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  • 1.
    Alam, Anzar
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thim, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Lindgren, Johan
    Iggesund Paperboard AB, Iggesund, Sweden.
    Lidén, Joar
    SCA Ortviken AB, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Online surface roughness characterization of paper and paperboard using a line of light triangulation technique2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 662-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within both the paper and paperboard industries, real time monitoring and measurement of surface roughness of a paper moving at high velocities is an important and challenging area of research. The uniform surface, for an entire production, can be effectively achieved by monitoring and controlling the paper surface roughness, in real time during the manufacturing steps. Presently the majority of paper industries rely on traditional laboratory profilometers. The obvious limitations of lab profilometers are that these are slow, do not measure the quality of entire reels but rather deal with only a few small pieces of samples taken from the end of the reels and it is difficult to make any possible correction in the productionlines without knowing the online roughness data. To eradicate the disadvantages associated with conventional measurements, an online prototype instrument has been developed that measures the surface roughness during the manufacturing steps, and is based on a line of lighttriangulation technique. The prototype technique will be of assistance in ensuring tight process control in order to maintain both a better and auniform quality throughout the entire production. It measures the whole reel, meter by meter, in traditional units of roughness and is also capable of characterizing the topography in a wide range of wavelength spectra. The article presents the online analyses results obtained from the developed prototype. The real time measurements, in a paperboard pilot mill, have successfully characterized and distinguished 16 different grades of newspaper and paperboard reels including reels which have the same family of quality grades and materials.

  • 2.
    Alam, Mohammad Anzar
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thim, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Westerlind, Christina
    SCA R&D Centre, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Johan
    Iggesund Paperboard AB, Iggesund, Sweden.
    Lidén, Joar
    SCA Ortviken AB, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Investigation of the surface topographical differences between the Cross Direction and the Machine Direction for newspaper and paperboard2011In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 468-475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper and paperboard surface quality is constantly being improved by the industry. This improvement work deals with the essential fact that the surface topography must be measured, both in relation to offline and online measurements for the manufactured products. Most measurements relating to surface topography (especially online) are performed either in the machine direction (MD) or in the cross direction (CD). It has been the opinion of SCA Ortviken AB and Iggesund Paperboard AB that the surface topography amplitudes are almost always higher in the CD than in the MD, for their products which consist of newspaper and paperboard. This article aims to investigate the rela-tionship between the CD and the MD surface topography amplitudes for a wide range of spatial wavelength for both newspaper and paperboard. The tests and investiga-tions have been conducted using an FRT Microprof profilometer within the range 20 μm up to 8 mm, and the results confirm that the surface topography amplitudes are higher in the CD for most of the shorter spatial wavelength within this range. The results also show significant differences between measurements for different paper qualities, suggesting a requirement to investigate the relationship between the CD and the MD topography for all paper and paperboard qualities of interest for a paper or paperboard mill, before a decision is made in relation to a measurement method.

  • 3.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Olsson, Anne-Mari
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Stevanic Srndovic, Jasna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Miniaturized determination of ash content in kraft lignin samples using oxidative thermogravimetric analysis2017In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 280-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study has been made of several aspects of determination of ash content in kraft lignin samples using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Three different methods were used; with the main differences between the methods being that two have a temperature hold at 250 deg C to remove volatiles and that the three methods use different maximum temperatures, namely 525, 550 and 575 deg C, respectively. The three kraft lignins used were produced using the LignoBoost lignin isolation process. It has been demonstrated that the results obtained by the different temperature programmes showed no significant difference. The results were comparable with those from using oven ignition. Moreover, the limit of quantification was several orders of magnitude lower than when using oven ignition. It has been recommended that if TGA is used for determination of ash content, a temperature programme from a standard method should be used, which should be mentioned together with the results. The temperature programme in method one (corresponding to ISO 1762) was the shortest and the preferable method. A well as requiring less labour due to fewer movements in the analytical protocol, the TGA methods enabled a high sample throughput due to autosampling possibilities.

  • 4. Al-Dajani, W. W.
    et al.
    Gellerstedt, Göran
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Pulp and Paper Technology.
    On the isolation and structure of softwood residual lignins2002In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 193-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different softwood residual lignins were isolated by acid hydrolysis of kraft and soda Pulps. Complete isolation of lignin Could not be achieved in one hydrolysis step. The yield of lignin varied between 35 and 55%. A more acidic, second hydrolysis step was therefore necessary to isolate almost all the lignin remaining in the Pulp residue, giving a total lipin yield of 91%. Alkaline extraction of the pulp was almost as efficient as acid hydrolysis in isolating residual lignins. However, alkaline extraction gave less pure lignin fractions and there was a clear indication of the existence of lignin-carbohydrate bonds. Pine wood meal was acid-hydrolyzed in the same way as the pulps. After two-stage acid hydrolysis, the combined lignin yield was only 45% of the Klason lignin content, which means that native lignin is more difficult to isolate front wood than residual lignin front a chemical pulp. It is Concluded that the difficulty encountered in isolating residual lignin by acid hydrolysis is a problem of limited accessibility due to a complex carbohydrate network surrounding the lignin.

  • 5.
    Alfthan, Johan
    RISE, Innventia.
    Experimental study of non-linear stress relaxation and creep of paper materials and the relation between the two types of experiments2010In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 351-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The non-linear time-dependent mechanical behaviour of three different commercial paper grades was investigated. Stress relaxation and creep tests were carried out in MD and CD using different load levels. The strain in each test was split in a linear part and a non-linear part. From the stress and the linear part of the strain in the test, a stress relaxation modulus or a creep compliance was calculated. The stress relaxation moduli and creep compliances determined in this way were observed to be independent of the load level. The stress relaxation moduli and creep compliances for each paper were further independent of the loading direction (MD/CD) when scaled by the elastic modulus. It was also shown that the stress relaxation modulus was approximately equal to the inverse of the creep compliance, which is what would have been expected if linear viscoelastic theory had been applicable.

  • 6.
    Ali, Silvia
    et al.
    STFI-Packforsk, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Salmén, Lennart
    From wood shavings to mechanical pulp - a new raw material?2005In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, ISSN 0283-2631, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 418-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood chips used in the thermomechanical pulping (TMP) process were originally designed to suit the chemical pulping process. The production of small wood pieces more suitable for the TMP process could lead to an energy saving in this energy-intensive process. This paper discusses the potential benefits of using wood shavings instead of chips as the raw material for TMP production. In some exploratory trials, wood shavings with a thickness of about 2 mm and wood chips were refined in two steps under normal TMP process conditions in a pilot refiner. The first-stage refining was performed under pressurized conditions at 130°C. The second-stage refining was performed at atmospheric pressure at approximately 100°C at four different energy levels. The quality of the pulp produced from wood shavings was found to be better than that of the pulp produced from wood chips, with respect to both strength properties (except tear index) and optical properties at comparable energy levels. The potential for energy savings at a given tensile index using wood shavings instead of the traditional chips is estimated to be about 25%.

  • 7. Alm, Hajer Kamal
    et al.
    Ström, Göran
    Karlström, Katarina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Schoelkopf, Joachim
    Gane, Patrick A. C.
    Effect of excess dispersant on surface properties and liquid interactions on calcium carbonate containing coatings2010In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 82-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to identify what effects excess amount of sodium polyacrylate, a commonly used dispersant, has on the coating properties and the interaction between ink and the paper coating in offset printing. Since polyacrylate strongly interacts with calcium ions, soluble calcium salt was added to some coating colours to illustrate the impact of charge neutralization by calcium ions. It was found that the coating structure was only slightly affected by the extra addition of polyacrylate, showing some weak flocculation, whereas the surface chemistry was strongly influenced. The coatings became more polar and interacted more strongly with water. This resulted in slower ink setting and reduced ink-paper coating adhesion, especially in the presence of applied water/dampening solution, which are identified as contributory factors in ink piling and print mottle.

  • 8.
    Alm, H.K.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Ström, Göran
    RISE, Innventia.
    Karlström, Katarina
    Schoelkopf, J.
    Gane, P.A.C.
    Effect of excess dispersant on surface properties and liquid interactions on calcium carbonate containing coatings2010In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 82-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to identify what effects excess amount of sodium polyacrylate, a commonly used dispersant, has on the coating properties and the interaction between ink and the paper coating in offset printing. Since polyacrylate strongly interacts with calcium ions, soluble calcium salt was added to some coating colours to illustrate the impact of charge neutralization by calcium ions. It was found that the coating structure was only slightly affected by the extra addition of polyacrylate, showing some weak flocculation, whereas the surface chemistry was strongly influenced. The coatings became more polar and interacted more strongly with water. This resulted in slower ink setting and reduced ink-paper coating adhesion, especially in the presence of applied water/dampening solution, which are identified as contributory factors in ink piling and print mottle.

  • 9.
    Anderfors, Mikael
    et al.
    Innventia AB, Sweden.
    Llindström, Tom
    Innventia AB, Sweden.
    Söderberg, Daniel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Innventia AB, Sweden.
    The use of microfibrillated cellulose in fine paper manufacturing: Results from a pilot scale papermaking trial2014In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 476-483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work the strength enhancing capabilities of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) in highly filled papers was studied. Both the MFC production and the paper making were done in pilot scale under realistic industrial conditions. The results clearly show that MFC (2.5 - 5.0wt-%) could improve the mechanical properties of highly filled papers (20 - 35 wt-% filler contents). All studied dry mechanical properties were improved and the improvements were most pronounced for Z-strength and fracture toughness. By combining the MFC with a C-starch dosage further improvements in mechanical properties could be achieved. The improvements in mechanical properties enabled increased filler content with retained properties. The filler increase could be achieved at the same time as the sheet formation and the dry content after pressing were improved.

  • 10. Andersson, C.
    et al.
    Fellers, C.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Evaluation of the stress-strain properties in the thickness direction: Particularly for thin and strong papers2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, no 2, p. 287-294Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Andres, Britta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Bäckström, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Contacting paper-based supercapacitors to printed electronics on paper substrates2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 476-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid printed electronics, in which printed structures and silicon-based components co-exist will likely be among the first commercial solutions. In this case the paper substrate acts much in the same way as circuit boards, containing conductive tracks and acting as a carrier for the electrical components. It is important to consider the contacting of the components to be able to produce low resistance electrical contacts to the conductive tracks. Supercapacitors are able to deliver a large amount of current in a short time and are a good option for short term energy storage and if the printed product is to be used only one, or a few times, it can be the only power source needed. When manufacturing printed electronics, the overall resistance of the printed tracks as well as the contact resistance of the mounted components will add up to the total resistance of the system. A high resistance will cause a voltage drop from the power source to the component. This will waste power that goes to Joule heating and also the voltage and current available to components may be too low to drive them. If the intention is to use a power supply such as batteries or solar cells this becomes a limitation. In this article have been tested several conductive adhesives used to contact paper based supercapacitors to ink jet printed silver tracks on paper. The best adhesive gives about 0.3 Ω per contact, a factor 17 better compared to the worst which gave 5 Ω. The peak power that is possible to take out from a printed system with a flexible battery and super capacitors is about 10 times higher than compared with the same system with only the battery.

  • 12. Andersson, Kerstin I.
    et al.
    Pranovich, Andrey V.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Eriksson, Marie
    Holmbom, Bjarne
    Effects of biological treatment on the chemical structure of dissolved lignin-related substances in effluent from thermomechanical pulping2008In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 164-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effluent from a TMP-based pulp and paper mill was collected at the inlet and outlet of the mill's biological treatment plant and fractionated by sorption on XAD-8 resin and MTBE precipitation. Fractionation indicated that the refractory dissolved organic material in biologically treated effluent was mainly composed of lignin-related substances. Characterisation of the lignin-related substances by chromatographic and spectrometric methods confirmed the similarities of the isolated material and milled wood lignin. Fractionation and characterisation of alkali-extracted material from solids (biosludge) in biologically treated effluent found evidence of lignin-related material. Results indicated that biological treatment had altered the chemical structure and molar-mass distribution of dissolved lignin-related substances.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Pranovich, Andrey
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Eriksson, Marie
    Holmbom, Bjarne
    Effects of biological treatment on the chemical structure of dissolved lignin-related substances in effluent from thermomechanical pulping2008In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 164-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effluent from a TMP-based pulp and paper mill was collected at the inlet and outlet of the mill's biological treatment plant and fractionated by sorption on XAD-8 resin and MTBE precipitation. Fractionation indicated that the refractory dissolved organic material in biologically treated effluent was mainly composed of lignin-related substances. Characterisation of the lignin-related substances by chromatographic and spectrometric methods confirmed the similarities of the isolated material and milled wood lignin. Fractionation and characterisation of alkali-extracted material from solids (biosludge) in biologically treated effluent found evidence of lignin-related material. Results indicated that biological treatment had altered the chemical structure and molar-mass distribution of dissolved lignin-related substances.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Stefan
    et al.
    Holmen Paper AB, Bravikens Pappersbruk, SE-601 88 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Christer
    Holmen Paper AB, Bravikens Pappersbruk, SE-601 88 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Engstrand, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Effect of long fibre concentration on low consistency refining of mechanical pulp2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 702-706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of long fibre concentration on loadability and pulp properties during LC refining of mechanical pulp. Long fibre concentration was adjusted to three different levels by screen fractionation of the pulp. The three pulps were refined in a single disc pilot scale LC refiner at similar process conditions. Increased long fibre concentration supported a larger refiner gap and resulted in less fibre cutting at a given specific energy consumption. The higher long fibre concentration probably contributed to a stronger fibre network that maintained a larger refining gap at certain specific energy consumption. Increased long fibre concentration also enabled a higher tensile index increase in the LC refiner at certain fibre length reduction. The study supports a process combining LC refining with screen fractionation, where the long fibre fraction is recycled to the refiner feed. This enables a higher loadability and a more effective utilisation of the LC refiner. By using this technology, overall specific energy consumption can be reduced if a larger share of the refining is performed in LC rather than HC refining.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Sandberg, Christer
    Engstrand, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    The effect of rotor position on pulp properties in a two-zoned low consistency refiner2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 525-530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies have shown that plate gaps are sometimes unequal in two-zoned low consistency refiners and that unequal gaps render unevenly refined pulp. It is also known that optimisation of plate gap in low consistency refining leads to improved energy efficiency. In this work, trials were made in mill scale in a modern TMP line equipped with a prototype 72 inch TwinFlo low consistency refiner in second stage. The study was designed to investigate the development of pulp properties from different rotor positions by means of altering the outlet flow rate ratio. The specific energy consumption was calculated for each refining zone and setting, based on flow rate and temperature increase. In order to produce homogenous pulp, it was found that uneven plate gaps need to be compensated in low consistency refiners with dual refining zones. Results from the different flow rate adjustments indicated that the control setting with similar plate gap gave the most homogenous pulp. However, further studies are needed to find an adequate rotor control strategy. The temperature increase in each refining zone seems to correlate well with the applied specific energy consumption in each refining zone.

  • 16.
    Andres, Britta
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Vilches, Ana Paola
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Bäckström, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Supercapacitors with graphene coated paper electrodes2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 481-485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper based supercapacitors are prepared by stacking a paper between two graphene electrodes and soaking these in an aqueous electrolyte. We demonstrate that supercapacitors can easily be manufactured by using proven paper technologies. Several different electrode materials were compared and two types of contacting material, silver and graphite foil were tested. The influence of the paper used as separator was also investigated. The supercapacitors with a graphene-gold nanoparticle composite as electrodes showed a specific capacitance of up to 100 F/g and an energy density of 1.27 Wh/kg. The energy density can further be increased by using other electrolytes. The silver contacts showed a pseudo capacitance, which the graphite contacts did not. The papers tested had a minor effect on the capacitance, but they have an influence on the weight and the volume of the supercapacitor.

  • 17.
    Ankerfors, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Lingström, Rikard
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Ödberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    A comparison of polyelectrolyte complexes and multilayers: Their adsorption behaviour and use for enhancing tensile strength of paper2009In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 77-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares the adsorption behaviour and paper-strength-enhancing properties of polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) and polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) of polyallylamine hydrochloride and polyacrylic acid. Model adsorption experiments using SPAR (stagnation point adsorption reflectometry) and QCM-D (quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation) showed that the amount of complexes adsorbed was lower than the amount adsorbed when forming a multilayer using the same polymer system. From these experiments, in combination with AFM and ESEM imaging, it was concluded that the PEC adsorption stopped before full surface coverage was reached. Tensile testing of handsheets treated with PECs and PEM showed a significant increase in both tensile index and strain-at-break using both systems. The largest strength improvement was achieved with the fibres treated with the largest number of PEMs, but the largest effect per adsorbed amount of polymer was achieved by PEC treatment.

  • 18.
    Ankerfors, M.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lindström, T.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Soderberg, D.
    RISE, Innventia.
    The use of microfibrillated cellulose in fine paper manufacturing: Results from a pilot scale papermaking trial2014In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 476-483Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Ankerfors, Mikael
    et al.
    BillerudKorsnäs AB, Sweden.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE, Innventia.
    Glad Nordmark, Gunborg
    RISE, Innventia.
    Multilayer assembly onto pulp fibres using oppositely charged microfibrillated celluloses, starches, and wetstrength resins: Effect on mechanical properties of CTMP-sheets2016In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 135-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of multilayering of microfibrillar cellulose (MFC) onto a chemi-thermomechanical pulp (CTMP), from which the fines material had been removed, were investigated with regard to the mechanical properties of hand-sheets. In one series of experiments, the CTMP was multilayered with cationic MFC/anionic MFC (C-MFC/A-MFC) at various addition levels and sheets made in a conventional sheet former, pressed, and dried at room temperature. This experimental series was complemented with a second series, where sheets were made in a Rapid Köthen sheet former. In a third series of experiments, the CTMP was multilayered using a cationic polyamideamine epichlorohydrine resin (PAE) and an AMFC. Sheets were formed using the Rapid Köthen sheet former. Finally, in a fourth series of experiments, the MFC multilayering experiments were compared with multilayering experiments using cationic starch/anionic starch (C-starch/A-Starch). MFC-multilayering (C-MFC/A-MFC) gave inferior strength gain at a low addition level compared to starch multilayering, but (compared on a weight basis) the strength seemed to level off using starches at high addition levels, whereas there were a continuous increase in strength using MFC multilayering. Multilayering using PAE/A-MFC was found to give a higher strength gain than both C-MFC/A-MFC and C-starch/A-starch multilayering. Sheet density was slightly affected (<14%) by the multilayering techniques used in these experiments.

  • 20.
    Ankerfors, Mikael
    et al.
    ÅF Industry, Sweden.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Glad Nordmark, Gunborg
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    The effects of different types of wet-end added microfibrillated celluloses on the properties of paper made from bleached kraft pulp2017In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 336-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has been undertaken to compare the effects of different types of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) on the mechanical properties of paper. Three types of MFC were produced: Enzyme MFC (low anionic charge density), Carboxymethylated MFC (high anionic charge density) and cationic MFC (high cationic charge density). The different MFCs required different retention aid strategies. The simplest retention strategy was selected to secure a high retention of MFC. Some experiments also focused on dewatering and pressability of wet webs with carboxymethylated MFC. Conventional isotropic laboratory handsheets were made using a never-dried unrefined elemental chlorine free (ECF)-bleached softwood kraft pulp. It has been shown that the evolution of the mechanical properties and scattering coefficients when plotted versus MFC content was very similar for the three types. However, Enzyme MFC gave a significantly better reinforcement effect. All three types of MFC had a similar effect on the sheet consolidation, reflected in sheet density. Evaluation of the dewatering and pressability of the wet sheets showed that if the MFC was aggregated by an appropriate retention strategy, the dewatering and pressability were not detrimental to the practical applicability of MFC.

  • 21. Antonsson, S.
    et al.
    Lindström, Mikael
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Hogskolan, K. T.
    Ragnar, M.
    A comparative study of the impact of the cooking process on oxygen delignification2003In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 388-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of oxygen delignification on chemical pulps of a given kappa number manufactured in different ways (using kraft, prehydrolysis kraft and magnesium sulphite cooking) has been investigated. The prehistory of the pulps proves to be a very important factor in determining the response to oxygen delignification, i.e. the degree of delignification. It is shown that this is not due to different amounts of hexenuronic acid (HexA) in the different pulps, although this is an important factor behind the high residual kappa number after oxygen delignification of birch kraft pulp. Oxygen delignification of sulphite pulps proves to be efficient even at kappa numbers significantly lower than 10. These pulps show the greatest yield loss over the oxygen delignification. It is likely that Lignin Carbohydrate Complexes (LCC) complexes play a very important role in limiting the speed of reaction of oxygen delignification. Due to the very different prehistories of the pulps investigated, it is probable that the LCC:s are native and not formed during cooking.

  • 22. Antonsson, S.
    et al.
    Mäkelä, Petri
    RISE, Innventia.
    Fellers, Christer
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lindström, M. E.
    Comparison of the physical properties of hardwood and softwood pulps2009In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 409-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High mechano-sorptive creep resistance, i.e., good creep resistance in environments with changing relative humidity, is one of the key requirements for linerboards. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of pulp types and pulp properties on the mechano-sorptive creep of kraftliner. A high-yield softwood, kraftliner pulp, and four different hardwood pulps were investigated. The physical properties of laboratory sheets were evaluated, with emphasis on the mechanosorptive creep properties. The results showed that the density increase due to increased beating significantly improved the tensile stiffness of all pulps, while its effect on the isocyclic creep stiffness was less pronounced. The hardwood pulps showed higher tensile stiffness, better mechano-sorptive creep properties, and lower hygroexpansion than the softwood pulp at a given density. However, the softwood pulp did exhibit better tensile strength and fracture toughness properties than the hardwood pulps. The results imply that hardwood pulps can be competitive with softwood pulps in kraftliners, provided that their tensile strength and fracture toughness properties can be improved by, for example, chemical means. Furthermore, the isocyclic creep stiffness correlates with the ratio of tensile stiffness to hygroexpansion, indicating that this ratio can be used for engineering estimates of the mechano-sorptive creep performance of paper materials.

  • 23.
    Antonsson, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Lindström, Mikael E.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    The influence of lignin and xylan on some kraftliner pulp properties2009In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 403-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the influence of lignin and hemicellulose content on the mechanical and physical properties of softwood kraft liner pulp. Tensile properties, hygroexpansion, and mechano-sorptive creep properties were measured. The lignin and hemicellulose contents were modified by chlorite delignification and xylanase treatment.

    After treatment, the chemical composition of the pulps was 3-14% Klason lignin, 69-77% cellulose, 16-21% hemicellulose, and 4-7% xylan. In the tested pulps, low lignin content tended to decrease hygroexpansion as well as increase tensile stiffness and mechano-sorptive creep stiffness. Xylan contributed less to the pulp sheet properties, but at equal lignin contents, higher xylan content tended to give increased hygroexpansion and worse mechano-sorptive creep properties.

  • 24.
    Antonsson, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Karlström, Katarina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Lindström, Mikael E.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Applying a novel cooking technique to produce high kappa number pulps: the effects on physical properties2009In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 415-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A recently developed kraft cooking technique, with a longer impregnation time at lower temperatures to facilitate diffusion over consumption of active cooking chemicals, makes it possible to produce kraftliner pulp without inline refining. This technique was applied to prepare two pulps with different lignin contents, which were compared with two industrial pulps from conventional kraft cooks in order to evaluate the physical properties of the pulps.

    It was demonstrated that pulps with lower lignin content can increase tensile stiffness, decrease hygroexpansion, and decrease the mechano-sorptive creep of handsheets. However, no difference in SCT and tensile energy absorption values due to different lignin contents was observed. It was further demonstrated that pulps made with Extended Impregnation Cooking (EIC) results in straighter pulp fibres with higher cellulose content. These pulps tended to have lower mechano-sorptive creep than conventional pulps. A higher brightness of the pulp sheets can also be obtained by choosing a higher alkali profile.

  • 25.
    Antonsson, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Mäkelä, Petri
    Innventia AB.
    Fellers, Christer
    Innventia AB.
    Lindström, Mikael E.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Comparison of the physical properties between hardwood and softwood pulps2009In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 409-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High mechano-sorptive creep resistance, i.e., good creep resistance in environments with changing relative humidity, is one of the key requirements for linerboards. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of pulp types and pulp properties on the mechano-sorptive creep of kraftliner. A high-yield softwood, kraftliner pulp, and four different hardwood pulps were investigated. The physical properties of laboratory sheets were evaluated, with emphasis on the mechano-sorptive creep properties.

    The results showed that the density increase due to increased beating significantly improved the tensile stiffness of all pulps, while its effect on the isocyclic creep stiffness was less pronounced. The hardwood pulps showed higher tensile stiffness, better mechano-sorptive creep properties, and lower hygroexpansion than the softwood pulp at a given density. However, the softwood pulp did exhibit better tensile strength and fracture toughness properties than the hardwood pulps.

    The results imply that hardwood pulps can be competitive with softwood pulps in kraftliners, provided that their tensile strength and fracture toughness properties can be improved by, for example, chemical means. Furthermore, the isocyclic creep stiffness correlates with the ratio of tensile stiffness to hygroexpansion, indicating that this ratio can be used for engineering estimates of the mechano-sorptive creep performance of paper materials.

  • 26.
    Areskogh, Dimitri
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Fenton's reaction: a simple and versatile method to structurally modify commercial lignosulphonates2011In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 90-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Treatment of lignosulphonates with hydrogen peroxide and Fe (II) acetate under mild conditions can be used to increase the molecular weight and content of carboxylic acids. Such Fenton's oxidation can produce, in some of the conditions of and lignosulphonate concentration, a two-fold increase in the molecular weight and a 6-7 fold increase in the carboxylic acid content. The structural modifications of lignosulphonate may increase the technical performance of the product in several applications. Possible reaction mechanisms of the Fenton system are proposed and discussed.

  • 27.
    Asadollahzadeh, Mohammadtaghi
    et al.
    Department of Pulp and Paper Technology, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.
    Ghasemian, Ali
    Department of Pulp and Paper Technology, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.
    Saraeian, Ahmadreza
    Department of Pulp and Paper Technology, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.
    Resalati, Hossein
    Department of Wood and Paper Sciences, Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Sari, Iran.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Using spent sulfite liquor for valuable fungal biomass production by Aspergilus oryzae2017In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 630-638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent and increasing interest in bioconversion of lignocellulosic wastes into value-added products has led to extensive research on various microorganisms and substrates. In this study, filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae was cultivated on spent sulfite liquor (SSL) from a pulp mill. The process using an airlift bioreactor (3.5 L working volume) was successfully carried out in 48 h with an airflow of 0.85 vvm (volume air per volume culture per minute) at 35°C and pH 5.5. The cultivation results showed that the fungal biomass concentration was higher in more diluted SSL. The highest and lowest fungal biomass concentrations when spore inoculation was used were 10.2 and 6.5 g/l SSL, in diluted SSL to 60 and 80%, respectively. The range of crude protein and total fat of the fungal biomass was 0.44 – 0.48 and 0.04 – 0.11 g/g biomass dry weight, respectively. All essential amino acids were present in acceptable quantities in the fungal biomass. The results obtained in this study have practical implications in that the fungus A. oryzae could be used successfully to produce fungal biomass protein using spent sulfite liquor for animal feed.

  • 28.
    Athley, K.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Granlöf, L.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Söderberg, D.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Ankerfors, M.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Ström, G.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Mechanical retention - Influence of filler floc size and grammage of the fibre web2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, no 2, p. 202-207Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Axelsson, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Centre for Image Analysis. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis.
    Östlund, Catherine
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    Svensson, Stina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Centre for Image Analysis.
    Estimation of the pore volume at the interface between paper web and press felt2006In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 395-402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for determining the water content at the interface between a press felt and a paper web has been developed. The water content was obtained by subtracting the estimated volume of the indented fibre web from the measured felt surface porosity of the press felt. The felt surface porosity was calculated from a topography map that was imaged with a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) method. Here, the press felt was compressed against a smooth surface using a stress in the range of 0 to 10 MPa. Artefacts in the CLSM images were reduced using an image analysis method. The indentation of paper webs into the measured felt surface pores at different applied pressures was estimated using another image analysis method, simulating a rolling ball, with different radii of curvature for the different pressures and grammages, rolling over the felt surface. The ball radii were determined for a low and a high grammage web using the STFI-Packforsk Dewatering model. The method was evaluated in a case study with four press felts that had batt fibre diameters in a range between 22 and 78 μm. The indentation was calculated for webs with a low (15 g/m2) and a high grammage (105 g/m2), respectively. The evaluation showed that a considerable amount of porespace is available at the interface between the web and the felt. In most cases, the volume of the water-filled pores accounted for approximately 50% of the total surface porosity of the felt. Assuming a complete water saturation of the web/felt interface, approximately 10 g/m2 of water for the finest felt surface up to 40 g/m2 for the coarsest felt surface, could be located at the interface between the press felt and the paper web at a load of 10 MPa. This implies that a considerable amount of water is available for separation rewetting.

  • 30. Axelsson, P.
    et al.
    Ek, Monica
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Pulp and Paper Technology.
    Teder, A.
    Influence of alkali profiling in birch kraft pulping on QPQP bleachability2004In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 37-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of different aspects of alkali profiling in the kraft cook on QPQP bleachability of oxygen-delignified birch pulp was investigated. The use of a levelled-out alkali profile was compared to a conventional, and different modifications to the levelled-out alkali profile, like alkali charge, degree of delignification and amount of dissolved organic substance and ionic strength in the cooking liquor were studied. The alkali profile itself was found to have a significant effect where a levelled-out alkali profile showed a superior bleachability compared to a conventional one. The bleachability improved with an increased alkali charge towards the end of the cook, a high kappa number after cooking or by a cooking liquor exchange in order to decrease the amount of dissolved organic substance and the ionic strength towards the end of the cook. When a levelled-out alkali profile was used, the bleachability correlated well with the light-absorption of the lignin in the unbleached pulp, where a pulp with a brighter lignin consumed less peroxide in the QPQP sequence, for the pulp to reach 89% brightness.

  • 31. Axelsson, P.
    et al.
    Ek, Monica
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Pulp and Paper Technology.
    Teder, A.
    The influence of alkali charge and temperature in the kraft cook on the QPQP bleachability and the kappa number composition of birch pulp2002In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 206-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this investigation was to study how the alkali charge and the temperature in the kraft cook influence the QPQP bleachability of oxygen-delignified birch pulp. The bleachability was evaluated as the normalised consumption of bleaching chemicals required to reach a certain light absorption coefficient of the pulp. All the pulps had a kappa number of about 17 after the cook and a kappa number of about 10 after oxygen delignification. The alkali charge significantly affected the bleachability and the best bleachability was obtained for an intermediate level alkali charge ([HO-](initial)=1,35 mol/L, corresponding to an effective alkali charge of 21.6% on wood). An increase in cooking temperature gave only a slight increase in bleachability. The contributions to the kappa number of lignin, hexenuronic acids (HexA) and other non-lignin structures were also investigated. Lignin contributed to about 60% of the kappa number in pulps after the cook, to about 40% in pulps after the oxygen delignification, and to about 30% after QPQP bleaching. Hexenuronic acids contributed between 3.7 to 4.7 kappa number units in all pulps, which makes them the largest contributors to the kappa number in oxygen-delignified and QPQP bleached pulps. Other non-lignin structures, were contributing about 3 kappa number units in pulps after the cook, but decreased to less than I kappa number unit after QPQP bleaching. No great differences in the composition of the kappa number could be seen between pulps produced under different pulping conditions, except that there was a somewhat lower hexenuronic acid content in the pulps produced with the highest alkali charge or at the highest cooking temperature.

  • 32.
    Axelsson, Patrik
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Lindström, Mikael
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Influence of the conditions during birch kraft cooking on unbleached brightness, and on ECF- and TCF-bleachability2004In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 309-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influences on ECF and TCF bleachability of the hydroxide ion, hydrogen sulphide ion and sodium ion concentrations as well as of the amount of dissolved wood components (DWC) in a birch kraft cook were investigated. The pulping was carried out using a so-called constant composition cooking technique, where a high liquor-to-wood ratio enables an almost constant concentration of the cooking chemicals during the entire cook. This cooking method also renders possible to vary each cooking variable separately. The pulps were oxygen-delignified and bleached in a D(EOP)DD and a Q(OP)Q(PO) sequence. The presence of DWC caused a significant rate increasing effect on the delignification. An increase in hydroxide ion concentration, an increase in hydrogen sulphide ion concentration or a decrease in sodium ion concentration improved both the ECF and the TCF bleachability, but the DWC had no significant effect on the bleachability. Further a correlation was found between the bleachability and the brightness of the oxygen-delignified pulp.

  • 33. Back, EL
    et al.
    Laudi, B
    Elftonson, J
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Effect of modifiers on wax properties and on dispersibility under hot alkaline conditions1995In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 10, p. 122-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is one in a series of papers presenting a process for the removal of modified waxes from old corrugated containers by washing after alkaline hot dispersion of the recycled pulp. It presents experiments for selection of the most useful dispersants to be incorporated as wax modifiers already before the wax application. Criteria for selection were their effect on wax properties such as water and moisture resistance and their efficiency for dispersion to minimum size under hot alkaline conditions. The dispersants must also permit simple coagulation of the wax dispersion for its removal from a closed white water system. The dispersion experiments were carried out on a laboratory scale in the absence of fibers at 90°C and pH 9 to 11. Evaluated was the turbidity both at that temperature and after cooling to 20°C. For the final selection, the particle size distribution at 20°C was also measured. A few per cent of a commercial stearic acid with a minor addition of a nonionic fatty alcohol ethoxylate formula R-O-(CH2)2-O-]nH, was found to be a most suitable and economic wax additive.

  • 34. Backa, Stefan
    et al.
    Ragnar, Martin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Pulp bleaching with peracetic acid generated from acetylated polymeric carbohydrates and hydrogen peroxide - Proof of principle2007In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 409-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The generation of peracetic acid in the pulp mill may open up new opportunities to use this bleaching chemical. The generation of peracetic acid from acetylated carbohydrates and hydrogen peroxide followed by bleaching of pulp in a T stage was therefore studied with special emphasis on the COD content in the bleaching effluent from this stage. This preliminary work demonstrates that peracetic acid can be generated from acetylated polymeric carbohydrates and hydrogen peroxide, and that this peracetic acid will bleach pulp fibres as effectively as distilled peracetic acid. It is also shown that most of the deacetylated polymeric carbohydrate (in this case cationic starch) adsorbs to the fibre and does not affect the COD content of the filtrate after the T stage. The peracetic acid has been generated with and without pulp present. The peracetic acid yield from polymeric activators and hydrogen peroxide was lower than that from acetylated glucose. The peracetic acid yield can be further be optimised with respect to the acetylated polymer structure, process parameters and added peracetic acid stabilisers. No effect on the tensile strength was observed when cationic starch was used as an acetyl carrier in a TCF sequence with a final (PO) stage. Most of the cationic starch was probably removed in the washing after the (PO) stage pulp. To avoid this, the (PO) stage should be exchanged for a neutral or acidic bleaching stage or the cationic starch should be exchanged to a carbohydrate that better adsorbs to the fibre under alkaline conditions.

  • 35.
    Barbier, Christophe
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Larsson, Per-Lennart
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Östlund, Sören
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Experimental investigation of damage at folding of coated papers2002In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 34-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental investigation of damage occuring at folding of coated paper has been performed. For this purpose an experimental device was constructed in such a way that close resemblance with an industrial situation was achieved. During the experiments the influence on the damage levels in the coating from such features as delamination, humidity and paper thickness have been studied using an optical microscope. The behaviour of two different paper materials has been investigated. A stress (or strain) based fracture criterion is relevant for the present problem but biaxiality of stresses as well as in-plane anisotropy must be taken into account. It was observed that cracking of the coating would not lead to subsequent cracking of the paper substrate and that delamination occurred during folding, in the base stock and not at the paper/coating interface, but its quantitative influence as regards cracking could not be determined. The influence from sheet grammage was investigated and it was found that the only case when (visible) cracks did not appear was at low values. High humidity did not affect the cracking.

  • 36.
    Barbier, Christophe
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences, Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Larsson, PL
    KTH Stockholm.
    Östlund, S
    Experimental investigation of damage at folding of coated papers2002In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 34-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve a better understanding of the folding properties of coated papers pertinent to the mechanical behaviour, a microscopic investigation was performed. The influence on the damage levels in the coating from such features as delamination, humidity and paper thickness have been studied

  • 37.
    Barros, Gustavo Gil
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Johansson, Per-Åke
    STFI-Packforsk AB, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Prediction of UnCovered Area occurrence in flexography based on topography: A feasibility study2006In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 172-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation concerns the development and prediction of uncovered areas (UCA) in flexographic full-tone prints based purely on substrate topographic information. Four different predictive models based on topography thresholding were proposed and tested using two independent quality judgement criteria. 

  • 38.
    Berg, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Sandberg, Christer
    Braviken Paper Mill, Holmen Paper, SE-60188 Norrkoping, Sweden.
    Engberg, Birgitta A.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Engstrand, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Low-consistency refining of mechanical pulp in the light of forces on fibres2015In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 225-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this investigation was to find new approaches to evaluate the performance of low-consistency refiners. Data from a paper mill producing TMP from Norway spruce was used in order to find a possible way to calculate the power split between the zones in a TwinFlo refiner. An assumption of equal amount of fibres captured between overlapping bars was found successful in order to develop equations for the power split. The equations predicted equal power in both zones at equal disc gaps. The power was found to increase approximately linearly with decreasing disc gap over the range, 0.1-0.2 mm. The power split was essential to know for calculating refining intensities expressed as specific edge load and forces on fibres in the two zones. The reduction in fibre length was about 5% at 0.17 mm disc gap or at 0.03 N forces on fibres or at 0.7 J/m specific edge load. Disc gap, forces on fibres and specific edge load was found to predict fibre shortening approximately equally upon changes in power and flow rate through the refiner.

  • 39.
    Bergström, Roger
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Åkesson, Krister
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Norman, Bo
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    A twin-wire model gap former: design and evaluation methods2006In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 54-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A one-sided model twin wire gap former, the KTH-former has been developed. The former consists of headbox with transparent gables, forming unit, including a forming roll with a transparent surface and outer forming wire and a reservoir system for water/fibre suspension handling. To allow the study of blade forming, a blade can be introduced against the outer wire to generate a pressure pulse.

    Two measurement techniques have been utilized to study the flow mechanisms of fibre suspension flow in the forming zone;

    A pressure sensor has been used to study the dewatering pressure along the forming zone.

    A high speed video system was used to visually study the suspension flow.

    The study was made with pulp fibres. Fibre floes were introduced in the center of the headbox at the beginning of the linear nozzle contraction, by an introduction tube with an inner diameter of 10 mm. The acceleration in the nozzle contraction was used to separate the fibre floes in the Suspension making them move individually, thus making the visualisations easier. To avoid the problem of floc break-down at nozzle exit when using a conventional linear nozzle with parrot's beak outlet, two Curved contraction blocs were inserted, giving a more constant acceleration profile, letting the floes keep their integrity in the emerging jet.

    The high speed video system had two main arrangements, for the Study of floc behaviour in the forming zone. A mirror installed on the machine structure visualised a certain area of the forming zone. Alternatively, a mirror fastened to the back plate of the forming roll followed a specific area of the wire (and roll), making it possible to follow the floes through the entire forming zone. It is then possible to detect any relative motion between floes and wire.

  • 40.
    Bialik, Marta
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Moosavifar, A.
    Sedin, M.
    Theliander, H.
    Using the pitzer method to estimate the boiling point rise in black liquor solutions2009In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 172-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The boiling point rise (elevation) of aqueous industrial solutions is often of significant importance for the design of process conditions, equipment, heat balances, etc. However, few rigorous methods exist for predicting boiling point elevation in complex, multicomponent, electrolyte solutions. An example of such a solution is the black liquor obtained in kraft pulp production: a complex mixture of organic and inorganic ions including Na +, K + OH -, HS - C0 3 2- S0 4 2- S 20 3 2- CH 3COO - various phenolates and many more. This work shows one application of the semi-empirical Pitzer method to the theoretical prediction of the boiling point rise in industrial black liquor solutions. The values of the boiling point elevation were measured in two series of black liquors from representative Swedish mills, including both the original and lignin-lean black liquor at different solid contents. The results show a good agreement between experimental and predicted values at low to moderate solid content, and good qualitative prediction at high solid content.

  • 41.
    Björkman, Ulf
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Pulp and Paper Technology.
    Break-up of suspended fibre networks2003In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 32-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suspended fibre networks form when flowing fibre suspensions come to rest. When stresses on such a network increases, the network is broken down and the fibre suspension eventually returns to a flowing condition. Here a series of experiments are described showing that the initiation of this break-down process leads to network-free voids opening up in the direction parallel to the largest compression.

  • 42.
    Björkman, Ulf
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Paper Technology.
    Floc dynamics in flowing fibre suspensions2005In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 247-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fibre suspensions are ubiquitous in nature and technology. They occur in flowing form and as extended networks. Flow of fibre suspensions takes place in smaller network portions, fibre floes. Fibre networks normally form when fibre flows stop and vice versa. Traditionally, fibre suspensions are treated as systems of fibres. Here they will be treated as crowded systems of compressible floes. With a large Couette device it is shown that these floes split and fuse, shrink and swell and behave much like a particulate system composed of compressible floes suspended in a liquid, which can move in and out of the floes. The investigated average shear rate range is from zero to about 600 s(-1).

  • 43.
    Björkman, Ulf
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Pulp and Paper Technology.
    Stress generation and transmission in suspended fibre networks2003In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 38-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suspended fibre networks are viewed as particulate systems of closely packed non-adherent compressible flocs suspended in an incompressible penetrating matrix. Experiments show that stress chains form upon compression because the flocs stand in the way of each other. If tensile stresses are applied, the. flocs separate without significant resistance. Network voids open up between and parallel to the stress chains. The reason is that the fibres create compressible flocs with a Poisson ratio less than 0.5.

  • 44.
    Björkqvist, T.
    et al.
    Department of Automation Science and Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O.B 692, FIN-33100 Tampere, Finland.
    Engberg, Birgitta A.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Salminen, L. I.
    VTT Technical Research Center Finland, P.O.B. 1000, FIN-02044 VTT, Finland.
    Salmi, A.
    VTT Technical Research Center Finland, P.O.B. 1000, FIN-02044 VTT, Finland.
    Towards optimal defibration: Energy reduction by fatiguing pre-treatment2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 168-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A motive for fatiguing wood prior to defibration would be to reduce the energy consumption needed in mechanical pulping processes. Therefore, the effects of fatiguing pre-treatment were here studied on wood samples, on defibration and also on produced paper. The results indicate that pre-fatiguing changes the mechanic response of wood to be more favorable for harsh defibration which in turn is positive for the process efficiency.

  • 45.
    Bohlin, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Lestelius, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Johansson, Caisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Flexographic Ink-Coating Interactions: Effects of Porous Structure Variations of Coated Paperboard2013In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 28, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ink transfer and ink penetration into a coated surface, and variations thereof, influences the print density, mottling and dot gain, which affects the achievable print quality and visual appearance. The pressure in the printing nip and the porosity of the substrate are conditions and properties that will regulate the amount of ink that penetrates into a porous coating structure. The purpose of this study was to relate print quality aspects to ink penetration of water-based flexographic ink into calcium carbonate based coatings of differently engineered structures. Pilot-coated paper-boards with different coating porosities were printed in a laboratory flexographic printer. Results indicate that ink transfer distribution is strongly affected by the roughness and the porosity of the substrate. A coating layer of broad pigment particle size distribution resulted in a lower print density, compared to coatings of narrowly distributed particle sizes. A structure characterized by larger pore volume and greater dominating pore radius, showed a higher amount of z-directional ink penetration, which was supported by estimating the penetration using a physical model accounting for both capillary- and pressure driven penetration. A coating with narrow particle size distribution also showed a lower dot gain.

  • 46.
    Borodulina, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.).
    Extracting fiber and network connectivity data using microtomography images of paper2016In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 469-478, article id 07315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We apply image analysis methods based on micro-computed tomography (μCT) to extract the parameters that characterize the structure and bonding parameters in the fiber network of paper. The scaling and variational properties of μCT images are examined by analyzing paper structural properties of two 1 × 1 mm2 test pieces, which have been cut out from a low-grammage handsheet. We demonstrate the applicability of the methods for extracting the free fiber length, fiber cross-sectional data, the distances between the fibers, and the number of fiber-to-fiber bonds, which are the key properties required for the adequate representation of the network in numerical models. We compare the extracted connectivity data with the early reported analytical estimations and conclude that the number of contacts in three-dimensional networks is controlled by the fiber aspect ratio. In addition, we compare the cross-sectional data with those measured by the fiber morphology characterization tools and estimate the fiber shrinkage from completely wet to dry state to be nearly 20%.

  • 47.
    Borodulina, Svetlana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.). KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Kulachenko, Artem
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.). KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Galland, Sylvain
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Nygårds, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.). KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Stress-strain curve of paper revisited2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 318-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated a relation between micromechanical processes and the stress-strain curve of a dry fiber network during tensile loading. By using a detailed particle-level simulation tool we investigate, among other things, the impact of "non-traditional" bonding parameters, such as compliance of bonding regions, work of separation and the actual number of effective bonds. This is probably the first three-dimensional model which is capable of simulating the fracture process of paper accounting for nonlinearities at the fiber level and bond failures. The failure behavior of the network considered in the study could be changed significantly by relatively small changes in bond strength, as compared to the scatter in bonding data found in the literature. We have identified that compliance of the bonding regions has a significant impact on network strength. By comparing networks with weak and strong bonds, we concluded that large local strains are the precursors of bond failures and not the other way around.

  • 48. Borodulina, Svetlana
    et al.
    Wernersson, Erik L. G.
    Kulachenko, Artem
    Luengo Hendriks, Cris L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Extracting fiber and network connectivity data using microtomography images of paper2016In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 469-478Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Boudreau, Jonna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Beghello, Luciano
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    A Method of Measuring the Thickness of the Coating on a Dryer Cylinder2009In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 309-312Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Boudreau, Jonna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Hollmark, Holger
    Hollmark Imptec AB.
    Beghello, Luciano
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Chemical and Morphological Analyses of the Tissue Yankee Coating2009In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 52-59Article in journal (Refereed)
1234567 1 - 50 of 579
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