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  • 1.
    Aboulaich, Nabila
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ortegren, Unn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Vener, Alexander V
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Strålfors, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Association and insulin regulated translocation of hormone-sensitive lipase with PTRF2006In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 350, no 3, p. 657-661Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF) is in human adipocytes mainly localized at the plasma membrane. This localization was under control of insulin, which translocated PTRF to the cytosol and nucleus, indicating a novel role for PTRF in insulin transcriptional control. In the plasma membrane PTRF was specifically bound to a triacylglycerol-metabolizing subclass of caveolae containing hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). In response to insulin PTRF was translocated to the cytosol in parallel with HSL. PTRF and HSL were quantitatively immunoprecipitated from the cytosol by antibodies against either PTRF or HSL. The findings indicate also a novel extranuclear function for PTRF in the control of lipolysis.

  • 2. Abramczyk, Olga
    et al.
    Zien, Piotr
    Zielinski, Rafał
    Pilecki, Marek
    Hellman, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Szyszka, Ryszard
    The protein kinase 60S is a free catalytic CK2alpha' subunit and forms an inactive complex with superoxide dismutase SOD12003In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 307, no 1, p. 31-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 60S ribosomes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae contain a set of acidic P-proteins playing an important role in the ribosome function. Reversible phosphorylation of those proteins is a mechanism regulating translational activity of ribosomes. The key role in regulation of this process is played by specific, second messenger-independent protein kinases. The PK60S kinase was one of the enzymes phosphorylating P-proteins. The enzyme has been purified from yeast and characterised. Pure enzyme has properties similar to those reported for casein kinase type 2. Peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) has identified the PK60S as a catalytic alpha(') subunit of casein kinase type 2 (CK2alpha(')). Protein kinase activity is inhibited by SOD1 and by highly specific CK2 inhibitor-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-benzotriazole (TBBt). The possible mechanism of regulation of CK2alpha(') activity in stress conditions, by superoxide dismutase in regulation of 80S-ribosome activity, is discussed.

  • 3.
    Afrakhte, Mozhgan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Morén, Anita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Jossan, Surinder
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Itoh, Susumu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Sampath, Kuber
    Westermark, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Heldin, Nils-Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    ten Dijke, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Induction of inhibitory Smad6 and Smad7 mRNA by TGF-beta family members1998In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 249, no 2, p. 505-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smad6 and Smad7 function as intracellular antagonists in transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling. Here we report the isolation of human Smad6, which is closely related to Smad7. Smad6 and Smad7 mRNAs were differentially expressed in lung cancer cell lines and were rapidly and directly induced by TGF-beta1, activin and bone morphogenetic protein-7. Cross-talk between TGF-beta and other signaling pathways was demonstrated by the finding that epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced the expression of inhibitory SMAD mRNA. Moreover, whereas the phorbol ester PMA alone had no effect, it potentiated the TGF-beta1-induced expression of Smad7 mRNA. Ectopic expression of anti-sense Smad7 RNA was found to increase the effect of TGF-beta1, supporting its role as a negative regulator in TGF-beta signaling. Thus, expression of inhibitory Smads is induced by multiple stimuli, including the various TGF-beta family members, whose action they antagonize.

  • 4.
    Ahlen, K.
    et al.
    Åhlén, K., Dept. Med. Biochem. and Microbiol., University of Uppsala, Biomedical Center, SE-751 23 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ring, P.
    Dept. Med. Biochem. and Microbiol., University of Uppsala, Biomedical Center, SE-751 23 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Tomasini-Johansson, B.
    Dept. Med. Biochem. and Microbiol., University of Uppsala, Biomedical Center, SE-751 23 Uppsala, Sweden, Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 4285 MSC, 1300 University Ave, Madison, WI 53706, United States.
    Holmqvist, K.
    Dept. Med. Biochem. and Microbiol., University of Uppsala, Biomedical Center, SE-751 23 Uppsala, Sweden, Department of Medical Cell Biology, University of Uppsala, Biomedical Center, SE-751 23 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Karl-Eric
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology .
    Rubin, K.
    Dept. Med. Biochem. and Microbiol., University of Uppsala, Biomedical Center, SE-751 23 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Platelet-derived growth factor-BB modulates membrane mobility of ß1 integrins2004In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 314, no 1, p. 89-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB elicits a migratory response including reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in different cell types. Here we have investigated the effects of PDGF-BB stimulation on ß 1 integrin containing focal adhesions in human diploid fibroblasts adhered to collagen type I. Stimulation with PDGF-BB dissociated focal adhesions and relocated ß1 integrins from focal adhesions to the periphery of the cells. These changes were rapid and transient in character. Relocation of ß1 integrins was prevented by inhibitors of phosphoinositide-3-kinase and protein kinase C. PDGF-BB stimulated fibroblasts exhibited an increased diffusion coefficient of cell surface ß1 integrins as determined by fluorescence recovery of photobleaching. The cell surface expression of ß1 integrins was not changed after stimulation with PDGF-BB. Our data suggest that PDGF-BB increases the dynamic properties of cell-surface ß1 integrins, which most likely are important for the migratory response elicited by PDGF-BB. © 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Ahmadi, Ahmad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fredriksson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jerregård, H.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Åkerbäck, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fall, Per-Arne
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Geriatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rannug, A.
    National Institute for Working Life, Solna and Inst. of Environ. Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Axelson, Olav
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Söderkvist, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    GSTM1 and mEPHX polymorphisms in Parkinson's disease and age of onset2000In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 269, no 3, p. 676-680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both environmental and genetic factors are involved in the development of PD and biotransformation of exogenous and endogenous compounds and may play a role in inter-individual susceptibility. Therefore, we investigated the presence of null genotypes of GSTM1, GSTT1, and two polymorphisms of mEPHX in subjects with Parkinson's disease and in a reference population. The study included 35 male PD patients and a male control group including 283 subjects. Homozygosity of the histidine (H) 113 isoform of mEPHX was significantly increased in PD patients (odds ratio = 3.8 CI 95% 1.2–11.8) and analysis of allele frequencies displayed an increased frequency of the H-allele among PD patients (odds ratio = 1.9 CI 95% 1.1–3.3). However, a significantly elevated median age for the onset of PD was found among GSTM1 gene carriers (median age = 68 years) compared to PD patients being GSTM1 null genotypes (median age = 57 years). Our observations suggest that (H) 113 isoform of mEPHX, which has been suggested as a low activity isoform, is overrepresented in PD patients and that inherited carriers of the GSTM1 gene postpone the onset of PD. These detoxification pathways may represent important protective mechanisms against reactive intermediates modifying the susceptibility and onset of PD.

  • 6. Aifa, Sami
    et al.
    Frikha, Fakher
    Miled, Nabil
    Johansen, Knut
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Svensson, Samuel P.S.
    Astra Zeneca.
    Phosphorylation of Thr654 but not Thr669 within the juxtamembrane domain of the EGF receptor inhibits calmodulin binding2006In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 347, no 2, p. 381-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calcium-calmodulin (CaM) binding to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been shown to both inhibit and stimulate receptor activity. CaM binds to the intracellular juxtamembrane (JM) domain (Met645-Phe688) of EGFR. Protein kinase C (PKC) mediated phosphorylation of Thr654 occurs within this domain. CaM binding to the JM domain inhibits PKC phosphorylation and conversely PKC mediated phosphorylation of Thr654 or Glu substitution of Thr654 inhibits CaM binding. A second threonine residue (Thr669) within the JM domain is phosphorylated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Previous results have shown that CaM interferes with EGFR-induced MAPK activation. If and how phosphorylation of Thr669 affects CaM-EGFR interaction is however not known.In the present study we have used surface plasmon resonance (BIAcore) to study the influence of Thr669 phosphorylation on real time interactions between the intracellular juxtamembrane (JM) domain of EGFR and CaM. The EGFR-JM was expressed as GST fusion proteins in Escherichia coli and phosphorylation was mimicked by generating Glu substitutions of either Thr654 or Thr669. Purified proteins were coupled to immobilized anti-GST antibodies at the sensor surface and increasing concentration of CaM was applied. When mutating Thr654 to Glu654 no specific CaM binding could be detected. However, neither single substitutions of Thr669 (Gly669 or Glu669) nor double mutants Gly654/Gly669 or Gly654/Glu669 influenced the binding of CaM to the EGFR-JM. This clearly shows that PKC may regulate EGF-mediated CaM signalling through phosphorylation of Thr654 whereas phosphorylation of Thr669 seems to play a CaM independent regulatory role. The role of both residues in the EGFR-calmodulin interaction was also studied in silico. Our modelling work supports a scenario where Thr654 from the JM domain interacts with Glu120 in the calmodulin molecule. Phosphorylation of Thr654 or Glu654 substitution creates a repulsive electrostatic force that would diminish CaM binding to the JM domain. These results are in line with the Biacore experiments showing a weak binding of the CaM to the JM domain with Thr654 mutated to Glu. Furthermore, these results provide a hypothesis to how CaM binding to EGFR might both positively and negatively interfere with EGFR-activity. © 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 7. Ali, L
    et al.
    Grapengiesser, E
    Gylfe, E
    Hellman, B
    Lund, P E
    Free and bound sodium in pancreatic beta-cells exposed to glucose and tolbutamide.1989In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 164, no 1, p. 212-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of glucose and tolbutamide on the sodium handling of the pancreatic beta-cells were evaluated by measuring the total sodium content in intact islets from ob/ob-mice by integrating flame photometry and the free ion in individual beta-cells by dual wavelength fluorometry. Whereas increasing the glucose concentration from 3 to 20 mM resulted in a lowering of sodium, the addition of 100 microM tolbutamide caused a rise. The above-mentioned effects were most marked (about 50%) for the physiologically significant free sodium. The data indicate a more important role for Na+ in the regulation of insulin release than so far acknowledged. Increase of Na+ may contribute to the secretory response to hypoglycemic sulfonylureas by providing an additional rise of cytoplasmic Ca2+.

  • 8.
    Alila-Fersi, Olfa
    et al.
    Molecular and Functional Genetics Laboratory, Faculty of Science of Sfax, University of Sfax, Tunisia.
    Tabebi, Mouna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Maalej, Marwa
    Molecular and Functional Genetics Laboratory, Faculty of Science of Sfax, University of Sfax, Tunisia.
    Belguith, Neila
    Department of Medical Genetics, Hédi Chaker Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia.
    Keskes, Leila
    Human Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Faculty of Medecine of Sfax, University of Sfax, Tunisia.
    Mkaouar-Rebai, Emna
    Molecular and Functional Genetics Laboratory, Faculty of Science of Sfax, University of Sfax, Tunisia.
    Fakhfakh, Faiza
    Molecular and Functional Genetics Laboratory, Faculty of Science of Sfax, University of Sfax, Tunisia.
    First description of a novel mitochondrial mutation in the MT-TI gene associated with multiple mitochondrial DNA deletion and depletion in family with severe dilated mitochondrial cardiomyopathy2018In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 497, no 4, p. 1049-1054Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mitochondria are essential for early cardiac development and impaired mitochondria] function was described associated with heart diseases such as hypertrophic or dilated mitochondrial cardiomyopathy. In this study, we report a family including two individuals with severe dilated mitochondrial cardiomyopathy. The whole mitochondrial genome screening showed the presence of several variations and a novel homoplasmic mutation m.4318-4322deIC in the MT-TI gene shared by the two patients and their mother and leading to a disruption of the tRNA(IIe) secondary structure. In addition, a mitochondrial depletion was present in blood leucocyte of the two affected brother whereas a de novo heteroplasmic multiple deletion in the major arc of mtDNA was present in blood leucocyte and mucosa of only one of them. These deletions in the major arc of the mtDNA resulted to the loss of several protein-encoding genes and also some tRNA genes. The mtDNA deletion and depletion could result to an impairment of the oxidative phosphorylation and energy metabolism in the respiratory chain in the studied patients. Our report is the first description of a family with severe lethal dilated mitochondrial cardiomyopathy and presenting several mtDNA abnormalities including punctual mutation, deletion and depletion.

  • 9.
    Althini, Susanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Developmental Neuroscience.
    Usoskin, Dmitry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Developmental Neuroscience.
    Kylberg, Annika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Developmental Neuroscience.
    ten Dijke, Peter
    Ebendal, Ted
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Developmental Neuroscience.
    Bone morphogenetic protein signalling in NGF-stimulated PC12 cells2003In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 307, no 3, p. 632-639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are shown to potentiate NGF-induced neuronal differentiation in PC12 phaeochromocytoma cells grown on collagen under low-serum conditions. Whereas, cell bodies remained rounded in control medium or with only BMPs present, addition of BMP4 or BMP6 robustly increased the neuritogenic effect of NGF within 2 days. NGF-increased phosphorylation of p44(Erk1) and p42(Erk2) between 2 and 24h was unaffected by addition of BMP6. PC12 cells transfected with the SBE(4x)-luc reporter showed that BMP4 significantly increased receptor-activated Smad activity. Expression of constitutively active BMP receptor ALK2 activating Smad1 and Smad5 resulted in a strong increase in the SBE(4x)-luc reporter response. Adding the inhibitory Smad7 drastically reduced this signal. In contrast to wild-type (wt) Smad5, a Smad5 variant lacking five Erk phosphorylation sites in the linker region (designated Smad5/5SA) showed a strong background transcriptional activity. A fusion construct (Gal4-Smad5/5SA) was also highly transcriptionally active. Addition of the MEK inhibitor U0126 to PC12 cells expressing Gal4-Smad5/wt did not increase background transcriptional activity. However, upon activation by constitutively active ALK2 both Gal4-Smad5/wt and Gal4-Smad5/5SA strongly stimulated transcription. The data show that serine residues of the linker region of Smad5 reduce spontaneous transcriptional activity and that NGF-activated Erk does not antagonise BMP signalling at this site. Hence, NGF and BMP signals are likely to interact further downstream at the transcriptional level in neuronal differentiation of the PC12 cells.

  • 10.
    Altschuh, Danièle
    et al.
    Biotechnologie et signalisation cellulaire, Université de Strasbourg, France.
    Björkelund, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Biomedical Radiation Sciences.
    Strandgård, John
    Ridgeview Instruments AB, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Chouliera, Laurence
    Biotechnologie et signalisation cellulaire, Université de Strasbourg, France.
    Malmqvist, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Biomedical Radiation Sciences.
    Andersson, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Biomedical Radiation Sciences.
    Deciphering complex protein interaction kinetics using Interaction Map2012In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 428, no 1, p. 74-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellular receptor systems are expected to present complex ligand interaction patterns that cannot beevaluated assuming a simple one ligand:one receptor interaction model. We have previously evaluatedheterogeneous interactions using an alternative method to regression analysis, called Interaction Map(IM). IM decomposes a time-resolved binding curve into its separate components. By replacing the reductionistic,scalar kinetic association rate constant ka and dissociation rate constant kd with a two-dimensionaldistribution of ka and kd, it is possible to display heterogeneous data as a map where each peakcorresponds to one of the components that contribute to the cumulative binding curve. Here we challengethe Interaction Map approach by artificially generating heterogeneous data from two known interactions,on either LigandTracer or Surface Plasmon Resonance devices. We prove the ability of IM toaccurately decompose these man-made heterogeneous binding curves composed of two different interactions.We conclude that the Interaction Map approach is well suited for the analysis of complex bindingdata and forecast that it has a potential to resolve previously uninterpretable data, in particular thosegenerated in cell-based assays.

  • 11.
    Amarzguioui, Mohammed
    et al.
    The Biotechnology Centre of Oslo, University of Oslo, Gaustadalleen 21, Oslo, Norway.
    Mucchiano, Gerd
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Molecular and Immunological Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Häggqvist, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Molecular and Immunological Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Westermark, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Molecular and Immunological Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kavlie, Anita
    The Biotechnology Centre of Oslo, University of Oslo, Gaustadalleen 21, Oslo, Norway.
    Sletten, Knut
    The Biotechnology Centre of Oslo, University of Oslo, Gaustadalleen 21, Oslo, Norway.
    Prydz, Hans
    The Biotechnology Centre of Oslo, University of Oslo, Gaustadalleen 21, Oslo, Norway.
    Extensive Intimal Apolipoprotein A1-Derived Amyloid Deposits in a Patient with an Apolipoprotein A1 Mutation1998In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 242, no 3, p. 534-539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the aortic intima amyloid deposits are often associated with atherosclerotic plaques. In a recent study of one patient with aortic intimal amyloid the major fibril protein was an N-terminal fragment of apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) consisting of 69 amino acid residues. In the present study, we have screened the apoA1 gene for mutations in autopsy cases with aortic intimal amyloid immunohistochemically positive for apoA1, using single stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and DNA sequencing. All cases except one had a normal apoA1 gene sequence. One case of exceptionally severe atherosclerosis combined with extensive intimal amyloid deposits showed an apoA1 deletion corresponding to Lys 107. Thus, wild type apoA1 is amyloidogenic but our findings suggest that the expression of a mutant apoA1-form may be associated with enhanced amyloidogenicity.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Servetnyk, Zhanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Roomans, Godfried M
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Activation of CFTR by genistein in human airway epithelial cell lines2003In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 308, no 3, p. 518-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by a mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a chloride channel expressed in epithelial cells. The effects of genistein and 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) on CFTR were studied in three human airway epithelial cell lines expressing wild-type or DeltaF508 CFTR: Calu-3, CFSMEo-, and CFBE41o- cells. The cells were loaded with the fluorescent dye N-(ethoxycarbonylmethyl)-6-methoxyquinolinium bromide (MQAE) and chloride efflux was studied. Forskolin and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) induced chloride efflux in Calu-3 cells but not in CF lines. Genistein (2.5-50 microM) alone was able to induce chloride efflux in all cell lines. Genistein did not enhance the effect of forskolin and IBMX. PBA had little or no effect on genistein-induced chloride efflux. The effect of genistein seen at low concentrations makes genistein interesting for possible pharmacological treatment of CF, since it is known that similar concentrations can be obtained in plasma by a soy-rich diet.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Olofsson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Holm Nielsen, Ellen
    Svehag, SvenErik
    Lundgren, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Only amyloidogenic inermediates of transthyretin induce apoptosis2002In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 294, no 2, p. 309-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In diseases like Alzheimer's disease and familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) amyloid deposits co-localize with areas of neurodegeneration. FAP is associated with mutations of the plasma protein transthyretin (TTR). We can here show an apoptotic effect of amyloidogenic mutants of TTR on a human neuroblastoma cell line. Toxicity could be blocked by catalase indicating a free oxygen radical dependent mechanism. The toxic effect was dependent on the state of aggregation and unexpectedly mature fibrils from FAP-patients who failed to exert an apoptotic response. Morphological studies revealed a correlation between toxicity and the presence of immature amyloid. Thus, we can show that toxicity is associated with early stages of fibril formation and propose that mature full-length fibrils represent an inert end stage, which might serve as a rescue mechanism. 

  • 14. Andersson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Leighton, Brendan
    Young, Martin E
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Newsholme, Eric A
    Inactivation of aconitase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase in skeletal muscle in vitro by superoxide anions and/or nitric oxide.1998In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 249, no 2, p. 512-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strips of rat soleus muscle were incubated in media containing a superoxide generating system and/or the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) before the maximal catalytic activities of aconitase, citrate synthase, and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase were measured. The maximal activities of aconitase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase were both decreased by 25-30% by superoxide anions; however, only the maximal activity of aconitase was decreased, by approximately 50%, by incubation of muscles with SNP. Furthermore, when both superoxide and NO were present in the medium, aconitase activity was decreased by 70%. The maximal activity of citrate synthase was not affected by any of the treatments. This is the first time that superoxide anions or NO has been shown to inactivate aconitase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase in skeletal muscle. It is suggested that these effects may be responsible for some alterations in skeletal muscle metabolism, and these possibilities are discussed.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Viktor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Skoglund, Caroline
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Uvdal, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Solin, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Preparation of amyloidlike fibrils containing magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: Effect of protein aggregation on proton relaxivity2012In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 419, no 4, p. 682-686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method to prepare amyloid-like fibrils functionalized with magnetic nanoparticles has been developed. The amyloid-like fibrils are prepared in a two step procedure, where insulin and magnetic nanoparticles are mixed simply by grinding in the solid state, resulting in a water soluble hybrid material. When the hybrid material is heated in aqueous acid, the insulin/nanoparticle hybrid material self assembles to form amyloid-like fibrils incorporating the magnetic nanoparticles. This results in magnetically labeled amyloid-like fibrils which has been characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and electron tomography. The influence of the aggregation process on proton relaxivity is investigated. The prepared materials have potential uses in a range of bio-imaging applications.

  • 16.
    Andrae, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Molander, Catrin
    Smits, Anja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurology.
    Funa, Keiko
    Nistér, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Platelet-derived growth factor-B and -C and active α-receptors in medulloblastoma cells2002In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 296, no 3, p. 604-611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The malignant childhood brain tumor medulloblastoma belongs to the group of primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNETs). Medulloblastomas are thought to arise from remnants of the transient external germinal layer in the cerebellum. Proliferation, differentiation, and motility of cells in the central nervous system are regulated by growth factors, e.g., platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Recently, it was shown that higher level of PDGF α-receptor expression is characteristic of metastatic medulloblastomas. We have investigated five medulloblastoma/PNET cell lines and found that the PDGF α-receptor is actively signalling in most of them, an activity most likely driven by endogenously produced PDGF-C. PDGF-C is normally present in cells of the developing external germinal layer and our results are consistent with the idea that medulloblastomas are derived from such cells undergoing early neuronal differentiation. Moreover, the expression of PDGF and its receptors was associated with neuronal characteristics, but not with high levels of c-myc expression in the medullablastoma cells.

  • 17.
    Appelkvist, Eewa-Liisa
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge Hospital, Sweden.
    Söderström, Mats
    Arrhenius Laboratory for the Natural Sciences, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Nässberger, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Damberg, Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Dallner, Gustav
    Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge Hospital, Sweden / Stockholm University, Sweden.
    DePierre, Joseph W
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Characterization of the lipid and protein contents of myelin bodies isolated from the renal cortex of gentamicin-treated rats1991In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 181, no 2, p. 894-901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Myelin bodies were isolated from the renal cortex of gentamicin-treated rats (100 mg/kg body weight, twice daily for 3 days, i.p.) employing an initial pelleting by differential centrifugation and subsequent flotation on a discontinuous sucrose gradient. These structures were found to contain almost twice as much protein as phospholipid and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of many different polypeptides. All the major phospholipids are present, although myelin bodies contain a considerably higher proportion of phosphatidylinositol, somewhat more phosphatidylcholine and considerably lower percentages of phosphatidylserine and sphingomyelin than do normal renal phospholipids. The fatty acids of myelin body phospholipids are highly saturated (67.3-87.9%) and a striking feature is the occurrence of relatively large amounts of 22:1, presumably erucic acid, especially in sphingomyelin. Myelin bodies contain small amounts of unesterified cholesterol, unesterified dolichol and coenzymes Q9 and Q10.

  • 18. Barrefelt, Asa
    et al.
    Zhao, Ying
    Larsson, Malin K.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging.
    Egri, Gabriella
    Kuiper, Raoul V.
    Hamm, Jorg
    Saghafian, Maryam
    Caidahl, Kenneth
    Brismar, Torkel B.
    Aspelin, Peter
    Heuchel, Rainer
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    Dahne, Lars
    Hassan, Moustapha
    Fluorescence labeled microbubbles for multimodal imaging2015In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 464, no 3, p. 737-742Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Air-filled polyvinyl alcohol microbubbles (PVA-MBs) were recently introduced as a contrast agent for ultrasound imaging. In the present study, we explore the possibility of extending their application in multimodal imaging by labeling them with a near infrared (NIR) fluorophore, VivoTag-680. PVA-MBs were injected intravenously into FVB/N female mice and their dynamic biodistribution over 24 h was determined by 3D-fluorescence imaging co-registered with 3D-mu CT imaging, to verify the anatomic location. To further confirm the biodistribution results from in vivo imaging, organs were removed and examined histologically using bright field and fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescence imaging detected PVA-MB accumulation in the lungs within the first 30 min post-injection. Redistribution to a low extent was observed in liver and kidneys at 4 h, and to a high extent mainly in the liver and spleen at 24 h. Histology confirmed PVA-MB localization in lung capillaries and macrophages. In the liver, they were associated with Kupffer cells; in the spleen, they were located mostly within the marginal-zone. Occasional MBs were observed in the kidney glomeruli and interstitium. The potential application of PVA-MBs as a contrast agent was also studied using ultrasound (US) imaging in subcutaneous and orthotopic pancreatic cancer mouse models, to visualize blood flow within the tumor mass. In conclusion, this study showed that PVA-MBs are useful as a contrast agent for multimodal imaging. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 19.
    Basu, Samar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Olofsson, Helena
    Johansson, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Melhus, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Association between oxidative stress and bone mineral density2001In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 288, no 1, p. 275-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Free radicals have been shown to be involved in bone resorption in vitro and in rodents. We studied the effect of oxidative stress on bone mineral density (BMD) in 48 women and 53 men from a population-based study. The levels of 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) (a major F(2)-isoprostane and a biomarker of oxidative stress) and a control, 15-keto-dihydro-PGF(2alpha) (a biomarker of inflammatory response), were measured in urinary samples and their association with BMD and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements were examined. In multivariate linear regression analyses, 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) levels were negatively associated with both BMD and QUS. In contrast, no association was found for 15-keto-dihydro-PGF(2alpha). Our findings establish a biochemical link between increased oxidative stress and reduced bone density and provide a rational for further studies investigating the role of pro- and antioxidants in osteoporosis. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  • 20.
    Bentinger, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Tekle, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Dallner, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Coenzyme Q - Biosynthesis and functions2010In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 396, no 1, p. 74-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In addition to its role as a component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and our only lipid-soluble antioxidant synthesized endogenously, in recent years coenzyme Q (CoQ) has been found to have an increasing number of other important functions required for normal metabolic processes. A number of genetic mutations that reduce CoQ biosynthesis are associated with serious functional disturbances that can be eliminated by dietary administration of this lipid, making CoQ deficiencies the only mitochondrial diseases which can be successfully treated at present. In connection with certain other diseases associated with excessive oxidative stress, the level of CoQ is elevated as a protective response. Aging, certain experimental conditions and several human diseases reduce this level, resulting in serious metabolic disturbances. Since dietary uptake of this lipid is limited, up-regulation of its biosynthetic pathway is of considerable clinical interest. One approach for this purpose is administration of epoxidated all-trans polyisoprenoids, which enhance both CoQ biosynthesis and levels in experimental systems.

  • 21.
    Bergström, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Engström, Ulla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Yamashita, Taro
    Ando, Yukio
    Westermark, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Surface exposed epitopes and structural heterogeneity of in vivo formed transthyretin amyloid fibrils2006In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 348, no 2, p. 532-539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated the structure of in vivo formed transthyretin (TTR) amyloid deposits by using antisera raised against short linear sequences of the TTR molecule. In immunohistochemistry, antisera anti-TTR41-50 and anti-TTR115-124-a reacted specifically with both wildtype ATTR and ATTR V30M material, whereas only anti-TTR41-50 recognized ATTR Y114C material. Similar results were obtained by ELISA analysis of ATTR V30M and ATTR Y114C vitreous amyloid, where the anti-TTR115-124-a antiserum failed to react with ATTR Y114C material. Moreover, neither of the antisera recognized natively structured TTR present in pancreatic alpha cells. Our results strongly indicate that the TTR molecule undergoes structural changes during fibrillogenesis in vivo. The finding of a structural difference between wildtype ATTR and ATTR V30M material on one hand and ATTR Y114C material on the other suggests that the fibril formation pathway of these ATTR variants may differ in vivo.

  • 22. Bergström, Joakim
    et al.
    Murphy, Charles
    Eulitz, Manfred
    Weiss, Deborah
    Westermark, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology.
    Solomon, Alan
    Westermark, Per
    Codeposition of apolipoprotein A-IV and transthyretin in senile systemic (ATTR) amyloidosis2001In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 285, no 4, p. 903-908Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Protein material was extracted from amyloid-rich sections of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded heart tissue from an individual with senile systemic amyloidosis, known to contain wild-type transthyretin as major amyloid fibril protein. Amino acid sequence analysis of tryptic peptides of this material revealed in addition to transthyretin sequences, also amino acid sequence corresponding to an N-terminal fragment of apolipoprotein A-IV. In immunohistochemistry, an antiserum to a synthetic apolipoprotein A-IV peptide labeled amyloid specifically. This peptide formed spontaneously amyloid-like fibrils in vitro and enhanced fibril formation from wild-type transthyretin. We conclude that several apolipoproteins, including apolipoprotein A-IV, may be important minor amyloid constituents, promoting fibril formation.

  • 23.
    Björklund, Peyman
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Åkerström, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Westin, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Activated β-catenin in the novel human parathyroid tumor cell line sHPT-12007In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 352, no 2, p. 532-536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Misregulation of the Wnt/beta-catenin signalling pathway is involved in the development and progression of many cancers. Recently, we presented evidence for aberrant accumulation of non-phosphorylated (stabilized) beta-catenin in benign parathyroid tumors from patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) or HPT secondary to uremia (sHPT). Here we have used a human parathyroid hormone (PTH)-producing cell line (sHPT-1), established from a hyperplastic parathyroid gland removed at operation of a patient with sHPT, to further investigate the potential importance of beta-catenin in parathyroid tumorigenesis. Our studies demonstrate that efficient and specific knockdown of beta-catenin by small interfering RNA (siRNA) markedly decreased endogenous beta-catenin transcriptional activity as well as expression of the Wnt/beta-catenin target genes cyclin D1 and c-myc, known to be overexpressed in a substantial fraction of parathyroid tumors. Furthermore, siRNA to beta-catenin inhibited cellular growth and induced cell death. Growth and survival of the parathyroid tumor cells are thus dependent on maintained expression level of beta-catenin. The Wnt/beta-catenin signalling pathway, and beta-catenin in particular, presents a potential therapeutic target for HPT.

  • 24. Blumenzweig, I
    et al.
    Baraz, L
    Friedler, A
    Danielson, U. Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry.
    Gilon, C
    Steinitz, M
    Kotler, M
    HIV-1 Vif-derived peptide inhibits drug-resistant HIV proteases2002In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 292, no 4, p. 832-840Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25. Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O.
    et al.
    Narvaez, Manuel
    Di Palma, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Calvo, Feliciano
    Rodriguez, David
    Millon, Carmelo
    Carlsson, Jens
    Agnati, Luigi F.
    Garriga, Pere
    Diaz-Cabiale, Zaida
    Fuxe, Kjell
    Preferential activation by galanin 1-15 fragment of the GalR1 protomer of a GalR1-GalR2 heteroreceptor complex2014In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 452, no 3, p. 347-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The three cloned galanin receptors show a higher affinity for galanin than for galanin N-terminal fragments. Galanin fragment (1-15) binding sites were discovered in the rat Central Nervous System, especially in dorsal hippocampus, indicating a relevant role of galanin fragments in central galanin communication. The hypothesis was introduced that these N-terminal galanin fragment preferring sites are formed through the formation of GalR1-GalR2 heteromers which may play a significant role in mediating galanin fragment (1-15) signaling. In HEK293T cells evidence for the existence of GalR1-GalR2 heteroreceptor complexes were obtained with proximity ligation and BRET2 assays. PLA positive blobs representing GalR1-GalR2 heteroreceptor complexes were also observed in the raphe-hippocampal system. In CRE luciferase reporter gene assays, galanin (1-15) was more potent than galanin (1-29) in inhibiting the forskolin-induced increase of luciferase activity in GalR1-GalR2 transfected cells. The inhibition of CREB by 50 nM of galanin (1-15) and of galanin (1-29) was fully counteracted by the non-selective galanin antagonist M35 and the selective GalR2 antagonist M871. These results suggested that the orthosteric agonist binding site of GalR1 protomer may have an increased affinity for the galanin (115) vs galanin (1-29) which can lead to its demonstrated increase in potency to inhibit CREB vs galanin (1-29). In contrast, in NFAT reporter gene assays galanin (1-29) shows a higher efficacy than galanin (115) in increasing Gq/11 mediated signaling over the GalR2 of these heteroreceptor complexes. This disbalance in the signaling of the GalR1-GalR2 heteroreceptor complexes induced by galanin (1-15) may contribute to depression-like actions since GalR1 agonists produce such effects. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 26. Bratland, Eirik
    et al.
    Wolff, Anette S. Boe
    Haavik, Jan
    Kämpe, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Sköldberg, Filip
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Perheentupa, Jaakko
    Bredholt, Geir
    Knappskog, Per M.
    Husebye, Eystein S.
    Epitope mapping of human aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase2007In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 353, no 3, p. 692-698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I (APS I) is a rare hereditary condition considered a model disease for organ specific autoimmunity. A wide range of autoantibodies targeting antigens present in the affected organs have been identified. Autoantibodies against aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) are present in about 50% of APS I patients. In order to increase our understanding of autoantibody specificity in APS I, the aim of the present study was to localize target regions on AADC recognized by sera from APS I patients. Using several complementing strategies, we have shown that autoantibodies against AADC mainly recognize conformational epitopes. The major antigenic determinants were detected N-terminally to amino acid residue 237. Replacement of amino acids 227–230 (ERDK) with alanine residues reduced the reactivity towards AADC by >80% in all patient sera tested, suggesting that amino acids 227–230 are an important part of an immunodominant epitope.

  • 27.
    Bronnikov, Gennady
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology.
    Aboulaich, Nabila
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology.
    Vener, Alexander
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology.
    Strålfors, Peter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology.
    Acute effects of insulin on the activity of mitochondrial GPAT1 in primary adipocytes2008In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 367, no 1, p. 201-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mitochondrial enzyme 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (mtGPAT1) catalyzes a rate-limiting step in triacylglycerol and glycerophospholipid biosynthesis, which can be modulated by protein kinases in cell free analyses. We report that treatment of primary rat adipocytes with insulin acutely affects the activity of mtGPAT1 by increasing VMAX and KM for the substrates glycerol-3-phosphate and palmitoyl-CoA. Proteolytic cleavage of isolated mitochondrial membranes and mass spectrometric peptide sequencing identify in vivo phosphorylation of serine 632 and serine 639 in mtGPAT1. These phosphorylation sites correspond to casein kinase-2 consensus sequences and are highly conserved in chordate animal, but not fly, fungal or plant, mtGPAT1. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 28. Brurok, H
    et al.
    Ardenkjaer-Larsen, J-H
    Hansson, G
    Skarra,
    Berg, K
    Karlsson, I
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Pharmacology.
    Manganese Dipyridoxyl Diphosphate: MRI Contrast Agent with antioxidative and cardioprotective properties.1999In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 254, p. 768-772Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Brändström, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Stiger, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Kahan, Thomas
    Melhus, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Kindmark, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    A single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region of the human gene for osteoprotegerin is related to vascular morphology and function2002In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 293, no 1, p. 13-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a secreted member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, and has previously been shown to regulate bone mass by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and activation. Recent evidence indicates that OPG also plays a role in the vascular system, since ablation of the OPG gene in mice results in calcification of the aorta and renal arteries, and association has been found between serum levels of OPG and cardiovascular mortality. This study presents a novel single nucleotide polymorphism, a T/C transition located 129 bp upstream the TATA-box of the human OPG gene, detected by sequence analysis. The OPG genotype was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism in a cohort consisting of 59 healthy subjects. The intima-media thickness (IMT) in the common carotid artery and maximal post-ischemic forearm blood flow (FBF) were investigated. Subjects with the CC genotype showed a significantly increased IMT (p<0.05) and a concommitantly reduced maximal FBF (p<0.01) as compared to those with the T allele. Thus, our results show that the polymorphism in the promoter region of OPG is associated with both vascular morphology and function in apparently healthy subjects.

  • 30.
    Buch, Charlotta
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Hunt, Mary C.
    Alexson, Stefan E. H.
    Hallberg, Einar
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Localization of peroxisomal matrix proteins by photobleaching2009In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 388, no 2, p. 355-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution of some enzymes between peroxisomes and cytosol, or a dual localization in both these compartments, can be difficult to reconcile. We have used photobleaching in live cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion proteins to show that imported bona fide peroxisomal matrix proteins are retained in the peroxisome. The high mobility of the GFP-fusion proteins in the cytosol and absence of peroxisomal escape makes it possible to eliminate the cytosolic fluorescence by photobleaching, to distinguish between exclusively cytosolic proteins and proteins that are also present at low levels in peroxisomes. Using this technique we found that GFP tagged bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase (BAAT) was exclusively localized in the cytosol in HeLa cells. We conclude that the cytosolic localization was due to its carboxyterminal non-consensus peroxisomal targeting signal (-SQL) since mutation of the -SQL to -SKL resulted in BAAT being efficiently imported into peroxisomes.

  • 31.
    Buch, Charlotta
    et al.
    Södertorns högskola.
    Hunt, Mary C
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Alexson, Stefan E H
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hallberg, Einar
    Södertorns Högskola.
    Localization of peroxisomal matrix proteins by photobleaching.2009In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 388, p. 355-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution of some enzymes between peroxisomes and cytosol, or a dual localization in both these compartments, can be difficult to reconcile. We have used photobleaching in live cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion proteins to show that imported bona fide peroxisomal matrix proteins are retained in the peroxisome. The high mobility of the GFP-fusion proteins in the cytosol and absence of peroxisomal escape makes it possible to eliminate the cytosolic fluorescence by photobleaching, to distinguish between exclusively cytosolic proteins and proteins that are also present at low levels in peroxisomes. Using this technique we found that GFP tagged bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase (BAAT) was exclusively localized in the cytosol in HeLa cells. We conclude that the cytosolic localization was due to its carboxyterminal non-consensus peroxisomal targeting signal (-SQL) since mutation of the -SQL to -SKL resulted in BAAT being efficiently imported into peroxisomes.

  • 32. Bykova, Natalia V
    et al.
    Rasmusson, Allan G.
    Igamberdiev, Abir U
    Department of Plant Science, Faculty Agriculture and Food Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
    Gardeström, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Møller, Ian M.
    Two separate transhydrogenase activities are present in plant mitochondria1999In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 265, no 1, p. 106-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inside-out submitochondrial particles from both potato tubers and pea leaves catalyze the transfer of hydride equivalents from NADPH to NAD(+) as monitored with a substrate-regenerating system. The NAD(+) analogue acetylpyridine adenine dinucleotide is also reduced by NADPH and incomplete inhibition by the complex I inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) indicates that hive enzymes are involved in this reaction. Gel-filtration chromatography of solubilized mitochondrial membrane complexes confirms that the DPI-sensitive TH activity is due to NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (EC 1,6,5,3, complex I), whereas the DPI-insensitive activity is due to a separate enzyme eluting around 220 kDa. The DPI-insensitive TH activity is specific for the 4B proton on NADH, whereas there is no indication of a 4A-specific activity characteristic of a mammalian-type energy-linked TH. The DPI-insensitive TH may be similar to the soluble type of transhydrogenase found in, e.g., Pseudomonas. The presence of non-energy-linked TR: activities directly coupling the matrix NAD(H) and NADP(H) pools will have important consequences for the regulation of NADP-linked processes in plant mitochondria. (C) 1999 Academic Press.

  • 33.
    Bäck, Jennie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Clinical Immunology.
    Sanchez, Javier
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Clinical Immunology.
    Elgue, Graciela
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Clinical Immunology.
    Ekdahl, Kristina Nilsson
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Clinical Immunology.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Clinical Immunology.
    Activated human platelets induce factor XIIa-mediated contact activation2010In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 391, no 1, p. 11-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies have shown that isolated platelets in buffer systems can promote activation of FXII or amplify contact activation, in the presence of a negatively charge substance or material. Still proof is lacking that FXII is activated by platelets in a more physiological environment. In this study we investigate if activated platelets can induce FXII-mediated contact activation and whether this activation affects clot formation in human blood. Human platelets were activated with a thrombin receptor-activating peptide, SFLLRN-amide, in platelet-rich plasma or in whole blood. FXIIa and FXIa in complex with preferentially antithrombin (AT) and to some extent C1-inhibitor (C1INH) were generated in response to TRAP stimulation. This contact activation was independent of surface-mediated contact activation, tissue factor pathway or thrombin. In clotting whole blood FXIIa-AT and FXIa-AT complexes were specifically formed, demonstrating that AT is a potent inhibitor of FXIIa and FXIa generated by platelet activation. Contact activation proteins were analyzed by flow cytometry and FXII, FXI, high-molecular weight kininogen, and prekallikrein were detected on activated platelets. Using chromogenic assays, enzymatic activity of platelet-associated FXIIa, FXIa, and kallikrein were demonstrated. Inhibition of FXIIa in non-anticoagulated blood also prolonged the clotting time. We conclude that platelet activation triggers FXII-mediated contact activation on the surface and in the vicinity of activated platelets. This leads specifically to generation of FXIIa-AT and FXIa-AT complexes, and contributes to clot formation. Activated platelets may thereby constitute an intravascular locus for contact activation, which may explain the recently reported importance of FXII in thrombus formation.

  • 34. Bäck, Jennie
    et al.
    Sanchez, Javier
    Elgue, Graciela
    Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Activated platelets induce FXII-mediated contact activation2010In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 391, no 1, p. 11-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies have shown that isolated platelets in buffer systems can promote activation of FXII or amplify contact activation. in the presence of it negatively charge Substance or material Still proof is lacking that FXII is activated by platelets in a more physiological environment In this study we investigate if activated platelets can induce FXII-mediated contact activation and whether this activation affects clot formation in human blood.

    Human platelets were activated with a thrombin receptor-activating peptide, SFLLRN-amide, in platelet-rich plasma or in whole blood. FXIIa and FXIa in complex with preferentially antithrombin (AT) and to some extent C1-inhibitor (C1INH) were generated in response to TRAP stimulation. This contact activation was independent of surface-mediated contact activation, tissue factor pathway or thiombin. In clotting whole blood FXIIa-AT and FXIa-AT complexes were specifically formed. demonstrating that AT is a potent inhibitor of FXIIa and FXIa generated by platelet activation Contact activation proteins were analyzed by flow cytometry and FXII, FXI, high-molecular weight kininogen, and prekallikrein were detected oil activated platelets Using chromogenic assays, enzymatic activity of platelet-associated FXIIa, FXIa, and kallikrein were demonstrated Inhibition of FXIIa in non-anticoagulated blood also prolonged the clotting time.

    We conclude that platelet activation triggers FXII-mediated contact activation oil the Surface and in the vicinity of activated platelets This leads specifically to generation of FXIIa-AT and FXIa-AT complexes, and contributes to clot formation Activated platelets may thereby constitute an intravascular locus for contact activation, which may explain the recently reported importance of FXII in thrombus formation (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  • 35. Cai, Yixiao
    et al.
    Lendel, Christofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Österlund, Lars
    Kasrayan, Alex
    Lannfelt, Lars
    Ingelsson, Martin
    Nikolajeff, Fredrik
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Bergstrom, Joakim
    Changes in secondary structure of alpha-synuclein during oligomerization induced by reactive aldehydes2015In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 464, no 1, p. 336-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The oxidative stress-related reactive aldehydes 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and 4-oxo-2-nonenal (ONE) have been shown to promote formation of alpha-synuclein oligomers in vitro. However, the changes in secondary structure of alpha-synuclein and the kinetics of the oligomerization process are not known and were the focus of this study. Size exclusion chromatography showed that after 1 h of incubation, HNE induced the formation of an oligomeric alpha-synuclein peak with a molecular weight of about similar to 2000 kDa, which coincided with a decreasing similar to 50 kDa monomeric peak. With prolonged incubation (up to 24 h) the oligomeric peak became the dominating molecular species. In contrast, in the presence of ONE, a similar to 2000 oligomeric peak was exclusively observed after 15 min of incubation and this peak remained constant with prolonged incubation. Western blot analysis of HNE-induced alpha-synuclein oligomers showed the presence of monomers (15 kDa), SDS-resistant low molecular (30-160 kDa) and high molecular weight oligomers (>= 260 kDa), indicating that the oligomers consisted of both covalent and non-covalent protein. In contrast, ONE-induced alpha-synuclein oligomers only migrated as covalent cross-linked high molecular-weight material (>= 300 kDa). Both circular dichroism (CD) and Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy showed that the formation of HNE- and ONE-induced oligomers coincided with a spectral change from random coil to beta-sheet. However, ONE-induced alpha-synuclein oligomers exhibited a slightly higher degree of beta-sheet. Taken together, our results indicate that both HNE and ONE induce a change from random coil to beta-sheet structure that coincides with the formation of alpha-synuclein oligomers; albeit through different kinetic pathways depending on the degree of cross-linking. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 36.
    Cai, Yixiao
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Lendel, Christofer
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Kasrayan, Alex
    Lannfelt, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Ingelsson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Nikolajeff, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Bergström, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Changes in secondary structure of α-synuclein during oligomerization induced by reactive aldehydes.2015In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 464, no 1, p. 336-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The oxidative stress-related reactive aldehydes 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and 4-oxo-2-nonenal (ONE) have been shown to promote formation of α-synuclein oligomers in vitro. However, the changes in secondary structure of α-synuclein and the kinetics of the oligomerization process are not known and were the focus of this study. Size exclusion chromatography showed that after 1 h of incubation, HNE induced the formation of an oligomeric α-synuclein peak with a molecular weight of about ∼2000 kDa, which coincided with a decreasing ∼50 kDa monomeric peak. With prolonged incubation (up to 24 h) the oligomeric peak became the dominating molecular species. In contrast, in the presence of ONE, a ∼2000 oligomeric peak was exclusively observed after 15 min of incubation and this peak remained constant with prolonged incubation. Western blot analysis of HNE-induced α-synuclein oligomers showed the presence of monomers (15 kDa), SDS-resistant low molecular (30-160 kDa) and high molecular weight oligomers (≥260 kDa), indicating that the oligomers consisted of both covalent and non-covalent protein. In contrast, ONE-induced α-synuclein oligomers only migrated as covalent cross-linked high molecular-weight material (≥300 kDa). Both circular dichroism (CD) and Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy showed that the formation of HNE- and ONE-induced oligomers coincided with a spectral change from random coil to β-sheet. However, ONE-induced α-synuclein oligomers exhibited a slightly higher degree of β-sheet. Taken together, our results indicate that both HNE and ONE induce a change from random coil to β-sheet structure that coincides with the formation of α-synuclein oligomers. Albeit through different kinetic pathways depending on the degree of cross-linking.

  • 37. Carlini, Valeria P.
    et al.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Debarioglio, Susana R.
    Obestatin improves memory performance and causes anxiolytic effects in rats2007In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 352, no 4, p. 907-912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Obestatin is a peptide hormone that is derived from the same polypeptide precursor (preprogrelin) as ghrelin, but it acts in opposing way on ingestive behavior. Our previous studies showed that ghrelin affects memory and anxiety. Here, we studied the possible effects of icv obestatin injection in rats upon memory retention (using two different paradigms), anxiety like behavior (plus maze test), and food intake. Obestatin induces an increase in the percentage of open arms entries (Obestatin 3.0 nmol/rat: 61.74 ± 1.81), and percentage of time spent in open arms (Obestatin 3.0 nmol/rat: 72.07 ± 4.21) in relation to the control (33.31 ± 1.54; 25.82 ± 1.68), indicating an anxiolytic effect. The two doses of obestatin increased latency time in a step down test and the percentage time of novel object exploration, suggesting that the peptide influences learning and memory processes that involve the hippocampus and the amygdala. This report provides evidence indicating that obestatin effects are functionally opposite on anxiety and hunger to the ghrelin effects, while both these related peptides increase memory retention.

  • 38.
    Carlsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biochemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Egon
    Haemostasis Biochemistry, Novo Nordisk A/S, Novo Nordisk Park, DK-2760 Måløv, Denmark.
    Carlsson, Uno
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biochemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Magdalena
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biochemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inhibitors of factor VIIa affect the interface between the protease domain and tissue factor2006In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 349, no 3, p. 1111-1116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blood coagulation is triggered by the formation of a complex between factor VIIa (FVIIa) and its cofactor, tissue factor (TF). The γ-carboxyglutamic acid-rich domain of FVIIa docks with the C-terminal domain of TF, the EGF1 domain of FVIIa contacts both domains of TF, and the EGF2 domain and protease domain (PD) form a continuous surface that sits on the N-terminal domain of TF. Our aim was to investigate the conformational changes that occur in the sTF·PD binding region when different types of inhibitors, i.e., one active-site inhibitor (FFR-chloromethyl ketone (FFR)), two different peptide exosite inhibitors (E-76 and A-183), and the natural inhibitor tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), were allowed to bind to FVIIa. For this purpose, we constructed two sTF mutants (Q37C and E91C). By the aid of site-directed labeling technique, a fluorescent label was attached to the free cysteine. The sTF·PD interface was affected in position 37 by the binding of FFR, TFPI, and E-76, i.e., a more compact structure was sensed by the probe, while for position 91 located in the same region no change in the surrounding structure was observed. Thus, the active site inhibitors FFR and TFPI, and the exosite inhibitor E-76 have similar effects on the probe in position 37 of sTF, despite their differences in size and inhibition mechanism. The allosteric changes at the active site caused by binding of the exosite inhibitor E-76 in turn induce similar conformational changes in the sTF·PD interface as does the binding of the active site inhibitors. A-183, on the other hand, did not affect position 37 in sTF, indicating that the A-183 inhibition mechanism is different from that of E-76.

  • 39.
    Carlsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biochemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Egon
    Haemostasis Biochemistry, Novo Nordisk A/S, DK-2760 Måløv, Denmark.
    Østergaard, Henrik
    Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Lindgren, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biochemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Carlsson, Uno
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biochemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Magdalena
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biochemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effects on the conformation of FVIIa by sTF and Ca(2+) binding: Studies of fluorescence resonance energy transfer and quenching2011In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 413, no 4, p. 545-549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The apparent length of FVIIa in buffer solution was estimated by a FRET analysis. Two fluorescent probes, fluorescein linked to an inhibitor (FPR-chloromethyl ketone) and a rhodamine derivative (tetramethylrhodamine-5-maleimide), were covalently attached to FVIIa. The binding site of fluorescein was in the PD whereas rhodamine was positioned in the Gla domain, thus allowing a length measure over approximately the whole extension of the protein. From the FRET measurements the distances between the two probes were determined to 61.4 for free FVIIa and 65.5 Å for FVIIa bound to the soluble TF (sTF). Thus, the apparent distance from the FRET analysis was shown to increase with 4 Å upon formation of a complex with sTF in solution. However, by considering how protein dynamics, based on recently published molecular dynamics simulations of FVIIa and sTF:FVIIa (Ohkubo et al., 2010 J. Thromb. Haemost. 8, 1044-1053), can influence the apparent  fluorescence signal our calculations indicated that the global average conformation of active-site inhibited FVIIa is nearly unaltered upon ligation to sTF.

    Moreover, it is known that Ca2+ binding leads to activation of FVIIa, and we have for the first time demonstrated conformational changes in the environment of the active site upon Ca2+ binding by direct measurements, previously suggested based on indirect measurements (Persson & Petersen, 1995 Eur. J. Biochem. 234, 293-300). Interestingly, this Ca2+-induced conformational change can be noted even in the presence of an inhibitor. By forming the sTF:FVIIa complex the conformational change of the active site is further developed, leading to a more inaccessible active-site located probe.

  • 40.
    Cedernaes, Jonathan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Olszewski, Pawel K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Sällman Almén, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Stephansson, Olga
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Levine, Allen S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Nylander, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Comprehensive analysis of localization of 78 solute carrier genes throughout the subsections of the rat gastrointestinal tract2011In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 411, no 4, p. 702-707Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solute carriers (SLCs), the second largest super-family of membrane proteins in the human genome, transport amino acids, sugars, fatty acids, inorganic ions, essential metals and drugs over membranes. To date no study has provided a comprehensive analysis of SLC localization along the entire GI tract. The aim of the present study was to provide a comprehensive, segment-specific description of the localization of SLC genes along the rat Cl tract by employing bioinformatics and molecular biology methods. The Unigene database was screened for rat SLC entries in the intestinal tissue. Using qPCR we measured expression of the annotated genes in the Cl tract divided into the following segments: the esophagus, the corpus and the antrum of the stomach, the proximal and distal parts of the duodenum, ileum, jejunum and colon, and the cecum. Our Unigene-derived gene pool was expanded with data from in-house tissue panels and a literature search. We found 44 out of 78 (56%) of gut SLC transcripts to be expressed in all Cl tract segments, whereas the majority of remaining SLCs were detected in more than five segments. SLCs are predominantly expressed in gut regions with absorptive functions although expression was also found in segments unrelated to absorption. The proximal jejunum had the highest number of differentially expressed SLCs. In conclusion, SLCs are a crucial molecular component of the Cl tract, with many of them expressed along the entire GI tract. This work presents the first overall road map of localization of transporter genes in the Cl tract.

  • 41.
    Chantzoura, Eleni
    et al.
    Center of Basic Research I, Biochemistry Division, Biomedical Research Foundation, Academy of Athens, Greece.
    Prinarakis, Efthimios
    Center of Basic Research I, Biochemistry Division, Biomedical Research Foundation, Academy of Athens, Greece.
    Panagopoulos, Dimitris
    School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Mosialos, George
    School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Spyrou, Giannis
    Center of Basic Research I, Biochemistry Division, Biomedical Research Foundation, Academy of Athens, Greece.
    Glutaredoxin-1 regulates TRAF6 activation and the IL-1 receptor/TLR4 signalling2010In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 403, no 3-4, p. 335-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glutaredoxin-1 (GRX-1) is a cytoplasmic enzyme that highly contributes to the antioxidant defense system. It catalyzes the reversible reduction of glutathione-protein mixed disulfides, a process called deglutathionylation. Here, we investigated the role of GRX-1 in the pathway triggered by interleukin-1/Toll-like receptor 4 (IL-1R/TLR4) by using RNA interference (RNAi) in HEK293 and HeLa cells. TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is an intermediate signalling molecule involved in the signal transduction by members of the interleukin-1/Toll-like receptor (IL-1R/TLR) family. TRAF6 has an E3 ubiquitin ligase activity which depends on the integrity of an amino-terminal really interesting new gene (RING) finger motif. Upon receptor activation, TRAF6 undergoes K63-linked auto-polyubiquitination which mediates protein-protein interactions and signal propagation. Our data showed that IL-1R and TLR4-mediated NF-κB induction was severely reduced in GRX-1 knockdown cells. We found that the RING-finger motif of TRAF6 is S-glutathionylated under normal conditions. Moreover, upon IL-1 stimulation TRAF6 undergoes deglutathionylation catalyzed by GRX-1. The deglutathionylation of TRAF6 is essential for its auto-polyubiquitination and subsequent activation. Taken together, our findings reveal another signalling molecule affected by S-glutathionylation and uncover a crucial role for GRX-1 in the TRAF6-dependent activation of NF-κB by IL-1R/TLRs.

  • 42. Cortez, Leonardo
    et al.
    Marino-Buslje, Cristina
    de Jiménez Bonino, Mirtha Biscoglio
    Hellman, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Interactions between alpha-conotoxin MI and the Torpedo marmorata receptor alpha-delta interface2007In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 355, no 1, p. 275-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The muscle-type nicotinic receptor has two distinguishable acetylcholine binding sites at the alpha-gamma and alpha-delta subunit interfaces; alpha-conotoxins can bind them selectively. Moreover, we previously reported that alpha-conotoxin MI can interact with Torpedo californica and Torpedo marmorata receptors showing that conotoxins can also detect receptors from different species of the same genus [L. Cortez, S.G. del Canto, F. Testai, M.B. de Jimenez Bonino, Conotoxin MI inhibits the acetylcholine binding site of the Torpedo marmorata receptor, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 295 (2002) 791-795]. Herein, to identify T. marmorata receptor regions involved in alpha-conotoxin MI binding, a photoactivatable reagent was used and labeled sites were mapped by enzymatic proteolysis, MALDI-TOF-MS and Edman degradation. alpha-Conotoxin MI binding determinants were found and studies revealed a second binding motif at the alpha/delta interface. A proposal for receptor-toxin interaction is discussed based on experimental results and docking studies.

  • 43. Curbo, Sophie
    et al.
    Gaudin, Raphael
    Carlsten, Mattias
    Malmberg, Karl-Johan
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Ahlborg, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Immunology.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Johansson, Magnus
    Lundberg, Mathias
    Regulation of interleukin-4 signaling by extracellular reduction of intramolecular disulfides2009In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 390, no 4, p. 1272-1277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4) contains three structurally important intramolecular disulfides that are required for the bioactivity of the cytokine. We show that the cell surface of HeLa cells and endotoxin-activated monocytes can reduce IL-4 intramolecular disulfides in the extracellular space and inhibit binding of IL-4 to the IL-4R alpha receptor. IL-4 disulfides were in vitro reduced by thioredoxin 1 (Trx1) and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). Reduction of IL-4 disulfides by the cell surface of HeLa cells was inhibited by auranofin, an inhibitor of thioredoxin reductase that is an electron donor to both Trx1 and PDI. Both Trx1 and PDI have been shown to be located at the cell surface and our data suggests that these enzymes are involved in catalyzing reduction of IL-4 disulfides. The pro-drug N-acetylcysteine (NAC) that promotes T-helper type 1 responses was also shown to mediate the reduction of IL-4 disulfides. Our data provides evidence for a novel redox dependent pathway for regulation of cytokine activity by extracellular reduction of intramolecular disulfides at the cell surface by members of the thioredoxin enzyme family. 

  • 44. Czene, S
    et al.
    Testa, E
    Nygren, Jonas
    Södertörn University, Avdelning Naturvetenskap.
    Belyaev, I
    Harms-Ringdahl, M
    DNA fragmentation and morphological changes in apoptotic human lymphocytes2002In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 294, no 4, p. 872-878Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cell suspensions enriched in cells at various stages of apoptosis were obtained by separation of irradiated human peripheral blood lymphocytes on density gradients at different post-irradiation times. The state of DNA fragmentation in the cells was determined by comet assay and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The morphologically distinguishable features of apoptosis such as chromatin condensation and cell shrinkage correlated with discrete stages of DNA fragmentation. It was found that greater than or equal to50kbp fragmentation of DNA occurs already in cells of normal density whereas the subsequent DNA fragmentation onto fragments <50 kbp occurs in parallel with cell shrinkage and simultaneous increase in cell density. The observed stages of DNA fragmentation seem to be separated in time that could allow in case of abortive apoptosis formation of chromosomal aberrations.

  • 45. Dal Molin, Federica
    et al.
    Zornetta, Irene
    Puhar, Andrea
    Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche and Istituto C.N.R. Neuroscienze, Università di Padova, Viale G. Colombo n. 3, 35121 Padova, Italy.
    Tonello, Fiorella
    Zaccolo, Manuela
    Montecucco, Cesare
    cAMP imaging of cells treated with pertussis toxin, cholera toxin, and anthrax edema toxin2008In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 376, no 2, p. 429-433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The enzymatic activity of the three most studied bacterial toxins that increase the cytosolic cAMP level: pertussis toxin (PT), cholera toxin (CT), and anthrax edema toxin (ET), was imaged by fluorescence videomicroscopy. Three different cell lines were transfected with a fluorescence resonance energy transfer biosensor based on the PKA regulatory and catalytic subunits fused to CFP and YFP, respectively. Real-time imaging of cells expressing this cAMP biosensor provided time and space resolved pictures of the toxins action. The time course of the PT-induced cAMP increase suggests that its active subunit enters the cytosol more rapidly than that deduced by biochemical experiments. ET generated cAMP concentration gradients decreasing from the nucleus to the cell periphery. On the contrary, CT, which acts on the plasma membrane adenylate cyclase, did not. The potential of imaging methods in studying the mode of entry and the intracellular action of bacterial toxins is discussed.

  • 46. del Pino, Isabel
    et al.
    Paarmann, Ingo
    Karas, Michael
    Kilimann, Manfred W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Molecular Cell Biology.
    Betz, Heinrich
    The trafficking proteins Vacuolar Protein Sorting 35 and Neurobeachin interact with the glycine receptor beta-subunit2011In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 412, no 3, p. 435-440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inhibitory glycine receptors (GlyRs) are densely packed in the postsynaptic membrane due to a high-affinity interaction of their beta-subunits with the scaffolding protein gephyrin. Here, we used an affinity-based proteomic approach to identify the trafficking proteins Vacuolar Protein Sorting 35 (Vps35) and Neurobeachin (Nbea) as novel GlyR beta-subunit (GlyR beta) interacting proteins in rat brain. Recombinant Vps35 and a central fragment of Nbea bound to the large intracellular loop of GlyR beta in glutathione-S-transferase pull-downs; in addition, Vps35 displayed binding to gephyrin. Immunocytochemical staining of spinal cord sections revealed Nbea immunoreactivity apposed to and colocalizing with marker proteins of inhibitory synapses. Our data are consistent with roles of Vps35 and Nbea in the retrieval and post-Golgi trafficking of synaptic GlyRs and possibly other neurotransmitter receptors.

  • 47. Deng, Hua
    et al.
    Lin, Yingbo
    Badin, Margherita
    Vasilcanu, Daiana
    Strömberg, Thomas
    Jernberg-Wiklund, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Hematology and Immunology.
    Sehat, Bita
    Larsson, Olle
    Over-accumulation of nuclear IGF-1 receptor in tumor cells requires elevated expression of the receptor and the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc92011In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 404, no 2, p. 667-671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) plays crucial roles in tumor cell growth and is overexpressed in many cancers. IGF-1R's trans-membrane kinase signaling pathways have been well characterized. Very recently, we showed that SUMOylation mediates nuclear translocation of the IGF-1R, and that nuclear IGF-1R (nIGF-1R) binds to enhancer regions and activates transcription. We identified three lysine residues in the beta-subunit of the receptor and that mutation of these blocks nuclear translocation and gene activation. Furthermore, accumulation of nIGF-1R was proven strongly dependent on the specific SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9. Here we show that nIGF-1R originates solely from the cell membrane and that phosphorylation of the core tyrosine residues of the receptor kinase is crucial for nuclear accumulation. We also compared the levels of nIGF-1R, measured as nuclear/membrane ratios, in tumor and normal cells. We found that the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 has 13-fold higher amounts of nIGF-1R than breast epithelial cells (IME) which showed only a small amount of nIGF-1R. In comparison, the total expression of IGF-1R was only 3.7-higher in MCF-7. Comparison of several other tumor and normal cell lines showed similar tumor cell over-accumulation of nIGF-1R, exceeding the total receptor expression substantially. Ectopic overexpression (>10-fold) of the receptor increased nIGF-1R in IME cells but not to that high level as in wild type MCF-7. The levels of Ubc9 were higher in all tumor cell lines, compared to the normal cells, and this probably contributes to over-accumulation of nIGF-1R. Over-accumulation of nIGF-1R may contribute to deregulated gene expression and therewith play a pathophysiological role in cancer cells.

  • 48.
    Digre, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Nan, Jie
    Lund Univ, MAX IV Lab, POB 118, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Frank, Martin
    Biognos AB, Box 8963, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Li, Jin-Ping
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Heparin interactions with apoA1 and SAA in inflammation-associated HDL2016In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 474, no 2, p. 309-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) is the main protein component responsible for transportation of cholesterol on high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute phase protein associated with HDL. Apart from their physiological functions, both apoA1 and SAA have been identified as 'amyloidogenic peptides'. We report herein that the polysaccharide heparin interacts with both apoA1 and SAA in HDL isolated from plasma of inflamed mice. The reaction is rapid, forming complex aggregates composed of heparin, apoA1 and SAA as revealed by gel electrophoresis. This interaction is dependent on the size and concentration of added heparin. Mass spectrometry analysis of peptides derived from chemically crosslinked HDL-SAA particles detected multiple crosslinks between apoA1 and SAA, indicating close proximity (within 25 angstrom) of these two proteins on the HDL surface, providing a molecular and structural mechanism for the simultaneous binding of heparin to apoA1 and SAA.

  • 49.
    Djerf, Emelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Trinks, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Green, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Abdiu, Avni
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL.
    Hallbeck, Anna-Lotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Stål, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Walz, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology UHL.
    The pan-ErbB receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor canertinib promotes apoptosis of malignant melanoma in vitro and displays anti-tumor activity in vivo2011In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 414, no 3, p. 563-568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ErbB receptor family has been suggested to constitute a therapeutic target for tumor-specific treatment of malignant melanoma. Here we investigate the effect of the pan-ErbB tyrosine kinase inhibitor canertinib on cell growth and survival in human melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Canertinib significantly inhibited growth of cultured melanoma cells, RaH3 and RaH5, in a dose-dependent manner as determined by cell counting. Half-maximum growth inhibitory dose (IC(50)) was approximately 0.8 mu M and by 5 mu M both cell lines were completely growth-arrested within 72 h of treatment. Incubation of exponentially growing RaH3 and RaH5 with 1 mu M canertinib accumulated the cells in the G(1)-phase of the cell cycle within 24 h of treatment without induction of apoptosis as determined by flow cytometry. Immunoblot analysis showed that 1 mu M canertinib inhibited ErbB1-3 receptor phosphorylation with a concomitant decrease of Akt-, Erk1/2- and Stat3 activity in both cell lines. In contrast to the cytostatic effect observed at doses less than= 5 mu M canertinib, higher concentrations induced apoptosis as demonstrated by the Annexin V method and Western blot analysis of PARP cleavage. Furthermore, canertinib significantly inhibited growth of RaH3 and RaH5 melanoma xenografts in nude mice. Pharmacological targeting of the ErbB receptors may prove successful in the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma.

  • 50.
    Dolinska, Monika
    et al.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Ctr Hematol & Regenerat Med, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Piccini, Alexandre
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Ctr Hematol & Regenerat Med, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wong, Wan Man
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Lund, Sweden..
    Gelali, Eleni
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Ctr Hematol & Regenerat Med, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Johansson, Anne-Sofie
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Ctr Hematol & Regenerat Med, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Klang, Johannis
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Ctr Hematol & Regenerat Med, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Xiao, Pingnan
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Ctr Hematol & Regenerat Med, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Yektaei-Karin, Elham
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Hematol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Strömberg, Ulla Ohlsson
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Haematology.
    Mustjoki, Satu
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Clin Chem & Hematol, Hematol Res Unit Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.;Helsinki Univ Hosp, Comprehens Canc Ctr, Helsinki, Finland..
    Stenke, Leif
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Hematol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ekblom, Marja
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Lund, Sweden..
    Qian, Hong
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Ctr Hematol & Regenerat Med, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Leukotriene signaling via ALOX5 and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 is dispensable for in vitro growth of CD34 (+)CD38(-) stem and progenitor cells in chronic myeloid leukemia2017In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 490, no 2, p. 378-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting the BCR-ABL oncoprotein in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) are remarkably effective inducing deep molecular remission in most patients. However, they are less effective to eradicate the leukemic stem cells (LSC), resulting in disease persistence. Therefore, there is great need to develop novel therapeutic strategies to specifically target the LSC. In an experimental mouse CML model system, the leukotriene pathway, and specifically, the expression ALOX5, encoding 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), has been reported as a critical regulator of the LSC. Based on these results, the 5-LO inhibitor zileuton has been introduced in clinical trials as a therapeutic option to target the LSC although its effect on primary human CML LSC has not been studied. We have here by using multiplex single cell PCR analyzed the expression of the mediators of the leukotriene pathway in bone marrow (BM) BCR-ABL(+)CD34(+)CD38(-) cells at diagnosis, and found low or undetectable expression of ALOX5. In line with this, zileuton did not exert significant overall growth inhibition in the long-term culture-initiating cell (LTC-IC) and colony (CFU-C) assays of BM CD34(+)CD38(-) cells from 7 CML patients. The majority of the single leukemic BCR-ABL(+)CD34(+)CD38(-) cells expressed cysteinyl leukotriene receptors CYSLTI and CYSLT2. However, montelukast, an inhibitor of CYSLTI, also failed to significantly suppress CFU-C and LTC-IC growth. These findings indicate that targeting ALOX5 or CYSLTI signaling with leukotriene antagonists, introduced into the clinical practice primarily as prophylaxis and treatment for asthma, may not be a promising pharmacological strategy to eradicate persisting LSC in CML patients. (C) 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc.

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