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  • 1.
    Akhtar, Farid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ceramic reinforced high modulus steel composites: processing, microstructure and properties2014In: Canadian metallurgical quarterly, ISSN 0008-4433, E-ISSN 1879-1395, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 253-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ceramic reinforced steel matrix composites are materials for automotive, aerospace, wear and cutting applications. Such metal matrix composites (MMCs) combine attractive physical, mechanical and wear properties with ease of fabrication and low cost. The review focuses on the current state of the art of producing these metal matrix composites, ceramics reinforcements, composition of steel matrix, microstructure evolution and parameters influencing the mechanical and wear properties. Processing methods to fabricate ceramic reinforced steel matrix composites are discussed to produce these composites with low number of defects, homogeneous microstructure and high mechanical and wear performance. The influence of chemical nature of ceramic reinforcements and composition of steel matrix on the microstructure, mechanical and wear properties is presented. The strengthening mechanisms and parameters controlling wear performance of steel MMCs are described as a function of the content of ceramic reinforcements, microstructural design and structure of the steel matrix. Keeping in view the stability of ceramics in steels, suitable ceramic reinforcements and steel matrix materials are discussed. Moreover, the importance of microstructure and interface between ceramic reinforcement and steel matrix in controlling the mechanical properties of steel MMCs is highlighted. The review identifies area of research for development to fully appreciate and tailor the properties of these industrially important composites.

  • 2.
    Akhtar, Farid
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Ceramic reinforced high modulus steel composites: processing, microstructure and properties2014In: Canadian metallurgical quarterly, ISSN 0008-4433, E-ISSN 1879-1395, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 253-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ceramic reinforced steel matrix composites are materials for automotive, aerospace, wear and cutting applications. Such metal matrix composites (MMCs) combine attractive physical, mechanical and wear properties with ease of fabrication and low cost. The review focuses on the current state of the art of producing these metal matrix composites, ceramics reinforcements, composition of steel matrix, microstructure evolution and parameters influencing the mechanical and wear properties. Processing methods to fabricate ceramic reinforced steel matrix composites are discussed to produce these composites with low number of defects, homogeneous microstructure and high mechanical and wear performance. The influence of chemical nature of ceramic reinforcements and composition of steel matrix on the microstructure, mechanical and wear properties is presented. The strengthening mechanisms and parameters controlling wear performance of steel MMCs are described as a function of the content of ceramic reinforcements, microstructural design and structure of the steel matrix. Keeping in view the stability of ceramics in steels, suitable ceramic reinforcements and steel matrix materials are discussed. Moreover, the importance of microstructure and interface between ceramic reinforcement and steel matrix in controlling the mechanical properties of steel MMCs is highlighted. The review identifies area of research for development to fully appreciate and tailor the properties of these industrially important composites.

  • 3.
    Arsenault, B.
    et al.
    Industrial Materials Institute, NRC, Boucherville, Que., Canada.
    Gougeon, P.
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Verdier, M.
    Université de Technologie Belfort-Montbéliard, Laboratoire d'Etudes et des Recherches sur les Materiaux les Procedes et les Surfaces (LERMPS).
    Duquesnay, D. L.
    Royal Military College of Canada, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Aluminum protective coatings - Fatigue and bond strength properties with respect to surface preparation techniques: Laser ablation, shot peening and grit blasting2006In: Canadian metallurgical quarterly, ISSN 0008-4433, E-ISSN 1879-1395, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 49-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aluminum coatings can provide galvanic cathodic protection for several metals and alloys. In order to be a suitable protective solution on structural components, the mechanical integrity must be preserved. In particular, the fatigue properties are a challenge for thermal spray protective coatings on mechanical structures. To address the issue of the fatigue integrity of 7075 aluminum alloy with an arc sprayed protective coating, different surface preparations prior to arc spraying were considered. In the present work, a feasibility study was performed using laser ablation as a surface preparation technique before or during arc spraying of coatings through collaboration between the LERMPS laboratory in France, the National Research Council of Canada and the Royal Military College of Canada. Both fatigue and adhesive properties of aluminum coatings were evaluated in relation to substrate surface preparation techniques including laser ablation (PROTAL® process), grit blasting and shot peening. Results indicate that a combination of key conditions including using nitrogen as the arc spray gas, shot peening and proper laser energy density for ablation provides high fatigue resistance of metallic coated 7075 alloy substrates. Specimens prepared under these conditions show a similar fatigue resistance to uncoated substrates. © Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum.

  • 4. El-Bealy, Mostafa Omar
    Modelling of heat flow and interdendritic crack formation in twin-roll strip casting of aluminium alloys2016In: Canadian metallurgical quarterly, ISSN 0008-4433, E-ISSN 1879-1395, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 23-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preliminary mathematical analyses of different interdendritic cracks associated with variation of heat transfer and generation of interdendritic strain in horizontal twin-roll strip casting have been investigated. A 1-D transient finite difference model of heat flow, dendritic solidification and interdendritic thermo-metallurgical strain has been developed. The model contains two cracking criteria to predict qualitatively and quantitatively the tendency of interdendritic crack formation during dendritic solidification of pure aluminium and 6022 aluminium alloy. The model predictions are compared to available analytical methods and previous measurements. This is to verify and calibrate the model where good and reasonable agreements are obtained, respectively. The variations of heat transfer modes during different contact cooling zones and their effects on the generation of interdendritic thermo-metallurgical strain at the surface and central strip locations have been analysed. The model predictions point out that the different contact cooling zones of strip surface and surroundings control the stages of interdendritic crack formation in different mushy regions. The mechanism of interdendritic crack formation in twin-roll strip casting process with previous and present cracking criteria have been explained and discussed. These discussions show the importance of selection of mathematical treatment to predict the stages of interdendritic crack formation. 

  • 5.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Characterisation of buildup in an electric furnace for smelting copper concentrate2015In: Canadian metallurgical quarterly, ISSN 0008-4433, E-ISSN 1879-1395, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 477-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results from a characterization of buildup in an electric smelting furnace for treating copper-rich feed material at the Boliden Rönnskär smelter in Sweden are presented. The aim of the work was to obtain better knowledge about the mechanisms behind the formation of the buildup. Samples from the buildup were taken during the rebuilding of the furnace. The samples were characterized using chemical and mineralogical techniques. The buildup consists mainly of different phases such as spinel, matte, olivine and metalloids and has a complex and varying mineralogy, which indicates that the buildup is not formed under equilibrium conditions.

  • 6.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Development of a model for copper converting2013In: Canadian metallurgical quarterly, ISSN 0008-4433, E-ISSN 1879-1395, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 422-429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on previous work reported in the literature, a dynamic model of the operation of the Peirce-Smith Converter has been developed to describe the distribution of the major elements present. The fundamental principle of the model was a thermodynamic calculation. The situation of non-equilibrium conditions was considered by dividing the converter into different zones linked by predefined flow parameters. The model was verified against actual converter plant data, with the simulated results for the major elements being in good agreement with the plant data. The agreement between plant and calculated data for Pb, and Zn was not as good and more work is required regarding this aspect.

  • 7.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Understanding the bottom buildup in an electric copper smelting furnace by thermodynamic calculations2019In: Canadian metallurgical quarterly, ISSN 0008-4433, E-ISSN 1879-1395, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 89-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermodynamic calculations were used to investigate the liquidus temperature of the slag and the possible influence on the buildup formation in an electric copper smelting furnace. The impact of parameters such as Fe/SiO2 ratio, partial pressure of oxygen and the content of the oxides ZnO, Al2O3 and Cr2O3 in the slag were investigated with respect to the liquidus temperature of the slag. Results show that the chromium content in the slag has the greatest impact on the liquidus temperature and on the formation of solid particles. The characterization of the buildup done earlier showed that spinel phases were among the dominating phases. This is supported by the thermodynamic calculations in the present paper, where the chromite solid solution was found to be the primary precipitation phase.

  • 8.
    Lotfian, Samira
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Vikström, T.
    Boliden Mineral AB, Skelleftehamn, Sweden.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Ahmed, Hesham
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering. Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Cairo, Egypt.
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Evaluating the potential of plastic-containing materials as alternative reducing agents2019In: Canadian metallurgical quarterly, ISSN 0008-4433, E-ISSN 1879-1395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of discarded plastic-containing materials is increasing, and one option to help with this issue is to use these materials in bath smelting processes. The injection of plastic-containing materials to partially substitute coal in zinc-fuming processes has been studied in an industrial trial at Boliden–Rönnskär smelter. To evaluate the potential of plastic-containing materials, thermodynamic calculations were performed in this study. In the first step, a thermodynamic calculation was performed for trials with only coal injection, and then this calculation was applied to trials with the co-injection of plastic materials. The thermodynamic calculation shows that not all the injected coal participates in the reactions within the slag. Similarly, the calculation with the co-injection of plastic-containing materials shows that different amounts of each plastic material participate in the reactions within the slag bath.

  • 9.
    Lotfian, Samira
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Vikström, Tommy
    Boliden Mineral AB, Skelleftehamn, Sweden.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Ahmed, Hesham
    Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Cairo, Egypt.
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Plastic-containing materials as alternative reductants for base metal production2019In: Canadian metallurgical quarterly, ISSN 0008-4433, E-ISSN 1879-1395, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 164-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shredder residue materials are produced after the removal of ferrous and non-ferrous fractions from end-of-life electronic equipment. Despite the high plastic content and metal value in the ash, high percentages of these materials are currently sent to landfills. In this study, the potential of utilising shredder residue material and other plastic-containing materials as reducing agents was studied. Plastic-containing materials were co-injected with coal into a zinc-fuming furnace in Boliden-Rönnskär smelter. The data obtained from the trial, such as the data from the chemical analysis of the slag and the steam production, are discussed. The observations indicate that plastic-containing material can replace up to 1 ton h−1 of coal without a significant decrease in the zinc reduction rate.

  • 10.
    Oddy, A.S.
    et al.
    Carleton University, Ottawa.
    McDill, J.M.J.
    Carleton University, Ottawa.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Microstructural predictions including arbitrary thermal histories, reaustenization and carbon segregation effects1996In: Canadian metallurgical quarterly, ISSN 0008-4433, E-ISSN 1879-1395, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 275-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A microstructural prediction algorithm for hypoeutectoid steels is presented that accounts for carbon segregation effects and permits arbitrary thermal histories and austenite decomposition during reheating. Two austenization models are included: an instantaneous austenite formation and homogenization model; and a transient, heterogeneous austenite formation algorithm. The transient heterogeneous model predicts slightly slower formation rates than measured but compares favourably with experimental results. The two models provide upper and lower bounds for the austenization time. Predicted grain size, martensite fraction and hardness distributions are compared with measurements taken from a weld heat-affected zone (HAZ). Predictions are in good agreement with experimental results

  • 11. Sahajwalla, V.
    et al.
    Khanna, R.
    Kapilashrami, E.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Depletion of carbon from Al2O3-C mixtures into liquid iron: Rate controlling mechanisms2007In: Canadian metallurgical quarterly, ISSN 0008-4433, E-ISSN 1879-1395, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 25-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sessile drop investigation on the kinetics of carbon dissolution from an alumina-carbon composite (75% C, 25% alumina) and a commercial refractory (28.3% C, 66.67% alumina, 5% binder) into liquid iron at 1600 degrees C is reported. Carbon dissolution from refractory substrates was very slow reaching 0.84% C and 0.1% C, respectively after 60 minutes. Both substrates also showed poor wettability. Experimental studies were supplemented with atomistic Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the influence of composition, temperature and melt turbulence. High carbon systems (100% C and 75% C, balance alumina) were affected by both temperature and melt turbulence to some extent; increased levels of melt turbulence/higher temperatures had no influence on low carbon (30% C) system. While mass transfer was the dominant rate controlling mechanism for high carbon systems, poor wettability of alumina with liquid iron and its significant influence on inhibiting the penetration of liquid iron in the refractory matrix was found to be the dominant rate controlling factor for low carbon refractories.

  • 12.
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Carlsson, Göran
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    A qualitative study on the retention of mercury from SO₂-containing process gases on copper smelter2001In: Canadian metallurgical quarterly, ISSN 0008-4433, E-ISSN 1879-1395, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 161-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mercury present in process gases can to some extent be removed in dust filters such as textile bag house filters. The removal efficiency in such filters is dependent on gas composition, gas temperature and properties of dust particles collected in the filter. In the present study, laboratory scale experiments were conducted to study qualitatively the influence of different types of dusts on the retention of mercury in SO2-containing gases. A gas mixture composed of N2, SO2, O2 and Hg was passed through a textile filter covered with dust. Two different types of dust were used in the experiments: one dust containing mainly Cu- and Fe-sulphides and Fe-oxides and one containing mainly Cu-, Fe, and Zn-oxides and -sulphates. The dusts were studied using microprobe equipment after exposure to the mercury-containing gas. Thermodynamic calculations were carried out for comparison with the experimental results. The study shows that mercury is mainly associated with partially roasted chalcopyrite particles.

  • 13.
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Carlsson, Göran
    SSAB.
    Mercury reactions in copper roasting gas cleaning system2001In: Canadian metallurgical quarterly, ISSN 0008-4433, E-ISSN 1879-1395, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 79-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactions of mercury in copper roasting gas have been studied. The study includes characterization of dust from a bag house filter which collects dust from a copper roasting process and equilibrium calculations to predict the reactions in a copper roasting gas cleaning system. Mercury was found together with roasted chalcopyrite particles in the characterized dust samples. Characterization indicates the presence of HgS and mercury bromine. The results from the equilibrium calculations show that mercury is totally vaporized as Hg° during roasting. Depending on gas atmosphere and temperature, different mercury species will, according to equilibrium calculations, be stable in the roast gas studied. HgBr2 and HgCl2 are thermodynamically favoured at decreasing temperatures in the system studied. A minor part of the present mercury will form HgS(s) at low temperatures if no leakage air is added. In the case where Br and Cl are removed from the calculations, HgS will be the dominating species at low temperatures.

  • 14.
    Sandström, Rolf
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    Korzhavyi, Pavel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    Use of elastic constants based on ab initio computation in materials optimisation of austenitic stainless steels2014In: Canadian metallurgical quarterly, ISSN 0008-4433, E-ISSN 1879-1395, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 282-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of ab initio quantum mechanics methods to compute elastic constants of austenitic stainless steels is reviewed. It is demonstrated that the elastic constants can be predicted accurately as a function of composition. This enables the use of materials optimisation techniques to develop new materials that are systematically adapted to specific components. After the design criteria and the target function to be optimised have been formulated, the optimum property combination can be searched for. The properties involved constitute a property space, where domains with active design criteria are identified. In the present paper, the domain where the stiffness is the controlling property is considered. Cost, weight and environmental impact minimisation is analysed. It turns out that for all three target functions, austenitic stainless steels with low chromium and nickel contents are preferred materials.

  • 15.
    Strandkvist, Ida
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Synthesis and dissolution of slag minerals: A study of β-dicalcium silicate, pseudowollastonite and monticellite2015In: Canadian metallurgical quarterly, ISSN 0008-4433, E-ISSN 1879-1395, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 446-454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leaching of slag must be limited when slag is used in other areas than landfill. As slag is composed of different minerals, the properties of slag, inter alia the dissolution, depend on these minerals. If the leaching properties of each mineral are known, counter measurements can be taken to prevent the leaching of unwanted elements. In this study, the dissolution of three common slag minerals will be examined. The three minerals; boron-stabilised β-dicalcium silicate, pseudowollastonite and monticellite were synthesised. The dissolution was measured by setting pH to 4, 7 or 10 and adding 0.05 g mineral in the size range 20-38 μm, and the HNO3 consumption required 3 to maintain the pH level was recorded during 40 h. As expected, the dissolution increases for all minerals when pH decreases. The boron- stabilised β-dical cium silicate was the only mineral fully dissolved at all pH levels, while pseudowollastonite and monticellite only dissolved completely at pH 4.

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