bragg gratings in thin-film LiNbO3 waveguides2017In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 25, no 26, p. 32323-32332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We design, fabricate and characterize sidewall corrugated Bragg gratings in a high confinement integrated optics lithium niobate platform, comprising submicrometric photonic wires, tapers and grating couplers to interface off-chip standard telecom optical fibers. We analyze the grating performance as band-rejection filter for TE-polarized signals in the telecom C-band, considering both rectangular and sinusoidal sidewall profiles, and demonstrate record extinction ratios as high as 27 dB and rejection bandwidths as narrow as 3 nm. The results show the potential for an efficient integration of novel photonic functionalities into low-footprint LiNbO3 nonlinear and electro-optical waveguide devices.

  • 20. Bagschik, K.
    et al.
    Frömter, R.
    Müller, L.
    Roseker, W.
    Bach, J.
    Staeck, P.
    Thönnißen, C.
    Schleitzer, S.
    Hårdensson Berntsen, Magnus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Weier, C.
    Adam, R.
    Viefhaus, J.
    Schneider, C. M.
    Grübel, G.
    Oepen, H. P.
    Spatial coherence determination from the Fourier analysis of a resonant soft X-ray magnetic speckle pattern2016In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 24, no 20, p. 23162-23176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a method to determine the two-dimensional spatial coherence of synchrotron radiation in the soft X-ray regime by analyzing the Fourier transform of the magnetic speckle pattern from a ferromagnetic film in a multidomain state. To corroborate the results, a Young's double-pinhole experiment has been performed. The transverse coherence lengths in vertical and horizontal direction of both approaches are in a good agreement. The method presented here is simple and gives a direct access to the coherence properties of synchrotron radiation without nanostructured test objects.

  • 21. Barrios, Carlos Angulo
    et al.
    Sanchez, Benito
    Gylfason, Kristinn Björgvin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Griol, Amadeu
    Sohlström, Hans
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Holgado, Miquel
    Casquel, Raphael
    Demonstration of slot-waveguide structures on silicon nitride / silicon oxide platform2007In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 15, no 11, p. 6846-6856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the first demonstration of guiding light in vertical slot-waveguides on silicon nitride/silicon oxide material system. Integrated ring resonators and Fabry-Perot cavities have been fabricated and characterized in order to determine optical features of the slot-waveguides. Group index behavior evidences guiding and confinement in the low-index slot region at O-band (1260-1370nm) telecommunication wavelengths. Propagation losses of < 20 dB/cm have been measured for the transverse-electric mode of the slot-waveguides.

  • 22.
    Bergstrand, Jan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Rönnlund, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Wennmalm, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Scanning inverse fluorescence correlation spectroscopy2014In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 22, no 11, p. 13073-13090Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scanning Inverse Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (siFCS) is introduced to determine the absolute size of nanodomains on surfaces. We describe here equations for obtaining the domain size from cross-and auto-correlation functions, measurement simulations which enabled testing of these equations, and measurements on model surfaces mimicking membranes containing nanodomains. Using a confocal microscope of 270 nm resolution the size of 250 nm domains were estimated by siFCS to 257 +/- 12 nm diameter, and 40 nm domains were estimated to 65 +/- 26 nm diameter. Applications of siFCS for sizing of nanodomains and protein clusters in cell membranes are discussed.

  • 23. Bertani, Stefano
    et al.
    Jacobsson, Bjorn
    Laurell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Pasiskevicius, Valdas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Stjernström, Mårten
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry (closed 20110630).
    Stretching-tunable external-cavity laser locked by an elastic silicone grating2006In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 14, no 25, p. 11982-11986Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate wavelength locking of a diode laser at 760 nm with feedback from an elastic transmission grating in the Littrow configuration. The laser was in a single longitudinal mode with a side-mode suppression of 20 dB. By stretching the grating the laser could be tuned over a few nm. The grating was fabricated in a silicone elastomer ( polydimethylsiloxane) by a moulding technique, and coated by a thin layer of Ti and Au to achieve an increased diffraction efficiency needed for efficient locking.

  • 24.
    Bertilson, Michael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    von Hofsten, Olof
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Vogt, Ulrich
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Holmberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    High-resolution computed tomography with a compact soft x-ray microscope2009In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 17, no 13, p. 11057-11065Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computed tomography based on high-resolution soft x-ray microscopy utilizes the natural contrast for biological specimens provided by the water window (lambda = 2.4 - 4.4 nm) and the high resolving power of zone plate objectives. It is capable of revealing the 3D structure of biological specimens at sub-visible-microscopic resolution. To date, the technique has only been available at synchrotron-based microscopes, which limits the researchers access. In the present paper we demonstrate high-resolution soft x-ray tomography with a laboratory zone-plate-based soft x-ray microscope. The specimen, a diatom mounted on a glass capillary, was reconstructed from a tilt series of 53 images covering 180 using a filtered back projection algorithm. The resolution of the tomogram was estimated to a half period of 140 nm using a differential-phase-residual method. Cryo-fixation, increased source brightness and extended-depth-of-focus objectives are important for pushing the resolution of compact systems for biological samples.

  • 25.
    Bertilson, Michael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    von Hofsten, Olov
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Vogt, Ulrich
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Numerical model for tomographic image formation in transmission x-ray microscopy2011In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 19, no 12, p. 11578-11583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a numerical image-formation model for investigating the influence of partial coherence, sample thickness and depth-of-focus on the accuracy of tomographic reconstructions in transmission x-ray microscopes. The model combines wave propagation through the object by finite difference techniques with Fourier methods. We include a ray-tracing model to analyse the origin of detrimental stray light in zone plate-based x-ray microscopes. These models allow optimization of x-ray microscopy systems for quantitative tomographic imaging of thick objects. Results show that both the depth-of-focus and the reconstructed local absorption coefficient are highly dependent on the degree of coherence of the optical system.

  • 26.
    Bogdanowicz, Janusz
    et al.
    IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.
    Gilbert, Matthieu
    IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.
    Innocenti, Nicolas
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computational Biology, CB. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Koelling, Sebastian
    IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.
    Vanderheyden, Benoit
    4 Institut Montefiore, Sart-Tilman B28, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Vandervorst, Wilfried
    IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.
    Light absorption in conical silicon particles2013In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 3891-3896Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of the absorption of light by a nanoscale dielectric cone is discussed. A simplified solution based on the analytical Mie theory of scattering and absorption by cylindrical objects is proposed and supported by the experimental observation of sharply localized holes in conical silicon tips after high-fluence irradiation. This study reveals that light couples with tapered objects dominantly at specific locations, where the local radius corresponds to one of the resonant radii of a cylindrical object, as predicted by Mie theory.

  • 27.
    Bogdanski, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Ahrens, Johan
    Bourennane, Mohamed
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Sagnac secret sharing over telecom fiber networks2009In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 1055-1063Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the first Sagnac quantum secret sharing (in threeand four-party implementations) over 1550 nm single mode fiber (SMF) networks, using a single qubit protocol with phase encoding. Our secret sharing experiment has been based on a single qubit protocol, which has opened the door to practical secret sharing implementation over fiber telecom channels and in free-space. The previous quantum secret sharing proposals were based on multiparticle entangled states, difficult in the practical implementation and not scalable. Our experimental data in the three-party implementation show stable (in regards to birefringence drift) quantum secret sharing transmissions at the total Sagnac transmission loop distances of 55-75 km with the quantum bit error rates (QBER) of 2.3-2.4% for the mean photon number μ = 0.1 and 1.7-2.1% for μ = 0.3. In the four-party case we have achieved quantum secret sharing transmissions at the total Sagnac transmission loop distances of 45-55 km with the quantum bit error rates (QBER) of 3.0-3.7% for the mean photon number μ = 0.1 and 1.8-3.0% for μ = 0.3. The stability of quantum transmission has been achieved thanks to our new concept for compensation of SMF birefringence effects in Sagnac, based on a polarization control system and a polarization insensitive phase modulator. The measurement results have showed feasibility of quantum secret sharing over telecom fiber networks in Sagnac configuration, using standard fiber telecom components.

  • 28.
    Bogdanski, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Ahrens, Johan
    Bourennane, Mohamed
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Single mode fiber birefringence compensation in Sagnac and "plug & play" interferometric setups2009In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 4485-4494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single mode fiber (SMF) birefringence effects have been a limiting factor for a variety of Sagnac applications over longer distance SMF links. In this report, we present a new concept of the SMF birefringence compensation in a Sagnac interferometric setup, based on a novel polarization control system. For the destructive interference, our control system guarantees a perfect compensation of both the SMF birefringence and imperfect propagation times matching of the setup’s components. For the stabilization of the constructive interference, we have applied a fiber stretcher and a simple proportional−integral−derivative (PID) controller. The enclosed experimental data of the setup’s visibility confirm validity of our polarization control system. We have also showed that the SMF birefringence model used in a “plug & play” interferometric setup [19], widely cited in the papers on quantum key distribution [11, 12, 13], cannot be applied in SMF Sagnac interferometric setup. However, the SMF birefringence model based on the Kapron equivalence well describes SMF Sagnac.

  • 29. Boyko, Andrey A.
    et al.
    Marchev, Georgi M.
    Petrov, Valentin
    Pasiskevicius, Valdas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Kolker, Dmitry B.
    Zukauskas, Andrius
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Kostyukova, Nadezhda Y.
    Intracavity-pumped, cascaded AgGaSe2 optical parametric oscillator tunable from 5.8 to 18 mu m2015In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 23, no 26, p. 33460-33465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A AgGaSe2 nonlinear crystal placed in a coupled cavity is intracavity pumped by the similar to 1.85-mu m signal pulses of a 1.064-mu m pumped Rb: PPKTP doubly-resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO) operating at a repetition rate of 100 Hz. Using two samples cut for type-I and II phase-matching, the overall idler tunability of the singly-resonant AgGeSe2 OPO covers an unprecedented spectral range from 5.8 to similar to 18 mu m in the mid-IR.

  • 30. Brizuela, Fernando
    et al.
    Carbajo, Sergio
    Sakdinawat, Anne
    Alessi, David
    Martz, Dale H.
    Electrical and Computer Engineering, Colorado State University.
    Wang, Yong
    Luther, Bradley
    Goldberg, Kenneth A.
    Mochi, Iacopo
    Attwood, David T.
    La Fontaine, Bruno
    Rocca, Jorge J.
    Menoni, Carmen S.
    Extreme ultraviolet laser-based table-top aerial image metrology of lithographic masks2010In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 18, no 14, p. 14467-14473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have realized the first demonstration of a table-top aerial imaging microscope capable of characterizing pattern and defect printability in extreme ultraviolet lithography masks. The microscope combines the output of a 13.2 nm wavelength, table-top, plasma-based, EUV laser with zone plate optics to mimic the imaging conditions of an EUV lithographic stepper. We have characterized the illumination of the system and performed line-edge roughness measurements on an EUVL mask. The results open a path for the development of a compact aerial imaging microscope for high-volume manufacturing.

  • 31. Brunetti, AC
    et al.
    Margulis, W
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Rottwitt, K
    Raman probes based on optically-poled double-clad fiber coupler2012In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 20, no 27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two fiber Raman probes are presented, one based on an optically-poled double-clad fiber the second based on an opticallypoled double-clad fiber coupler respectively. Optical poling of the core of the fiber allows for the generation of enough 532nm light to perform Raman spectroscopy of a sample of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), when illuminating the waveguide with 1064nm laser light. The Raman signal is collected in the inner cladding, from which it is retrieved with either a bulk dichroic mirror or a double-clad fiber coupler. The coupler allows for a substantial reduction of the fiber spectral background signal conveyed to the spectrometer._x000D_ Full text_x000D_

  • 32.
    Burvall, Anna
    et al.
    National university of Ireland, Galway.
    Barrett, Harrison H.
    University of Arizona.
    Dainty, Christopher
    National University of Ireland, Galway.
    Myers, Kyle J.
    U.S. Food and Drug Administration Laboratory for the Assessment of Medical Imaging Systems.
    Singular-value decomposition for through-focus imaging systems2006In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 23, no 10, p. 2440-2448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Singular-value decomposition (SVD) of a linear imaging system gives information on the null and measurement components of object and image and provides a method for object reconstruction from image data. We apply SVD to through-focus imaging systems that produce several two-dimensional images of a three-dimensional object. Analytical expressions for the singular functions are derived in the geometrical approximation for a telecentric, laterally shift-invariant system linear in intensity. The modes are evaluated numerically, and their accuracy confirmed. Similarly, the modes are derived and evaluated for a continuous image representing the limit of a large number of image planes.

  • 33.
    Burvall, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Barrett, Harrison H.
    Myers, Kyle J.
    Dainty, Christopher
    Singular-value decomposition of a tomosynthesis system2010In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 18, no 20, p. 20699-20711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tomosynthesis is an emerging technique with potential to replace mammography, since it gives 3D information at a relatively small increase in dose and cost. We present an analytical singular-value decomposition of a tomosynthesis system, which provides the measurement component of any given object. The method is demonstrated on an example object. The measurement component can be used as a reconstruction of the object, and can also be utilized in future observer studies of tomosynthesis image quality.

  • 34.
    Burvall, Anna
    et al.
    National University of Ireland, Galway.
    Daly, Elisabeth
    National University of Ireland, Galway.
    Chamot, Stephane R.
    Swiss Federal Polytechnic School of Lausanne.
    Dainty, Chris
    National University of Ireland, Galway.
    Linearity of the pyramid wavefront sensor2006In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 14, no 25, p. 11925-11934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pyramid wavefront sensor is very similar to the Fourier knife-edge test, but employs dynamic modulation to quantify the phase derivative. For circular modulation, we compare approximate geometrical optics calculations, more exact diffraction calculations, and experimental results. We show that both the sinusoidal and the approximate linear relationship between wavefront derivative and wavefront sensor response can be derived rigorously from diffraction theory. We also show that geometrical, diffraction and experimental results are very similar, and conclude that the approximate geometrical predictions can be used in place of the more complex diffraction results.

  • 35.
    Burvall, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Lundstrom, Ulf
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Takman, Per A. C.
    Larsson, Daniel H.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Phase retrieval in X-ray phase-contrast imaging suitable for tomography2011In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 19, no 11, p. 10359-10376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In-line phase-contrast X-ray imaging provides images where both absorption and refraction contribute. For quantitative analysis of these images, the phase needs to be retrieved numerically. There are many phase-retrieval methods available. Those suitable for phase-contrast tomography, i.e., non-iterative phase-retrieval methods that use only one image at each projection angle, all follow the same pattern though derived in different ways. We outline this pattern and use it to compare the methods to each other, considering only phase-retrieval performance and not the additional effects of tomographic reconstruction. We also outline derivations, approximations and assumptions, and show which methods are similar or identical and how they relate to each other. A simple scheme for choosing reconstruction method is presented, and numerical phase-retrieval performed for all methods.

  • 36.
    Burvall, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Martinsson, Per
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Friberg, Ari
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Communication modes applied to axicons2004In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 377-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The communication modes, which constitute a convenient method for the propagation and information analysis of optical fields, are formulated in the generalized axicon geometry. The transmitting region is the axicon’s annular aperture, and the observation domain is the optical axis containing the focal line segment. We show that in rotational symmetry one may employ the prolate spheroidal wave functions to represent the communication modes. Further, in usual circumstances the modes can be approximated by quadratic waves in the aperture domain and by sinc functions in the image domain. Both the exact communication modes and the approximate technique are confirmed numerically, with linear axicons as examples.

  • 37.
    Cai, Yangjian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    He, Sailing
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Propagation of various dark hollow beams in a turbulent atmosphere2006In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 1353-1367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Propagation of a dark hollow beam (DHB) of circular, elliptical or rectangular symmetry in a turbulent atmosphere is investigated. Analytical formulas for the average intensity of various DHBs propagating in a turbulent atmosphere are derived in a tensor form based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel integral. The intensity and spreading properties of the DHBs in a turbulent atmosphere are studied numerically. It is found that after a long propagation distance a dark hollow beam of circular or non-circular eventually becomes a circular Gaussian beam (without dark hollow) in a turbulent atmosphere, which is much different from its propagation properties in free space. The conversion from a DHB to a circular Gaussian beam becomes quicker and the beam spot in the far field spreads more rapidly for a larger structure constant, a shorter wavelength, a lower beam order and a smaller waist size of the initial beam.

  • 38.
    Caleman, Carl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Martin, Andrew V.
    Jönsson, H. Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Aquila, Andrew
    Barty, Anton
    Scott, Howard A.
    White, Thomas A.
    Chapman, Henry N.
    Ultrafast self-gating Bragg diffraction of exploding nanocrystals in an X-ray laser2015In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 1213-1231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In structural determination of crystalline proteins using intense femtosecond X-ray lasers, damage processes lead to loss of structural coherence during the exposure. We use a nonthermal description for the damage dynamics to calculate the ultrafast ionization and the subsequent atomic displacement. These effects degrade the Bragg diffraction on femtosecond time scales and gate the ultrafast imaging. This process is intensity and resolution dependent. At high intensities the signal is gated by the ionization affecting low resolution information first. At lower intensities, atomic displacement dominates the loss of coherence affecting high-resolution information. We find that pulse length is not a limiting factor as long as there is a high enough X-ray flux to measure a diffracted signal.

  • 39.
    Calil Kores, Cristine
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics. Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, Roslagstullsbacken 21, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden .
    Ismail, Nur
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Geskus, Dimitri
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Dijkstra, Meindert
    Bernhardi, Edward
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics. Visiting scientist .
    Pollnau, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics. Advanced Technology Institute, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK.
    Temperature dependence of the spectral characteristics of distributed-feedback resonators2018In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 4892-4905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We characterize the spectral response of a distributed-feedback resonator when subject to a thermal chirp. An Al2O3 rib waveguide with a corrugated surface Bragg grating inscribed into its SiO2 top cladding is experimentally investigated. We induce a near-to-linear temperature gradient along the resonator, leading to a similar variation of the grating period, and characterize its spectral response in terms of wavelength and linewidth of the resonance peak. Simulations are carried out, showing good agreement with the experimental results and indicating that the wavelength of the resonance peak is a result only of the total accumulated phase shift. For any chirp profile we are able to calculate the reflectivities at the resonance wavelength, and this information largely explains how the linewidth of the resonance changes. This result shows that the increase in linewidth is governed by the increase of the resonator outcoupling losses. 

  • 40.
    Camara, A.
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo. Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro,Brazil.
    Tarasenko, O.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Margulis, W.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Study of thermally poled fibers with a two-dimensional model2014In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 22, p. 17700-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A two-dimensional (2D) numerical model is implemented to describe the movement of ions under thermal poling for the specific case of optical fibers. Three types of cations are considered (representing Na+, Li + and H3O+) of different mobility values. A cross-sectional map of the carrier concentration is obtained as a function of time. The role of the various cations is investigated. The assumptions of the model are validated by comparing the predictions to experimental data of the time evolution of the nonlinearity induced. A variational analysis of poling parameters including temperature, poling voltage, sign of the bias potential and initial ionic concentrations is performed for a particular fiber geometry. The analysis allows identifying the impact of these parameters on the induced secondorder nonlinearity in poled fibers.

  • 41. Camara, Alexandre R.
    et al.
    Pereira, Joao M. B.
    Tarasenko, Oleksandr
    Margulis, Walter
    Acreo Swedish ICT.
    Carvalho, Isabel C. S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Optical creation and erasure of the linear electrooptical effect in silica fiber2015In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 23, no 14, p. 18060-18069Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the creation and erasure of the linear electrooptical effect in silicate fibers by optical poling. Carriers are released by exposure to green light and displaced with simultaneous application of an internal dc field. The second order nonlinear coefficient induced grows with poling bias. The field recorded (similar to 10(8) V/m) is comparable to that obtained through classical thermal poling of fibers. In the regime studied here, the second-order nonlinearity induced (similar to 0.06 pm/V) is limited by the field applied during poling (1.2 x 10(8) V/m). Optical erasure with high-power green light alone is very efficient. The dynamics of the writing and erasing process is discussed, and the two dimensional (2D) field distribution across the fiber is simulated. (C) 2015 Optical Society of America

  • 42.
    Camara, Alexandre R.
    et al.
    Rio de Janeiro State University, Brazil; Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Pereira, Joao M. B.
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Tarasenko, Oleksandr
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo, Fiber Optics.
    Margulis, Walter
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo, Fiber Optics. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Carvalho, Isabel C. S.
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Optical creation and erasure of the linear electrooptical effect in silica fiber2015In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 23, no 14, p. 18060-18069Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the creation and erasure of the linear electrooptical effect in silicate fibers by optical poling. Carriers are released by exposure to green light and displaced with simultaneous application of an internal dc field. The second order nonlinear coefficient induced grows with poling bias. The field recorded (~108 V/m) is comparable to that obtained through classical thermal poling of fibers. In the regime studied here, the second-order nonlinearity induced (~0.06 pm/V) is limited by the field applied during poling (1.2 × 108 V/m). Optical erasure with high-power green light alone is very efficient. The dynamics of the writing and erasing process is discussed, and the two dimensional (2D) field distribution across the fiber is simulated.

  • 43. Camara, Alexandre
    et al.
    Tarasenko, Oleksandr
    Margulis, Walter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics. Acreo AB, Kista, Sweden .
    Study of thermally poled fibers with a two-dimensional model2014In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 22, no 15, p. 17700-17715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A two-dimensional (2D) numerical model is implemented to describe the movement of ions under thermal poling for the specific case of optical fibers. Three types of cations are considered (representing Na+, Li+ and H3O+) of different mobility values. A cross-sectional map of the carrier concentration is obtained as a function of time. The role of the various cations is investigated. The assumptions of the model are validated by comparing the predictions to experimental data of the time evolution of the nonlinearity induced. A variational analysis of poling parameters including temperature, poling voltage, sign of the bias potential and initial ionic concentrations is performed for a particular fiber geometry. The analysis allows identifying the impact of these parameters on the induced second-order nonlinearity in poled fibers.

  • 44. Campbell, S.
    et al.
    Thomson, R. R.
    Hand, D. P.
    Kar, A. K.
    Reid, D. T.
    Canalias, Carlota
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Pasiskevicius, Valdas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Laurell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Frequency-doubling in femtosecond laser inscribed periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate waveguides2007In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 15, no 25, p. 17146-17150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Frequency doubling has been achieved in femtosecond-laser-inscribed single-mode waveguides written in two periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate crystals. A conversion efficiency of 0.22 %W-1 was obtained for first-order quasi-phase matching at 980 nm and an efficiency of 0.02 %W-1 for third-order quasi-phase matching at 800 nm.

  • 45. Candiani, A
    et al.
    Konstantaki, M
    Margulis, W
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
     Pissadakis, S
    A spectrally tunable microstructured optical fibre Bragg grating utilizing an infiltrated ferrofluid2010In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 18, no 24, p. 24654-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Cao, Yuan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Zhao, Yongli
    Beijing Univ Posts & Telecommun, State Key Lab Informat Photon & Opt Commun, Beijing 100876, Peoples R China..
    Lin, Rui
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Communication Systems, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Yu, Xiaosong
    Beijing Univ Posts & Telecommun, State Key Lab Informat Photon & Opt Commun, Beijing 100876, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Jie
    Beijing Univ Posts & Telecommun, State Key Lab Informat Photon & Opt Commun, Beijing 100876, Peoples R China..
    Chen, Jiajia
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Communication Systems, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Multi-tenant secret-key assignment over quantum key distribution networks2019In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 2544-2561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) networks are promising to progress towards widespread practical deployment over existing fiber infrastructures in the near future. Given the high cost and difficulty of deploying QKD networks, multi-tenancy becomes promising to improve cost efficiency for future QKD networks. In a multi-tenant QKD network, multiple QKD tenants can sham the same QKD network infrastructure to obtain secret keys for securing their data transfer. Since the secret-key resources are finite and precious in QKD networks, how to achieve efficient multi-tenant secret-key assignment (MTKA) to satisfy the secret-key demands of multiple QKD tenants over QKD networks becomes a significant problem. In this regard, this study addresses the MTKA problem over QKD networks. A new multi-tenant QKD network architecture is proposed based on software defined networking (SDN) and quantum key pool (QKP) techniques. A secret-key rate sharing scheme is presented and a heuristic algorithm is designed to implement efficient MTKA over QKD networks. A new performance metric, namely matching degree (MD) that reflects the balance between QKD network secret-key resources and QKD tenant requests, is defined and evaluated. Simulation studies indicate that high QKD tenant requests accommodation and efficient secret-key resource usage can be achieved via maximizing the value of MD. 

  • 47. Cen, Min
    et al.
    Chen, Jiajia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab). South China Normal University, China.
    Moeyaert, Veronique
    Megret, Patrice
    Wuilpart, Marc
    Full monitoring for long-reach TWDM passive optical networks2016In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 24, no 14, p. 15782-15797Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel and simple fiber monitoring system based on multi-wavelength transmission-reflection analysis for long-reach time and wavelength division multiplexing passive optical networks. For the first time, the full localization functionality of long-reach passive optical networks is possible with the proposed monitoring scheme, including supporting fault detection, identification, and localization in both feeder and distribution fiber segments. By measuring the transmitted and reflected/backscattered optical powers launched by an unmodulated continuous-wave optical source, the proposed solution is able to supervise the network with good spatial accuracy, a high detection speed and a low impact on data traffic. Both the theoretical analysis and experimental validation show that the proposed scheme is capable of providing an accurate fault monitoring functionality for long-reach time and wavelength division multiplexing passive optical networks.

  • 48. Cen, Min
    et al.
    Chen, Jiajia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Moeyaert, Veronique
    Megret, Patrice
    Wuilpart, Marc
    Multi-wavelength transmission-reflection analysis for fiber monitoring2014In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 22, no 25, p. 31248-31262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose and implement a novel approach based on multi-wavelength Transmission-Reflection Analysis (MW-TRA) technique for monitoring lossy events (e.g. disconnected connectors, fiber breaks and fiber bendings) along an optical fiber link. By launching un-modulated continuous-wave lights carried by different wavelengths into the fiber and measuring their transmitted and reflected/backscattered optical powers, our proposed MW-TRA scheme is able to localize any lossy event (including both reflective and non-reflective) and to quantify the corresponding insertion and return losses with high accuracy.

  • 49. Centeno, R.
    et al.
    Mandon, J.
    Cristescu, S. M.
    Axner, Ove
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Harren, F. J. M.
    External cavity diode laser-based detection of trace gases with NICE-OHMS using current modulation2015In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 6277-6282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We combine an external cavity diode laser with noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy (NICE-OHMS) using current modulation. With a finesse of 1600, we demonstrate noise equivalent absorption sensitivities of 4.1 x 10(-10) cm(-1) Hz(-1/2), resulting in sub-ppbv detection limits for Doppler-broadened transitions of CH4 at 6132.3 cm(-1), C2H2 at 6578.5 cm(-1) and HCN at 6541.7 cm(-1). The system is used for hydrogen cyanide detection from sweet almonds.

  • 50. Chalupsky, J
    et al.
    Juha, L
    Hajkova, V
    Cihelka, J
    Vysin, L
    Gautier, J
    Hajdu, J
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Hau-Riege, P
    Jurek, M
    Krzywinski, J
    London, A
    Papalazarou, E
    Pelka, B
    Rey, G
    Sebban, S
    Sobierajski, R
    Stojanovic, N
    Tiedtke, K
    Toleikis, S
    Tschentscher, T
    Valentin, C
    Wabnitz, H
    Zeitoun, P
    Non-thermal desorption/ablation of molecular solids induced by ultra-short soft x-ray pulses2009In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 208-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the first observation of single-shot soft x-ray laser induced desorption occurring below the ablation threshold in a thin layer of poly ( methyl methacrylate) - PMMA. Irradiated by the focused beam from the Free-electron LASer in Hamburg ( FLASH) at 21.7nm, the samples have been investigated by atomic-force microscope (AFM) enabling the visualization of mild surface modifications caused by the desorption. A model describing non-thermal desorption and ablation has been developed and used to analyze single-shot imprints in PMMA. An intermediate regime of materials removal has been found, confirming model predictions. We also report below-threshold multiple-shot desorption of PMMA induced by high-order harmonics (HOH) at 32nm. Short-time exposure imprints provide sufficient information about transverse beam profile in HOH's tight focus whereas long-time exposed PMMA exhibits radiation-initiated surface hardening making the beam profile measurement infeasible. (C) 2008 Optical Society of America

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