Change search
Refine search result
12 1 - 50 of 74
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hourly changes in accident risk for bus drivers2009In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 187-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic accident risk has in some studies been found to change with the time of day, after controlling for exposure, probably due to diurnal changes in the human body, which changes alertness. However, exposure data are not always of good quality, and culpability for accidents is not always taken into account. The change in culpable accident risk over the day for bus drivers was therefore investigated, with single accidents analysed separately, using induced exposure (non-culpable bus accidents) as well as general traffic density and number of buses on the road as controlling factors. It was found that the risk distribution was fairly similar to some previous results before controlling for exposure, but dissimilar to other, probably indicating that bus drivers have a somewhat different risk profile, but also that previous studies may not have controlled for exposure in a reliable way. When exposure was held constant, the risk distribution was different from all other studies. The three different exposure measures correlated strongly between themselves, and each would seem to be adequate for a basic control. However, although general traffic density was most strongly correlated with culpable bus accidents, the induced exposure parameter added some explained variance. Single accidents had a very different risk distribution as compared to other culpable accidents when exposure had been held constant. A number of unexpected effects were also noted, mainly that single accidents were associated most strongly with general traffic density.

  • 2.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Meta-analysis of the difference in accident risk between long and short truck configurations2008In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 315-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate whether there is a difference in accident risk for differently sized truck configurations, a meta-analysis was undertaken of all available research. It was found that most studies had been made in the US, and that several methodological problems have plagued this area of investigation, mainly the lack of good exposure data. As larger trucks tend to drive on bigger, and therefore safer, roads, this needs to be taken into account. Some researchers have also suspected that there are systematic differences between drivers of different trucks, but the present analysis showed that this is probably a weak effect. Furthermore, it has been shown that the effects of accidents increase with increasing weight, at least up to a certain point, which makes the comparisons of accident risk sensitive to what type of accident has been investigated. Mean values of the risk ratios between long and short truck configurations were calculated from more than 20 studies, in the categories All, Injuries and Fatal. Also, separate values were computed for studies that had held the influence of road type constant in some way, and those that had not. Given that larger trucks replace a higher number of smaller ones on the roads, the differences in all categories of accidents would seem to indicate that, as a population, heavier trucks have fewer accidents, although the difference is small for Fatal. Unexpectedly, this positive traffic safety effect was more pronounced for the studies that had held road type constant. Furthermore, it was evident from the literature that although the overall effects were positive regarding truck size, larger vehicles have specific problems, which probably put them more at risk in certain environments, like towns.

  • 3.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The theoretical features of some current approaches to risk perception2001In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 237-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three approaches to risk perception (RP), the psychometric, the Basic Risk Perception Model, and the social amplification of risk, are evaluated using four common criteria for scientific theories. All approaches are found to meet the criterion of describing a large set of data, and for the psychometric approach and the Basic Risk Perception Model, the criterion of parsimony is fulfilled. The criteria of falsifiability and generating testable hypotheses are not met by any of these approaches. It is concluded that there is not as much theory available in RP research as could be expected at face value, if theory is defined as statements about causal mechanisms generating testable hypotheses. These three approaches instead qualifies as models (here defined as mathematical descriptions of data).

  • 4.
    Alriksson, Stina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Risk perception and worry in environmental decision-making - a case study within the Swedish steel industry2017In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 20, no 9, p. 1173-1194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development is an important issue for the industry in order to fulfil legislation requirements and to be able to use green marketing as a competitive advantage. The Swedish steel industry has implemented a large number of environmental improvements, for example, within energy efficiency, raw materials and recyclability. Technical improvements can help the industry decrease its environmental impact; however, in order to reach sustainable development, more factors need to be considered: an effective environmental decision-making process, for example. This process may be influenced by personal factors such as risk perception and worry, which are factors that will not contribute to an effective decision-making process. The aim of this study was to investigate if personal worry and risk perception influenced environmental decision-making within the Swedish steel industry. Thirty-eight interviews were performed at 10 Swedish steelworks using the Q-methodology. The major perceived environmental risks with the facility and personal worry were assessed, compared to the day-to-day work. It was concluded that the major perceived risks were emissions of carbon dioxide, use of non-renewable energy and emissions of particulate matter. The decision-makers were mainly worried about emissions of carbon dioxide, emissions of dioxin and use of non-renewable energy. The environmental issues that were prioritised in practice (day-to-day work) were emissions of carbon dioxide, emissions of particulate matter and emissions of metals. Even though emissions of carbon dioxide were given the highest priority in the Q-sorts, there was in general no clear relationship between risk perception and personal worry with the prioritised environmental issues at the steelworks. The quantitative analysis of the Q-sorts and the qualitative interviews both showed that the day-to-day work was unaffected by personal worry and risk.

  • 5.
    Baard, Patrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Risk-Reducing Goals: Ideals and Abilities when Managing Complex Environmental Risks2016In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 19, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social decision-making involving risks ideally results in obligations to avoid expected harms or keep them within acceptable limits. Ambitious goals aimed at avoiding or greatly reducing risks might not to be feasible, forcing the acceptance of higher degrees of risk (i.e., unrealistic levels of risk reduction are revised to comport with beliefs regarding abilities). In this paper, the philosophical principle ‘ought implies can’ is applied to the management of complex risks, exemplified by the risks associated with climate change. In its common interpretation, the principle states that we cannot expect an agent to perform something that lies beyond his or her abilities. However, it is here argued that this principle requires setting thresholds for legitimate claims of inabilities that justify the waiving of normative demands. This paper discuss three claims: (1) that caution is required before revising a risk-reducing goal that is perhaps exceedingly ambitious; (2) that claims on abilities are not only descriptive, but also value-laden; and (3) that the function of a goal has to be clarified before risk-reducing goals are revised. Risk-reducing goals that initially seem unrealistic arguably serve performance-enhancing purposes in risk management. Neglecting such goals could lead to choosing less desirable, but certainly feasible, risk-reducing goals.

  • 6.
    Bayliss, Kerin
    et al.
    Univ Manchester, Manchester Acad Hlth Sci Ctr, Cent Manchester Univ Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, Publ Programmes Team, Manchester, Lancs, England..
    Raza, Karim
    Univ Birmingham, Coll Med & Dent Sci, Ctr Translat Inflammat Res, Birmingham, W Midlands, England.;Sandwell & West Birmingham Hosp NHS Trust, Birmingham, W Midlands, England..
    Simons, Gwenda
    Univ Birmingham, Coll Med & Dent Sci, Ctr Translat Inflammat Res, Birmingham, W Midlands, England..
    Falahee, Marie
    Univ Birmingham, Coll Med & Dent Sci, Ctr Translat Inflammat Res, Birmingham, W Midlands, England.;Sandwell & West Birmingham Hosp NHS Trust, Birmingham, W Midlands, England..
    Hansson, Mats G
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Starling, Bella
    Univ Manchester, Manchester Acad Hlth Sci Ctr, Cent Manchester Univ Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, Publ Programmes Team, Manchester, Lancs, England..
    Stack, Rebecca
    Univ Birmingham, Coll Med & Dent Sci, Ctr Translat Inflammat Res, Birmingham, W Midlands, England.;Nottingham Trent Univ, Sch Social Sci, Div Psychol, Nottingham, England..
    Perceptions of predictive testing for those at risk of developing a chronic inflammatory disease: a meta-synthesis of qualitative studies2018In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 167-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The availability of tests to predict the risk of developing chronic diseases is increasing. The identification of individuals at high risk of disease can trigger early intervention to reduce the risk of disease and its severity. In order for predictive tests to be accepted and used by those at risk, there is a need to understand people's perceptions of predictive testing.

    Method: A meta-synthesis of qualitative research that explored patient and public perceptions of predictive testing for chronic inflammatory diseases was conducted. Studies were coded by researchers and patient research partners, and then organised into common themes associated with the acceptability or use of predictive testing.

    Results: Perceived barriers to predictive testing were identified, including a concern about a lack of confidentiality around the use of risk information; a lack of motivation for change; poor communication of information; and a possible impact on emotional well-being. In order to reduce these barriers, the literature shows that a patient-centred approach is required at each stage of the testing process. This includes the consideration of individual needs, such as accessibility and building motivation for change; readily available and easy to understand pre and post-test information; support for patients on how to deal with the implications of their results; and the development of condition specific lifestyle intervention programmes to facilitate sustainable lifestyle changes.

    Conclusion: Patients and members of the public had some concerns about predictive testing; however, a number of strategies to reduce barriers and increase acceptability are available. Further research is required to inform the development of a resource that supports the individual to make an informed decision about whether to engage in a predictive test, what test results mean, and how to access post-test support.

  • 7.
    Boholm, Max
    School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The representation of nano as a risk in Swedish news media coverage2013In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 227-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Focusing on the role of language in categorization and on the broad conceptual fi eld centred on the morpheme nano, this study addresses the association between phenomena referred to by words having nano as a constituent and risk in Swedish newspaper reporting. The study raises the question of how nano- associated phenomena (e.g. nanotechnology and nanoparticle) are represented as risks? Articles considered for analysis contain both a word having nano as a constituent and the Swedish words for risk or danger. Articles representing nano-associated phenomena (e.g. nanotechnology and nanoparticle) as risks mainly fall into one of five groups: (I) nanotechnology, without reference to particles, materials or products; (II) nanotechnology, nanoparticles, nanomaterials and/or products containing such particles and materials; (III) nanoparticles in products, but without reference to nanotechnology; (IV) nanotechnology and nanorobots; and (V) non-nanotechnological nanoparticles. For each group, using a theoretical approach addressing the relational nature of risk, the paper analyses representations of objects at risk, bad outcomes, causal conditions, reference to applications and sources cited. Various patterns of these categories emerge for the fi ve groups, indicating a diversi fi ed set of associations between nano and risk. In certain respects, the fi ndings support the results of other studies of media reporting on nanotechnology, suggesting certain international patterns of newspaper coverage of nanotechnology drawing on both science and science fiction.

  • 8.
    Boholm, Max
    et al.
    School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Arvidsson, Rickard
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Boholm, Åsa
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Corvellec, Hervé
    Lunds universitet.
    Molander, Sverker
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Dis-Ag-reement: the construction and negotiation of risk in the Swedish controversy over antibacterial silver2015In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 93-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What constitutes a potentially hazardous object is often debated. This article analyses the polemic construction and negotiation of risk in the Swedish controversy over the use of antibacterial silver in health care and consumer products. This debate engages the media, government agencies, parliament and government, non-governmental organizations and companies. Texts and websites from these actors were studied using content analysis. Antibacterial silver is construed by some actors as a risk object with harmful effects on a series of objects at risk: the environment, public health, organisms and sewage treatment. In contrast, other actors deny that antibacterial silver is a risk object, instead construing it as mitigating risk. In such a schema, antibacterial silver is conceived of as managing the risk objects of bacteria and micro-organisms, in turn managing the risk objects of infection, bad smell and washing, and in turn helping the environment and public health (objects at risk). The structure of the debate suggests two basic modes of risk communication. First, antibacterial silver is construed as a risk object, endangering a variety of objects at risk, such as organisms, public health, the environment and sewage treatment. Second, this association between antibacterial silver and objects at risk is obstructed, by denying that antibacterial silver is a risk object or by associating silver with the benefit of mitigating risk.

  • 9.
    Brown, Patrick R.
    et al.
    Sociology and Anthropology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    Olofsson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Risk, uncertainty and policy: towards a social-dialectical understanding2014In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 425-434Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This editorial introduces a special issue devoted to studies of risk and uncertainty in their relation to policy and policy-making. The special issue comprises a rather diverse collection of six original research articles, each taking up a distinct perspective in scrutinising interfaces between policy, risk and uncertainty. The purpose of this editorial is to present some broader themes in the literature before moving on to sketch out a basic model for dialectically connecting risk and uncertainty to policy, as a basis for relating the respective insights which emerge within the six empirical articles. The editorial concludes with an overview of these six studies which appear in the special issue.

  • 10.
    Bråkenhielm, Carl Reinhold
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, Studies in Faith and Ideologies, Systematic Theology and Studies in World Views.
    Ethics and the management of spent nuclear fuel2015In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 392-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In March 2011, Swedish Nuclear Fuel Management Co (SKB) submitted an application to the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM), and the Nacka Land and Environmental court to build a repository for high-level spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in the municipality of osthammar. The purpose of this paper is (1) to present the KBS-3 method for the direct disposal of high-level SNF and the debate about the method, (2) to analyze the ethical principles involved, and (3) how to resolve possible conflict between these principles. The paper is divided in three parts. Part 1 contains a presentation of the KBS-3 method and different items in the debate about it. Part 2 concerns the ethical dimension of the method and the different ethical principles that can be discerned explicitly or implicitly in the discussion and the regulatory framework that informs the discussion. Part 3 contains an analysis of the conflicting principles and how this conflict can be resolved. For example, it is argued that some kind of ethical meta-norm might be formulated and that the ethical principles involved in the management of SNF might be assessed in reference to such ethical meta-norm. Finally, it is discussed if and how the conflict between different principles for the management of SNF might be resolved through closer consideration of the relationship between ethical principles and technical practice.

  • 11.
    Börjesson, Marcus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Risk propensity within the military: a study of Swedish soldiers and officers2015In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 55-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Issues concerning risks in the military have gained increased attention within the Swedish Armed Forces, particularly relating to the new focus on an all voluntary force participating in international missions. Military activities inevitably include an element of calculated risk-taking, while at the same time the unnecessary taking of risks must be minimized. Within the context of the specific mission and situation, a number of factors relating to demographic variables, traits and beliefs may influence individual inclinations towards risk behaviour. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between such factors and individual risk propensity. Data were collected from two samples of Swedish soldiers and officers. Examining demographic variables, negative safety values and risk propensity were found to decrease with age, while men demonstrated a more sceptical view of safety measures and a higher risk propensity than women. The trait known as lack of deliberation, reflecting an inability to think ahead and foresee consequences, was positively related to risk propensity. A more sceptical view of safety was shown to be associated with a higher sense of personal invincibility and together with lack of deliberation predicted variations in danger-seeking scores. The distinction between functional and non-functional risk-taking is discussed on the basis of the relationships found in the study. Implications for recruitment to the military as well as for training and leadership are suggested, emphasizing the need for military leaders to balance their leadership in terms of safety-oriented and risk-promoting behaviours.

  • 12. Ekenberg, Love
    et al.
    Boman, Magnus
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Linnerooth-Bayer, Joanne
    General risk constraints2001In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 31-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The risk evaluation process is integrated with procedures for handling vague and numerically imprecise probabilities and utilities. A body of empirical evidence has shown that many managers would welcome new ways of highlighting catastrophic consequences, as well as means to evaluating decision situations involving high risks. When events occur frequently and their consequences are not severe, it is relatively simple to calculate the risk exposure of an organisation, as well as a reasonable premium when an insurance transaction is made, relying on variations of the principle of maximising the expected utility. When, on the other hand, the frequency of damages is low, the situation is considerably more difficult, especially if catastrophic events may occur. When the quality of estimates is poor, e.g., when evaluating low-probability/high-consequence risks, the customary use of quantitative rules together with unrealistically precise data could be harmful as well as misleading. We point out some problematic features of evaluations performed using utility theory and criticise the demand for precise data in situations where none is available. As an alternative to traditional models, we suggest a method that allows for interval statements and comparisons, which does not require the use of numerically precise statements of probability, cost, or utility in a general sense. In order to attain a reasonable level of security, and because it has been shown that managers tend to focus on large negative losses, it is argued that a risk constraint should be imposed on the analysis. The strategies are evaluated relative to a set of such constraints considering how risky the strategies are. The shortcomings of utility theory can in part be compensated for by the introduction of risk constraints.

  • 13.
    Ekholm, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Swedish mothers' and fathers' worries about climate change: a gendered story2019In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study considers whether parenthood has an impact on the worries that women and men have about climate change for the next generation and examines whether there are differences between the worries of mothers and fathers. The empirical material is based on a questionnaire-based survey that was administered in 2011 to a random selection of 3500 individuals in Sweden, with a response rate of 31%. The results indicate that parenthood, regardless of the parent’s gender, increases an individual’s worries about the impact of climate change on the next generation. Fathers are significantly more worried about climate change than men who are not parents; however, mothers do not worry significantly more than women who are not parents. In general, regardless of parenthood status, women worry about climate change more than men.

  • 14.
    Eriksson, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    The importance of threat, strategy, and resource appraisals for long-term proactive risk management among forest owners in Sweden2017In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 20, no 7, p. 868-886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In natural hazards management, it is important to understand what motivates people to act when they or their property are threatened by natural hazards. Despite the importance of both threat and coping appraisals for responses to threats, less is known about the relations between threat and coping appraisals when risk management is long term. The present study examined appraisals of threat (cognitive and emotional), personal resources (cost and self-efficacy), and strategies (response-efficacy) as predictors of proactive management responses (past behavior and future intention) among forest owners in Sweden by means of a questionnaire (n = 1482). A path analysis revealed that threat appraisals and response-efficacy were direct predictors of past risk management behavior and the intention to respond in the future. Appraisals of resources, including cost and self-efficacy, were indirectly – via forest susceptibility and threat appraisals – related to threat responses. Although the model displayed reasonable fit for both owners more and those less involved in forestry, the cognitive appraisals variable was not a significant predictor of responses among owners less involved in forestry. In the full sample, the examined model explained approximately 50% of the variance in threat appraisals, and 28 and 17% in future intention and past behavior, respectively. Theoretical implications for how threat and coping appraisals are related during long-term risk management, and practical implications for forest risk management, are discussed.

  • 15.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Ljunggren, Lill
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Öberg, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Gender differences in risk management of contaminated land at a Swedish authority2014In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 353-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Any risk analysis process leading to the remediation of contaminated land will be affected by individual judgements. Many contaminated land risk assessments in Sweden are reviewed by the County Administrative Board (CAB), a regional government authority. The cost for risk assessments and eventually remediation is funded by whichever operator is legally responsible; however, when the responsible party is unknown, the cost can be met by government grants. A questionnaire was sent to all employees working with contaminated land at each of Sweden’s CABs to investigate whether gender, age and work experience, as well as funding source, affect the reviewing of risk assessments, and the employees’ perception of knowledge gained from the Sustainable Remediation (Hållbar Sanering) research programme. It was found that gender was the most significant factor, but also age and experience of the employees influenced the respondent’s answers. The reviews of risk assessments also varied depending on funding source.

  • 16.
    Giritli Nygren, Katarina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Öhman, Susanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Olofsson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Doing and undoing risk: The mutual constitution of risk and heteronormativity in contemporary society2017In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 418-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops the concepts of ‘doing’ and ‘undoing’ risk, a new approach to risk research that echoes the ‘doing gender’ of gender studies. In this way, we combine intersectional and risk theory and apply the new perspective to empirical material. To better explore the doing and undoing, or the performance, of risk, we will refer to practices that simultaneously (re)produce and hide socio-political norms and positions, played out in contemporary, hierarchical relations of power and knowledge. The aim is to develop a theoretical understanding of doing and undoing risk. The study makes use of transcripts from five focus group interviews with men and women, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people of different ages living in Sweden to develop a theory of ‘doing risk’. The doing of risk of our informants takes place within the frame of a hegemonic heteronormativity. The way that risks are perceived and done in everyday life therefore always needs to be read within a frame of prevailing structures of power. This counts for all of us as we are all part of the hegemonic power structures and thereby are both subject to the intersecting doings of risk and performatively reproducing these power structures in practice.

  • 17.
    Giritli Nygren, Katarina
    et al.
    Forum for Gender Studies, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Öhman, Susanna
    Risk and Crisis Research Centre, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Anna
    Risk and Crisis Research Centre, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Doing and undoing risk: the mutual constitution of risk and heteronormativity in contemporary society2017In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 418-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops the concepts of ‘doing’ and ‘undoing’ risk, a new approach to risk research that echoes the ‘doing gender’ of gender studies. In this way, we combine intersectional and risk theory and apply the new perspective to empirical material. To better explore the doing and undoing, or the performance, of risk, we will refer to practices that simultaneously (re)produce and hide socio-political norms and positions, played out in contemporary, hierarchical relations of power and knowledge. The aim is to develop a theoretical understanding of doing and undoing risk. The study makes use of transcripts from five focus group interviews with men and women, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people of different ages living in Sweden to develop a theory of ‘doing risk’. The doing of risk of our informants takes place within the frame of a hegemonic heteronormativity. The way that risks are perceived and done in everyday life therefore always needs to be read within a frame of prevailing structures of power. This counts for all of us as we are all part of the hegemonic power structures and thereby are both subject to the intersecting doings of risk and performatively reproducing these power structures in practice. © 2017 Taylor & Francis.

  • 18.
    Große, Christine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Sources of Uncertainty in Swedish Emergency-Response Planning2019In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 758-772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing importance of enhancing modern society’s resilience, planning for critical infrastructure protection has become essential. However, such national planning must contend with many types of uncertainty. This paper characterises sources of uncertainty that are associated with a lack of knowledge, as exemplified by Swedish planning of emergency power supplies. The planning under investigation concerns civil protection from the negative effects of a power shortage. A decision process is intended to support this national strategic management goal by identifying and prioritising electricity consumers who are critical to society at the local, regional and national levels. The analysis of related documentation yields three sources of uncertainty (S) interrelated with this multi-level planning (MLP) for emergency response: (S1) the planning process in general, (S2) the decision-making process in particular and (S3) the direction and guidance alongside these processes. Interviews with decision-makers reveal a detailed specification of these sources of uncertainty. The results thus provide a solid basis for further goal-directed improvement of national MLP approaches. Moreover, this specification contributes to scholarly debate on the systemic effects of sources of uncertainty due to a lack of knowledge. Lastly, the findings constitute a thinking framework that is suggested as a foundation for analytical work in similar complex planning environments as well as for evidence-based communication to the wider public concerning risks and resilience.

  • 19.
    Hansson, Mats G.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. ..
    Bouder, Frederic
    Dept Technol & Soc Studies, Maastricht.
    Howard, Heidi Carmen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Genetics and risk - an exploration of conceptual approaches to genetic risk2018In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 101-108Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Anthropology and risk2019In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 532-533Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Fallacies of risk2004In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 353-360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In addition to traditional fallacies such as ad hominem, discussions of risk contain logical and argumentative fallacies that are specific to the subject-matter. Ten such fallacies are identified, that can commonly be found in public debates on risk. They are named as follows: the sheer size fallacy, the converse sheer size fallacy, the fallacy of naturalness, the ostrich's fallacy, the proof-seeking fallacy, the delay fallacy, the technocratic fallacy, the consensus fallacy, the fallacy of pricing, and the infallibility fallacy.

  • 22.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Five caveats for risk–risk analysis2016In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk analysis should be symmetrical in the sense that when evaluating an option for decision-making, we assess the risks that it may increase in the same way as those that it may decrease. However, implementing such symmetry is not always easy. In this contribution, five complications that have to be dealt with are introduced and briefly discussed: (1) We need to take all types of advantages and disadvantages into account, not only the risks. (2) There is more than one way to weigh risks against each other. (3) Decision-makers may legitimately put more weight on the direct effects of their decisions than on more indirect and uncertain effects, in particular, if the latter fall outside of their area of responsibility. (4) When a trade-off between risks is unsatisfactory, we should search for innovative solutions that make the trade-off unnecessary. (5) An exclusive focus on risks does not solve the incommensurability problem.

  • 23.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Genetic risk assessment from an ethical point of view2018In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 206-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution provides analyses of four ethically problematic issues in genetic risk assessment and management. First, should we require a positive risk-benefit balance for each concerned individual, or is it sufficient that the total sum of benefits outweighs the total sum of risks? Secondly, should sensitive groups have special protection, and in that case with what types of measures? Thirdly, what types of measures should be taken to protect against the risks associated with teratogenic, embryotoxic and foetotoxic agents? Fourthly, how should we deal with the new issues relating to equity and to group-based risk assessment that genomic medicine gives rise to?

  • 24.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    Risk: objective or subjective, facts or values2010In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 231-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perhaps the most fundamental divide in risk research is that between proponents of two contradictory concepts of risk. Some take risk as objectively given and determined by physical facts, whereas others see risk as a social construction that is independent of physical facts. These two views are scrutinized, and it is concluded that neither is tenable. Risk is both fact-laden and value-laden, and it contains both objective and subjective components. It is argued that both the objectivist and the subjectivist view of risk are failed attempts to rid a complex concept of much of its complexity. The real challenge is to identify the various types of factual and valuational components inherent in statements about risk and to understand how they are combined. The two oversimplifications both stand in the way of a more sophisticated analysis of risk.

  • 25.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Rudén, Christina
    Improving the incentives for toxicity testing2003In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 3-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The legal systems for the classification and labelling of chemical substances have an incentives structure that discourages rather than encourages companies to test their products. This is shown in a logical analysis of the European classification system and also in an analysis of recent changes in the classification of individual substances. Finally two methods to improve the incentives structure are proposed and discussed: the introduction of negative clauses that allow new information to lead to less strict classifications, and a new danger-class and a symbol (a question mark) that indicates serious lack of data.

  • 26.
    Hayenhjelm, Madeleine
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Out of the ashes: hope and vulnerability as explanatory factors in individual risk taking2006In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 189-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High individual risk taking, whether in terms of life-style risks or others, has often been explained in terms of acceptance of risks or misperception of the possible negative outcome. This article challenges this view, and points to a kind of risks that does not seem to fit this explanation. These risks are referred to as risks from vulnerability. They are taken because there are no positive alternatives to them, and the choice is perceived as having an element of hope. A new framework is proposed in order to expand these explanatory factors within the risk perception research. This framework analyzes individual risk taking in terms of: poor outset conditions, lack of reasonable options, hope, and liability to disinformation.

  • 27.
    Hayenhjelm, Madeleine
    Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 78, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Out of the ashes: hope and vulnerability as explanatory factors in individual risk taking2006In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 189-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High individual risk taking, whether in terms of life-style risks or others, has often been explained in terms of acceptance of risks or misperception of the possible negative outcome. This article challenges this view, and points to a kind of risks that does not seem to fit this explanation. These risks are referred to as risks from vulnerability. They are taken because there are no positive alternatives to them, and the choice is perceived as having an element of hope. A new framework is proposed in order to expand these explanatory factors within the risk perception research. This framework analyzes individual risk taking in terms of: poor outset conditions, lack of reasonable options, hope, and liability to disinformation.

  • 28.
    Henning, Annette
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    The illusion of economic objectivity: linking local risks of credibility loss to global risks of climate change2008In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 11, no 1-2, p. 223-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses economic thinking as a conceptual construct and discusses the link it provides between local risks of losing credibility and global risks of resource depletion and climate change. Due to the high-ranking value given to economic thinking in many Swedish contexts, economic arguments are perfect ways to win an argument or negotiation, to prevent risks of loosing credibility, or to discredit others. As illlustrated in this article, legitimacy-creating acts of communication tend to precede or follow upon a decision to install a solar heating system. An immediate and massive use of solar energy for heating purposes would mitigate the risks of global warming and depletion of energy resources. Unfortunately however, the conspicuous use of economic arguments accompanying solar heating installations tend to be interpreted by policy-makers as a preference for economic motives rather than a sign of questioned consumption. The illusion that economy is an objective entity rising above all other social issues seems to be confirmed, and political measures based on economic thinking can continue to block adequate steps towards the mitigation of climate changing emissions. The cultural representation of economic sovereignty is continuously reproduced through communication. It is a circle, a vicious circle if you like.

  • 29.
    Hermansson, Hélène
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Consistent risk management: three models outlined2005In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 8, no 7-8, p. 557-568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article introduces three models on how to understand the demand for consistent risk management. The first model, which accords with traditional risk analysis, is called the Standard Model. In this model, the decisive criterion of whether or not to accept a risk is if the total benefit exceeds the total cost. Since this model cannot protect the individual from unfair risk exposure two more models are outlined. The arguments in the Model of Inviolable Rights and in the Model of Procedural Justice evolve around the separateness of individuals, rights and fair risk taking. It is argued that risk management needs to acknowledge a variety of morally salient factors to avoid exposing people unfairly to risks.

  • 30.
    Hermansson, Hélène
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    Towards a Fair Procedure for Risk Management2010In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 501-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for fairness in risk management is frequently expressed in the risk literature. In this article, fairness is connected to the procedure for decision-making. Two models for procedural justice in the management of risks are discussed, one that focuses on a hypothetical thought experiment, and one that focuses on actual dialogue. The hypothetical approach takes John Rawls' theory of justice as a starting point. The actual inclusion approach employs Iris Marion Young's theory of inclusive deliberative democracy. With Rawls' theory, important issues concerning risk distribution are emphasized, and a parallel between social primary goods and risk management is drawn. The hypothetical reasoning should mainly serve as a guide concerning risk issues that affect people who cannot be included in the decision procedure, such as future generations. However, when the affected can be included, an interactive dialogical reasoning is to be preferred. Here, Young's theory is fruitful. It aims at fair decisions by fulfilling conditions of inclusiveness, equality, reasonableness and publicity.

  • 31. Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan
    et al.
    Colon, Celian
    Boza, Gergely
    Brännström, Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Linnerooth-Bayer, Joanne
    Pflug, Georg
    Poledna, Sebastian
    Rovenskaya, Elena
    Dieckmann, Ulf
    Measuring, modeling, and managing systemic risk: the missing aspect of human agency2019In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is problematic to treat systemic risk as a merely technical problem that can be solved by natural-science methods and through biological and ecological analogies. There appears to be a discrepancy between understanding systemic risk from a natural-science perspective and the unresolved challenges that arise when humans with their initiatives and interactions are included in systemic-risk considerations. It is therefore necessary to investigate possible fundamental differences and similarities of systemic risk with and without accounting for human involvement. Focusing on applied and implementation aspects of measuring, modeling, and managing systemic risks, we identify three important and distinct features characterizing such fundamental differences: indetermination, indecision, and responsibility. We contend that, first, including human initiatives and interactions in systemic-risk considerations must emphasize a type of variability that is especially relevant in this context, namely the role of free will as a fundamental source of essential indetermination in human agency. Second, we postulate that collective indecision generated by mutual uncertainty often leads to the suspension or alteration of rules, procedures, scripts, and norms. Consequently, the associated systemic risks cannot be incorporated into explanatory models, as the new causal rules cannot be predicted and accounted for. Third, analogies from biology and ecology, especially the idea of ‘contagion,’ downplay human agency, and therefore human responsibility, promoting the false belief that systemic risk is a merely technical problem. For each of these three features, we provide recommendations for future directions and suggest how measuring, modeling, and managing approaches from the natural-science domain can best be applied in light of human agency.

  • 32.
    Howard, Heidi Carmen
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Iwarsson, Erik
    Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Mol Med & Surg, CMM L8 02, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Ctr Mol Med, CMM L8 02, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mapping uncertainty in genomics2018In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 117-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relatively novel and dynamic science of genomics holds many unknowns for stakeholders, and in particular for researchers and clinicians, as well as for participants and patients. At a time when many authors predict a future in which genomic medicine will be the norm, it is particularly relevant to discuss the unknowns surrounding genetics and genomics, including the notions of risk and uncertainty. This article will present a discussion regarding the uncertainty pertaining specifically to high throughput sequencing approaches, including the topic of incidental findings. This discussion will be guided by a taxonomy of uncertainty conceptualised around three areas of uncertainty: the source of uncertainty, the issues of uncertainty and the loci of uncertainty. This taxonomy can be used as a tool by all stakeholders involved in genomics to help further understand and anticipate uncertainties in genomics. Furthermore, to better contextualize this information, and also because this contribution is born out of an international project titled Mind the Risk', which addresses risk information in genetics and genomics from many different disciplinary perspectives, another aim of this article is to briefly present the basic issues pertaining to the unknowns, risks, and uncertainties of genetics as well as genomics for an audience of non-geneticists. Ultimately, the mapping out of uncertainty in genomics should allow for a better characterization of the uncertainty and consequently for a better management and communication of these uncertainties to end-users (research participants and patients).

  • 33.
    Hunka, Agnieszka D.
    et al.
    Department of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change, Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark & Faculty of Behavioural Sciences, Department of Philosophy, 3TU.Ethics Centre, University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands.
    Meli, Mattia
    Department of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change, Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Palmqvist, Annemette
    Department of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change, Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Thorbek, Pernille
    Syngenta Jealott's Hill International Research Centre, Bracknell, United Kingdom .
    Forbes, Valery E
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, United States.
    Ecological risk assessment of pesticides in the EU: What factors and groups influence policy changes?2015In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 18, no 9, p. 1165-1183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the last couple of years, European environmental risk assessment (ERA) regulations have undergone significant changes. The new 1107/2009 directive which came into effect in 2011 has triggered an on-going debate on defining specific protection goals for ERA. During this period, we conducted a study on policy change among the most influential ERA stakeholders from Europe. We interviewed 43, purposively sampled, participants from the European safety authorities, plant protection product industry and academia. Transcribed interviews underwent thematic analysis conducted separately by two coders. As we followed the advocacy coalition framework, our findings focus on stakeholders processes, interrelations and values behind the ERA policy change. The main challenges emerging from our analysis turned out to be the slow uptake of scientific developments into ERA and very broadly defined protection goals. The use of safety factors and cut-off criteria left risk assessors with many uncertainties. With ERA in its current form it turned out to be impossible to determine whether the current scheme is over- or under-protective. Still, the study shows that the problem of over- or under-protectiveness lies deep in the perception of stakeholders and depends greatly on their priorities. Academics strive for better ecological relevance as a priority. They have concerns that ERA is oversimplified. Regulators worry that ERA relies too much on risk mitigation and is possibly not protective enough, but at the same time, the majority believes that the assessment is well established and straightforward to follow. Industry representatives would like to see ERA based more on probabilistic risk assessment. Recent changes, according to risk assessment and management practitioners have led to an inevitable increase in complexity, which is not perceived as a positive thing, and does not necessarily translate into better risk assessment. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

  • 34.
    Jarnkvist, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Intersectional perspectives of house owner narratives on climate risks2019In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to investigate the construction of climate risks and to identify how it intersects with different forms of discursive categories in house owner narratives. Interviews with 44 house owners in four regions exposed to climate risks in Sweden were analyzed using the narrative method. I use intersectional risk theory, in which risk is constructed in relation to different forms of power structure, to interpret the narratives. The results indicate that narrators do risk in different ways in relation to the master narratives of the climate threat and individual environmental responsibility, which dominate the official rhetoric in Sweden. Three risk narratives are revealed in the interviews: (1) the master narrative of ‘the responsible house owner,’ (2) the alternative narrative of ‘the vulnerable house owner’, and (3) the counter-narrative of ‘the safe house owner.’ The climate risks talked about could relate to the narrator’s own house or to risks at a local or global level. The results indicate that different intersections of class, gender, age, and place shape different ways of positioning in relation to risk, by describing oneself as more or less aware of and exposed to climate risks. The analysis also reveals that different intersections of social structures lead to shifting prerequisites for house-owner preparedness towards preventing and managing climate risks. Such an understanding is important when trying to comprehend why some house owners adapt their homes to a changed climate while others do not. Aspects like these are necessary to consider while, e.g. deciding on policy and writing information and guidelines on adaptation to climate change. 

  • 35.
    Johansson, Anna
    et al.
    Division of Public Health Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Denk, Thomas
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    Svedung, Inge
    Division of Public Health Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Institutionalization of risk and safety management at the local governmental level in Sweden2009In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 687-708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The starting point for this article is the need for empirical knowledge about organizational configuration for societal risk and safety management activities in a modern welfare society. In this paper, we use Sweden as an empirical frame to analyze the administrative management structure at the local governmental level. The analysis is based on statistical analysis of information from a web‐survey with administrative chief/head officials (n = 1283) with responsibilities for different municipal functions and sectors. The sample represented 25% of the Swedish municipalities (n = 290) and the response rate was approximately 60% (n = 766). The responses to two sets of questions (25 and 45 questions) are used for statistical analyses of management structures and task distribution within the municipal organizations. Principal component factor analyses with Varimax and Kaiser's Normalization was applied as a structure detection method. The results indicate a clear and uniform way to institutionalize societal risk and safety management at the local level. Furthermore, the management course of action is found to have different types of value characters. The implications that arise from the patterns identified in this study are considered to be of general relevance and topicality for research and practice in this area.

  • 36.
    Johansson, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Denk, Thomas
    Department of Political Science , ÅBO Akademi University, Finland.
    Svedung, Inge
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Institutionalization of risk and safety management at the local governmental level in Sweden2009In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 687-708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The starting point for this article is the need for empirical knowledge about organizational configuration for societal risk and safety management activities in a modern welfare society. In this paper, we use Sweden as an empirical frame to analyze the administrative management structure at the local governmental level. The analysis is based on statistical analysis of information from a web‐survey with administrative chief/head officials (n = 1283) with responsibilities for different municipal functions and sectors. The sample represented 25% of the Swedish municipalities (n = 290) and the response rate was approximately 60% (n = 766). The responses to two sets of questions (25 and 45 questions) are used for statistical analyses of management structures and task distribution within the municipal organizations. Principal component factor analyses with Varimax and Kaiser's Normalization was applied as a structure detection method. The results indicate a clear and uniform way to institutionalize societal risk and safety management at the local level. Furthermore, the management course of action is found to have different types of value characters. The implications that arise from the patterns identified in this study are considered to be of general relevance and topicality for research and practice in this area.

  • 37.
    Johansson, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Svedung, Inge
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Denk, Thomas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Politics and History.
    Institutionalisation of risk and safety management at the local governmental level in Sweden2009In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 687-708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The starting point for this article is the need for empirical knowledge about organizational configuration for societal risk and safety management activities ina modern welfare society. In this paper, we use Sweden as an empirical frame to analyze the administrative management structure at the local governmental level.The analysis is based on statistical analysis of information from a web-survey with administrative chief/head officials (n51283) with responsibilities for different municipal functions and sectors. The sample represented 25% of the Swedish municipalities (n5290) and the response rate was approximately 60% (n5766).The responses to two sets of questions (25 and 45 questions) are used for statistical analyses of management structures and task distribution within themunicipal organizations. Principal component factor analyses with Varimax and Kaisers Normalization was applied as a structure detection method. The resultsindicate a clear and uniform way to institutionalize societal risk and safety management at the local level. Furthermore, the management course of action is found to have different types of value characters. The implications that arise from the patterns identified in this study are considered to be of general relevance and topicality for research and practice in this area

  • 38.
    Jonsson, Sara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Soderberg, Inga-Lill
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Investigating explanatory theories on laypeople's risk perception of personal economic collapse in a bank crisis - the Cyprus case2018In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 763-779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the explanatory power of decision, psychometric, and trust theory to describe laypeople's risk perception of personal economic collapse in a bank crisis. The aim of this investigation is to improve the understanding of the effects of national initiatives for crisis fighting taken to prevent systemic risk. Using a stratified sample of 738 Cypriote citizens, we conducted an investigation in Cyprus in the spring of 2013 when the country was facing a bank crisis. At that point in time, the Cypriote Government had imposed capital controls to prevent a bank run. We find that decision theory variables alone have low explanatory value on laypeople's risk perception, and that laypeople's risk perception in this situation is affected primarily by psychometric variables. Further, confidence in one's own bank also explains risk perception. Our findings contribute novel knowledge about risk perceptions in a financial crisis, with practical crisis management implications for regulators.

  • 39. Karlsson, Mikael
    The precautionary principle, Swedish chemicals policy and sustainable development2006In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 337-360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The "precautionary principle" is one of the most contested principles in the debate on the new EU chemicals legislation. The purpose of this paper is to operationalise the principle and to investigate the consequences of its application. Five core elements of precautionary management of chemicals are derived and traced in Swedish policy and legislation through history. It is shown that precautionary measures were required as early as the eighteenth century. The conclusion is drawn that these measures in Sweden seem to have promoted sustainable development from both an environmental and a socio-economic point of view.

  • 40.
    Kihlbom, Ulrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Genetic risk and value2018In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 222-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A conceptual truth about risks is that they involve a possible and future adverse effect or a negative value of some kind. The genetic risks that individuals may face in the health care setting differ in some crucial respects to other kind of risks. The aims of this paper are to analyse the notion of value in the context of genetic risk in the setting of health care, and to suggest a conception of the evaluative aspect of genetic risk that is fruitful for genetic risk information. Two influential and relevant approaches to value, preferentialism and the capability approach, are discussed in the light of certain distinctive features of genetic risk and a third, a sensibility theory of value is suggested. According to this view, the concept of risk is a so-called ‘thick’ evaluative concept that has both a world-guiding function as well as an action-guiding or normative function. It is argued that this provides a more promising way to think about genetic risks in the clinical setting.

  • 41.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Scientised citizens and democratised science: Re-assessing the expert-lay divide2008In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 11, no 1-2, p. 69-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade there have been growing calls for increased public inclusion in risk regulation. This paper investigates three of these proposals for a new relationship between science and the public, namely New Production of Knowledge, Postnormal Science, and Scientific Citizenship. These all concern how science can be democratised and how new relations between expertise and citizens can be negotiated and designed. By critically discussing the similarities and differences between these proposals, this paper examines the implications of the call for public inclusion in risk regulation. By way of conclusion, some warnings are raised concerning the belief in public inclusion as a cure-all for making knowledge production and risk regulation more publicly credible and socially robust. The space created for public inclusion may work as means for legitimating decisions, diluting accountability and persuading the public, with the consequence that the expert-lay divide may be reproduced rather than transformed.

  • 42.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Siting conflicts: democratic perspectives and political implications2005In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 187-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All citizens, irrespective of their geographical location, have a stake in the global environment. At the same time, they have different interests as well as unequal resources concerning the possibility of developing strategies and influencing environmental agendas and decisions. This forms the basis for the quest for an ecological citizenship, where people, wherever they are located in the world, have a voice in matters that concern their environment. This article takes the search for ecological citizenship as its point of departure in discussing democratic aspects of siting controversies. From a national perspective a certain plant may be seen as a necessity, whilst from a local perspective it is a disturbing nuisance. Thereby the question of spatial equity is in focus, not least to what extent and in what cases an individual person, a local community or a municipality should be subordinated to a national decision which implies local environmental consequences. The author argues that there is not only a need to create new forms of dialogue between stakeholders, but also to develop new institutions for collective decision making and mechanisms for public participation, democratic decision making and ecological responsibility.

  • 43.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Sjödin, Daniel
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Risk governance through professional expertise: forestry consultants’ handling of uncertainties after a storm disaster2016In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 19, no 10, p. 1275-1290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How do forestry consultants provide advice when facing a situation of great uncertainty? This question serves as the point of departure in analyzing how forestry consultants provide guidance in extreme situations. Three empirical cases are analyzed, all related to a storm that caused the most severe damage in Swedish history. The first case concerns how forestry consultants handled the immediate uncertainties in their advice on how to manage the windthrow. The second case concerns how they handled the risks associated with the large-scale timber depots that resulted from the decision to transport all windthrown trees away from the forest. The third case concerns how forestry consultants handled uncertainties regarding the reforestation of the area. Whereas there was discursive closure in the two first cases, and the forest owners followed the recommendations made by the forestry consultants, there was no discursive closure in the third case, resulting in the forest owners deciding against the advice provided by the consultants. In conclusion, this result is explained with reference to the epistemic authority and embodied knowledge of the forestry consultants.

  • 44.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Olofsson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Living in a foreign country: The meaning of place of origin and gender for risk perceptions, experiences, and behaviors2019In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has convincingly proven that perceptions, experience, and exposure to risks vary among certain groups in society. By drawing from a unique combination of Swedish survey data and interviews, this study aims to investigate perceptions and experiences of risks as well as in relation to behavior by analyzing the cleavages related to interactions between place of origin and gender. Theoretically, we see individual risk perception as part of situated hierarchical power relations where an individual’s position (which is an intersection of, for example, gender, race, age, and place of origin) structures action and thought. Findings verify that foreign-born men and women perceive risks to a greater extent than those born in Sweden. However, no direct pattern of ethnicity is apparent in exposure to risks, but since predictors measuring experience of discrimination are shown to be significant, the effect can be mediated by such circumstances. In terms of how risks have affected behavior, women, irrespective of their ethnicity, are affected. Exposure to tragic experiences among those who are foreign born can pose risks that are perceived to a greater extent. Furthermore, more vulnerable material conditions can also affect how risks are perceived, and uncertainty due to a lack of resources and as an inherent ingredient of living in a foreign country seem to enhance perceptions of risk and feelings of unsafety. Last, the sense of discrimination appears to influence exposure to certain risks, which might capture an interaction between racism and violence.

  • 45.
    Linke, Sebastian
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Unravelling science-policy interactions in environmental risk governance of the Baltic Sea: Comparing fisheries and eutrophication2014In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 505-523Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Löfquist, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, Studies in Faith and Ideologies, Ethics.
    After Fukushima: nuclear power and societal choice2015In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 291-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of article is to evaluate nuclear power in relation to alternative energy sources. A central claim is that the accident in Fukushima does not change the challenges facing the global system for electricity production. Given the need to minimize climate change and that nuclear power provides electricity with lower carbon emissions than fossil fuels, it is impossible to replace both nuclear power and fossil fuel plants in a few years. These plants provide a substantial part of our total generating capacity and cannot be easily substituted. However, if we made significant but non-radical reductions of our electricity consumption, the process of replacing both nuclear power and fossil fuels with renewable sources becomes easier. Reduction can be motivated by an egalitarian theory of justice which claims that it is wrong to maintain a lifestyle that threatens present humans and transfers risks unto future generations. Finally, it is concluded that our total electricity consumption is as important as its production when we plan for our society’s energy future.

  • 47.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Delft University of Technology.
    Roeser, Sabine
    Delft University of Technology.
    Nuclear energy, responsible risk communication and moral emotions: a three level framework2015In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 333-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication about nuclear risks is treacherous territory, especially after Fukushima, requiring not only considerations about effectiveness, but also about ethical legitimacy. In this paper, a three-level framework of morally responsible risk communication is developed, focusing on the procedure, the message and the effects of risk communication. This gives rise to three conditions of ethically responsible risk communication: it requires a legitimate procedure, an ethically justified risk message and concern for and evaluation of the effects of the message and procedure. The role of emotions, such as sympathy, empathy and feelings or responsibility, is emphasized as a key to addressing and explicating moral values at these three levels. Emotions point out moral aspects of risks such as justice, fairness and autonomy. This framework can shed important new light on morally responsible communication about nuclear risks. The first condition of this framework requires that the procedure of communication is participatory, in order to include the relevant moral emotions and values concerning nuclear energy of all stakeholders. A legitimate procedure does not guarantee an ethically justified message concerning nuclear risks. For this reason, the second condition requires an ethical deliberation of the message and the values and emotions entailed in it. Finally, the third condition requires a moral evaluation of the effects of risk communication concerning nuclear energy. A successful risk communication effort triggers reflection, compassion and a willingness to take responsibility for energy-related issues. Problematic effects of risk communication can be a lack of trust or a sense of hopelessness and passivity. Evaluating all three levels from a moral point of view should be done in an iterative way, allowing possible revisions and improvements. Considering the high stakes and current stalemates in the nuclear debate, the suggested model provides a promising, constructive and morally legitimate way forward.

  • 48.
    Olofsson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Commentary: The substitution principle in chemical regulation: a constructive critique2014In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 573-575Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Olofsson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Trust in cooperative risk management. Uncertainty and scepticism in the public mind2008In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 837-839Article, book review (Other scientific)
  • 50.
    Olofsson, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Social Science, Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Öhman, Susanna
    Department of Social Science, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Views of Risk in Sweden: Global Fatalism and Local Control — An Empirical Investigation of Ulrich Beck’s Theory of New Risks2007In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 177-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ulrich Beck's theory of risk society has been criticised because there is lack of empirical evidence. By comparing people with different life contexts and experiences, the aim of this study was to investigate how these people view risk, and if 'new' risks are perceived differently by different groups in society. Five focus-group interviews were conducted in Sweden, in 2004/05, with people in rural and urban areas, people with a foreign background and experts. The groups consisted of four people each and lasted for two hours. The results show that 'new' risks are not something people worry about; 'risk' is associated with personal experiences and life context. This indicates a traditional or at least modern way of viewing risk, and contradicts the idea of a reflexive view of risk. However, a division between the urban versus the rural-migrant groups appears: the expert-urban groups show a more global - fatalistic strategy to handle of risk, while the rural - migrant group shows a more traditional approach to risk, where control and the local context are in focus.

12 1 - 50 of 74
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf