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  • 1.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Brännström, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Childhood Adversity and Trajectories of Disadvantage Through Adulthood: Findings from the Stockholm Birth Cohort Study2018In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 136, no 1, p. 225-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children whose parents experience adverse social, economic, or health-related living conditions are more likely to face similar types of disadvantage in their adult life. However, a limitation of many earlier studies is that they do not account for the multidimensionality of the concept of living conditions, and that the child generation’s life courses are targeted as static and independent from the societal context in which they are imbedded. The current investigation addressed these aspects by focusing on the complexity, duration, and timing of disadvantage with regard to how adverse circumstances in the family of origin are associated with trajectories of social, economic, and health-related living conditions across adulthood. We also examined the role of educational attainment for these associations. Analyses were based a Swedish cohort born in 1953 (n = 14,294). We first conducted sequence analysis, followed by hierarchical cluster analysis, to generate ‘outcome profiles’, i.e. trajectories of adult disadvantage. Second, several indicators of adverse circumstances in childhood were analysed by means of multinominal regression analysis, showing the odds of ending up in the different trajectories. The results indicated that individuals who grew up under adverse conditions were more likely to experience disadvantaged social, economic, and health-related trajectories. This was particularly the case for trajectories characterised by a high degree of complexity, i.e. coexisting disadvantages, and—among men only—by a longer duration of disadvantage. Educational attainment was identified as a powerful mediator, suggesting that efforts to increase equal educational opportunity may be a way of reducing the intergenerational transmission of disadvantage.

  • 2.
    Barni, Daniela
    et al.
    Department of Human Sciences, LUMSA University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    Vieno, Alessio
    Department of Developmental and Social Psychology, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.
    Roccato, Michele
    Department of Psychology, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.
    Russo, Silvia
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Basic Personal Values, the Country's Crime Rate and the Fear of Crime2016In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 129, no 3, p. 1057-1074Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the relations between basic personal values, drawn on Schwartz's value theory, and the expression of the individual fear of crime by analysing the moderating role of contextual cues (i.e., crime rates). We performed a multinational, multilevel study using the 2008 European Social Survey dataset (N = 53,692, nested in 27 European countries). The fear of crime, which is a generalised insecurity about personal safety, showed a positive association with conservation (i.e., tradition, conformity and security) and a negative association with openness to change (i.e., hedonism, stimulation and self-direction) and self-transcendence values (i.e., benevolence and universalism). With the exception of self-transcendence, all the associations between basic values and the fear of crime were amplified by the country's crime rate: the higher the crime rate, the stronger the relation between values and the fear of crime. The implications and limitations of these results and possible further research directions are discussed.

  • 3.
    Bask, Miia
    Department of Sociology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Accumulation and Persistence of Welfare Problems over Time2016In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 125, no 3, p. 757-770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses longitudinal Swedish data and investigates the accumulation and persistence of welfare problems over time. The data set was compiled in a first wave in 1979, a second wave in 1986–1987, a third wave in 1994–1995, and a fourth wave in 2002–2003 (N = 7,967). First, the results demonstrate that all welfare problems have a tendency to become persistent. For example, the probability of suffering from the lack of a close friend in the fourth wave was 57.1 % if the individual suffered from this welfare problem in the third wave. Second, economic problems constituted the welfare problem with the most associations with other welfare problems. Third, the accumulation of welfare problems significantly differed between different categories of individuals. For example, the accumulation of welfare problems was higher in men compared with women, immigrants compared with native Swedes, single individuals compared with individuals in couples, and poorly educated individuals compared with highly educated individuals. Finally, longitudinal analyses indicated individuals in certain categories have experienced cumulative disadvantages in welfare even during periods when individuals in other categories have experienced a positive trend in welfare. One such example is single parents during the period between 1979 and 1986–1987.

  • 4.
    Bask, Miia
    Department of Sociology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Accumulation and Persistence of Welfare Problems over Time2016In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 125, no 3, p. 757-770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses longitudinal Swedish data and investigates the accumulation and persistence of welfare problems over time. The data set was compiled in a first wave in 1979, a second wave in 1986–1987, a third wave in 1994–1995, and a fourth wave in 2002–2003 (N = 7,967). First, the results demonstrate that all welfare problems have a tendency to become persistent. For example, the probability of suffering from the lack of a close friend in the fourth wave was 57.1 % if the individual suffered from this welfare problem in the third wave. Second, economic problems constituted the welfare problem with the most associations with other welfare problems. Third, the accumulation of welfare problems significantly differed between different categories of individuals. For example, the accumulation of welfare problems was higher in men compared with women, immigrants compared with native Swedes, single individuals compared with individuals in couples, and poorly educated individuals compared with highly educated individuals. Finally, longitudinal analyses indicated individuals in certain categories have experienced cumulative disadvantages in welfare even during periods when individuals in other categories have experienced a positive trend in welfare. One such example is single parents during the period between 1979 and 1986–1987.

  • 5.
    Bask, Miia
    Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Cumulative Disadvantage and Connections Between Welfare Problems2011In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 103, no 3, p. 443-464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we perform a latent class factor analysis of a panel that involves two waves of data from an annual survey of living conditions in Sweden that were gathered in the years 1994-1995 and 2002-2003. We follow the same 3,149 individuals over both waves, describing them by sex, age group, family type, nationality background, education level and socio-economic class. Further, since the welfare disadvantages included in the analysis are chronic unemployment, economic problems, health problems, experiences of threat or violence, crowded housing, lack of a close friend and sleeping problems, we also have data on exactly which welfare problems each individual in the data set suffers from. In the empirical analysis, latent class factor analysis provides us not only with information on which individual characteristics that are important in the accumulation of welfare problems, but also gives us information on which disadvantages in fact are accumulated. First, we find that welfare problems do cluster. Second, the welfare problems that most often appear at a factor level with several disadvantages are experiences of threat or violence and sleeping problems. Finally, being an immigrant and being single are individual characteristics that turn up most often in factor levels with problem accumulation, whereas there is no distinctive difference between the sexes. However, women seem to be more prone to suffer from experiences of threat or violence and sleeping problems, while men are more likely to suffer from lack of a close friend.

  • 6.
    Bask, Miia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Cumulative Disadvantage and Connections Between Welfare Problems2011In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 103, no 3, p. 443-464Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Bask, Miia
    Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Cumulative Disadvantage and Connections Between Welfare Problems2011In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 103, no 3, p. 443-464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we perform a latent class factor analysis of a panel that involves two waves of data from an annual survey of living conditions in Sweden that were gathered in the years 1994-1995 and 2002-2003. We follow the same 3,149 individuals over both waves, describing them by sex, age group, family type, nationality background, education level and socio-economic class. Further, since the welfare disadvantages included in the analysis are chronic unemployment, economic problems, health problems, experiences of threat or violence, crowded housing, lack of a close friend and sleeping problems, we also have data on exactly which welfare problems each individual in the data set suffers from. In the empirical analysis, latent class factor analysis provides us not only with information on which individual characteristics that are important in the accumulation of welfare problems, but also gives us information on which disadvantages in fact are accumulated. First, we find that welfare problems do cluster. Second, the welfare problems that most often appear at a factor level with several disadvantages are experiences of threat or violence and sleeping problems. Finally, being an immigrant and being single are individual characteristics that turn up most often in factor levels with problem accumulation, whereas there is no distinctive difference between the sexes. However, women seem to be more prone to suffer from experiences of threat or violence and sleeping problems, while men are more likely to suffer from lack of a close friend.

  • 8.
    Bask, Miia
    Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Increasing Inequality in Social Exclusion Occurrence: The Case of Sweden during 1979-20032010In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 97, no 3, p. 299-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine the risk of social exclusion among the Swedish population from a longitudinal perspective. In the empirical analysis, a person is considered socially excluded if he or she suffers from at least two of the following six welfare problems: chronic unemployment, economic problems, health problems, experiences of threat or violence, crowded housing and lack of interpersonal relationships. Our three main findings are as follows: There is no evidence that immigrants have been better integrated into Swedish society over time from the perspective of social exclusion risk. Instead, there are weak signs that their situation has become worse. Further, even though men are worse off than women as regards the odds for social exclusion, there are weak signs that their relative situation has improved over time. Finally, compared to couples without children, there is clear evidence that the odds for social exclusion for singles with children have increased over time and that the odds for social exclusion for couples with children have decreased over time. We can, therefore, conclude that among these groups, the inequality has increased over time. To be able to make these conclusions, we have fitted several specifications of a logistic regression model with random effects for panel data to our data set.

  • 9.
    Bask, Miia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Increasing Inequality in Social Exclusion Occurrence: The Case of Sweden during 1979-20032010In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 97, no 3, p. 299-323Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Bask, Miia
    Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Increasing Inequality in Social Exclusion Occurrence: The Case of Sweden during 1979-20032010In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 97, no 3, p. 299-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine the risk of social exclusion among the Swedish population from a longitudinal perspective. In the empirical analysis, a person is considered socially excluded if he or she suffers from at least two of the following six welfare problems: chronic unemployment, economic problems, health problems, experiences of threat or violence, crowded housing and lack of interpersonal relationships. Our three main findings are as follows: There is no evidence that immigrants have been better integrated into Swedish society over time from the perspective of social exclusion risk. Instead, there are weak signs that their situation has become worse. Further, even though men are worse off than women as regards the odds for social exclusion, there are weak signs that their relative situation has improved over time. Finally, compared to couples without children, there is clear evidence that the odds for social exclusion for singles with children have increased over time and that the odds for social exclusion for couples with children have decreased over time. We can, therefore, conclude that among these groups, the inequality has increased over time. To be able to make these conclusions, we have fitted several specifications of a logistic regression model with random effects for panel data to our data set.

  • 11.
    Boye, Katarina
    Institutet för social forskning (SOFI), Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Relatively different?: how do gender differences in well-being depend on paid and unpaid work in Europe?2009In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 93, no 3, p. 509-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Absolute as well as relative hours of paid and unpaid work may influence well-being. This study investigates whether absolute hours spent on paid work and housework account for the lower well-being among women as compared to men in Europe, and whether the associations between well-being and hours of paid work and housework differ by gender attitudes and social context. Attitudes towards women's and men's paid work and housework obligations may influence how beneficial or detrimental it is to spend time on these activities, as may social comparison of one's own hours to the number of hours commonly spent among similar others. A group of 13,425 women and men from 25 European countries are analysed using country fixed-effects models. The results suggest that while men's well-being appears to be unaffected by hours of paid work and housework, women's well-being increases with increased paid working hours and decreases with increasing housework hours. Gender differences in time spent on paid work and housework account for a third of the European gender difference in well-being and are thus one reason that women have lower well-being than men have. Gender attitudes do not appear to modify the associations between hours and well-being, but there is a tendency for women's well-being to be higher the less housework they do compared to other women in the same family situation and country. However, absolute hours of paid work and housework appear to be more important to women's well-being than relative hours.

  • 12.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Relatively Different? How do Gender Differences in Well-Being Depend on Paid and Unpaid Work in Europe?2009In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 93, no 3, p. 509-525Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13. Bradbury, Bruce
    et al.
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Lindahl, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Labour Income, Social Transfers and Child Poverty2019In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 143, no 1, p. 251-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper documents the variation in living standards of the poorest fifth of children in rich (and some middle-income) nations, with a focus on the relative importance and interaction of social transfers (net of taxes) and labour market incomes. Overall, the cross-national variation in the disposable income of disadvantaged children is comprised equally of variation in market and transfer income (with the two negatively correlated). The English-speaking countries stand out as all having relatively low market incomes, but substantial variation in transfer income. Their low market incomes reflect low employment hours in Australia and primarily low hours in the UK and Ireland, while in the US and Canada low hours and low pay contribute equally. Comparing incomes prior to and after the 2008 financial crisis, the real disposable incomes of the poorest fifth decreased substantially in Greece, Spain and Ireland, but were relatively stable in other rich nations.

  • 14.
    Carlerby, Heidi
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    How Bullying Involvement is Associated with the Distribution of Parental Background and With Subjective Health Complaints Among Swedish Boys and Girls2013In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 111, no 3, p. 775-783Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to analyze how bullying involvement is associated with the distribution of parental background and with subjective health complaints (SHC) among Swedish boys and girls. Data were collected from the World Health Organization, Health Behavior in School-aged Children (WHO/HBSC) survey, measurement years 1997/1998, 2001/2002 and 2005/2006. A total of 11,972 boys (50.6 %) and girls (49.4 %) in grades five, seven and nine participated in the study. The adolescents were categorized in subgroups according to parental background: Swedish (80.1 %), mixed (10.5 %) and foreign(9.7 %). Multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate remaining risk of SHC in the categories of bullying involvement. The frequencies of bullying involvement once or more were: none involved (74.8 %), victims (10.6 %), bullies (10.3 %) and bully/victims (4.4 %). Six out of ten involved in bullying were boys. Boys of foreign background were more involved as bullies compared to boys of mixed or Swedish background. Girls of foreign background were more involved in all three categories of bullying than girls of mixed or Swedish background. Increased risk of SHC was estimated among all adolescents involved in bullying, with highest OR in the category of bully/victims, OR 3.95 (CI 3.13–4.97) for the boys and OR 4.51 (CI 4.51–6.40) for the girls. The multivariate models were stable even after adjustment for socio-demographics. There are some associations between bullying involvement and parental background. Regardless of parental background, family affluence, family structure and gender, all adolescents involved in bullying are at increased risk of SHC.

  • 15.
    Fors, Filip
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Kulin, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Bringing Affect Back In: Measuring and Comparing Subjective Well-being across Countries2016In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 127, no 1, p. 323-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, researchers and policymakers have paid increasing attention to cross-country comparisons of subjective well-being. Whereas classical theories of quality of life emphasize the central role of affective well-being (i.e., whether a person feels good or bad), previous comparative studies have focused almost exclusively on life satisfaction (i.e., cognitive evaluations of life). This study brings affect into the comparative study of subjective well-being, constructing a new measurement instrument that captures both the affective and cognitive dimensions of subjective well-being. Using European Social Survey data and multi-group confirmatory factor analysis, we estimate latent country means for the two dimensions and compare country rankings across the two measures. The results reveal important differences in country rankings depending on whether one focuses on affective well-being or life satisfaction. We identify crucial differences among top-ranking countries and, perhaps even more importantly, considerable differences in rankings among more moderately ranking countries. In a second step, we compare and evaluate the single-item measures commonly used in previous research with the results based on our new measures. We conclude by discussing our results in relation to previous studies, and in terms of their possible implications for future research and for policymakers bent on improving national levels of subjective well-being. 

  • 16.
    Fors, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Brännström, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Coexisting Social, Economic, and Health-Related Disadvantages in More than 2.4 Million Swedes: Combining Variable-Centred and Person-Centred Approaches2019In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 143, no 1, p. 115-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of coexisting disadvantages has been recognised in social welfare policy and welfare research, not least in the Nordic countries. The prevalence and patterning of coexisting disadvantages in society have far reaching implications for well-being, social policy, and social inequality. Using longitudinal register-based data for the years 1998‒2008 for all Swedish individuals born 1946‒1965 (n > 2.4 million), this exploratory study maps out the occurrence of coexisting disadvantages in the Swedish working-age population, and examines to what extent observed prevalence rates are associated with sex, age, immigrant status, and marital status. Coexisting disadvantages are analysed in terms of four broad register-based indicators intended to capture individuals’ resources in key areas of the society: education, income, labour market, and mental health. The results show that while most individuals are not disadvantaged in these areas, coexisting disadvantages do occur and its prevalence varies according to sex, age, immigrant status, and marital status. This study shows that combinations of person-centred and variable-centred analyses of register-based indicators can play a part when developing effective systems for policy surveillance.

  • 17.
    Galinha, Iolanda Costa
    et al.
    Univ Autonoma Lisboa, P-1100188 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Oishi, Shigehiro
    Univ Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.
    Pereira, Cicero Roberto
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Social Sci, P-1699 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Wirtz, Derrick
    E Carolina Univ, Greenville, NC, USA.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology. Inst Univ Lisboa, CIS Ctr Psychol Res & Social Intervent, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Adult Attachment, Love Styles, Relationship Experiences and Subjective Well-Being: Cross-Cultural and Gender Comparison between Americans, Portuguese, and Mozambicans2014In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 119, no 2, p. 823-852Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Attachment security, love styles, and romantic relationship experiences are closely associated with subjective well-being (SWB). A few studies have empirically observed significant relations between these variables. However, no studies have included all of these predictors to analyze the unique contribution of each to SWB, and no cross-cultural studies have analyzed these variables simultaneously. This article examined (a) the relations between attachment security, love styles, romantic relationship experiences and subjective well-being, (b) the unique contribution of each to predict SWB, and (c) cross-cultural and gender differences in the predictors of SWB across three samples of 1,574 university students: 497 from North Carolina (US), 544 from Maputo (Mozambique), and 533 from Lisbon (Portugal). We found cross-cultural differences in the three samples. The main predictor of SWB was attachment security in the US and Portuguese samples, while in the Mozambican it was eros love style. Storge love style positively predicted SWB in the US and Portuguese samples, but not in the Mozambican. In contrast, mania love style predicted the SWB of Mozambicans but not that of Americans or Portuguese. We found gender similarities and differences: the association between attachment security and SWB was not gender-specific; the associations between love styles, relationship experiences and SWB were gender-specific.

  • 18.
    Gähler, Michael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Palmtag, Eva-Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Parental divorce, psychological well-being and educational attainment: changed experience, unchanged effect among Swedes born 1892-19912015In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 123, no 2, p. 601-623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last century, the proportion of children and adolescents who have experienced a parental divorce or separation has increased dramatically, in Sweden and elsewhere. Vast research has shown that children in these families fare less well than children in intact families, both in the short and in the long run and on a number of outcomes. Much less is known about whether parental divorce means the same for children and adolescents today as it did a century ago. Have living conditions changed and, if so, how? Moreover, has the association between parental divorce and child well-being changed in magnitude over time? To answer these questions six waves of the Swedish Level of Living Survey were used. The data set contains indicators on childhood living conditions for an entire century of Swedes, born 1892–1991. We show that living conditions for children of divorce have indeed changed on a number of dimensions but there is no evidence of magnitude change in the association between parental divorce/separation and two child outcomes, psychological well-being and educational attainment.

  • 19.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Psychometric properties of the PsychoSomatic Problems scale: a Rasch analysis on adolescent data2008In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 86, no 3, p. 511-523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The PsychoSomatic Problems (PSP)-scale is built upon eight items intended to tap information about psychosomatic problems among schoolchildren and adolescents in general populations. The purpose of the study is to analyse the psychometric properties of the PSP-scale by means of the Rasch model, with a focus on the operating characteristics of the items. Cross-sectional adolescent data collected in Sweden at six points in time between 1988 and 2005 are used for the analysis. In all more than 15,000 students aged 15–16 are included in the analysis. Data were examined with respect to invariance across the latent trait, Differential Item Functioning (DIF), item categorisation and unidimensionality. The results show that the PSP-scale adequately meets measurement criteria of invariance and proper categorisation of the items. Also the targeting is good and the reliability is high. Since the scale works invariantly across years of investigation it is appropriate for re-current monitoring of psychosomatic health complaints in general populations of adolescents. Taking DIF into account through principles of equating provides a scale that shows no statistically significant signs of gender-DIF enabling invariant comparisons also between boys and girls.

  • 20.
    Hagquist, Curt
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Andrich, David
    Murdoch University, Perth, Australia.
    Measuring subjective health among adolescents in Sweden: A Rasch-analysis of the HBSC-instrument2004In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 201-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cross-national WHO-study Health Behaviourin School-Aged Children (HBSC) is acomprehensive adolescent survey ongoing inEurope based on a public health perspective.The present study, examining theHBSC-instrument on subjective health, uses theunidimensional Rasch model. Items are analysedwith respect to their operating characteristicsacross the whole range of the subjective healthscale and the empirical operation of theresponse categories intended to be ordered forall items. The study is based oncross-sectional data collected in Sweden duringthe 1980s and 1990s among students in yearsfive, seven and nine.The analyses reveal that the symptom checklistin the HBSC-instrument does not workconsistently with the Rasch model when alleight items are analysed simultaneously. Inparticular, the response categories do not workas intended. Hence, the original set of eightitems should not be used to construct a latentmeasure of subjective health. In order tobring the instrument to meet the requirementsof the Rasch model, three items were removed. The reduced set of five items did workconsistently with the model with respect to theresponse categories, and did show relativeinvariance across the latent trait. Since a fewof the remaining items showed lack ofinvariance across genders and grades thatproblem should be solved, if the reduced itemset is to be used for post-hoc analyses.Furthermore, the analysis of the reduced set ofitems suggests that both ``somatic'' and``psychological'' complaints might be consideredas parts of one higher order dimension ofsubjective health.In order to improve the questionnaire, furtherattention should be paid to the response formatof the items.

  • 21.
    Hagquist, Curt
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Hellström, Lisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    The Psychometric Properties of the Early Development Instrument: A Rasch Analysis Based on Swedish Pilot Data2014In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 117, no 1, p. 301-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Early Development Instrument (EDI) is a population measure and an indicator of children’s developmental health before entering the school system. EDI-Sweden was translated and adapted from EDI-Canada. In 2011 a pilot study was conducted, as a first step of the preparations for nationwide implementation of EDI in Sweden. The purpose of the study is to analyse the psychometric properties of EDI-Sweden. Data about 116 5-year-old children were collected at ten preschools in two municipalities. EDI consists of 104 core items in five domains: physical health and well-being, social competence, emotional maturity, language and cognitive development, communication skills and general knowledge. Preschool teachers completed a web based questionnaire for each child. The data were analysed using the unidimensional Rasch model. With exception for the domain of physical health and well-being the Rasch analysis showed satisfying psychometric properties of EDI after removal of some misfitting items. In these four domains no items showed disordered thresholds and the reliability was good, indicated by person separation index values of 0.73 or higher. Tentative analyses of Differential Item Functioning (DIF) showed that some items didn’t work invariantly across genders, suggesting that the DIF-items should be split into gender specific items. Due to the relatively small sample size the results can’t provide definite answers but tentative indications of the psychometric properties of the EDI-Sweden. As a whole the Rasch analysis provides ground for cautious optimism for large scale assessment of EDI-Sweden enabling more thorough and finer level analysis of the instrument.

  • 22.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Nordenmark, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Work-family conflict and well-being across Europe: The role of gender context2017In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 132, no 2, p. 785-797Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analysed whether gender context is important to differences in therelationship between work–family conflict (WFC) and well-being across Europe. Wehypothesised that in countries that support equality in work life and where norms supportwomen’s employment, the relationship between WFC and low well-being is weaker than incountries with less support for gender equality. Cohabiting men and women aged18–65 years from 25 European countries were selected from the European Social Survey.A multilevel analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between well-being andWFC, and two measurements were used to represent gender context: gender equality inwork life and norms regarding women’s employment. Contrary to the hypothesis, theresults showed that the negative relationship was stronger in countries with high levels ofgender equality in work life and support for women’s employment than in countries with arelatively low level of gender equality in work life and support for traditional genderrelations. The context in which gender is constructed may be important when studying therelationship between WFC and well-being. In addition, emphasis should be placed onpolicies that equalise both the labour market and the work performed at home.

  • 23.
    Halleröd, Björn
    et al.
    Department of Sociology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bask, Miia
    Department of Sociology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Accumulation of Welfare Problems in a Longitudinal Perspective2008In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 88, no 2, p. 311-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The central aim of the present paper is to analyse the degree to which welfare problems accumulate over time and to what extent such an accumulation is related to class position and household formation. We utilize longitudinal data from the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions, following a panel that was first interviewed in 1979 and, thereafter, re-interviewed three times (1986–87, 1994–95 and 2002–03). We use structural equation modelling to extract latent deprivation indexes based on seven manifest indicators. Thereafter, the indexes are used as input values in a latent growth curve (LGC) model when estimating an intercept variable and a slope variable. We finally estimate two structural models. In the first model, the relation over time between class position, class mobility and deprivation are estimated, and the second model deals with the relationship between household types, change of household type and deprivation. Several interesting results can be reported. We find a strong relationship between the deprivation indexes over time. The LGC model can also confirm a positive relationship between deprivation intercept and deprivation slope. That is, individuals who score high on the deprivation index from the beginning are increasingly prone to accumulate additional welfare problems over time. The analysis also reveals a clear class gradient as well as effects of class mobility. In addition, it is shown that deprivation affects class mobility, meaning that we can confirm selection effects. Also household constellation and changes of household type are closely connected to deprivation and changes in deprivation over time. The analysis reveals selection effects even in this case.

  • 24.
    Halleröd, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Bask, Miia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Accumulation of Welfare Problems in a Longitudinal Perspective2008In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 88, no 2, p. 311-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The central aim of the present paper is to analyse the degree to which welfare problems accumulate over time and to what extent such an accumulation is related to class position and household formation. We utilize longitudinal data from the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions, following a panel that was first interviewed in 1979 and, thereafter, re-interviewed three times (1986–87, 1994–95 and 2002–03). We use structural equation modelling to extract latent deprivation indexes based on seven manifest indicators. Thereafter, the indexes are used as input values in a latent growth curve (LGC) model when estimating an intercept variable and a slope variable. We finally estimate two structural models. In the first model, the relation over time between class position, class mobility and deprivation are estimated, and the second model deals with the relationship between household types, change of household type and deprivation. Several interesting results can be reported. We find a strong relationship between the deprivation indexes over time. The LGC model can also confirm a positive relationship between deprivation intercept and deprivation slope. That is, individuals who score high on the deprivation index from the beginning are increasingly prone to accumulate additional welfare problems over time. The analysis also reveals a clear class gradient as well as effects of class mobility. In addition, it is shown that deprivation affects class mobility, meaning that we can confirm selection effects. Also household constellation and changes of household type are closely connected to deprivation and changes in deprivation over time. The analysis reveals selection effects even in this case.

  • 25.
    Halleröd, Björn
    et al.
    Department of Sociology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bask, Miia
    Department of Sociology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Accumulation of Welfare Problems in a Longitudinal Perspective2008In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 88, no 2, p. 311-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The central aim of the present paper is to analyse the degree to which welfare problems accumulate over time and to what extent such an accumulation is related to class position and household formation. We utilize longitudinal data from the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions, following a panel that was first interviewed in 1979 and, thereafter, re-interviewed three times (1986–87, 1994–95 and 2002–03). We use structural equation modelling to extract latent deprivation indexes based on seven manifest indicators. Thereafter, the indexes are used as input values in a latent growth curve (LGC) model when estimating an intercept variable and a slope variable. We finally estimate two structural models. In the first model, the relation over time between class position, class mobility and deprivation are estimated, and the second model deals with the relationship between household types, change of household type and deprivation. Several interesting results can be reported. We find a strong relationship between the deprivation indexes over time. The LGC model can also confirm a positive relationship between deprivation intercept and deprivation slope. That is, individuals who score high on the deprivation index from the beginning are increasingly prone to accumulate additional welfare problems over time. The analysis also reveals a clear class gradient as well as effects of class mobility. In addition, it is shown that deprivation affects class mobility, meaning that we can confirm selection effects. Also household constellation and changes of household type are closely connected to deprivation and changes in deprivation over time. The analysis reveals selection effects even in this case.

  • 26.
    Hansson, Anna
    et al.
    Sophiahemmet University.
    Hillerås, Pernilla
    Sophiahemmet University.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Well-being in an adult Swedish population2005In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 74, no 2, p. 313-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to see if earlier findings about factors associated with well-being could be replicated in a large population-based sample in Sweden. To the best of our knowledge, no research on well-being has been conducted on such a large population in a country, which by most standards is regarded as one of the most fortunate in the world. With its economic wealth and highly developed social welfare and health care system, Sweden is a country where the conditions for a high level of well-being would appear to be met. Methods: 10,441 randomly selected Swedish citizens, aged between 20 and 64 years, living in Stockholm County, completed a questionnaire covering issues such as demographics, social network and psychological well-being. The data were collected during the years 1998-2000. Results: Male gender, greater age, cohabiting, good childhood conditions, support from friends, sound financial situation and absence of negative life events were positively associated with well-being and explained 20% of the variance. Conclusion: The findings replicated earlier studies. Factors associated with well-being seem to remain the same, and are still explaining only a small part of the total variance, despite different measurements, time, sample sizes or country of origin. Therefore, research on well-being needs to take a new turn, by placing less focus on external factors and more focus on the internal factors, such as a person's personality and coping strategies

  • 27.
    Hansson, Anna
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hillerås, Pernilla
    Sophiahemmet / Karolinska Institutet / Äldrecentrum.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Well-Being in an Adult Swedish Population2005In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 74, no 2, p. 313-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to see if earlier findings about factors associated with well-being could be replicated in a large population-based sample in Sweden. To the best of our knowledge, no research on well-being has been conducted on such a large population in a country, which by most standards is regarded as one of the most fortunate in the world. With its economic wealth and highly developed social welfare and health care system, Sweden is a country where the conditions for a high level of well-being would appear to be met. Methods: 10,441 randomly selected Swedish citizens, aged between 20 and 64 years, living in Stockholm County, completed a questionnaire covering issues such as demographics, social network and psychological well-being. The data were collected during the years 1998–2000. Results: Male gender, greater age, cohabiting, good childhood conditions, support from friends, sound financial situation and absence of negative life events were positively associated with well-being and explained 20% of the variance. Conclusion: The findings replicated earlier studies. Factors associated with well-being seem to remain the same, and are still explaining only a small part of the total variance, despite different measurements, time, sample sizes or country of origin. Therefore, research on well-being needs to take a new turn, by placing less focus on external factors and more focus on the internal factors, such as a person’s personality and coping strategies.

  • 28.
    Hansson, Anna
    et al.
    Sophiahemmet University.
    Hillerås, Pernilla
    Sophiahemmet University.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    What kind of self-care strategies do people report using and is there an association with well-being?2005In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 73, no 1, p. 133-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe what kind of self-care strategies people report using to improve or maintain their well-being. Furthermore, we also wanted to investigate whether reports of using self-care strategies were associated with well-being. Methods: A selected sample (n = 871), aged between 20 and 64 years, living in Stockholm County, answered an open-ended question about self-care strategies. Well-being was assessed using the WHO (Ten) well-being index. Results: Ten different categories were found. The most commonly reported self-care strategy was physical exercise, followed by social support and engaging in pleasurable activities. Physical exercise, social support, relaxation, and physical health were associated with a better well-being, social support being strongest correlated. Conclusion: The results suggest that reports of using certain self-care strategies are associated with a better well-being

  • 29.
    Hansson, Anna
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hillerås, Pernilla
    Karolinska Institutet / Äldrecentrum, Stockholm / Sophiahemmet högskola.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    What Kind of Self-Care Strategies Do People Report Using and is There an Association with Well-Being?2005In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 73, no 1, p. 133-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe what kind of self-care strategies people report using to improve or maintain their well-being. Furthermore, we also wanted to investigate whether reports of using self-care strategies were associated with well-being. Methods: A selected sample (n=871), aged between 20 and 64 years, living in Stockholm County, answered an open-ended question about self-care strategies. Well-being was assed using the WHO (Ten) well-being index. Results: Ten different categories were found. The most commonly reported self-care strategy was physical exercise, followed by social support and engaging in pleasurable activities. Physical exercise, social support, relaxation, and physical health were associated with a better well-being, social support being strongest correlated. Conclusion: The results suggest that reports of using certain self-care strategies are associated with a better well-being.

  • 30.
    Heap, Josephine
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Fors, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Duration and accumulation of disadvantages in old age2015In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 123, no 2, p. 411-429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The probability of experiencing simultaneous disadvantages in more than one life domain seems to be higher for the oldest old people than younger age groups. However, the experience of coexisting disadvantages among older adults is relatively underexplored. We set out to analyse whether coexisting disadvantages among older people are long-lasting or temporary, and whether there are patterns of an accumulation of disadvantages in old age or not. We used nationally representative, longitudinal data between 1991 and 2011. Respondents were born between 1916 and 1934. The following disadvantages were included: lack of social resources, lack of political resources, lack of financial resources, psychological health problems, physical health problems and mobility limitations. Results suggest differing experiences of disadvantage in old age. We found that reporting coexisting disadvantages in 1991 increased the probability of reporting coexisting disadvantages in 2011, but the correlation was moderate. This indicates that for some people, coexisting disadvantages in old age is relatively stable, while for others it is a temporary experience. Reporting one disadvantage in 1991 also increased the probability of reporting coexisting disadvantages in 2011, suggesting a pattern of accumulation of disadvantages. Again, this pattern may not be generalised to all people. To a large extent the observed accumulation of disadvantages in old age seemed to be driven by physical health deterioration and mobility limitations.

  • 31.
    Hellgren, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Extracting More Knowledge from Time Diaries?2014In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 119, no 3, p. 1517-1534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-use diary data convey information about the activities an individual wasengaged in, when and for how long, and the order of these activities throughout the day.The data are usually analyzed by summarizing the time used per activity category. Theaggregates are then used to determine the mean time use of a mean individual on anaverage day. However, this approach discards information about the duration of activities,the order in which they are undertaken, and the time of day each activity is carried out.This paper outlines an alternative approach grounded in the time-geographic theoreticalframework, which takes the duration, order, and timing of activities into consideration andthus yields new knowledge. The two approaches to analyzing diary data are comparedusing a simple empirical example of gender differences in time use for paid work. Thefocus is on the effects of methodological differences rather than on the empirical outcomes.The argument is made that using an approach that takes the sequence of activities intoaccount deepens our understanding of how people organize their daily activities in thecontext of a whole day at an aggregate level.

  • 32.
    Hirve, Siddhivinayak
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Vadu Rural Health Program, KEM Hospital Research Center, Pune, India .
    Oud, JH
    Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Sambhudas, Somnath
    Vadu Rural Health Program, KEM Hospital Research Center, Pune, India .
    Juvekar, Sanjay
    Vadu Rural Health Program, KEM Hospital Research Center, Pune, India.
    Blomstedt, Yulia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Tollman, Stephen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Health and Population Division, School of Public Health, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Unpacking self-rated health and quality of life in older adults and elderly in India: a structural equation modelling approach2014In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 117, no 1, p. 105-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims at improving empirical understanding of the health and well-being of older adults in low- and middle-income countries. A total of 321 adults aged 50 years and older were interviewed in rural Pune district, India, in 2007. We used Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to examine the pathways through which social factors, functional disability, risk behaviours, and chronic disease experience influence self-rated health (SRH) and quality of life (QOL) amongst older adults in India. Both SRH and QOL worsened with increased age (indirect effect) and limitations in functional ability (direct effect). QOL, socio-economic status (SES), and social networking had no significant effect on SRH. Smoking was associated with the presence of at least one chronic illness, but this did not have a statistically significant effect on SRH. Higher social networking was seen amongst the better educated and those with regular income, which in turn positively affected the QOL rating. QOL had a direct, but statistically not significant, effect on SRH. In conclusion, the indirect effects of age on SRH mediated through functional ability, and the effects of SES on QOL mediated through social networking, provide new understanding of how age and socio-economic status affect SRH and QOL. By allowing for measurement errors, solving for collinearity in predictor variables by integrating them into measurement models, and specifying causal dependencies between the underlying latent constructs, SEM provides a strong link between theory and empirics.

  • 33.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Eger, Maureen A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Bohman, Andrea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Fors Connolly, Filip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    A New Approach to the Study of Tolerance: Conceptualizing and Measuring Acceptance, Respect, and Appreciation of Difference2019In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous empirical research on tolerance suffers from a number of shortcomings, the most serious being the conceptual and operational conflation of (in)tolerance and prejudice. We design research to remedy this. First, we contribute to the literature by advancing research that distinguishes analytically between the two phenomena. We conceptualize tolerance as a value orientation towards difference. This definition—which is abstract and does not capture attitudes towards specific out-groups, ideas, or behaviors—allows for the analysis of tolerance within and between societies. Second, we improve the measurement of tolerance by developing survey items that are consistent with this conceptualization. We administer two surveys, one national (Sweden) and one cross-national (Australia, Denmark, Great Britain, Sweden, and the United States). Results from structural equation models show that tolerance is best understood as a three-dimensional concept, which includes acceptance of, respect for, and appreciation of difference. Analyses show that measures of tolerance have metric invariance across countries, and additional tests demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity. We also assess tolerance’s relationship to prejudice and find that only an appreciation of difference has the potential to reduce prejudice. We conclude that it is not only possible to measure tolerance in a way that is distinct from prejudice but also necessary if we are to understand the causes and consequences of tolerance.

  • 34.
    Holfve Sabel, Mary-Anne
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Students' individual choices of peers to work with during lessons may counteract segregation2015In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 122, no 2, p. 577-594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to test whether or not students from differently segregated schools within a city could compensate for this variation through their choices of classmates to work with. Data for 1,697 students from 78 classes in year 6 of compulsory school, with an average of 20 % immigrants, was collected covering both segregated and non-segregated areas with respect to housing and schools. Each student was asked which three peers he/she preferred working with in the classroom and ranked these names in order 1–3. The coherence of the networks formed using bilateral choices was analysed by use of eigenvector centrality (SSI). A higher SSI of a network indicated a high coherence of individuals within the network and therefore considered more isolated (or segregated) than networks with lower SSI. The names of the students were categorized as Scandinavian or non-Scandinavian. Networks were formed consisting of Scandinavians, non-Scandinavians and a mixture. In classrooms with non-Scandinavians, mixed networks were quite common. There was no difference of weighted SSI between the three types of networks within the same school class. Furthermore the coherence of the total number of networks formed by Scandinavians, non-Scandinavians and mixed networks was equal. Segregation between the different student networks could neither be demonstrated at a class level, nor between the three types of networks irrespective of class. Segregation within schools was thus at least partly neutralized by peer effects seen in student´s voluntary choices. Outside networks overrepresentation of lonely non-Scandinavian girls and of absent Scandinavian boys was found.

  • 35.
    Holfve-Sabel, Mary-Anne
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Learning, interaction and relationships as components of student well-being: differences between classes from student and teacher perspective2014In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 119, no 3, p. 1535-1555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The attitudes of students to their school, teachers and peers were investigated with 1,540 students in grade six from 30 schools and 78 classes. Using structural equation modelling, the students’ perceptions of well-being were investigated at class level using seven items with high reliability. Their well-being was dependent on at least three factors: students’ learning (seven items), student-to-student interaction (six items) and teacher–student relationships as described by students (ten items). Together, these factors explained 72 % of the variability of well-being between classes. The students’ well-being appeared to be significantly different between schools and between classes in the same school. The teachers’ opinions of their classes with the highest class score for well-being were compared with the lowest. The differences in the evaluation of the teachers’ own classes explain a number of critical issues which impact on educational outcomes. Students need to be aware of the combined effects of learning and socialisation.

  • 36. Hoskins, Bryony
    et al.
    Saisana, Michaela
    Villalba, Cynthia M. H.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Civic Competence of Youth in Europe: Measuring Cross National Variation Through the Creation of a Composite Indicator2015In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 123, no 2, p. 431-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article develops a composite indicator to monitor the levels of civic competence of young people in Europe using the IEA ICCS 2009 study. The measurement model combines the traditions in Europe of liberal, civic republican and critical/cosmopolitan models of citizenship. The results indicate that social justice values and citizenship knowledge and skills of students are facilitated within the Nordic system that combines a stable democracy and economic prosperity with a democratically based education systems in which teachers prioritise promoting autonomous critical thinking in citizenship education. In contrast, medium term democracies with civic republican tradition, such as Italy and Greece gain more positive results on citizenship values and participatory attitudes. This is also the case for some recent former communist countries that retain ethnic notions of citizenship. In a final step we go on to argue that the Nordic teachers' priority on developing critical and autonomous citizens perhaps facilitates 14 years olds qualities of cognition on citizenship and the values of equality but may not be the most fruitful approach to enhance participatory attitudes or concepts of a good citizen which may be better supported by the Italian teachers' priority on civic responsibility.

  • 37. Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W.
    et al.
    Houle, Brian
    Collinson, Mark A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Kahn, Kathleen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Tollman, Stephen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Clark, Samuel
    Assessing Changes in Household Socioeconomic Status in Rural South Africa, 2001-2013: A Distributional Analysis Using Household Asset Indicators2017In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 133, no 3, p. 1047-1073Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the distribution of socioeconomic status (SES) and its temporal dynamics within a population is critical to ensure that policies and interventions adequately and equitably contribute to the well-being and life chances of all individuals. This study assesses the dynamics of SES in a typical rural South African setting over the period 2001-2013 using data on household assets from the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Three SES indices, an absolute index, principal component analysis index and multiple correspondence analysis index, are constructed from the household asset indicators. Relative distribution methods are then applied to the indices to assess changes over time in the distribution of SES with special focus on location and shape shifts. Results show that the proportion of households that own assets associated with greater modern wealth has substantially increased over time. In addition, relative distributions in all three indices show that the median SES index value has shifted up and the distribution has become less polarized and is converging towards the middle. However, the convergence is larger from the upper tail than from the lower tail, which suggests that the improvement in SES has been slower for poorer households. The results also show persistent ethnic differences in SES with households of former Mozambican refugees being at a disadvantage. From a methodological perspective, the study findings demonstrate the comparability of the easy-to-compute absolute index to other SES indices constructed using more advanced statistical techniques in assessing household SES.

  • 38.
    Kaidi, Nasreddine
    et al.
    Univ Manouba, Tunisia; ECSTRA Lab, Tunisia.
    Mensi, Sami
    Univ Manouba, Tunisia; ECSTRA Lab, Tunisia.
    Ben Amor, Mehdi
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. ECSTRA Lab, Tunisia; Univ Carthage, Tunisia.
    Financial Development, Institutional Quality and Poverty Reduction: Worldwide Evidence2019In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 141, no 1, p. 131-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper tests the relationship between financial development, quality of institutions and poverty. To this end, we reviewed the literature and selected indicators of poverty, financial development and quality of institutions. Empirically, we used the three-stage least squares method to examine a sample of 132 countries observed over the 1980-2014 period. First, we proved that financial development does not improve the situation of the poor, while the effect of institution quality on poverty and financial development depends on the choice of indicators. Our robustness analysis pointed to the sensitivity of our results to the different financial development, quality of institutions and poverty indicators.

  • 39. Lorentzen, Thomas
    et al.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Ilmakunnas, Ilari
    Kauppinen, Timo
    Pathways to Adulthood: Sequences in the School-to-Work Transition in Finland, Norway and Sweden2019In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 141, no 3, p. 1285-1305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on youth transitions often follows the lines of classic welfare state typologies. Thus, given the institutional similarities, the transition from youth to adulthood in the Nordic countries has often been considered a specific type of trajectory. However, little research exists on how country differences within the Nordic cluster shape young people’s pathways from education to work. Thus, little is known about intra-Nordic variations caused by national labour market regulations and social safety nets (e.g. parental insurance, public day care and unemployment security). In this article, we use sequence analysis to examine the transition process from school to work in Finland, Norway and Sweden and to find how these processes are linked to family formation patterns. The results indicate that Finland, Norway and Sweden to a great extent share the same general types of school-to-work trajectories. The role of family establishment in workforce entry trajectories, on the other hand, differs in some respects. There is a very strong link between early parenthood among Finnish women and trajectories leading to labour market exclusion. This is interpreted in light of the Finnish labour market and family policy.

  • 40.
    Lundberg, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kristenson, Margareta
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Is Subjective Status Influenced by Psychosocial Factors?2008In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 89, no 3, p. 375-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample of 795 middle-aged men and women from the southeast of Sweden. Questionnaires included subjective status, objective measures of socioeconomic status, life satisfaction, and a battery of psychosocial factors. Associations were controlled for effects of age and sex. Results Both subjective status and occupation were significantly associated with self-rated health also after control for psychosocial factors. Stepwise regression showed that subjective status was significantly influenced by self-rated economy, education, life satisfaction, self-esteem, trust, perceived control, and mastery. Conclusion The association between subjective status and self-rated health does not seem to be uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors. Both resource-based measures and psychological dimensions seem to influence subjective status ratings. Comparative studies are required to study whether predictors of subjective status vary between countries with different socio-political profiles.

  • 41.
    Magnusson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nermo, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Gender, Parenthood and Wage Differences: The Importance of Time-Consuming Job Characteristics2017In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 131, no 2, p. 797-816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data from the Swedish Level of Living Survey (2000, 2010), we investigate how the gender wage gap varies with occupational prestige and family status and also examine the extent to which this gap is explained by time-consuming working conditions. In addition, we investigate whether there is an association between parenthood, job characteristics and wage (as differentiated by gender). The analyses indicate that there are gender differences regarding prestige-based pay-offs among parents that are partly explained by fathers' greater access to employment characterized by time-consuming conditions. Separate analyses for men and women demonstrate the presence of a marriage wage premium for both genders, although only men have a parenthood wage premium. This fatherhood premium is however only present in high-prestigious occupations. Compared with childless men, fathers are also more advantaged in terms of access to jobs with time-consuming working conditions, but the wage gap between fathers and childless men is not explained by differences in access to such working conditions.

  • 42.
    Miething, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    The relevance of objective and subjective social position for self-rated health: A combined approach for the Swedish context2012In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 111, no 1, p. 161-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigates the health effects of subjective class position stratified by objective social position. Four types of subjective class were analysed separately for individuals with manual or non-manual occupational background. The cross-sectionalanalysis is based on the Swedish Level-of-Living Survey from 2000 and includes 4,139 individuals. The dataset comprises information on perceived class affinity and occupational position that was combined to conduct logistic regression models on self-rated health. An inverse relationship between self-rated health and the eight combinations of objective and subjective social position was found. Lower socio-economic position was associated with poor health. The largest adverse health effects were found for lower subjective social position in combination with lower occupational position. When the covariates education, father’s occupational position and income were added to the model, adverse effects on health remained only for females. Subjective social position helps to explain health inequalities. Substantial gender differences were found. It can be assumed that subjective class position captures a wide range of perceived inequalities and therefore complements the measure of occupational position.

  • 43.
    Mollenhorst, Gerald
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. University of Utrecht, Netherlands .
    Edling, Christofer
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Psychological Well-Being and Brokerage in Friendship Networks of Young Swedes2015In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 123, no 3, p. 897-917Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All ethnic groups have norms and values according to which one is expected to behave. Immigrants in particular have personal networks that simultaneously consist of co-ethnics and friends of a different ethnic background. As a consequence, they may be accustomed to the behavior, norms, and values of their own ethnic group, and also be expected to behave according to those of another ethnic group. This may either lead to ego-gratification and the strengthening and enrichment of their personality, or to feelings of stress and non-acceptance if they cannot behave fully in accordance with the expectations of their friends. This study addresses the association between interethnic open triads in networks (i.e., brokerage) and individual psychological well-being. That is, we examine whether having intra-ethnic and interethnic relationships with friends who are not also friends with each other, is either positively or negatively associated with psychological well-being. Using (network) data from a large sample (N = 2,942; age = 19) of native Swedes and first- and second-generation immigrants from former Yugoslavia and Iran (all born in 1990 and currently living in Sweden), we show that interethnic brokerage is negatively associated with psychological well-being, which implies that the different norms, values and corresponding behaviors that prevail in different ethnic groups to which the ethnic broker is connected may result in internal and external conflicts, to feelings that one is not fully accepted by any of these groups, and ultimately to a lower level of psychological well-being.

  • 44.
    Mood, Carina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Jan O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden; Nuffield College, UK.
    The Social Consequences of Poverty: An Empirical Test on Longitudinal Data2016In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 127, no 2, p. 633-652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poverty is commonly defined as a lack of economic resources that has negative social consequences, but surprisingly little is known about the importance of economic hardship for social outcomes. This article offers an empirical investigation into this issue. We apply panel data methods on longitudinal data from the Swedish Level-of-Living Survey 2000 and 2010 (n = 3089) to study whether poverty affects four social outcomes-close social relations (social support), other social relations (friends and relatives), political participation, and activity in organizations. We also compare these effects across five different poverty indicators. Our main conclusion is that poverty in general has negative effects on social life. It has more harmful effects for relations with friends and relatives than for social support; and more for political participation than organizational activity. The poverty indicator that shows the greatest impact is material deprivation (lack of cash margin), while the most prevalent poverty indicators-absolute income poverty, and especially relative income poverty-appear to have the least effect on social outcomes.

  • 45.
    Nermo, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Eriksson, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Care for Sick Children as a Proxy for Gender Equality in the Family2010In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 97, no 3, p. 341-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish parents are entitled to government paid benefits to take care of sick children. In this paper we show that the gender distribution of paid care for sick children is a good proxy for the gender division of household work. Using two examples we show that registry data on care for sick children is a useful data source for studies on gender equality in the family. Our first example shows that increased effort at work leads to a lower effort in household work, and a higher effort at home for the other spouse. Our second example provides some evidence for a pro-cyclical pattern in gender equality.

  • 46.
    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Adam
    et al.
    Rutgers State Univ, USA ; Vistula Univ, Poland.
    Strzelecka, Marianna
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Happy Tourists, Unhappy Locals2017In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 134, no 2, p. 789-804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most recent of literature focuses more often on the happiness of tourists, rather than the happiness of residents affected by tourism. However, this study aims at filling this gap with a new and refreshing perspective. This is carried out by using the European Social Survey (2010-2012) merged with Eurostat tourism data at the province (NUTS2) level. Staying consistent with homophily or ingroup preference theories, we find that domestic tourists contribute more to the happiness of locals than foreign tourists. Also by staying consistent with Irridex theory, we find that tourism at low levels of development contributes more to happiness than tourism at a high level of development.

  • 47.
    Olsson, Lars E
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Ettema, Dick
    Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
    Happiness and Satisfaction with work commute2013In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 111, no 1, p. 255-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research suggests that for many people happiness is being able to make the routines of everyday life work, such that positive feelings dominate over negative feelings resulting from daily hassles. In line with this, a survey of work commuters in the three largest urban areas of Sweden show that satisfaction with the work commute contributes to overall happiness. It is also found that feelings during the commutes are predominantly positive or neutral. Possible explanatory factors include desirable physical exercise from walking and biking, as well as that short commutes provide a buffer between the work and private spheres. For longer work commutes, social and entertainment activities either increase positive affects or counteract stress and boredom. Satisfaction with being employed in a recession may also spill over to positive experiences of work commutes.

  • 48. Peterson, Lauri
    The Measurement of Non-Economic Inequality in Well-being Indices2014In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 119, no 2, p. 581-598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a critical review of composite well-being indices that account for inequality. Many well-being indices build upon the idea that while income and wealth are important, they do not constitute a person’s actual quality of life. However, first of all, the analysis finds that while well-being indices aim to go “beyond GDP” and other primarily economic indicators, many of them, unfortunately, do not focus on inequality at all. Secondly, most indices which include inequality in their measurement, only account for economic inequality. Thirdly, the article finds that the most comprehensive wellbeing index in terms of inequality is the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index which adjusts for economic, health and education inequality. This article finds that well-being indices should make further strides to ensure the capture of non-economic inequality in terms of education and health.

  • 49.
    Ring, Lena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Hoefer, S.
    McGee, H.
    Hickey, A.
    O'Boyle, C. A.
    Individual quality of life: can it be accounted for by psychological or subjective well-being?2007In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 82, no 3, p. 443-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is ongoing discussion in the scientific literature about the need for a more theoretical foundation to underpin quality of life (QoL) measurement. This paper applied Keyes et al.'s [J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 82 (2002) 1007] model of well-being as a framework to assess whether respondents (n = 136 students) focus on elements of subjective well-being (SWB), such as satisfaction and happiness, or on elements of psychological well-being (PWB), such as meaning and personal growth, when making individual QoL (IQoL) judgments using the Schedue of the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life (SEIQoL). The Keyes et al.'s model was confirmed and explained 41% of the variance in SEIQoL scores. Both SWB and PWB were correlated with the SEIQoL Index Score and SWB was found to be an important mediating variable in the relationship between PWB and SEIQoL. When analyzing different well-being combinations, respondents with high SWB/high PWB had significantly higher SEIQoL scores than did those with low SWB/low PWB. Respondents with high PWB/high SWB had higher SEIQoL scores than did those with high PWB/low SWB. Longitudinal studies in different patient groups are needed to explore the dynamic relationship between IQoL and well-being. Further investigation of the relationship between PWB and SWB with other instruments purporting to measure QoL would contribute to an enhanced understanding of the underlying nature of QoL.

  • 50.
    Russo, Silvia
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Torino, Turin, Italy .
    Roccato, Michele
    Department of Psychology, University of Torino, Turin, Italy .
    Vieno, Alessio
    Department of Developmental and Social Psychology, University of Padova, Padua, Italy .
    Criminal victimization and crime risk perception: a multilevel longitudinal study2013In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 112, no 3, p. 535-548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a national sample of the Italian population, surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007 (N = 2,008), we performed a multilevel longitudinal study aimed at predicting the increase in crime risk perception as a function of three families of independent variables, respectively lying at the within individual level (direct victimization and indirect victimization), at the between-individuals level (being a woman, being an older person, being a poorly educated person and size of area of residence) and at the ecological level (county's crime rate, unemployment rate and immigration rate). Direct and indirect victimization, being a woman, being an older person, living in a large town and in a context characterized by high crime and unemployment rates positively influenced the change in crime risk perception, while the other individual and ecological predictors we used in our predictive model did not. Strengths, limitations, implications and future developments of this research are discussed.

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