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  • 1. Abadal, Sergi
    et al.
    Alarcon, Eduard
    Cabellos-Aparicio, Albert
    Lemme, Max C.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Nemirovsky, Mario
    Graphene-Enabled Wireless Communication for Massive Multicore Architectures2013In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 51, no 11, p. 137-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current trends in microprocessor architecture design are leading towards a dramatic increase of core-level parallelization, wherein a given number of independent processors or cores are interconnected. Since the main bottleneck is foreseen to migrate from computation to communication, efficient and scalable means of inter-core communication are crucial for guaranteeing steady performance improvements in many-core processors. As the number of cores grows, it remains unclear whether initial proposals, such as the Network-on-Chip (NoC) paradigm, will meet the stringent requirements of this scenario. This position paper presents a new research area where massive multicore architectures have wireless communication capabilities at the core level. This goal is feasible by using graphene-based planar antennas, which can radiate signals at the Terahertz band while utilizing lower chip area than its metallic counterparts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that discusses the utilization of graphene-enabled wireless communication for massive multicore processors. Such wireless systems enable broadcasting, multicasting, all-to-all communication, as well as significantly reduce many of the issues present in massively multicore environments, such as data coherency, consistency, synchronization and communication problems. Several open research challenges are pointed out related to implementation, communications and multicore architectures, which pave the way for future research in this multidisciplinary area.

  • 2. Abu-Lebdeh, Mohammad
    et al.
    Sahoo, Jagruti
    Glitho, Roch
    KTH.
    Tchouati, Constant Wette
    Cloudifying the 3GPP IP Multimedia Subsystem for 4G and Beyond: A Survey2016In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 91-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    4G systems have been continuously evolving to cope with the emerging challenges of human-centric and M2M applications. Research has also now started on 5G systems. Scenarios have been proposed and initial requirements derived. 4G and beyond systems are expected to easily deliver a wide range of human-centric and M2M applications and services in a scalable, elastic, and cost-efficient manner. The 3GPP IMS was standardized as the service delivery platform for 3G networks. Unfortunately, it does not meet several requirements for provisioning applications and services in 4G and beyond systems. However, cloudifying it will certainly pave the way for its use as a service delivery platform for 4G and beyond. This article presents a critical overview of the architectures proposed so far for cloudifying the IMS. There are two classes of approaches; the first focuses on the whole IMS system, and the second deals with specific IMS entities. Research directions are also discussed. IMS granularity and a PaaS for the development and management of IMS functional entities are the two key directions we currently foresee.

  • 3.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Aranda, Pedro A.
    Chemouil, Prosper
    Correia, Luis M.
    Holger, Karl
    Oueslati, Sara
    Söllner, Michael
    Welin, Annikki
    Content, Connectivity and Cloud: Ingredients for the Network of the Future2011In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 49, p. 62-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new network architecture for the Internet needs ingredients from three approaches: information-centric networking, cloud computing integrated with networking, and open connectivity. Information-centric networking considers pieces of information as first-class entities of a networking architecture, rather than only indirectly identifying and manipulating them via a node hosting that information; this way, information becomes independent from the devices they are stored in, enabling efficient and application-independent information caching in the network. Cloud networking offers a combination and integration of cloud computing and virtual networking. It is a solution that distributes the benefits of cloud computing more deeply into the network, and provides a tighter integration of virtualisation features at computing and networking levels. To support these concepts, open connectivity services need to provide advanced transport and networking mechanisms, making use of network and path diversity (even leveraging direct optical paths) and encoding techniques, and dealing with ubiquitous mobility of user, content and information objects in a unified way.

  • 4.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Dannewitz, Christian
    SAIL.
    Imbrenda, Claudio
    Kutscher, Dirk
    Ohlman, Börje
    A Survey of Information-Centric Networking2012In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 50, p. 26-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The information-centric networking (ICN) concept is a significant common approach of several Future Internet research activities. The approach leverages in-network caching, multi-party communication through replication, and interaction models decoupling senders and receivers. The goal is to provide a network infrastructure service that is better suited to today's use, in particular content distribution and mobility, and that is more resilient to disruptions and failures. The ICN approach is being explored by a number of research projects. We compare and discuss design choices and features of proposed ICN architectures, focussing on the following main components: named data objects, naming and security, API, routing and transport, and caching. We also discuss the advantages of the ICN approach in general.

  • 5.
    Ahmed, Jawwad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Chen, Jiajia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Wosinska, Lena
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Chen, Biao
    Department of Optical Engineering, Zhejiang University.
    Mukherjee, Biswanath
    Efficient Inter-Thread Scheduling Scheme for Long-Reach Passive Optical Networks2013In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 51, no 2, p. S35-S43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    These days there is a clear trend toward extending the reach of passive optical networks to cover large geographical areas, which enables reduction of the number of central offices and hence has the potential of cost saving in network operation. On the other hand, this reach extension necessitates the design of efficient dynamic bandwidth allocation schemes in order to tackle performance degradation caused by the increased propagation delay in long reach PONs. Among many existing approaches, the multi-thread-based DBA scheme where several bandwidth allocation processes are performed in parallel is considered one of the most effective options to improve network performance in LRPONs. We have found that without proper intercommunication between the overlapped threads, multi-thread DBA may lose efficiency and even perform worse than the conventional single-thread algorithm. With this in mind, this article reviews different inter-thread scheduling schemes for LR-PONs, and proposes a novel approach of integrating the key ideas of the existing ones. Extensive simulation results confirm that our proposed scheme can significantly improve DBA performance for LR-PONs under a variety of scenarios with consideration of different values of network load and reach.

  • 6.
    Anton-Haro, Caries
    et al.
    Centre Tecnolo`gic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya (CTTC, Spain).
    Svedman, Patrick
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Bengtsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Alexiou, Angeliki
    Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies (United Kingdom).
    Gameiro, Atilio
    University of Aveiro/Istituto de Telecomunicações (Portugal).
    Cross-layer scheduling for multi-user MIMO systems2006In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 44, no 9, p. 39-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing demand of wireless services associated with the scarcity of the radio spectrum and the trend to provide end-to-end QoS in emerging and future applications calls for the design of spectrally efficient systems with QoS support. To fulfill these two requirements of spectral efficiency and QoS provision in the highly dynamic environment of mobile radio requires the collaboration of several layers in the system as well as the use of multiple transmit and receive antennas. In a packet network, one important component to achieve the aforementioned efficiency goals is a properly designed scheduling algorithm. Using an information-theoretic framework, we present an overview of the issues associated with the design of packet scheduling algorithms and review several proposed solutions. The article focuses on the advantages of a cross-layer approach to the resource allocation problem and identifies the trade-offs associated with the increased signaling needs. Also, we thoroughly discuss the additional degrees of freedom that multiple transmit and receive antennas can provide.

  • 7. Astely, D
    et al.
    Dahlman, E
    Fodor, Gabor
    Parkvall, S
    Sachs, J
    LTE release 12 and beyond2013In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 51, no 7, p. 154-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the specification of Release 11 of the LTE standards is approaching its completion, 3GPP is gradually moving its focus toward the next major step in the evolution of LTE. The drivers of the LTE evolution include the increasing demand for mobile broadband services and traffic volumes as well as emerging usage scenarios involving short-range and machine-type communications. In this article we provide an overview of the key technology areas/components that are currently considered by 3GPP for Rel-12, including support for further enhanced local area access by tight interaction between the wide area and local area layers, signaling solutions for wireless local area network integration, multi-antenna enhancements, improved support for massive MTC, and direct device-to-device communications.

  • 8.
    Atxutegi, Eneko
    et al.
    University of the Basque Country, Spain.
    Liberal, Fidel
    University of the Basque Country, Spain.
    Haile, Habtegebreil Kassaye
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Arvidsson, Åke
    Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    On the use of TCP BBR in cellular networks2018In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, no 3, p. 172-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    TCP BBR (Bottleneck Bandwidth and Round-trip propagation time) is a new TCP variant developed at Google, and which, as of this year, is fully deployed in Googles internal WANs and used by services such as Google.com and YouTube. In contrast to other commonly used TCP variants, TCP BBR is not loss-based but model-based: It builds a model of the network path between communicating nodes in terms of bottleneck bandwidth and minimum round-trip delay and tries to operate at the point where all available bandwidth is used and the round-trip delay is at minimum. Although, TCP BBR has indeed resulted in lower latency and a more efficient usage of bandwidth in fixed networks, its performance over cellular networks is less clear. This paper studies TCP BBR in live mobile networks and through emulations, and compares its performance with TCP NewReno and TCP CUBIC, two of the most commonly used TCP variants. The results from these studies suggest that in most cases TCP BBR outperforms both TCP NewReno and TCP CUBIC, however, not so when the available bandwidth is scarce. In these cases, TCP BBR provides longer file completion times than any of the other two studied TCP variants. Moreover, competing TCP BBR flows do not share the available bandwidth in a fair way, something which, for example, shows up when shorter TCP BBR flows struggle to get its fair share from longer ones. 

  • 9.
    Aujla, Gagangeet Singh
    et al.
    Thapar University, Patiala, India.
    Chaudhary, Rajat
    Thapar University, Patiala, India.
    Kumar, Neeraj
    Thapar University, Patiala, India.
    Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.
    National Institute of Telecommunications (Inatel), Santa Rita do Sapucaí, Brazil; University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal; ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia; University of Fortaleza (Unifor), Fortaleza, Brazil.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Data Offloading in 5G-Enabled Software-Defined Vehicular Networks: A Stackelberg-Game-Based Approach2017In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 55, no 8, p. 100-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data offloading using vehicles is one of the most challenging tasks to perform due to the high mobility of vehicles. There are many solutions available for this purpose, but due to the inefficient management of data along with the control decisions, these solutions are not adequate to provide data offloading by making use of the available networks. Moreover, with the advent of 5G and related technologies, there is a need to cope with high speed and traffic congestion in the existing infrastructure used for data offloading. Hence, to make intelligent decisions for data offloading, an SDN-based scheme is presented in this article. In the proposed scheme, an SDNbased controller is designed that makes decisions for data offloading by using the priority manager and load balancer. Using these two managers in SDN-based controllers, traffic routing is managed efficiently even with an increase in the size of the network. Moreover, a single-leader multi-follower Stackelberg game for network selection is also used for data offloading. The proposed scheme is evaluated with respect to several parameters where its performance was found to be superior in comparison to the existing schemes. © Copyright 2017 IEEE

  • 10.
    Balasubramaniam, Sasitharan
    et al.
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    Halmstad University.
    Kleyko, Denis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Skurnik, Mikael
    University of Helsinki.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University.
    Koucheryavy, Yevgeni
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Exploiting bacterial properties for multi-­‐hop nanonetworks2014In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 52, no 7, p. 184-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular communication is a relatively new communication paradigm for nanomachines where the communication is realized by utilizing existing biological components found in nature. In recent years, researchers have proposed using bacteria to realize molecular communication because the bacteria have, (i) the ability to swim and migrate between locations, (ii) the ability to carry DNA contents (i.e. plasmids), which could be utilized for information storage, and (iii) the ability to interact and transfer plasmids to other bacteria (one of this process is known as bacterial conjugation). However, current proposals for bacterial nanonetworks have not considered the internal structures of the nanomachines that can facilitate the use of bacteria as an information carrier. This article presents the types and functionalities of nanomachines that can be utilized in bacterial nanonetworks. A particular focus is placed on the bacterial conjugation and its support for multi-hop communication between nanomachines. Simulations of the communication process have also been evaluated, to analyze the quantity of bit received as well as the delay performances. Wet lab experiments have also been conducted to validate the bacterial conjugation process. The article also discusses potential applications of bacterial nanonetworks for cancer monitoring and therapy.

  • 11.
    Balasubramaniam, Sasitharan
    et al.
    Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland .
    Lyamin, Nikita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Kleyko, Denis
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Skurnik, Mikael
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland .
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Koucheryavy, Yevgeni
    Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland .
    Exploiting bacterial properties for multi-hop nanonetworks2014In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 52, no 7, p. 184-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular communication is a relatively new communication paradigm for nanomachines where the communication is realized by utilizing existing biological components found in nature. In recent years researchers have proposed using bacteria to realize molecular communication because the bacteria have the ability to swim and migrate between locations, carry DNA contents (i.e. plasmids) that could be utilized for information storage, and interact and transfer plasmids to other bacteria (one of these processes is known as bacterial conjugation). However, current proposals for bacterial nanonetworks have not considered the internal structures of the nanomachines that can facilitate the use of bacteria as an information carrier. This article presents the types and functionalities of nanomachines that can be utilized in bacterial nanonetworks. A particular focus is placed on the bacterial conjugation and its support for multihop communication between nanomachines. Simulations of the communication process have also been evaluated, to analyze the quantity of bits received as well as the delay performances. Wet lab experiments have also been conducted to validate the bacterial conjugation process. The article also discusses potential applications of bacterial nanonetworks for cancer monitoring and therapy. © 2014 IEEE.

  • 12.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Marzetta, Thomas L.
    Nokia, France.
    Massive MIMO: Ten Myths and One Critical Question2016In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 114-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless communications is one of the most successful technologies in modern years, given that an exponential growth rate in wireless traffic has been sustained for over a century (known as Coopers law). This trend will certainly continue, driven by new innovative applications; for example, augmented reality and the Internet of Things. Massive MIMO has been identified as a key technology to handle orders of magnitude more data traffic. Despite the attention it is receiving from the communication community, we have personally witnessed that Massive MIMO is subject to several widespread misunderstandings, as epitomized by following (fictional) abstract: "The Massive MIMO technology uses a nearly infinite number of high-quality antennas at the base stations. By having at least an order of magnitude more antennas than active terminals, one can exploit asymptotic behaviors that some special kinds of wireless channels have. This technology looks great at first sight, but unfortunately the signal processing complexity is off the charts and the antenna arrays would be so huge that it can only be implemented in millimeter-wave bands." These statements are, in fact, completely false. In this overview article, we identify 10 myths and explain why they are not true. We also ask a question that is critical for the practical adoption of the technology and which will require intense future research activities to answer properly. We provide references to key technical papers that support our claims, while a further list of related overview and technical papers can be found at the Massive MIMO Info Point: http://massivemimo.eu

  • 13. Boccardi, Federico
    et al.
    Andrews, Jeffrey
    Elshaer, Hisham
    Dohler, Mischa
    Parkvall, Stefan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Theory. Univ Calif San Diego, San Diego.
    Popovski, Petar
    Singh, Sarabjot
    Why to Decouple the Uplink and Downlink in Cellular Networks and How To Do It2016In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 110-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ever since the inception of mobile telephony, the downlink and uplink of cellular networks have been coupled, that is, mobile terminals have been constrained to associate with the same base station in both the downlink and uplink directions. New trends in network densification and mobile data usage increase the drawbacks of this constraint, and suggest that it should be revisited. In this article we identify and explain five key arguments in favor of downlink/uplink decoupling based on a blend of theoretical, experimental, and architectural insights. We then overview the changes needed in current LTE-A mobile systems to enable this decoupling, and then look ahead to fifth generation cellular standards. We demonstrate that decoupling can lead to significant gains in network throughput, outage, and power consumption at a much lower cost compared to other solutions that provide comparable or lower gains.

  • 14. Boccardi, Federico
    et al.
    Shokri-Ghadikolaei, Hossein
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Fodor, Gabor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. Ericsson Research, United States.
    Erkip, Elza
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Kountouris, Marios
    Popovski, Petar
    Zorzi, Michele
    Spectrum Pooling in MmWave Networks: Opportunities, Challenges, and Enablers2016In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 54, no 11, p. 33-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivated by the specific characteristics of mmWave technologies, we discuss the possibility of an authorization regime that allows spectrum sharing between multiple operators, also referred to as spectrum pooling. In particular, considering user rate as the performance measure, we assess the benefit of coordination among networks of different operators, study the impact of beamforming at both base stations and user terminals, and analyze the pooling performance at different frequency carriers. We also discuss the enabling spectrum mechanisms, architectures, and protocols required to make spectrum pooling work in real networks. Our initial results show that, from a technical perspective, spectrum pooling at mmWave has the potential to use the resources more efficiently than traditional exclusive spectrum allocation to a single operator. However, further studies are needed in order to reach a thorough understanding of this matter, and we hope that this article will help stimulate further research in this area.

  • 15. Bokhari, S H
    et al.
    Ahmed, M
    bin Sohail, S
    Khan, R H
    Mirza, J A
    Ali, Muhammad
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electronics.
    A networking laboratory for the developing world2004In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 106-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-based communication is assuming an increasingly important role in the developing world. It is thus crucial that students be exposed to contemporary networking equipment in a realistic setting, in order to connect theoretical material taught in lecture courses with the realities of physical hardware. To this end, a large computer networking laboratory has been set up to provide a realistic environment for teaching internetworking concepts. This laboratory provides university-level students with a testbed to experiment with fundamental issues of internetworking in a way that cannot be provided by simulators and to a degree of rigor not possible with the commonly available laboratory setups designed for technicians. We describe the motivations for setting up the laboratory, its network structure and equipment, and the type of experiments students conduct. The laboratory structure is influenced heavily by the limited funds-at our disposal - a common problem in the developing world. Many of the problems we faced in setting up our equipment (such as the crucial impact of proper electrical grounding on system performance) are not ordinarily encountered in developed nations. Our experiences are thus likely to be of value to others in the developing world who are contemplating setting up experimental facilities for teaching networking.

  • 16.
    Buchegger, Sonja
    et al.
    UC Berkeley.
    Le Boudec, Jean-Yves
    EPFL.
    Self-policing mobile ad-hoc networks by reputation systems2005In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 43, no 7, p. 101-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Node misbehavior due to selfish or malicious reasons or faulty nodes can significantly degrade the performance of mobile ad-hoc networks. To cope with misbehavior in such self-organized networks, nodes need to be able to automatically adapt their strategy to changing levels of cooperation. Existing approaches such as economic incentives or secure routing by cryptography alleviate some of the problems, but not all. We describe the use of a self-policing mechanism based on reputation to enable mobile ad-hoc networks to keep functioning despite the presence of misbehaving nodes. The reputation system in all nodes makes them detect misbehavior locally by observation and use of second-hand information. Once a misbehaving node is detected it is automatically isolated from the network. We classify the features of such reputation systems and describe possible implementations of each of them. We explain in particular how it is possible to use second-hand information while mitigating contamination by spurious ratings.

  • 17.
    Campolo, Claudia
    et al.
    Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Molinaro, Antonella
    Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Berthet, Antoine O.
    Gif-sur-Yvette, CNRS-Centrale Supélec-Université Paris Sud, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Full-Duplex Radios for Vehicular Communications2017In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 182-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent significant advances in self-interference cancellation techniques pave the way for the deployment of full-duplex wireless transceivers capable of concurrent transmission and reception on the same channel. Despite the promise to theoretically double the spectrum efficiency, full-duplex prototyping in off-the-shelf chips of mobile devices is still in its infancy, mainly because of the challenges in mitigating self-interference to a tolerable level and the strict hardware constraints. In this article, we argue in favor of embedding full-duplex radios in onboard units of future vehicles. Unlike the majority of mobile devices, vehicular onboard units are good candidates to host complex FD transceivers because of their virtually unlimited power supply and processing capacity. Taking into account the effect of imperfect SI cancellation, we investigate the design implications of full-duplex devices at the higher-layer protocols of next-generation vehicular networks and highlight the benefits they could bring with respect to half-duplex devices in some representative use cases. Early results are also provided that give insight into the impact of self-interference cancellation on vehicle-to-roadside communications, and showcase the benefits of FD-enhanced medium access control protocols for vehicle-to-vehicle communications supporting crucial road safety applications.

  • 18.
    Cavdar, Cicek
    et al.
    Istanbul Technical University.
    Gencata, Aysegul
    Mukherjee, Biswanath
    CATZ: Time-zone-aware Bandwidth Allocation in Layer 1 VPNs2007In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 60-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The layer 1 virtual private network framework has emerged from the need to enable the dynamic coexistence of multiple circuit-switched client networks over a common physical network infrastructure. Such a VPN could be set up for an enterprise with offices across a wide geographical area (e.g., around the world or by a global ISP). Additionally, emerging IP over optical WDM technologies let IP traffic be carried directly over the optical WDM layer. Thus, different VPNs can share a common optical WDM core, and may demand different amounts of bandwidth at different time periods. This type of operation would require dynamic and reconfigurable allocation of bandwidth. This article evaluates the state of the art in layer I VPNs in the context of globally deployable optical networks and cost-efficient dynamic bandwidth usage. While exploiting the dynamism of IP traffic in a global network in which the nodes are located in different time zones, we study different bandwidth allocation methods for setting up a worldwide layer 1 VPN. We propose and investigate the characteristics of a cost-efficient bandwidth provisioning and reconfiguration algorithm, called Capacity Allocation Using Time Zones (CATZ).

  • 19.
    Chen, Jiajia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Gong, Yu
    Fiorani, Matteo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Aleksic, Slavisa
    Optical Interconnects at the Top of the Rack for Energy-Efficient Data Centers2015In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 53, no 8, p. 140-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing popularity of cloud and multimedia services is dramatically increasing the traffic volume that each data center needs to handle. This is driving the demand for highly scalable, flexible, and energy-efficient networks inside data centers, in particular for the edge tier, which requires a large number of interconnects and consumes the dominant part of the overall power. Optical fiber communication is widely recognized as the highest energy-and cost-efficient technique to offer ultra-large capacity for telecommunication networks. It has also been considered as a promising transmission technology for future data center applications. Taking into account the characteristics of the traffic generated by the servers, such as locality, multi-cast, dynamicity, and burstiness, the emphasis of the research on data center networks has to be put on architectures that leverage optical transport to the greatest possible extent. However, no feasible solution based on optical switching is available so far for handling the data center traffic at the edge tier. Therefore, apart from conventional optical switching, we investigate a completely different paradigm, passive optical interconnects, and aim to explore the possibility for optical interconnects at the top of the rack. In this article, we present three major types of passive optical interconnects and carry out a performance assessment with respect to the ability to host data center traffic, scalability, optical power budget, complexity of the required interface, cost, and energy consumption. Our results have verified that the investigated passive optical interconnects can achieve a significant reduction of power consumption and maintain cost at a similar level compared to its electronic counterpart. Furthermore, several research directions on passive optical interconnects have been pointed out for future green data centers.

  • 20.
    Chen, Jiajia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Wosinska, Lena
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Machuca, C.
    Jaeger, M.
    Cost vs. reliability performance study of fiber access network architectures2010In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 56-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fiber to the home is the future-proof technology for broadband access networks. Several fiber access network architectures have been developed (e.g., point-to-point, active optical network, and passive optical network). PON is considered the most promising solution due to the relatively low deployment cost and high resource efficiency. Meanwhile, because of the growing demand for reliable service delivery, fault management is becoming more significant in all parts of communications networks. However, there is a trade-off between the cost of protection and the level of service reliability. Since economical aspects are most critical in the access part of networks, improving reliability performance by duplication of network resources (and capital expenditures) could be too expensive. Therefore, recent work has focused on PON protection schemes with reduced CAPEX. The future trend will probably migrate toward minimizing operational expenditures during the access network lifetime. The main contributions of this article include providing a general method for CAPEX and OPEX analysis that can be applied to any type of fiber access network with consideration of changed component cost in time and variable take rates, and comparing the total cost (i.e., sum of CAPEX and OPEX) for the selected representative architectures with and without protection for business and residential users in relation to reliability performance. The aim is to give a guideline for the design of the most cost-effective protection schemes, while maintaining acceptable service reliability.

  • 21.
    Chen, Yifan
    et al.
    Southern University of Science and Technology.
    Nakano, Tadashi
    Osaka University.
    Kosmas, Panagiotis
    King’s College London.
    Yuen, Chau
    Singapore University of Technology and Design.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Asvial, Muhamad
    University of Indonesia.
    Green Touchable Nanorobotic Sensor Networks2016In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 54, no 11, p. 136-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advancements in biological nanomachineshave motivated the research on nanoroboticsensor networks (NSNs), where thenanorobots are green (i.e., biocompatible andbiodegradable) and touchable (i.e., externallycontrollable and continuously trackable). In theformer aspect, NSNs will dissolve in an aqueousenvironment after finishing designated tasksand are harmless to the environment. In the latteraspect, NSNs employ cross-scale interfacesto interconnect the in vivo environment and itsexternal environment. Specifically, the in-messagingand out-messaging interfaces for nanorobotsto interact with a macro-unit are defined.The propagation and transient characteristicsof nanorobots are described based on the existingexperimental results. Furthermore, planningof nanorobot paths is discussed by taking intoaccount the effectiveness of region-of-interestdetection and the period of surveillance. Finally,a case study on how NSNs may be applied tomicrowave breast cancer detection is presented

  • 22. Chiaraviglio, Luca
    et al.
    Wiatr, Pawel
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Monti, Paolo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Chen, Jiajia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Lorincz, Josip
    Idzikowski, Filip
    Listanti, Marco
    Wosinska, Lena
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Is Green Networking Beneficial in Terms of Device Lifetime?2015In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 53, no 5, p. 232-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes the impact that sleep mode (SM)-based green strategies have on the reliability performance of optical and cellular network elements. First, we consider a device in isolation (i. e., not plugged into a network in operation), showing how operational temperature and temperature variations, both introduced by SM, impact its lifetime. We then evaluate, from an operational cost perspective, the impact of these lifetime variations, showing that some devices are critical, that is, their achievable energy savings might not cover the potential additional reparation costs resulting from being put in SM too frequently. Moreover, we present a model for evaluating the impact of SM on the lifetime of a device plugged into an operational network. The analysis considers two case studies (one based on the optical backbone and one on cellular networks) showing that the lifetime of a device is influenced by both the hardware parameters, which depend on the specific design of the device, and the SM parameters, which instead depend on the energy-efficient algorithm used, the network topology, and the traffic variations over time. Our results show that (i) the changes in the operational temperature and the frequency of their variation are two crucial aspects to consider while designing a SM-based green strategy, and (ii) the impact of a certain SM-based strategy on the lifetime of network devices is not homogeneous (i. e., it can vary through the network).

  • 23.
    Chiesa, Marco
    et al.
    Université catholique du Louvain, Belgium.
    Dietzel, C.
    Antichi, G.
    Bruyére, M.
    Castro, I.
    Gusat, M.
    King, T.
    Moore, A. W.
    Nguyen, T. D.
    Owezarski, P.
    Uhlig, S.
    Canini, M.
    Inter-domain networking innovation on steroids: Empowering IXPs with SDN capabilities2016In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 54, no 10, p. 102-108, article id 7588277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While innovation in inter-domain routing has remained stagnant for over a decade, Internet exchange points (IXPs) are consolidating their role as economically advantageous interconnection points for reducing path latencies and exchanging ever increasing amounts of traffic. As such, IXPs appear as a natural place to foster network innovation and assess the benefits of SDN, a recent technological trend that has already boosted innovation within data center networks. In this article, we give a comprehensive overview of use cases for SDN at IXPs, which leverage the superior vantage point of an IXP to introduce advanced features like load balancing and DDoS mitigation. We discuss the benefits of SDN solutions by analyzing real-world data from one of the largest IXPs. We also leverage insights into IXP operations to shape benefits not only for members but also for operators.

  • 24.
    Costa, J.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Miao, Guowang
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Zander, Jens
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Context-Aware Framework for Energy Efficient Machine-to-Machine CommunicationsIn: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellular network based Machine-to-Machine(M2M) communications have been growing rapidly in recentyears, being used in a wide range of services such as security,metering, health, remote control, tracking and so on. A criticalissue that needs to be considered in M2M communications isthe energy efficiency, typically the machines are powered bybatteries of low capacity and it is important to optimize the waythe power is consumed. In search of better M2M systems, wepropose a context-aware framework for M2M communicationsso the machine type communication (MTC) devices dynamicallyadapt their settings depending on a series of characteristicssuch as data reporting mode and quality of service (QoS)features so higher energy efficient is achieved, extending theoperating lifetime of the M2M network. Simulations results willbe provided for four commonly used M2M applications: homesecurity, telehealth, climate and smart metering, showing thatconsiderable energy savings and operating lifetime extension onthe network can be achieved. Thus, contexts play an importantrole on the energy efficiency of a M2M system.

  • 25.
    Dahlman, Erik B.
    et al.
    KTH.
    Jou, Y. -C
    Further evolution of 3G radio access2006In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 34-35Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    DaSilva, Luiz
    et al.
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Midkiff, Scott
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Park, Jahng
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Phanse, Kaustubh
    Lin, Tao
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Hadjichristofi, George
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Davis, Davis, Nathaniel
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Network mobility and protocol interoperability in ad hoc networks2004In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 42, no 11, p. 88-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration of various network-level functions, including routing, management, and security, is critical to the efficient operation of a mobile ad hoc network. In this article we focus on network mobility (rather than node mobility), implying the movement of entire subnetworks with respect to one another, while individual users initially associated with one such subnetwork may also move to other domains. One example is a battlefield network that includes ships, aircraft, and ground troops. In this "network of networks", subnets (e.g. shipboard networks) may be interconnected via a terrestrial mobile wireless network (e.g., between moving ships). We discuss the design and implementation of a new ad hoc routing protocol, a suite of solutions for policy-based network management, and approaches for key management and deployment of IPsec in a MANET. These solutions, in turn, are integrated with real-time middleware, a secure radio link, and a topology monitoring tool. We briefly describe each component of the solution, and focus on the challenges and approaches to integrating these components into a cohesive system to support network mobility. We evaluate the effectiveness of the system through experiments conducted in a wireless ad hoc testbed.

  • 27. De Andrade, Marilet
    et al.
    Kramer, Glen
    Wosinska, Lena
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics (Closed 20120101), Photonics (Closed 20120101).
    Chen, Jiajia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics (Closed 20120101), Photonics (Closed 20120101).
    Sallent, Sebastia
    Mukherjee, Biswanath
    Evaluating Strategies for Evolution of Passive Optical Networks2011In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 49, no 7, p. 176-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapidly-increasing traffic demands will require the upgrade of optical access networks, namely deployed Passive Optical Networks (PONs), which may soon face capacity exhaustion. Such upgrade options must consider several technical and cost factors for evolution toward a shared multiple-channel PON using Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (WDM). WDM can facilitate the seamless upgrade of PONs, since capacity can be increased by adding new wavelength channels. We study the requirements for optimal migration toward higher bandwidth per user, and examine scenarios and cost-effective solutions for PON evolution.

  • 28.
    de Carvalho, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Björnson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sorensen, Jesper H.
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Popovski, Petar
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Random Access Protocols for Massive MIMO2017In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 216-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    5G wireless networks are expected to support new services with stringent requirements on data rates, latency and reliability. One novel feature is the ability to serve a dense crowd of devices, calling for radically new ways of accessing the network. This is the case in machine-type communications, but also in urban environments and hotspots. In those use cases, the high number of devices and the relatively short channel coherence interval do not allow per-device allocation of orthogonal pilot sequences. This article addresses the need for random access by the devices to pilot sequences used for channel estimation, and shows that Massive MIMO is a main enabler to achieve fast access with high data rates, and delay-tolerant access with different data rate levels. Three pilot access protocols along with data transmission protocols are described, fulfilling different requirements of 5G services.

  • 29. Derksen, Rainer. H.
    et al.
    Westergren, Urban
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Chacinski, Marek
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Schubert, Colja
    Bach, Heinz-Gunter
    Driad, Rachid
    Hurm, Volker
    Makon, Robert E.
    Li, Jie
    Steffan, Andreas G.
    Cost-Efficient High-Speed Components for 100 Gigabit Ethernet Transmission on One Wavelength Only: Results of the HECTO Project2013In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 136-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2010, the standard for 100GbE was approved, which specifies the transmission of 100 Gb/s via 4 wavelength channels of 25 Gb/s each. A solution based on a 100 Gb/s single wavelength channel is capable of significant cost reductions should the required components be available. Within the HECTO project, we developed components suitable for single-wavelength 100 Gb/s transmission. In this article, the project is described - its organization, objectives, possible impacts, and results - including the successful demonstration in a final field trial. A complete ETDM system utilizing the monolithically integrated transmitter and receiver modules developed in the project was built to transmit 112 Gb/s over 42 km standard single-mode fiber. Finally, we attempt an outlook on the prospective development of Ethernet standardization beyond 100GbE.

  • 30.
    Dinc, Ergin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Vondra, Michal
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Hofmann, Sandra
    Schupke, Dominic
    Prytz, Mikael
    Bovelli, Sergio
    Frodigh, Magnus
    Zander, Jens
    Cavdar, Cicek
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    In-Flight Broadband Connectivity: Architectures and Business Models for High Capacity Air-to-Ground Communications2017In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 55, no 9, p. 142-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In-Flight Broadband Connectivity (IFBC) is a significant open market for mobile network operators, considering that more than 3.3 billion passengers were served by airlines in 2015. On-board broadband services are provided via air-to-ground (A2G) connectivity through direct A2G communication (DA2GC) and satellite A2G communication (SA2GC). Available on-board connectivity systems have significant limitations: high latency in SA2GC and low capacity in DA2GC. The customer expectancy is multi-Mb/s connections in every seat, which leads to capacity requirements of Gb/s to the aircraft. Creation of high capacity IFBC requires a collaborative interaction between different industry partners. For this reason, we investigate A2G architectures in terms of economic and technical perspectives, and propose business models by identifying new roles and positioning them in the A2G business ecosystem. In addition, we provide an extensive summary of the state-of-the-art and future improvements for A2G communications.

  • 31.
    Dán, György
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Hossfeld, Tobias
    Oechsner, Simon
    Cholda, Piotr
    Stankiewicz, Rafal
    Papafili, Ioanna
    Stamoulis, George D.
    Interaction Patterns between P2P Content Distribution Systems and ISPs2011In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 222-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) content distribution systems are a major source of traffic in the Internet, but the application layer protocols they use are mostly unaware of the underlying network in accordance with the layered structure of the Internet's protocol stack. Nevertheless, the need for improved network efficiency and the business interests of Internet service providers (ISPs) are both strong drivers toward a cross-layer approach in peer-to-peer protocol design, calling for P2P systems that would in some way interact with the ISPs. Recent research shows that the interaction, which can rely on information provided by both parties, can be mutually beneficial. In this article we first give an overview of the kinds of information that could potentially be exchanged between the P2P systems and the ISPs, and discuss their usefulness and the ease of obtaining and exchanging them. We also present a classification of the possible approaches for interaction based on the level of involvement of the ISPs and the P2P systems, and we discuss the potential strengths and the weaknesses of these approaches.

  • 32.
    Elek, Viktoria
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Fumagalli, A.
    Wedzinga, G.
    Photonic slot routing: A cost-effective approach to designing all-optical access and metro networks2001In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 39, no 11, p. 164-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the backbone network, the high level of traffic aggregation achieved by numerous users is efficiently served by means of optical circuit switched solutions - the so-called wavelength routing approach. In the access and metro networks, on the contrary, the reduced level of traffic aggregation makes wavelength routing solutions inadequate. The finer and more dynamic bandwidth allocation provided by packet-interleaved optical time-division multiplexing is thus advocated in these network areas. This article presents a survey of an OTDM approach, known as photonic slot routing, or PSR for short. It will be illustrated how this approach may provide a cost-effective solution to deploying all-optical access and metro networks with today's technology.

  • 33.
    Ergin, Dinc
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Vondra, Michal
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Hofmann, Sandra
    Schupke, Dominic
    Prytz, Mikael
    Bovelli, Sergio
    Frodigh, Magnus
    Zander, Jens
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Cavdar, Cicek
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    In-Flight Broadband Connectivity: Architectures and Business Models for High Capacity Air-to-Ground Communications2017In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In-flight broadband connectivity (IFBC) is a significant open market for mobile network operators considering more than 3.3 billion passengers being served by airlines in2015. On-board broadband services are provided via air-to-ground(A2G) connectivity through direct A2G communications(DA2GC) and satellite A2G communications (SA2GC). Available on-board connectivity systems have significant limitations: high latency in SA2GC and low capacity in DA2GC. The customer expectancy is multi-Mbps connections in every seat which leads to capacity requirements of Gbps to the aircraft. Creation of high capacity IFBC requires a collaborative interaction between different industrial partners. For this reason, we investigate A2Garchitectures in terms of economic and technical perspectives, and propose business models by identifying new roles and positioning them in the A2G business ecosystem. In addition, we provide an extensive summary of the state-of-the-art and future improvements for A2G communications.

  • 34.
    Falconer, David
    Department of Systems and Computer Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada .
    History of equalization 1860-19802011In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 49, no 10, p. 42-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Operators of the first transatlantic telegraph cable in 1858, and subsequent cables from the mid-1860s, noticed that they had to transmit Morse code dots and dashes very slowly to be understood at the other end.1 This phenomenon, due to smearing out of pulses by the capacitive effects of very long cables, had been predicted by William Thomson (more about him below), and was one of the first instances of the need for equalization of digital signals.

  • 35.
    Feeney, Laura Marie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Westerlund, Assar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Spontaneous networking: an application-oriented approach to ad hoc networking2001In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 176-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An ad hoc network must operate independently of a pre-established or centralised network management infrastructure, while still providing administrative services needed to support applications. Address allocation, name resolution, service location, authentication, and access control policies represent just some of the functionality that must be supported - without pre-configuration n or centralised services. In order to solve these problems, it is necessary to leverage some aspect of the environment in which the network operates. We introduce the notion of a spontaneous network, created when a group of people come together for some collaborative activity. In this case, we can use the human interactions associated with the activity in order to establish a basic service and security infrastructure. We structure our discussion around a practical real-world scenario illustrating the use of such a network, identifying the key challenges involved and some of the techniques that can be used to address them.

  • 36. Fodor, G
    et al.
    Dahlman, E
    Parkvall, S
    Mildh, G
    Reider, N
    Miklos, G
    Turanyi, Z
    Design Aspects of Network Assisted Device-to-Device Communications2012In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 170-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Device-to-device (D2D) communications underlaying a cellular infrastructure has been proposed as a means of taking advantage of the physical proximity of communicating devices, increasing resource utilization, and improving cellular coverage. Relative to the traditional cellular methods, there is a need to design new peer discovery methods, physical layer procedures, and radio resource management algorithms that help realize the potential advantages of D2D communications. In this article we use the 3GPP Long Term Evolution system as a baseline for D2D design, review some of the key design challenges, and propose solution approaches that allow cellular devices and D2D pairs to share spectrum resources and thereby increase the spectrum and energy efficiency of traditional cellular networks. Simulation results illustrate the viability of the proposed design.

  • 37.
    Fodor, Gabor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Rajatheva, N.
    Zirwas, W.
    Thiele, L.
    Kurras, M.
    Guo, K.
    Tolli, A.
    Sorensen, J. H.
    Carvalho, E. D.
    An Overview of Massive MIMO Technology Components in METIS2017In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 155-161, article id 7946939Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the standardization of full-dimension MIMO systems in the Third Generation Partnership Project progresses, the research community has started to explore the potential of very large arrays as an enabler technology for meeting the requirements of fifth generation systems. Indeed, in its final deliverable, the European 5G project METIS identifies massive MIMO as a key 5G enabler and proposes specific technology components that will allow the cost-efficient deployment of cellular systems taking advantage of hundreds of antennas at cellular base stations. These technology components include handling the inherent pilot-data resource allocation trade-off in a near optimal fashion, a novel random access scheme supporting a large number of users, coded channel state information for sparse channels in frequency-division duplexing systems, managing user grouping and multi-user beamforming, and a decentralized coordinated transceiver design. The aggregate effect of these components enables massive MIMO to contribute to the METIS objectives of delivering very high data rates and managing dense populations.

  • 38.
    Fodor, Viktória
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Dán, György
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Resilience in live peer-to-peer streaming2007In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 116-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The success of peer-to-peer overlays for live multicast streaming depends on their ability to maintain low delays and a low ratio of information loss end-to-end. However, data distribution over an overlay consisting of unreliable peers is inherently subject to disturbances. Resilience is thus inevitably a key requirement for peer-to-peer live-streaming architectures. In this article, we present a survey of the media distribution methods, overlay structures, and error-control solutions proposed for peer-to-peer live streaming. We discuss the trade off between resilience and overhead and argue that efficient architectures can be defined only through thorough performance analysis.

  • 39. Fu, C.
    et al.
    Glitho, Roch
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Ericsson Telecom AB, Sweden.
    Khendek, F.
    A cross-layer architecture for signaling in multihop cellular networks2008In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 46, no 9, p. 174-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multihop cellular networks (MCNs) combine traditional single-hop cellular networks with ad hoc networks. They have emerged recently as an active research topic due to their throughput advantages and low cost. Most of the research on MCNs has been focused on lower-layer issues such as routing. Application layer issues in MCNs are seldom addressed. In this article we tackle one of these issues: signaling for conferencing. Conferencing enables a range of "killer" applications such as videoconferencing, gaming, and distance learning. Signaling is a critical component that handles session initiation, modification, and termination. We have proposed a general signaling architecture for integrated 3G/MANETs that is applicable to the specific case of MCNs. This architecture is based on application- layer clusters and faces several performance drawbacks. This article focuses on optimizing the architecture performance for the specific environment of an MCN. We first present this MCN environment and discuss conferencing scenarios. We propose an optimization architecture based on cross-layer design, which is then compared to the existing proposals, followed by a set of optimization schemes. The article also discusses initial evaluation results.

  • 40. G, Eneroth
    et al.
    G, Fodor
    G, Leijonhufvud
    A, Rácz
    I, Szabó
    Applying ATM/AAL2 as a switching technology in third-generation mobile access networks1999In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 112-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we focus on the transport and switching part of third-generation mobile access networks and outline some important aspects of applying ATM in these networks. In particular, we argue that in order for the mobile access network to support low-bit-rate delay-sensitive traffic consisting of short packets, the standardization of a new ATM adaptation layer, AAL2, and associated signaling protocol has been necessary. The AAL2 protocol has been designed to support low-bit-rate delay-sensitive services (typically compressed voice) where other adaptation layers fail to deliver the required QoS and maintain efficient resource utilization at the same time. Furthermore, in order to provide mobility and soft handover support in CDMA-based mobile networks such as UMTS or IMT-2000, there is also a strong demand for fast connection establishment and release. Therefore, when designing ATM-based cellular access networks some specific architectural and traffic management issues need to be addressed.

  • 41. G, Fodor
    et al.
    A, Eriksson
    A, Tuoriniemi
    Providing quality of service in always best connected networks2003In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 41, no 7, p. 154-163Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Ghanbari, Amirhossein
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Laya, Andres
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Alonso-Zarate, J.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Business Development in the Internet of Things: A Matter of Vertical Cooperation2017In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 135-141, article id 7842424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart and connected devices can improve industrial processes, and generate new and better services. While this premise is well understood within the ICT industry, there is a challenge in extending this knowledge to vertical industries. The potential of the Internet of Things lies in the interaction among industries working together toward value co-creation. Firms need to look beyond their internal business models and explore cooperative perspectives to define new business opportunities. In this article, we look into the relevance of vertical cooperation in the area of IoT and highlight the need to develop new value networks that leverage this cooperation and enable the creation of new business models. To lead our discussions, we use the examples of two major building blocks of smart cities: intelligent transport systems and health and well being services based on connected devices and solutions.

  • 43. Gonzales Prieto, Alberto
    et al.
    Gillblad, Daniel
    Steinert, Rebecca
    SICS.
    Miron, Avi
    Toward Decentralized Probabilistic Management2011In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 49, no 7, p. 80-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, data communication networks have grown to immense size and have been diversified by the mobile revolution. Existing management solutions are based on a centralized deterministic paradigm, which is appropriate for networks of moderate size operating in relatively stable conditions. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that these management solutions are not able to cope with the large dynamic networks that are emerging. In this article, we argue that the adoption of a decentralized and probabilistic paradigm for network management will be crucial to meet the challenges of future networks, such as efficient resource usage, scalability, robustness, and adaptability. We discuss the potential of decentralized probabilistic management and its impact on management operations, and illustrate the paradigm by three example solutions for real-time monitoring and anomaly detection.

  • 44. Gonzalez Prieto, Alberto
    et al.
    Gillblad, Daniel
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Steinert, Rebecca
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Miron, Avi
    Towards Decentralized Probabilistic Management2011In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 49, p. 80-86Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Hoymann, Christian
    et al.
    Ericsson Research, Sweden; Ericssons 3GPP RAN Delegat, Sweden.
    Astely, David
    Nokia Networks, Sweden; Ericsson, Sweden.
    Stattin, Magnus
    Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    Wikstrom, Gustav
    Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    (Thomas) Cheng, Jung-Fu
    Ericsson Silicon Valley, Sweden.
    Hoglund, Andreas
    Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    Frenne, Mattias
    Ericsson, Sweden.
    Blasco, Ricardo
    Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    Huschke, Joerg
    Ericsson GmbH, Germany.
    Gunnarsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    LTE Release 14 Outlook2016In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 44-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Todays 4G LTE systems bring unprecedented mobile broadband performance to over a billion of users across the globe. Recently, work on a 5G mobile communication system has begun, and next to a new 5G air interface, LTE will be an essential component. The evolution of LTE will therefore strive to meet 5G requirements and to address 5G use cases. In this article, we provide an overview of foreseen key technology areas and components for LTE Release 14, including latency reductions, enhancements for machine-type communication, operation in unlicensed spectrum, massive multi-antenna systems, broadcasting, positioning, and support for intelligent transportation systems.

  • 46.
    Hu, Honglin
    et al.
    Chinese Adacemy of Sciences.
    Zhang, Jian
    Chinese Adacemy of Sciences.
    Zheng, Xiaoying
    Chinese Academy of Sciences and Southeast University.
    Yang, Yang
    Chinese Academy of Sciences and University College London.
    Wu, Ping
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Signals and Systems Group.
    Self-Configuration and Self-Optimization for LTE Networks2010In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 94-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the rapid growth of mobile communications, deployment and maintenance of cellular mobile networks are becoming more and more complex, time consuming, and expensive. In order to meet the requirements of network operators and service providers, the telecommunication industry and international standardization bodies have recently paid intensive attention to the research and development of self-organizing networks. In this article we first introduce both the market and technological perspectives for SONs. Then we focus on the self-configuration procedure and illustrate a self-booting mechanism for a newly added evolved NodeB without a dedicated backhaul interface. Finally, mobility load balancing as one of the most important self-optimization issues for Long Term Evolution networks is discussed, and a distributed MLB algorithm with low handover cost is proposed and evaluated.

  • 47. Hu, Wendong
    et al.
    Willkomm, Daniel
    TU Berlin.
    Abusubaih, Murad
    TU Berlin.
    Gross, James
    Technical University Berlin.
    Vlantis, George
    Gerla, Mario
    UCLA.
    Wolisz, Adam
    TU Berlin.
    Dynamic Frequency Hopping Communities for Efficient IEEE 802.22 Operation2007In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 80-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the key challenges of the emerging cognitive radio-based IEEE 802.22 wireless regional area networks (WRANs) is to address two apparently conflicting requirements: ensuring QoS satisfaction for WRAN services while providing reliable spectrum sensing for guaranteeing licensed user protection. To perform reliable sensing, in the basic operation mode on a single frequency band (non-hopping mode), one must allocate quiet times, that is, periodically interrupt data transmission that could impair the QoS of WRAN. This critical issue can be addressed by an alternative operation mode proposed in 802.22 called dynamic frequency hopping (DFH), where WRAN data transmission is performed in parallel with spectrum sensing without interruptions. DFH community, as described in this article, is a mechanism that coordinates multiple WRAN cells operating in the DFH mode, such that efficient frequency usage and reliable channel sensing are achieved. The key idea of DFH community is that neighboring WRAN cells form cooperating communities that coordinate their DFH operations.

  • 48. Hu, Xiping
    et al.
    Li, Xitong
    Ngai, Edith C.-H.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Leung, Victor C. M.
    Kruchten, Philippe
    Multidimensional context-aware social network architecture for mobile crowdsensing2014In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 52, no 6, p. 78-87Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49. John, W.
    et al.
    Kern, A.
    Kind, M.
    Sköldström, Pontus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Staessens, D.
    Woesner, H.
    Splitarchitecture: SDN for the carrier domain2014In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 52, no 10, p. 146-152, article id 6917416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of SDN has emerged as a way to address numerous challenges with traditional network architectures by decoupling network control and forwarding. So far, the use cases for SDN mainly targeted data-center applications. This article considers SDN for network carriers, facing operation of large-scale networks with millions of customers, multiple technologies, and high availability demands. With specific carriergrade features such as scalability, reliability, flexibility, modularity, and virtualization in mind, the SPARC EU project has developed the SPARC SplitArchitecture concept. The SplitArchitecture control plane allows hierarchical layering of several control plane layers which can be flexibly mapped to data plane layers. Between control layers open interfaces are used. Furthermore, SplitArchitecture proposes an additional split of forwarding and processing functions in data path elements, enabling switch based OAM functionality and handling of tunneling techniques. The SplitArchitecture concept is evaluated in a prototype demonstrating an SDN version of BRAS: the floating BRAS. The floating BRAS allows creation of residential Internet access services with dynamically managed BRAS instances. The demo is based on a controller enabling protected MPLS transport connections spanning SDN-controlled aggregation and IP/MPLS-based core domains. The prototype showcases how SplitArchitecture enables virtualization of service nodes in an SDN-controlled network, leading to increased flexibility in configuration and placement of service creation functions. Overall, the results show that it is technically and economically beneficial to apply SDN, and specifically the SplitArchitecture concept, to the carrier domain.

  • 50.
    John, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Marchetto, Guido
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Németh, Felician
    Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary.
    Sköldström, Pontus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Steinert, Rebecca
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Meirosu, Catalin
    Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Papafili, Ioanna
    Hellenic Telecommunications Organization, Greece.
    Pentikousis, Kostas
    Travelping, Germany.
    Service provider DevOps2017In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 204-211, article id 7823363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there is consensus that software defined networking and network functions virtualization overhaul service provisioning and deployment, the community still lacks a definite answer on how carrier-grade operations praxis needs to evolve. This article presents what lies beyond the first evolutionary steps in network management, identifies the challenges in service verification, observability, and troubleshooting, and explains how to address them using our Service Provider DevOps (SP-DevOps) framework. We compendiously cover the entire process from design goals to tool realization and employ an elastic version of an industry-standard use case to show how on-the-fly verification, software-defined monitoring, and automated troubleshooting of services reduce the cost of fault management actions. We assess SP-DevOps with respect to key attributes of software-defined telecommunication infrastructures both qualitatively and quantitatively, and demonstrate that SP-DevOps paves the way toward carrier-grade operations and management in the network virtualization era.

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