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  • 1.
    Adermon, Adrian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Gustavsson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Job Polarization and Task-Biased Technological Change: Evidence from Sweden, 1975–20052015In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 117, no 3, p. 878-917Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper shows that between 1975 and 2005, Sweden exhibited a pattern of job polarization with expansions of the highest and lowest paid jobs compared to middle-wage jobs. The most popular explanation for such a pattern is the hypothesis of ‘task-biased technological change’, where technological progress reduces the demand for routine middle-wage jobs but increases the demand for non-routine jobs located at the tails of the job-wage distribution. Our estimates, however, do not support this explanation for the 1970s and 1980s. Stronger evidence for task biased technological change, albeit not conclusive, is found for the 1990s and 2000s. In particular, there is both a statistically and economically significant growth of non-routine jobs and a decline of routine jobs. Results for wages are, however, mixed; while task-biased technological change cannot explain changes in between-occupation wage differentials, it does have considerable explanatory power for changes in within-occupation wage differentials.

  • 2.
    Alexius, Annika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Sellin, Peter
    Exchange Rates and Long-term BondsIn: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

     

     

    Tentative evidence suggests that the empirical failure of uncovered

    interest parity (UIP) is con

     

    fi

    ned to short-term interest rates. Tests of

    UIP for long-term interest rates are however hampered by various data

    problems. By focusing on short investments in long-term bonds, these

    data problems can be avoided. We study the relationship between the

    US dollar - Deutsch Mark exchange rate and German and American

    bond rates. The hypothesis that expected returns to investments in

    bonds denominated in the two currencies are equal cannot be rejected.

    This result is not simply due to low power as the

     

    β−coeffi

    cients are

    close to unity. For the corresponding short-term interest rates, the

    typical

     

    finding of a large and significantly negative β−coeffi

    cient is

    con

    firmed.

  • 3.
    Alexius, Annika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Sellin, Peter
    Exchange Rates and Long-Term Bonds2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 114, no 3, p. 974-990Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is tentative evidence to suggest that the well-documented empirical failure of uncovered interest parity (UIP) is confined to short-term interest rates. However, tests of UIP for long-term bonds are thwarted by various data problems. These data problems can be avoided by focusing on short investments in long-term bonds. This paper concerns the relationship between changes in the US dollar-Deutsche Mark exchange rate and returns to short investments in US and German long-term government bonds. The hypothesis that expected returns to investments in bonds denominated in the two currencies are equal is not rejected, and the estimated slope coefficients are positive. For corresponding short-term interest rates, the typical finding of negative and large Fama coefficients is confirmed. We conclude that it is the maturity of the asset, rather than the investment horizon, that matters for the results.

  • 4. Almenberg, Johan
    et al.
    Lusardi, Annamaria
    Säve-Soderbergh, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Vestman, Roine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Attitudes towards Debt and Debt Behavior*2021In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 123, no 3, p. 780-809Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce a novel survey measure of attitude towards debt. Matching our survey results with panel data on Swedish household balance sheets from registry data, we show that our measure of debt attitude helps to explain individual variation in indebtedness as well as debt build-up and spending behavior in the period 2004-2007. As an explanatory variable, debt attitude compares well with a number of other determinants of debt, including education, risk-taking, and financial literacy. We also provide evidence that suggests that debt attitude is passed down along family lines and has a cultural element.

  • 5.
    Almås, Ingvild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Kjelsrud, Anders
    Somanathan, Rohini
    A Behavior-Based Approach to the Estimation of Poverty in India2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 121, no 1, p. 182-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimates of poverty in India are crucial inputs for the understanding of world poverty, yet there is much disagreement about the numbers and the legitimacy of methods used to derive them. In this paper, we propose and justify an alternative approach to identify the poor, which uses the proportion of income spent on food. Our estimates have weaker data requirements than official methods, and they compare favorably with several validation tests. Most notably, households around our state poverty lines obtain their calories from similar sources, whereas this is not true of official poverty lines. We also find that rates of self-reported hunger are higher in states that we classify as poor.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Institutet för bostads- och urbanforskning, Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Jutvik, Kristoffer
    Institutet för bostads- och urbanforskning, Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Do Asylum-seekers Respond to Policy Changes? Evidence from the Swedish-Syrian Case2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do asylum-seekers respond to destination country policy changes, and to what extent? We approach this question by using high-frequency data and focus on a sudden liberalization in Swedish policy toward Syrian asylum-seekers, which implied permanent instead of temporary residence. We show a clear and fast, yet temporary, increase in Syrian asylum applications in Sweden after the policy change. Also, the policy caused a shift, not limited to the short-term, in the share of individuals arriving without family, and consequently in the share applying for family reunification. Our study adds quasi-experimental evidence to the literature on inter-country asylum-flows and migration policy.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Jutvik, Kristoffer
    Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden.
    Do Asylum-Seekers Respond to Policy Changes? Evidence from the Swedish-Syrian Case2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 125, no 1, p. 3-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do asylum-seekers respond to policy changes in their destination country, and to what extent? We approach this question by using high-frequency data, and we focus on a sudden liberalization in Swedish policy toward Syrian asylum-seekers, which implied permanent instead of temporary residence. We show a clear and fast, yet temporary, increase in Syrian asylum applications in Sweden after the policy change. Also, the policy caused a shift – not limited to the short term – in the share of individuals arriving without family, and consequently in the share applying for family reunification. Our study adds quasi-experimental evidence to the literature on inter-country asylum flows and migration policy.

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  • 8.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Jutvik, Kristoffer Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society, Division of Migration, Ethnicity and Society (REMESO). Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society.
    Do asylum-seekers respond to policy changes? Evidence from the Swedish-Syrian case2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 125, no 1, p. 3-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do asylum-seekers respond to policy changes in their destination country, and to what extent? We approach this question by using high-frequency data, and we focus on a sudden liberalization in Swedish policy toward Syrian asylum-seekers, which implied permanent instead of temporary residence. We show a clear and fast, yet temporary, increase in Syrian asylum applications in Sweden after the policy change. Also, the policy caused a shift - not limited to the short term - in the share of individuals arriving without family, and consequently in the share applying for family reunification. Our study adds quasi-experimental evidence to the literature on inter-country asylum flows and migration policy.

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  • 9.
    Andersson Joona, Pernilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nekby, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Intensive coaching of new immigrants: an evaluation based on random program assignment2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 114, no 2, p. 575-600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether intensive counseling and coaching by Public Employment Service (PES) caseworkers improves the employment opportunities of new immigrants in Sweden. This is tested within the framework of introduction programs for new immigrants. A trial introduction program was implemented from October 2006 to June 2008. Within participating municipalities, new immigrants were randomly assigned into treatment (intensive coaching) or control (regular introduction programs). The results indicate that there are significant treatment effects on employment probabilities as well as on participation in intermediate PES training programs.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics, Economics.
    Learning-by-Exporting Revisited: The Role of Intensity and Persistence*2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 111, no 4, p. 893-916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses can explain the empirically established export premium: self-selection of more productive firms into export markets and learning-by-exporting. This paper focuses on how the temporal dimension of firms' exporting activities and the intensity of exports influence the scope of learning effects. Using a panel of Swedish firms and dynamic generalized method of moments estimation, we find a learning effect among persistent exporters with high export intensity, but not among temporary exporters or persistent exporters with low export intensity. For small firms, exports boost productivity among persistent exporters with both high and low export intensity, but the effect is stronger for persistent export-intensive small firms.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Ola
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Campos-Mercade, Pol
    Univ Copenhagen, DK-1353 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    Univ Gothenburg, SE-40540 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Schneider, Florian H.
    Univ Zurich, CH-8005 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Wengstrom, Erik
    Lund Univ, SE-22007 Lund, Sweden..
    The impact of stay-at-home policies on individual welfare2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 124, no 2, p. 340-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we perform a choice experiment assessing the impact of stay-at-home policies on individual welfare. We estimate the willingness to accept compensation (WTA) for restricting non-working hours in Sweden during the COVID-19 pandemic. The WTA for a one-month stay-at-home policy is about US$480 per person, or 9.1 percent of Sweden's monthly per capita GDP. Stricter lockdowns require disproportionately higher compensation than more lenient ones, indicating that strict policies are cost-effective only if they are much more successful in slowing the spread of the disease. Moreover, older people have a higher WTA of staying home than the rest of the population.

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  • 12.
    Andersson, Ola
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Res Inst Ind Econ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Holm, Hakan J.
    Lund Univ, SE-22007 Lund, Sweden..
    Tyran, Jean-Robert
    Univ Vienna, A-1090 Vienna, Austria.;Univ Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Wengstroem, Erik
    Lund Univ, SE-22007 Lund, Sweden..
    Risking Other People's Money: Experimental Evidence on the Role of Incentives and Personality Traits2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 122, no 2, p. 648-674Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision-makers often face incentives to increase risk-taking on behalf of others (e.g., they are offered bonus contracts and contracts based on relative performance). We conduct an experimental study of risk-taking on behalf of others using a large heterogeneous sample, and we find that people respond to such incentives without much apparent concern for stakeholders. Responses are heterogeneous and mitigated by personality traits. The findings suggest that a lack of concern for others' risk exposure hardly requires "financial psychopaths" in order to flourish, but it is diminished by social concerns.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Ola
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Wengström, Erik
    Do Antitrust Laws Facilitate Collusion? Experimental Evidence on Costly Communication in Duopolies2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 109, no 2, p. 321-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bertrand supergames with non-binding communication are used to study price formation and stability of collusive agreements on experimental duopoly markets. The experimental design consists of three treatments with different costs of communication: zero-cost, low-cost and high-cost. Prices are found to be significantly higher when communication is costly. Moreover, costly communication decreases the number of messages, but more importantly, it enhances the stability of collusive agreements. McCutcheon (1997) presents an interesting application to antitrust policy by letting the cost of communication symbolize the presence of an antitrust law that prohibits firms from discussing prices. Although our experimental results do not support the mechanism of McCutcheon's (1997) argument, the findings point in the direction of her prediction that antitrust laws might work in the interest of firms.

  • 14.
    Anxo, Dominique
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Bigsten, Arne
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Working Hours and Productivity in Swedish Manufacturing1989In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 91, no 3, p. 613-619Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Blomquist, Sören
    Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Micheletto, Luca
    University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
    Where should the elderly live and who should pay for their care?2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 112, no 2, p. 289-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider a model with a population consisting of earners and retired persons; elderlycare is publicly provided. There is one big city, where congestion effects and agglomerationforces are at work, and a number of small villages. We show how the externalities related topopulation mobility lead to an inefficient spatial distribution of earners and retirees, and wecharacterize the second-best solution. Decentralization of this solution in a fiscal federalismstructure requires the use of taxes and subsidies proportional to the number of earners andretired persons living in the city and the villages.

  • 16.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Blomquist, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Micheletto, Luca
    University of Milan, Italy.
    Where Should the Eldery Live and Who Should Pay for Their Care?2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 112, no 2, p. 289-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider a model with a population consisting of earners and retired persons; elderly care is publicly provided. There is one big city, where congestion effects and agglomeration forces are at work, and a number of small villages. We show how the externalities related to population mobility lead to an inefficient spatial distribution of earners and retirees, and we characterize the second-best solution. Decentralization of this solution in a fiscal federalism structure requires the use of taxes and subsidies proportional to the number of earners and retired persons living in the city and the villages.

  • 17.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Johansson-Stenman, Olof
    Conspicuous Leisure: Optimal Income Taxation When Both Relative Consumption and Relative Leisure Matter2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 115, no 1, p. 155-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In previous studies on public policy under relative-consumption concerns, leisure comparisons have been ignored. In this paper, we consider a two-type optimal non-linear income tax model, in which people care about both their relative consumption and their relative leisure. Increased consumption positionality typically implies higher marginal income tax rates for both ability types, whereas leisure positionality has an offsetting role. However, this offsetting role is not symmetric; concern about relative leisure implies a progressive income tax component (i.e., a component that is larger for the high-ability type than for the low-ability type). Leisure positionality does not modify the policy rule for public-good provision.

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  • 18.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Johansson-Stenman, Olof
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Sjögren, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Social Comparisons and Optimal Taxation in a Small Open Economy2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 121, no 4, p. 1500-1532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyze how international capital mobility affects the optimal labor and capital income tax policy in a small open economy when consumers care about relative consumption. The main results crucially depend on whether the government can tax returns on savings abroad. If the government can use flexible residence-based capital income taxes, then the optimal policy rules from a closed economy largely carry over to the case of a small open economy. If it cannot, then capital income taxes become completely ineffective. The labor income taxes must then indirectly also reflect the corrective purpose that the absent capital income tax would have had.

  • 19.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Micheletto, Luca
    Milan State University.
    Optimal Redistributive Income Taxation and Efficiency Wages2021In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 3-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we integrate efficiency wage setting with the theory of optimal redistributive income taxation. In doing so, we use a model with two skill types, where efficiency wage setting characterizes the labor market faced by the low‐skilled, whereas the high‐skilled face a conventional, competitive labor market. We show that the marginal income tax implemented for the high‐skilled is negative under plausible assumptions. The marginal income tax facing the low‐skilled can be either positive or negative, in general. An increase in unemployment benefits contributes to a relaxation of the binding self‐selection constraint, which makes this instrument particularly useful from the perspective of redistribution.

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  • 20. Asplund, Marcus
    et al.
    Eriksson, R.
    Friberg, R.
    Price adjustments by a gasoline retail chain2000In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 102, no 1, p. 101-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use daily data to examine price responses in the Swedish gasoline market to changes in the Rotterdam spot price, exchange rates and taxes. The distribution of price adjustments by a leading retail chain, for the period January 1980 to December 1996, is symmetric with no small adjustments. An error correction model shows that, in the short run, prices gradually move towards the long-run equilibrium in response to cost shocks. There is some evidence that, also in the short run, prices are stickier downwards than upwards. Prices respond more rapidly to exchange rate movements than to the spot market price. Our analysis emphasizes that to fully understand price adjustments it is necessary to examine data sets where the sample frequency at least matches that of price adjustments.

  • 21. Asplund, Marcus
    et al.
    Friberg, R.
    Food prices and market structure in Sweden2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 104, no 4, p. 547-566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines retail grocery price levels across a large panel of stores in Sweden. We explain price variation across stores by market structure variables to capture differences in competition intensity and a number of store- and region-specific factors. Most of the explained variation in prices can be attributed to store-specific factors such as size and chain affiliation. Overall, the relation between market structure variables and food prices is weak, and effects are small in percentage terms. Nevertheless, higher local concentration of stores, higher regional wholesaler concentration and a lower market share of large stores are all correlated with higher prices.

  • 22.
    Bandick, Roger
    et al.
    Aarhus Univ, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Goerg, Holger
    Kiel Inst World Econ, Kiel, Germany.
    Karpaty, Patrik
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Foreign Acquisitions, Domestic Multinationals, and R&D2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 116, no 4, p. 1091-1115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our aim in this paper is to evaluate the causal effect of foreign acquisition on research and development (R&D) intensity in targeted domestic firms. We are able to distinguish domestic multinational enterprises (MNEs) and non-MNEs, which allows us to investigate the fear that the change in ownership of domestic MNEs to foreign MNEs leads to a reduction in R&D activity in the country. Overall, our results give no support to the fears that foreign acquisition of domestic firms leads to a relocation of R&D activity in Swedish MNEs. Rather, in this paper, we find robust evidence that foreign acquisitions lead to increasing R&D intensity in acquired domestic MNEs and non-MNEs.

  • 23.
    Bandick, Roger
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Aarhus V, Denmark.
    Görg, Holger
    Kiel Institute for the World Economy, Kiel, Germany.
    Karpaty, Patrik
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Foreign acquisitions, domestic multinationals, and R&D2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 116, no 4, p. 1091-1115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our aim in this paper is to evaluate the causal effect of foreign acquisition on research and development (R&D) intensity in targeted domestic firms. We are able to distinguish domestic multinational enterprises (MNEs) and non-MNEs, which allows us to investigate the fear that the change in ownership of domestic MNEs to foreign MNEs leads to a reduction in R&D activity in the country. Overall, our results give no support to the fears that foreign acquisition of domestic firms leads to a relocation of R&D activity in Swedish MNEs. Rather, in this paper, we find robust evidence that foreign acquisitions lead to increasing R&D intensity in acquired domestic MNEs and non-MNEs.

  • 24. Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Moberg, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies, Sweden.
    Selin, Håkan
    The Anatomy of the Extensive Margin Labor Supply Response2021In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 123, no 1, p. 33-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate how labor force participation among married women in Sweden responded to changing work incentives implied by a reform in the tax and transfer system in 1997. Using rich, population‐wide, administrative data, we estimate an average participation elasticity of 0.13, thereby adding to the scarce literature estimating participation elasticities using quasi‐experimental methods. We also highlight that estimated extensive margin responses necessarily are local to the observed equilibrium. Among low‐income earners, elasticities are twice as large in the group with the lowest employment level, compared with the group with the highest employment level.

  • 25.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Uppsala University, Sweden;CESifo.
    Moberg, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Sweden;Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Selin, Håkan
    Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy, Sweden;Uppsala University, Sweden;CESifo.
    The anatomy of the extensive margin labor supply response2021In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 123, no 1, p. 33-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate how labor force participation among married women in Sweden responded to changing work incentives implied by a reform in the tax/transfer‐system in 1997. Using rich, population‐wide, administrative data we estimate an average participation elasticity of 0.13, thereby adding to the scarce literature estimating participation elasticities using quasi‐experimental methods. We also highlight that estimated extensive margin responses necessarily are local to the observed equilibrium. Among low‐income earners, elasticities are twice as large in the group with the lowest employment level as compared to the group with the highest employment level.

  • 26.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnaeus Univ, SE-35106 Växjö, Sweden.
    Moberg, Ylva
    Stockholm Univ, Swedish Inst Social Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Selin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU).
    The Anatomy of the Extensive Margin Labor Supply Response2021In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 123, no 1, p. 33-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate how labor force participation among married women in Sweden responded to changing work incentives implied by a reform in the tax and transfer system in 1997. Using rich, population-wide, administrative data, we estimate an average participation elasticity of 0.13, thereby adding to the scarce literature estimating participation elasticities using quasi-experimental methods. We also highlight that estimated extensive margin responses necessarily are local to the observed equilibrium. Among low-income earners, elasticities are twice as large in the group with the lowest employment level, compared with the group with the highest employment level.

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  • 27.
    Becker, Johannes
    et al.
    University of Münster, Münster, Germany.
    Schneider, Andrea
    University of Münster, Münster, Germany.
    Bidding for firms with unknown characteristics2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 121, no 3, p. 1222-1243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When a region successfully attracts a firm by offering subsidies, the firm often commits itself to performance targets in terms of employment. In this paper, we interpret these firm-specific targets as a consequence of incomplete information. We analyze a model of two regions that compete for a firm, assuming that the firm's productivity is ex ante unknown. We show that performance targets often induce overemployment in high-productivity firms, and that tax credits are often superior to lump-sum payments. Moreover, when regions differ in wage rates, the low-wage region wins the bid and has a higher surplus than under complete information. Finally, we show that, under incomplete information, bidding might not lead to efficient firm location. 

  • 28.
    Bengtsson, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The Marginal Propensity to Earn and Consume out of Unearned Income: Evidence Using an Unusually Large Cash Grant Reform2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 114, no 4, p. 1393-1413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we use the rapid introduction of an unconditional cash grant (child support) in South Africa to estimate the marginal propensity to consume and earn out of unearned income. We find that the marginal propensity to earn is about -0.3 and that the marginal propensity to consume is about 0.7. Nothing of the grant appears to be saved; if anything, households dissave against future grant payments. The marginal propensities estimated here are similar to those reported in comparable papers using US data. However, they stand in contrast to some results on conditional cash transfers in other developing countries.

  • 29.
    Bengtsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Holmlund, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Waldesntröm, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lifetime versus Annual Tax-and-Transfer Progressivity: Sweden, 1968-20092016In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 118, no 4, p. 619-645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyze the evolution of tax-and-transfer progressivity in Sweden over both annual and lifetime horizons. Using a rich micro panel covering the period 1968-2009, we calculate tax rates over a cohort's entire working life cycle. Our main finding is that taxes are considerably less progressive over the lifetime than in any single year. Social insurance transfers to transitory low-income earners account for most of this result. We offer a number of robustness checks of the measurement of lifetime incomes and progressivity, but none of them changes our overall findings.

  • 30.
    Bengtsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Savje, Fredrik
    Yale Univ, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Swartling Peterson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). UNICEF, New York, NY USA..
    Fetal Iodine Deficiency and Schooling: A Replication of Field, Robles, and Torero (2009)2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 122, no 2, p. 582-621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scholars have theorized that congenital health endowment is an important determinant of economic outcomes later in a person's life. Field, Robles, and Torero (2009, American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 1, 140-169) find large increases in educational attainment caused by a reduction of fetal iodine deficiency following a set of iodine supplementation programs in Tanzania. We revisit the Tanzanian iodine programs with a narrow and wide replication of the study by Field et al. We are able to exactly replicate the original results. We find, however, that the findings are sensitive to alternative specification choices and sample restrictions. We try to address some of these concerns in the wide replication; we increase the sample size fourfold, and we improve the precision of the treatment variable by incorporating new institutional and medical insights. Despite the improvements, no effect is found. We conclude that the available data do not provide sufficient power to detect a possible effect, as treatment assignment cannot be measured with sufficient precision.

  • 31. Bils, Mark
    et al.
    Gottfries, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Holden, Steinar
    Friberg, Richard
    Liski, Matti
    Torvik, Ragnar
    Preface to the Special Issue on Price and Wage Dynamics2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 112, no 4, p. 643-645Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 32. Bjoerklund, Anders
    et al.
    Gottfries, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Krueger, Alan B.
    Moen, Espen R.
    Editors' Preface2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 110, no 4, p. 635-637Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Blomquist, Sören
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies.
    Christiansen, Vidar
    Univ Oslo, N-0317 Oslo, Norway..
    Micheletto, Luca
    Univ Milan, I-20122 Milan, Italy..
    Public Provision of Private Goods, Self-Selection, and Income Tax Avoidance2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 118, no 4, p. 666-692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Redistributive taxation should benefit those with low earnings capacity rather than those who choose a lower income to obtain tax savings. Several contributions have highlighted how public provision of work complements can discourage people from lowering labor supply to diminish taxable income. We show how tax avoidance, previously neglected, can alter the conclusions regarding public provision. Tax avoidance breaks the link between labor supply and reported income. An agent reducing his reported income to escape taxes might no longer forego a publicly provided labor complement, because he can now lower his income by avoiding more rather than working less.

  • 34.
    Blomquist,, Sören
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Micheletto, Luca
    University of Milan.
    Age-related optimal income taxation2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 110, no 1, p. 45-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In most countries, average income varies with age. In this paper we investigate if and how it is possible to enhance the redistributive mechanism by relating tax payments to age. Using an OLG model where some individuals are low skilled all their life while others are low skilled when young but high skilled when old, we first show how an age dependent optimal  income tax can Pareto improve upon an age independent income tax. We then characterize the optimal age dependent income tax. A tax on interest income is part of the optimal tax structure..

  • 35.
    Boschini, Anne
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Stockholm University.
    Pettersson, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Roine, Jesper
    SITE, Stockholm School of Economics.
    Resource Curse or Not: A Question of Appropriability2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 109, no 3, p. 593-617Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36. Bratberg, Espen
    et al.
    Davis, Jonathan
    Mazumder, Bhashkar
    Nybom, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Schnitzlein, Daniel D.
    Vaage, Kjell
    A Comparison of Intergenerational Mobility Curves in Germany, Norway, Sweden, and the US2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 119, no 1, p. 72-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine intergenerational mobility differences between Germany, Norway, Sweden, and the US. Using ranks, we find that the US is substantially less intergenerationally mobile than the three European countries and that the most mobile region of the US is less mobile than the least mobile regions of Norway and Sweden. Using a linear estimator of income share mobility, we find that the four countries have very similar rates of intergenerational mobility. However, when we use non-parametric versions of rank and income share mobility, we find that the US tends to experience lower upward mobility at the bottom of the income distribution than Norway and Sweden.

  • 37.
    Brännäs, Kurt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Modelling Non-Linear Economic Relationships by Clive W. J. Granger; Timo Teräsvirta1994In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 96, no 4, p. 576-577Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Buhai, I. Sebastian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Cottini, Elena
    Westergaard-Nielsen, Niels
    How Productive Is Workplace Health and Safety?2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 119, no 4, p. 1086-1104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate the causal impact of workplace health and safety practices on firm performance, using Danish longitudinal matched employer–employee data merged with unique cross-sectional representative firm survey data on work environment conditions. We estimate standard production functions, augmented with workplace environment indicators, addressing both time-invariant and time-varying potentially relevant unobservables in the production process. We find positive and large productivity effects of improved physical dimensions of the health and safety environment, specifically, “internal climate” and “monotonous repetitive work”.

  • 39.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Grönqvist, Erik
    Vlachos, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    The Headmaster Ritual: The Importance of Management for School Outcomes2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 118, no 4, p. 912-940Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the impact of individual principals on school outcomes by using panel data that allow us to track principals over time. We find that individual principals have a substantive impact on school policies, working conditions, and student outcomes. In particular, students who attend a school that has a one standard deviation better principal improve their achievement by between 0.05 and 0.1 standard deviations. Despite rich background information on principals, it is difficult to characterize successful management, suggesting that innate skills are central. We find that the scope for discretion is larger among voucher schools and in areas with school competition.

  • 40.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, SOFI, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Grönqvist, Erik
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU).
    Vlachos, Jonas
    Stockholm Univ, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Res Inst Ind Econ IFN, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    The Headmaster Ritual: The Importance of Management for School Outcomes2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 118, no 4, p. 912-940Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the impact of individual principals on school outcomes by using panel data that allow us to track principals over time. We find that individual principals have a substantive impact on school policies, working conditions, and student outcomes. In particular, students who attend a school that has a one standard deviation better principal improve their achievement by between 0.05 and 0.1 standard deviations. Despite rich background information on principals, it is difficult to characterize successful management, suggesting that innate skills are central. We find that the scope for discretion is larger among voucher schools and in areas with school competition.

  • 41.
    Caliendo, Marco
    et al.
    Univ Potsdam, DE-14482 Potsdam, Germany.;IZA Bonn, Bonn, Germany.;DIW Berlin, Berlin, Germany.;IAB Nuremberg, Nurnberg, Germany.
    Mahlstedt, Robert
    Univ Copenhagen, DK-1353 Copenhagen K, Denmark.;IZA Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU). Univ Groningen, NL--9747 AE Groningen, Netherlands.;Univ Bristol, Bristol, England.;IZA Bonn, Bonn, Germany.;ZEW, Mannheim, Germany.;CEPR, London, England.;CESifo, Munich, Germany.;UCLS, London, England.
    Vikström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU). Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. UCLS, London, England..
    Side effects of labor market policies2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 125, no 2, p. 339-375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Labor market policies, such as training and sanctions, are commonly used to bring workers back to work. By analogy to medical treatments, exposure to these tools can have side effects. We study the effects on health using individual-level population registers on labor market outcomes, drug prescriptions, and sickness absence, comparing outcomes before and after exposure to training and sanctions. Training improves cardiovascular and mental health, and lowers sickness absence. This is likely to be the result of the instantaneous features of participation, such as the adoption of a more rigorous daily routine, rather than improved employment prospects. Benefits sanctions cause a short-run deterioration of mental health.

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  • 42.
    Calmfors, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Larsson Seim, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Pattern bargaining and wage leadership in a small open economy2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 115, no 1, p. 109-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pattern bargaining with the tradables (manufacturing) sector as the wage leader is common in Europe. We question the conventional wisdom that such bargaining produces wage restraint. In our model, all forms of pattern bargaining give the same outcomes as uncoordinated bargaining under inflation targeting. Under a monetary union, wage leadership for the non-tradables sector is conducive to wage restraint, whereas wage leadership for the tradables sector is not. Comparison thinking might lead the follower to set the same wage as the leader. Such equilibria can arise when the leader sector is the smaller sector, and these can promote high employment.

  • 43.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Do employers avoid hiring workers from poor neighborhoods?: Experimental evidence from the real labor market2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 125, no 2, p. 376-402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate if employers avoid hiring workers living in neighborhoods with low socioeconomic status and/or with long commuting times. In a large-scale field experiment in the Swedish labor market, we sent more than 4,000 fictitious resumes, with randomly assigned information about the applicants’ residential locations, to firms with advertised vacancies. Our findings show that commuting time has a negative effect on the likelihood of being contacted by an employer, while the socioeconomic status of a neighborhood does not appear to be important. These results offer guidance for policymakers responsible for reversing segregation patterns.

  • 44.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linneaus University Kalmar Sweden.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Do employers avoid hiring workers from poor neighborhoods? Experimental evidence from the real labor market?2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 125, no 2, p. 376-402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate if employers avoid hiring workers living in neighborhoods with low socioeconomic status and/or with long commuting times. In a large-scale field experiment in the Swedish labor market, we sent more than 4,000 fictitious resumes, with randomly assigned information about the applicants’ residential locations, to firms with advertised vacancies. Our findings show that commuting time has a negative effect on the likelihood of being contacted by  an employer, while the socioeconomic status of a neighborhood does not  appear to be important. These results offer guidance for policymakers responsible for reversing segregation patterns.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 45.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Reshid, Abdulaziz Abrar
    Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis, Sweden.
    Coworker Peer Effects on Parental Leave Take-up2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 124, no 4, p. 930-957Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates coworker peer effects in parental leave usage in Sweden. Weuse an instrumental variable approach labeled peers of peers in which parental leave usage byfamily peers (siblings and cousins) of coworkers is used as an instrument for coworkers’parental leave usage. For fathers, we find that a 10-day increase in average parental leave usageamong coworkers increases usage by approximately one and a half days, while for mothers,the increase is approximately one day. The results are robust to alternative model specifications.We explore possible mechanisms and discuss policy implications.

  • 46.
    Celikaksoy, Aycan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nielsen, H. S.
    Smith, N.
    The Effect of Marriage on Education of Immigrants: Evidence from a Policy Reform Restricting Marriage Migration2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 111, no 3, p. 457-486Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Edmark, Karin
    Stockholm University, SE‐106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berg, Heléne
    Stockholm University, SE‐106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ethnic Diversity and Preferencesfor Redistribution: Reply2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 119, no 2, p. 288-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this reply, we briefly respond to three of the issues raised: possible measures of preferences for redistribution, sample selection bias, and the use of the refugee placement policy as an instrument for immigration.

  • 48. Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Edmark, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Berg, Heléne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Revisiting the Relationship between Ethnic Diversity and Preferences for Redistribution: Reply2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 119, no 2, p. 288-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we respond to the comments raised by Nekby and Pettersson-Lidbom on our paper Dahlberg et al. (2012, Journal of Political Economy 120, 41-76). We argue that our estimates are internally valid, but we acknowledge that the external validity could have been discussed more thoroughly.

  • 49.
    Edmark, Karin
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Migration Effects of Welfare Benefit Reform2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 111, no 3, p. 511-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study tests for a migration response to the implementation of stricter rules for receiving welfare benefits (means-tested social assistance for individuals who lack sufficient work-related income), in the form of mandatory participation in activation programmes in Stockholm town districts. The results give no indications that activation programmes affect the moving choices of recipients of welfare benefits.

  • 50.
    Ek, Simon
    et al.
    Swedish Public Employment Service, Sweden;Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS). Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS). Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Low skilled jobs, language proficiency and job opportunities for refugees: An experimental study2024In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 126, no 2, p. 355-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a field experiment, we study the causal effects of previous experience and language skills when newly arrived Syrian refugees in Sweden apply for low-skilled jobs. We find no evidence of sizeable effects from previous experience or completed language classes on the probability of receiving callback from employers. However, female applicants were more likely than males to receive a positive response. As a complement to the experiment, we interview a select number of employers, which provides additional insights into how they judge candidates for low-skilled jobs.

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