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  • 1.
    Adermon, Adrian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU).
    Hensvik, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Gig-jobs: Stepping stones or dead ends?2022In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 76, article id 102171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How useful is work experience from the gig economy for labor market entrants searching for traditional wage jobs? We conducted a correspondence study in Sweden, comparing callback rates for recent high school graduates with (i) gig-experience, (ii) traditional experience, and (iii) unemployment history. We also study heterogeneous responses with respect to perceived foreign background. Our findings suggest that gig-experience is more valuable than unemployment, but less useful than traditional experience for majority applicants. Strikingly however, no form of labor market experience increases the callback rate for minority workers.

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  • 2.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Bennmarker, Helge
    Wage incentives and wage rigidity: A representative view from within2007In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 347-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A recent literature has used surveys of those who set wages to learn about the nature of wage incentives and the sources of wage rigidity. Methodologically, we overcome many of the objections that have been raised against this work. Substantively, we find that: (i) the reasons for real wage rigidity differ significantly between large and small firms, and between the high- and low-end of the labor market; (ii) efficiency wage mechanisms reinforce rigidities due to worker bargaining power; (iii) money illusion is a widespread phenomenon across all segments of the labor market; (iv) unions reinforce nominal wage rigidities due to external pay comparisons; (v) there appears to be gender differences in pay bargaining and work morale.

  • 3. Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Bennmarker, Helge
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Wage incentives and wage rigidity: A representative view from within2007In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 347-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A recent literature has used surveys of those who set wages to learn about the nature of wage incentives and the sources of wage rigidity. Methodologically, we overcome many of the objections that have been raised against this work. Substantively, we find that: (i) the reasons for real wage rigidity differ significantly between large and small firms, and between the high- and low-end of the labor market; (ii) efficiency wage mechanisms reinforce rigidities due to worker bargaining power; (iii) money illusion is a widespread phenomenon across all segments of the labor market; (iv) unions reinforce nominal wage rigidities due to external pay comparisons; (v) there appears to be gender differences in pay bargaining and work morale.

  • 4.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    All about balance?: A test of the jack-of-all-trades theory using military enlistment data2017In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 49, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Jack-of-all-trades theory, people with a balanced set of skills are more suitable for self-employment than are those without. In this paper we test this theory using Swedish Military Enlistment data. This data enables us to construct a measure of balance in abilities that, in comparison to measures used in previous research, is less contaminated by endogeneity problems. We find clear support for the Jack-of-all-trades theory, in the sense that the likelihood of being self-employed is higher for individuals whose skills are balanced. In addition, their earnings from self-employment tend to be higher.

  • 5.
    Alto, Aino-Maija
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Mueller, Dagmar
    Tilley, Lucas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    From epidemic to pandemic: Effects of the COVID-19 outbreak on high school program choices in Sweden2023In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 82, article id 102346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study whether the onset of the COVID-19 crisis affected the program choices of high school applicants in Sweden. Our analysis exploits the fact that the admission process consists of two stages: a preliminary round in which applicants initially rank programs in order of preference and a final round in which they can alter their preliminary rankings. In 2020, the timing of the two rounds happened to provide a unique pre-and post-crisis snapshot of applicants' field-of-study choices. Using school-level data on applicants' top-ranked programs for all admission rounds between 2016 and 2020, we implement a difference-in-differences method to identify the immediate effect of the crisis on demand for programs. We find no change in demand for academic programs, but a decline in top-ranked applications to some of the vocational programs. The declines are most pronounced and robust for programs related to the Accommodation and Food Services sector, which was the most adversely affected industry during the crisis. This finding suggests that labor market considerations influence the study choices made by relatively young students.

  • 6.
    Bennmarker, Helge
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Mellander, Erik
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Öckert, Björn
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Do regional payroll tax reductions boost employment?2009In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 480-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a Difference-in-Differences approach, we evaluate the effects of a 10 percentage point reduction in the payroll tax introduced in 2002 in northern Sweden. We find no employment effects among firms existing both before and after the reform, whereas the average wage bill per employee increases by about 0.25% per percentage point reduction in the tax rate. Extending the analysis to include entry and exit of firms, we find evidence of positive effects on the number of firms and a tendency to positive employment effects. Moreover, the wage incidence estimates become insignificant when we account for entry and exit of firms.

  • 7.
    Bennmarker, Helge
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU).
    Skans, Oskar Nordström
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU). Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Vikman, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU). Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies.
    Workfare for the old and long-term unemployed2013In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 25, p. 25-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the effects of conditioning benefits on program participation among older long-term unemployed workers. We exploit a Swedish reform which reduced UI duration from 90 to 60 weeks for a group of older unemployed workers in a setting where workers who exhausted their benefits received unchanged transfers if they agreed to participate in a work practice program. Our results show that job finding increased as a result of the shorter duration of passive benefits. The time profile of the job-finding effects suggests that the results are due to deterrence during the program-entry phase. We find no impact on ensuing job durations or wages, suggesting that the increased job-finding rate was driven by increased search intensity rather than lower reservation wages. A crude cost-benefit analysis suggests that the reform reduced the combined cost of programs and transfers.

  • 8.
    Bergström, Pål
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The effects of grants and wages on municipal labour demand2004In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 315-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate the determinants of municipal labour demand in Sweden 1988–1995. Utilising a major grant reform in 1993, through which a switch from mainly targeted to mainly general central government grants occurred, we are able to identify which type of grants that have the largest effects on municipal employment. We find a larger municipal employment elasticity with respect to grants before the reform, which we interpret as evidence that general grants have less employment effects than specific ones. We further find a short run wage elasticity of approximately -0.5 and a long run ditto of approximately -0.9, and a quite sluggish adjustment process: only 60% of the desired change in municipal employment is implemented in the first year.

  • 9.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    How important is family background for labor-economic outcomes?2012In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 465-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses Swedish register data to examine four classical outcomes in empirical labor economics: IQ noncognitive skills, years of schooling and long-run earnings. We estimate sibling correlations - and the variance components that define the sibling correlation - in these outcomes. We also estimate correlations for MZ-twins, who share all genes. We also extend the variance-component decomposition by accounting for birth order. We find that conventional intergenerational approaches severely underestimate the role of family background, and that future research should follow a more multidimensional approach to the study of family background.

  • 10.
    Burn, Ian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Kettler, Kyle
    The More You Know, the Better You’re Paid? Evidence from Pay Secrecy Bans for Managers2019In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 59, p. 92-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Approximately half of Americans are employed at firms where employees are forbidden or discouraged from discussing their pay with coworkers. Employees who violate these rules may be subject to punishment or dismissal. While many employees are legally protected from reprisal under the National Labor Rights Act, the law exempts managers from these protections. Eleven states have passed laws banning pay secrecy policies for managers. In this paper, we explore what effect these state laws had on the wages and employment of managers. We find pay secrecy bans increased the wages of managers by 3.5% but had no effect on the gender wage gap, job tenure, or labor supply. The effects are heterogeneous along a number of dimensions. Below the median wage, female managers experienced a 2.9% increase in their wages relative to male managers. Above the median wage, male managers experienced a 2.7% increase in their wages relative to female managers. The wage gains were concentrated among managers employed at firms with fewer than 500 employees.

  • 11.
    Buser, Thomas
    et al.
    Univ Amsterdam, Sch Econ, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Tinbergen Inst, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Ahlskog, Rafael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Johannesson, Magnus
    Stockholm Sch Econ, Dept Econ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Koellinger, Philipp
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Econ, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Oskarsson, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    The causal effect of genetic variants linked to cognitive and non-cognitive skills on education and labor market outcomes2024In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 90, article id 102544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the effect of genetic variants that are associated with differences in cognitive and non -cognitive skills on labor market and education outcomes by linking genetic data from individuals in the Swedish Twin Registry to government registry data. Genes are fixed over the life cycle and genetic differences between full siblings are random, making it possible to establish the causal effects of within -family genetic variation. We show that polygenic indices associated with cognitive skills and personality traits significantly affect income, occupation, and educational attainment. By comparing estimates that use only within -family variation to OLS estimates with and without socioeconomic controls, our results also provide indications of the degree of (residual) confounding, which can be useful for research conducted in datasets that do not contain sibling pairs. Overall, our results indicate that education and labor market outcomes are partially the result of a genetic lottery.

  • 12.
    Böckerman, Petri
    et al.
    Turku School of Economics, Finland;Labour Institute for Economic Research, Finland;IZA, Germany.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS). Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Uusitalo, Roope
    Jyväskylä University School of Business and Economics, Finland.
    Seniority rules, worker mobility and wages: evidence from multi-country linked employer-employee data2018In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 51, p. 48-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We construct multi-country employer-employee data to examine the consequences of last-in, first-out rules. We identify the effects by comparing worker exit rates between different units of the same firms operating in Sweden and Finland, two countries that have different seniority rules. We observe a relatively lower exit rate for more senior workers in Sweden in the shrinking firms and among the low-wage workers. These empirical patterns are consistent with last-in, first-out rules in Sweden providing protection from dismissals for the more senior workers among the worker groups to whom the rules are most relevant. Similarly, we observe a steeper seniority-wage profile in Sweden, suggesting that last-in, first-out rules may also be beneficial for more senior workers in terms of compensation.

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  • 13.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Larsson, L.
    Does early intervention help the unemployed youth?2005In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 301-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates a measure targeted at unemployed individuals aged 20–24. The main purpose of the measure is to prevent long-term unemployment by guaranteeing an assignment to some labor market program within 100 days of unemployment. Municipalities voluntarily agree to offer the guarantee. To identify the effect of the measure, we use three conditions: The guarantee covers individuals aged 24 but not 25, one fifth of the municipalities does not provide the guarantee, and the guarantee existed in 1998 but not in 1997. We find no evidence that the measure did significantly improve the future labor market situation of the youth, which suggests that early intervention in the unemployment spell is not important.

  • 14.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Richardson, K.
    The relative efficiency of labour market programs: Swedish experience from the 1990's2004In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, no 11:3, p. 335-354Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Age Discrimination in Hiring Decisions: Evidence from a Field Experiment in the Labor Market2019In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 59, p. 173-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper shows the results of a field experiment in which over 6,000 fictitious resumes with randomly assigned information about age (35-70 years) were sent to Swedish employers with vacancies in low- and medium-skilled occupations. We find that the callback rate begins to fall substantially for workers in their early 40s and becomes very low for workers close to the retirement age. The decline in callback rate by age is steeper for women than for men. Employer stereotypes about the ability to learn new tasks, flexibility, and ambition seem to be an important explanation for age discrimination.

  • 16.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus Univ, Ctr Discriminat & Integrat Studies, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Age Discrimination in Hiring Decisions: Evidence from a Field Experiment in the Labor Market2019In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 59, p. 173-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper shows the results of a field experiment in which over 6000 fictitious resumes with randomly assigned information about age (35–70 years) were sent to Swedish employers with vacancies in low- and medium-skilled occupations. We find that the callback rate begins to fall substantially for workers in their early 40s and becomes very low for workers close to the retirement age. The decline in the callback rate by age is steeper for women than for men. Employer stereotypes about the ability to learn new tasks, flexibility, and ambition seem to be an important explanation for age discrimination.

  • 17.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Högskolan i Kalmar.
    Evidence of ethnic discrimination in the Swedish labor market using experimental data2007In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 716-729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present evidence of ethnic discrimination in the recruitment process by sending fictitious applications to real job openings. Applications with identical skills were randomly assigned Middle Eastern or Swedish-sounding names and applications with a Swedish name receive fifty percent more callbacks for an interview. We extend previous analyses by adding register and interview information on firms/recruiters to the experimental data. We find that male recruiters and workplaces with fewer than twenty employees less often call applications with a Middle Eastern name for an interview.

  • 18. Collewet, Marion
    et al.
    Sauermann, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Maastricht University, The Netherlands; Center for Corporate Performance (CCP), Denmark; Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), Germany.
    Working hours and productivity2017In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 47, p. 96-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the link between working hours and productivity using daily information on working hours and performance of a sample of call centre agents. We exploit variation in the number of hours worked by the same employee across days and weeks due to central scheduling, enabling us to estimate the effect of working hours on productivity. We find that as the number of hours worked increases, the average handling time for a call increases, meaning that agents become less productive. This result suggests that fatigue can play an important role, even in jobs with mostly part-time workers.

  • 19. Corak, Miles
    et al.
    Lindquist, Matthew J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Mazumder, Bhashkar
    A comparison of upward and downward intergenerational mobility in Canada, Sweden and the United States2014In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 30, p. 185-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use new estimators of directional rank mobility developed by Bhattacharya and Mazumder (2011) to compare rates of upward and downward intergenerational mobility across three countries: Canada, Sweden and the United States. These measures overcome some of the limitations of traditional measures of intergenerational mobility such as the intergenerational elasticity, which are not well suited for analyzing directional movements or for examining differences in mobility across the income distribution. Data for each country include highly comparable, administrative data sources containing sufficiently long time spans of earnings. Our most basic measures of directional mobility, which simply compare whether sons moved up or down in the earnings distribution relative to their fathers, do not differ much across the countries. However, we do find that there are clear differences in the extent of the movement. We find larger cross-country differences in downward mobility from the top of the distribution than upward mobility from the bottom. Canada has the most downward mobility while the U.S. has the least, with Sweden in the middle. We find some differences in upward mobility but these are somewhat smaller in magnitude. An important caveat is that our analysis may be sensitive to the concept of income we use and broader measures such as family income could lead to different conclusions. Also, small differences in rank mobility translate into rather large differences in absolute mobility measured in dollars, due to large differences in income inequality across countries.

  • 20.
    Downey, Mitch
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Partial automation and the technology-enabled deskilling of routine jobs2021In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 69, article id 101973Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence shows technology automates middle-wage occupations' routine tasks. I argue technology only partially automates these, simplifying them so that they can be performed by less-skilled workers. Thus, post-automation costs include technology and low-wage workers to use it. The minimum wage raises these costs, lowering the profitability of automation and slowing the adoption of routine-replacing technologies. I test this claim using new cross-state variation in the minimum wage (induced by state price differences) and new cross-industry variation in the importance of low-skilled labor for technology (measuring using the Current Population Survey Computer Use Supplement and the Dictionary of Occupational Titles). Because low-skilled workers are needed alongside technology, I show that a low minimum wage increases the automation of routine jobs.

  • 21.
    Dreber, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Heikensten, Emma
    Säve-Söderbergh, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Why do women ask for less?2022In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 78, article id 102204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Women are often less likely to negotiate or ask for less when they do negotiate compared to men. In this study, we send out a survey to a large sample of recent college graduates in Sweden. We ask respondents whether they made an explicit salary request and what the outcome was. We include several questions on beliefs and attitudes towards negotiations. While women are more likely to state a salary request, we find that they on average ask for less than men. This gender gap is reduced when we control for beliefs and attitudes. However, neither perceived social costs nor confidence appear to matter for the gender gap. Instead, while men and women consider themselves relatively similar to an ideal candidate applying for the same job, they differ on average in their beliefs about what constitutes a reasonable request amount for the ideal candidate. This variable is the only statistically significant mediating variable of the gender gap in salary requests, and suggests that information interventions affecting beliefs could potentially reduce the gender gap in negotiations. As our results are correlational they should however be interpreted with caution.

  • 22.
    Edin, Per-Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU). Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Labor Studies (UCLS). Stellenbosch Inst Adv Study STIAS, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Selin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU). Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Labor Studies (UCLS).
    Financial Risk-Taking and the Gender Wage Gap2022In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 75, article id 102144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Could differences in risk attitudes explain parts of the gender wage gap? We present estimates on the association between labor market outcomes and financial risk-taking using individual level administrative data on individual wealth portfolios and wage rates from year 2000, when high-quality wealth data were available in Sweden. The individual's share of risky to total financial assets is significantly and positively associated with the wage rate. However, it turns out that our risk measure explains only a small part of the observed gender difference in wages.

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  • 23.
    Edmark, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU).
    Froelich, Markus
    Wondratschek, Verena
    Sweden's school choice reform and equality of opportunity2014In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 30, no S1, p. 129-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses whether the Swedish school choice reform, enacted in 1992, had differential effects for students from different socio-economic backgrounds. We use detailed geographical data on students' and schools' locations to construct measures of the degree of potential choice. This allows us to study the effects of choice opportunities among public schools, whereas previous studies have focused on newly opened private schools. Our results indicate that students from a socio-economically disadvantaged or immigrant background did not benefit less from more school choice than those from more advantaged backgrounds. If anything, students from low-income families benefited slightly more than those from higher-income families. However, the differences between groups of students are very small, as are the overall effects of the reform.

  • 24. Egebark, Johan
    et al.
    Kaunitz, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Payroll taxes and youth labor demand2018In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 55, p. 163-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2007–09, the Swedish employer-paid payroll tax was cut on a large scale for young workers, substantially reducing labor costs for this group. Using this variation in payroll taxes across ages, we estimate a significant, but small, impact both on employment and on wages, jointly implying a demand elasticity of −0.3" role="presentation">. However, it turns out that these effects vary across ages, with employment response being around four times stronger for younger workers compared to older ones. Further, we find no effects on hours worked, and there is little evidence of any lasting employment effect when workers are no longer eligible for the tax reduction.

  • 25.
    Eliason, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU).
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU). Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics. IZA Inst Lab Econ, Bonn, Germany.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU).
    Forward-looking moral hazard in social insurance2019In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 60, p. 84-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study tests for forward-looking moral hazard in the sickness insurance system by exploiting a 1991 reform in Sweden. The replacement rate was reduced for short absences but not for long absences, which introduced a potential future cost of returning to work. Using this exogenous variation in the replacement rate and controlling for dynamic selection, we find that the potential future cost of returning to work decreased the outflow from long-term sickness absence. This finding suggests that long-term sickness absentees respond to economic incentives and are forward-looking, which highlights the importance of taking forward-looking behavior into account when designing and evaluating social insurance programs.

  • 26.
    Fallesen, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). ROCKWOOL Foundation, Denmark.
    Geerdsen, Lars Pico
    Imai, Susumu
    Tranæs, Torben
    The effect of active labor market policies on crime: Incapacitation and program effects2018In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 52, p. 263-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the effects of active labor market policies on men’s crime. To do this, we exploit a local policy change in Denmark that targeted unemployed people without unemployment insurance. Our results show that crime rates decreased among treated men relative to both untreated unemployment insured and uninsured men. Lower property crime accounted for the decrease in overall crime. Increased earnings from higher employment rates cannot explain the decrease in crime. Instead, participation in the active labor market program reduced young men’s propensity to commit crime. The results suggest that active labor market programs have substantial secondary effects on criminality.

  • 27. Fröberg, Emelie
    et al.
    Säve-Söderbergh, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Wahlund, Richard
    Wiley Wakeman, S.
    The promise (and peril) in approaching gender parity: Preregistered survey experiments addressing gender inequality in negotiations2023In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 83, article id 102401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite repeated calls to reduce gender inequalities arising in negotiations, few solutions have emerged that effectively address the fact that women often ask—and even intend to ask—for less than men in negotiations. In this paper, we focus on intentions prior to a negotiation. We explore how a simple reminder of women’s inferior position in salary negotiations—showing either a stable or closing gender gap in salary requests—can help combat gender inequality by tapping into psychological motivations inherent to status competition. In two preregistered survey experiments of business school students and gig workers (n=4337), we show that any reminder of the gender gap in requested salaries leads women to intend to request more compared to the control groups in both samples. Showing a stable gap without female progress caused men in a business school, but not gig workers, to request less than men in a control condition. Yet, men in the same context request relatively more when shown a closing gap compared to the stable gap condition. Our work thus points both to the promise of simple interventions designed to reduce gender gaps in intended salary requests, as well as the perils arising from competitive dynamics as women actually approach parity.

  • 28.
    Gerdes, Christer
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Gränsmark, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Strategic behavior across gender: A comparison of female and male expert chess players2010In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 766-775Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to measure differences in risk behavior among expert chess players. The study employs a panel data set on international chess with 1.4 million games recorded over a period of 11 years. The structure of the data set allows us to use individual fixed-effect estimations to control for aspects such as innate ability as well as other characteristics of the players. Most notably, the data contains an objective measure of individual playing strength, the so-called Elo rating. In line with previous research, we find that women are more risk-averse than men. A novel finding is that men choose more aggressive strategies when playing against female opponents even though such strategies reduce their winning probability.

     

  • 29.
    Graetz, Georg
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Restrepo, Pascual
    Boston Univ, Boston, MA USA..
    Nordström Skans, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Labor Studies (UCLS).
    Technology and the labor market2022In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 76, article id 102177Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article introduces the Special Issue on "Technology and the Labor Market ". We summarize the included articles and offer some lessons for policy and future research. The articles cover central issues such as how technology changes the nature of labor demand, the impact of technology on individual workers, the role of policy, as well as emerging phenomena such as Artificial Intelligence and the "Gig " economy.

  • 30.
    Granberg, Mark
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hiring Discrimination Against Transgender People: Evidence from a Field Experiment2020In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 65, article id 101860Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of the first correspondence study that examined hiring discrimination against transgender people. Fictitious job applications (N = 2,224) were sent to employers with job postings in 12 low-skill occupations in Sweden. Overall, 40 percent of cisgender applicants and 34 percent of transgender applicants received a positive employer response to their applications. This result was not robust to the Heckman-Siegelman critique. However, when transgender applicants were compared to the dominant gender in male- and female-dominated occupations, estimates of discrimination were larger and robust to the critique. There was no clear support for the statistical discrimination hypothesis.

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  • 31.
    Grönqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Labor Studies (UCLS).
    Hensvik, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Labor Studies (UCLS).
    Thoresson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Labor Studies (UCLS). Uppsala University, Units outside the University, The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU).
    Teacher career opportunities and school quality2022In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 77, article id 101997Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effects of introducing a performance-based promotion program for teachers in Sweden. The pro-gram intended to make the teaching profession more attractive by raising wages for skilled teachers and taking advantage of teachers' professional competence. Our results show that: (i) high-wage teachers are more likely to be promoted; (ii) the stipulated wage increase has full pass-through onto wages for promoted teachers; (iii) schools with promotions have lower teacher separations and an improved pool of teachers. These results suggest that performance-based promotions could be an important tool for raising teacher quality.

  • 32.
    Grönqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU).
    Vlachos, Jonas
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Econ, Univ Vagen 10 A, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;IFN, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    One size fits all?: The effects of teachers' cognitive and social abilities on student achievement2016In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 42, p. 138-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We document a substantial decline in cognitive and social interactive abilities and in GPAs among entering teachers. Then, using matched student-teacher data, we find that teacher abilities have a negligible impact on average student achievement This finding hides interesting heterogeneities. In particular, an increase in teachers' cognitive (social) abilities increases (reduces) the achievement gap between high- and low-aptitude students. Teacher cognitive and social abilities further appear to be complements. We also find strong positive effects of male teachers' GPAs that are uniform across students, but similar effects are not found for female teachers' GPAs.

  • 33.
    Grönvist, Hans
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Åslund, Olof
    Institute for Labor Market Policy Evaluation (IFAU).
    Family size and child outcomes: Is there really no trade-off?2010In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 130-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the impact of family size on intermediate and long-term outcomes using twin births as an exogenous source of variation in family size in an unusually rich dataset. Similar to recent studies, we find no evidence of a causal effect on long-term outcomes and show that not taking selection effects into account will likely overstate the effects. We do, however, find a small but significant negative impact of family size on grades in compulsory and secondary school among children who are likely to be vulnerable to further restrictions on parental investments.

  • 34.
    Gustafsson, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Holmberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Permanent and transitory earnings dynamics and lifetime income inequality in Sweden2023In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 85, article id 102437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the role of permanent- and transitory earnings variability for lifetime income inequality in Sweden. We fit a permanent–transitory error component model to the autocovariance structure of earnings using administrative data for 2002–2015 and minimum distance estimation. We find that permanent earnings inequality increased during the first decade and that the financial crisis of 2008 temporarily heightened earnings volatility. Using this model, we simulate pension entitlements and study lifetime income inequality conditional on the pre- and post-1990’s pension system. We find that permanent earnings differences generally contribute the most to lifetime income inequality. We conclude that the Swedish pension system provides some insurance against earnings risk, but accentuates the role of permanent earnings differences in explaining lifetime inequality.

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  • 35.
    Hall, Caroline
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU). Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Labor Studies (UCLS).
    Liljeberg, Linus
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU). Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Labor Studies (UCLS).
    Lindahl, Erica
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU). Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Labor Studies (UCLS).
    Firm responses to a more generous insurance against high sick pay costs2024In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 86, article id 102477Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how firms respond to a more generous insurance against high sick pay costs. We exploit a reform that introduced different thresholds for insurance reimbursement depending on firm size. By comparing employees in smaller firms with employees in large firms over time, we evaluate the effects of the reform. We find evidence of an increase in absence in middle-sized firms (an average 42 employees) but not in smaller firms. Our results suggest that this discrepancy may be due to the higher production costs associated with absences in smaller firms. The estimated positive effect in middle-sized firms is driven by new hires. These employees are not selected differently, but the probability of separation the following year is lower if they have reported sick. This suggests that the generosity of the insurance affected the probability of separation related to revealed absence.

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  • 36.
    Hartman, Laura
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Hesselius, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU).
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU).
    Effects of eligibility screening in the sickness insurance: Evidence from a field experiment2013In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 20, p. 48-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effects of screening stringency in the Swedish sickness insurance system by exploiting a field experiment. The experiment was conducted on 270,000 individuals in two geographical areas with the treatment group randomized by date of birth. The screening of eligibility was reduced for the treated by the postponement of the requirement for a doctor's certificate from day eight to day fifteen in a sickness benefit spell. The results show that extending the waiting period increased the length of sickness absence by on average 0.6 days. The experiment increased sickness benefit expenses but reduced the number of visits to a doctor. Our results show that postponing the requirement for a doctor's certificate increases public expenses for the sickness insurance system.

  • 37.
    Hensvika, Lena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Labor Studies (UCLS).
    Nordström Skans, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU). Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Labor Studies (UCLS). Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), Bonn, Germany..
    The skill-specific impact of past and projected occupational decline2023In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 81, article id 102326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using population-wide data on a vector of cognitive abilities and productive non-cognitive traits among Swedish male workers, we show that occupational employment growth has been monotonically skill-biased in terms of these intellectual skills, despite a simultaneous (polarizing) decline in middle-wage jobs. Employees in grow-ing low-wage occupations have more of these skills than employees in other low-wage occupations. Conversely, employees in declining, routine-task intensive, mid-wage occupations have comparably little of these skills. Em-ployees in occupations that have grown relative to other occupations with similar wages have more intellectual skills overall but are particularly well-endowed with the non-cognitive trait "Social Maturity " and cognitive abil-ities in the "Technical " and "Verbal " domains. Projections from the US Bureau of Labor Statistics about future occupational labor demand do not indicate that the relationship between employment growth and skills is about to change in the near future.

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  • 38. Hjalmarsson, Randi
    et al.
    Lindquist, Matthew J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Labour economics and crime2018In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 52, p. 147-148Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 39. Hjalmarsson, Randi
    et al.
    Lindquist, Matthew J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    The origins of intergenerational associations in crime: Lessons from Swedish adoption data2013In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 20, p. 68-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use Swedish adoption data combined with police register data to study parent-son associations in crime. For adopted sons born in Sweden, we have access to the criminal records of both the adopting and biological parents. This allows us to assess the relative importance of pre-birth factors (genes, prenatal environment and perinatal conditions) and post-birth factors for generating parent-son associations in crime. When considering the extensive margin, we find that pre-birth and post-birth factors are both important determinants of sons' convictions and that mothers and fathers contribute equally through these two channels. At the intensive margin, pre-birth factors still matter, however post-birth factors appear to dominate. In particular, adopting mothers appear to matter most for the probability that sons will be convicted of multiple crimes and/or be sentenced to prison. We find little evidence of interaction effects between biological and adoptive parents' criminal convictions. Having more highly educated adoptive parents, however, does appear to mitigate the impact of biological parents' criminality.

  • 40.
    Holmlund, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    What do labor market institutions do?2014In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 30, no SI, p. 62-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The past couple of decades have seen a huge increase in research on various labor market institutions. This paper offers a brief overview and discussion of research on the labor market impacts of minimum wages (MW), unemployment insurance (UI), and employment protection legislation (EPL). It is argued that research on UI is largely a success story, involving a fruitful interplay between search theory and empirical work. This research has established that UI matters for labor market behavior, in particular the duration of unemployment, although there remains substantial uncertainty about the magnitudes of the effects. The research on MW should have shaken economists' belief in the competitive labor market model as a result of frequent failures to find noticeable employment effects despite considerable effects on wages. EPL research has established that employment protection reduces labor and job turnover but the jury is still out regarding the impact on overall employment and productivity.

  • 41.
    Holmlund, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU).
    Lindahl, Erica
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU).
    Roman, Sara
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU).
    Immigrant peers in the class: Effects on natives' long-run revealed preferences2023In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 82, article id 102360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research from the U.S. has suggested that black-white interaction in school can reduce prejudice and increase the prevalence of interracial relationships. We test whether this result holds also for natives and immi-grants in Europe - groups whose interaction is plausibly more constrained by religious and cultural differences. Specifically, we study whether exposure to immigrant origin peers in school affects natives' probability to have a child with a partner with non-Western background. Identification is based on variation in immigrant exposure across cohorts within schools in Sweden. We find that natives are affected by exposure to opposite-sex peers: native girls (boys) are more likely to have a child with a partner with non-Western background when exposed to immigrant origin boys (girls). In contrast to previous studies, we find no effects from same-sex peer exposure.

  • 42.
    Holmlund, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Sund, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Is the Gender Gap in School Performance Affected by the Sex of the Teacher?2008In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 37-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Girls outperform boys in school. We investigate whether the gender performance gap can be attributed to the fact that the teacher profession is female dominated, that is, is there a causal effect on student outcomes from having a same-sex teacher? Using data on upper-secondary school students and their teachers from the municipality of Stockholm, Sweden, we find that the gender performance differential is larger in subjects where the share of female teachers is higher. We argue, however, that this effect can not be interpreted as causal, mainly due to teacher selection into different subjects and non-random student-teacher matching. Exploring the fact that teacher turnover and student mobility give rise to variation in teacher's gender within student and subject, we estimate the effect on student outcomes of changing to a teacher of the same sex. We find no strong support for our initial hypothesis that a same-sex teacher improves student outcomes.

  • 43.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Estimates of the return to schooling in Sweden from a large sample of twins1999In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 471-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large sample of twins was used to examine whether conventional estimates of the return to schooling in Sweden are biased because ability is omitted from the earnings-schooling relationship. Ignoring measurement error, the results indicate that omitting ability from the earnings-schooling relationship leads to estimates that are positively biased. However, reasonable estimates of the measurement-error-adjusted returns are both above and below the unadjusted estimates, showing that the results depend crucially on a parameter not known at this time. However, an estimate of the reliability ratio was obtained using two measures on educational attainment. With this estimate of the reliability ratio the measurement-error-adjusted estimate of the return to schooling in the sample of identical twins indicates that there is at most a slight ability bias in the conventional estimates of the return to schooling. The fundamental assumption of this kind of study is that within-pair differences in educational attainment are randomly determined. This assumption was also tested, but no strong evidence to reject it was found.

  • 44.
    Jansson, Joakim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden; Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Tyrefors, Björn
    Grading bias and the leaky pipeline in economics: Evidence from Stockholm University2022In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 78, article id 102212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate a substantial female grade gain when being graded anonymously compared to male students in 101-macroeconomics courses. Females graded anonymously are more likely to continue with economics studies. This suggests that biased grading is a direct cause of the “leaky pipeline” phenomenon in economics. As male graders are the majority, we complement our analysis and evaluate the importance of same-sex bias using random assignment of graders. Although, we estimate a substantial same-sex bias before anonymous exams were introduced, it cannot explain the overall effect of grading bias. Thus, same-sex bias is not the mechanism explaining the overall effect of grading bias.

  • 45.
    Jansson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden;Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Tyrefors, Björn
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Grading bias and the leaky pipeline in economics: Evidence from Stockholm University2022In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 78, article id 102212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate a substantial female grade gain when being graded anonymously compared to male students in 101 -macroeconomics courses. Females graded anonymously are more likely to continue with economics studies. This suggests that biased grading is a direct cause of the "leaky pipeline " phenomenon in economics. As male graders are the majority, we complement our analysis and evaluate the importance of same-sex bias using random assign-ment of graders. Although, we estimate a substantial same-sex bias before anonymous exams were introduced, it cannot explain the overall effect of grading bias. Thus, same-sex bias is not the mechanism explaining the overall effect of grading bias.

  • 46.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The importance of employer contacts: Evidence based on selection on observables and internal replication2008In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 350-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I estimate effects of the labor market training program “Swit” on employment using both register and survey data. Swit was initiated in an attempt to increase the supply of qualified personnel in the IT sector. Based on the register data I find a large positive effect from the Swit on employment as compared to conventional programs directed towards IT. By also using survey information I conclude that the effect was due to increased employer contacts. The result is of interest because of the relatively large effect especially for individuals with traditionally weak positions on the labor market. Furthermore, I methodologically demonstrate how information about the contents of the programs may corroborate findings based on conditional independence assumptions.

  • 47.
    Koerselman, Kristian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Åbo Akademi University, Finland; Helsinki Center of Economic Research, Finland.
    Uusitalo, Roope
    The risk and return of human capital investments2014In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 30, p. 154-163Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Korpi, Tomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Tåhlin, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Educational mismatch, wages, and wage growth: Overeducation in Sweden, 1974-20002009In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 183-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the impact of educational mismatch on wages and wage growth in Sweden. The empirical analyses, based on cross-sectional and panel data from the Level of living surveys 1974–2000, are guided by two main hypotheses: (a) that educational mismatch reflects human capital compensation rather than real mismatch, and (b) that educational mismatch is real but dissolves with time spent in the labour market, so that its impact on wages tends toward zero over a typical worker's career. Our findings do not support these hypotheses. First, significant differences in contemporaneous economic returns to education across match categories remain even after variations in ability are taken into account. Second, we find no evidence that the rate of wage growth is higher among overeducated workers than others. Our conclusion is that the overeducated are penalized early on by an inferior rate of return to schooling from which they do not recover.

  • 49.
    Larsson Taghizadeh, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Effects of School Closures on Displaced Students and Future Cohorts2020In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 67, article id 101910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the effects of school closures on student achievement. In contrast to previous studies that have primarily analyzed displaced students, this study also takes into account subsequent cohorts who would have attended the closed schools had they remained open. Furthermore, the study is one of the first of its kind outside the US and utilizes more detailed registry data on school quality than previous studies. The effects are investigated through a quasiexperimental study of all public middle school closures in Sweden from 2000 to 2012 utilizing family fixed effects. The results suggest that overall, the closures had no effects on student achievement. Contrary to theoretical expectations, the effects on subsequent cohorts were similar to the effects on displaced students, and the extensive Swedish school voucher system did not seem to direct displaced students to higher-quality schools.

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  • 50.
    Lindahl, Erica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU). Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Labor Studies (UCLS).
    Rosenqvist, Olof
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU). Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Labor Studies (UCLS).
    Selin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU). Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Labor Studies (UCLS).
    Gender-targeted transfers by default? - Evidence from a child allowance reform in Sweden2023In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 83, article id 102389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We exploit a sharp birthday discontinuity in a large and universal Swedish cash transfer program, creating plausibly exogenous variation in the default disbursement option, while holding entitlements and other financial incentives constant. When the cash transfer is paid out to the mother by default, instead of a 50/50 default, it has a large effect (55 percentage points) on the probability that the transfer is deposited in the mother's bank account also in the long run. Surprisingly, we find that the default policy redistributes resources to separated low-income mothers. We find no indications that the 100%-to-the-mother default induces mothers to work less or to take more responsibility for the children.

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