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  • 1.
    Ahlin, Åsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Effects of decentralization on school resources2008In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 276-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has undertaken major national reforms of its school sector, which, consequently, has been classified as one of the most decentralized ones in the OECD. This paper investigates whether local tax base, grants, and preferences affected local school resources differently as decentralization took place. We find that municipal tax base affects per pupil spending in the same way regardless of whether the school sector is centralized or decentralized, but has a smaller effect on teacher–pupil ratio after the reforms. The less-targeted grants are the fewer teachers per pupil do the municipalities employ. The results for local preferences are less clear-cut.

  • 2.
    Amin, Vikesh
    et al.
    Cent Michigan Univ, USA.
    Lundborg, Petter
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Lund Univ, Sweden.
    The intergenerational transmission of schooling: Are mothers really less important than fathers?2015In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 47, p. 100-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a "puzzle" in the literature on the intergenerational transmission of schooling, where twin studies emphasize the importance of fathers' schooling, whereas IV-studies often emphasize the importance of mothers. We provide new evidence on this "puzzle" using register based Swedish data on the largest sample of twins used so far in the literature. In contrast to previous twin studies, our results confirm the importance of mothers' schooling. We also provide the first twin-based evidence of possible role model effects, where our estimates suggest that mother's schooling matters more than father's schooling for daughters schooling. One additional year of mothers' schooling raises daughter's schooling by a tenth of a year, which is similar to some of the previous IV-based estimates in the literature. Finally, we bring in new US twin data that for the first time allows a replication of previous twin-based estimates of the intergenerational transmission of schooling in the US. The results show no statistically significant effect of mothers' and fathers' schooling on children's schooling. Our results have implications for assessing the efficiency of policies that subsidize the schooling of men and women and are in contrast to most previous findings in the twin literature. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 3. Andersson, Christian
    et al.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Waldenström, Nina
    Do you want your child to have a certified teacher?2011In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 65-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how the teaching staff composition with respect to certification affects student achievement in compulsory Swedish schools. We apply an instrumental variable to estimate the effect of the share of non-certified teachers on student achievement (measured by grade point average, GPA). We find statistically significant negative effects on the GPA. The effect is stronger for students with highly educated parents. A one percentage point increase in the share of non-certified teachers is expected to decrease student's GPA by, on average, 1.8 standard deviations per year. This is a substantial effect considering the large differences in the shares of non-certified teachers across schools and municipalities.

  • 4.
    Feng, Andy
    et al.
    Singapore Minist Trade & Ind, 100 High St, Singapore 179434, Singapore..
    Graetz, Georg
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Ctr Econ Performance, London, England.;IZA, Bonn, Germany..
    A question of degree: The effects of degree class on labor market outcomes2017In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 61, p. 140-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How does performance at university affect labor market outcomes? Employing a regression discontinuity design, we show that university degree class causally affects graduates' industry, wages, and earnings. Our sample consists of students at the London School of Economics, and our data combine administrative records with the Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education survey. We estimate that receiving a First Class degree instead of an Upper Second increases the probability of working in a high-wage industry by fourteen percentage points, leads to three percent higher wages, and yields two percent higher annual salaries. For the comparison between Upper and Lower Seconds, the corresponding figures are ten, seven, and four. Effects are larger for males and graduates of math-intensive degree programs. We show that this is consistent with a model of statistical discrimination, in which employers attach more importance to the degree class signal if it is more informative about underlying ability. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Grönqvist, Hans
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Hall, Caroline
    Education policy and early fertility: Lessons from an expansion of upper secondary schooling2013In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 37, p. 13-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the effects of education policy on early fertility. We study a major educational reform in Sweden in which vocational tracks in upper secondary school were prolonged from two to three years and the curricula were made more academic. Our identification strategy takes advantage of cross-regional and cross-time variation in the implementation of a pilot scheme preceding the reform in which several municipalities evaluated the new policy. The empirical analysis draws on rich population micro data. We find that women who enrolled in the new programs were significantly less likely to give birth early in life. There is however, no statistically significant effect on men's fertility decisions. Our results suggest that the social benefits of changes in education policy may extend beyond those usually claimed.

  • 6.
    Hall, Caroline
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Does more general education reduce the risk of future unemployment?: Evidence from an expansion of vocational upper secondary education2016In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 52, p. 251-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates whether acquiring more general education reduces the risk of future unemployment. I study an educational reform in Sweden which prolonged the vocational programs in upper secondary school and gave them a considerably larger general content. The research design exploits variation across regions and over time in the implementation of a large-scale pilot which preceded the reform. I examine the students' labor market experiences during the 2008-2010 recession, at which time they had reached their late 30 s. I find no evidence that having attended a longer and more general program reduced the risk of experiencing unemployment. Among students with low GPAs from compulsory school, attending a pilot program seems instead to have led to an increased risk of unemployment. This pattern is strongest among male students and the effect is likely to be explained by the increased dropout rate which resulted from the change of the programs.

  • 7.
    Hinnerich, Björn Tyrefors
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Höglin, Erik
    Johannesson, Magnus
    Are boys discriminated in Swedish high schools?2011In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 682-690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading. We rigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind and non-blind grading. The non-blind test score is on average 15% lower for boys than for girls. Blind grading lowers the average grades with 13%, indicating that personal ties and/or grade inflation are important in non-blind grading. But we find no evidence of discrimination against boys in grading. The point estimate of the discrimination effect is close to zero with a 95% confidence interval of +/- 4.5% of the average non-blind grade.

  • 8.
    Hällsten, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Is It Ever Too Late to Study? The Economic Returns on Late Tertiary Degrees in Sweden2012In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 179-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the economic returns on tertiary degrees obtained in ages above 30 for individuals with upper-secondary schooling in light of current ideas on lifelong learning. Sweden is a case in point: Swedish tertiary education is open to older students, and labor market legislation supports employees who take a leave to study. The longitudinal data used for this analysis is based on annual population level registers from 1981 to 2007. Matching techniques are combined with fixed effect estimation to account for non-random selection. Late degrees were found to increase the employment rate by 18 percentage points and earnings while employed by 12 percent, which indicates strong employment effects and small effects on earnings while employed. The effects were absent in the higher parts of the earnings distribution, and females gained more than men. The estimated effects are largely stable across periods within a birth cohort.

  • 9.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    et al.
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Poutvaara, Panu
    Department of Economics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Tuomala, Juha
    Government Institute for Economic Research (VATT), Helsinki, Finland.
    Education returns of wage earners and self-employed workers: Comment2009In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 641-644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent paper, García-Mainar and Montuenga-Gómez [García-Mainar, I. & Montuenga-Gómez, V. M. (2005). Education returns of wage earners and self-employed workers: Portugal vs. Spain. Economics of Education Review, 24(2), 161−170] apply the generalized IV model of Hausman and Taylor to estimate education returns of wage earners and the self-employed in Portugal and in Spain. Our examination reveals several problems which relate to the validity and documentation of the instrumental variables, as well as the robustness of the results.

  • 10.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    et al.
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Poutvaara, Panu
    Department of Economics, University of Helsinki and CEBR, Helsinki, Finland.
    Tuomala, Juha
    Government Institute for Economic Research (VATT), Helsinki, Finland.
    Education returns of wage earners and self-employed workers: Rejoinder2009In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 648-648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In their reply to our comment, García-Mainar and Montuenga-Gómez [García-Mainar, I., & Montuenga-Gómez, V. M. (2009). A response to the comment on education returns of wage earners and self-employed workers. Economics of Education Review] did not address our fundamental criticism that they have not provided the information necessary to replicate their study.

  • 11.
    Koerselman, Kristian
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Incentives from curriculum tracking2013In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 32, p. 140-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Curriculum tracking creates incentives in the years before its start, and we should therefore expect test scores to be higher during those years. I find robust evidence for incentive effects of tracking in the UK based on the UK comprehensive school reform. Results from the Swedish comprehensive school reform are inconclusive. Internationally, I find a large and widening test score gap between early and late tracking countries. Incentive effects of tracking show how early age scores can be endogenous with respect to later-age policies, and add to a growing literature on incentives in education.

  • 12.
    Leuven, Edwin
    et al.
    ENSAE-CREST, France.
    Lindahl, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Oosterbeck, Hessel
    University of Amsterdam & Tinbergen Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Webbink, Dinand
    CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis, The Netherlands.
    Expanding schooling opportunities for 4-year-olds2010In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 319-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a novel quasi-experimental strategy to estimate the effect of expanding early schooling enrollment possibilities on early achievement. It exploits two features of the school system in The Netherlands. The first is rolling admissions; children are allowed to start school immediately after their 4th birthday instead of at the beginning of the school year. The second is that children having their birthday before, during and after the summer holiday are placed in the same class. These features generate sufficient exogenous variation in children’s enrollment opportunities to identify its effects on test scores. Making available one additional month of time in school increases language scores of disadvantaged pupils by 6 percent of a standard deviation and their math scores by 5 percent of a standard deviation. For non-disadvantaged pupils we find no effect.

  • 13. leuven, edwin
    et al.
    lindahl, mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    oosterbeek, hessel
    webbink, dinand
    Expanding Schooling Opportunities for 4-year olds2010In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 319-328Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. UCLS, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Oskarsson, Sven
    UCLS, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mikael, Persson
    Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Access to education and political candidacy: Lessons from school openings in Sweden2019In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 69, p. 138-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How does availability of education affect who becomes a political representative? Theorists have pointed out that access to education is a key to a well-functioning democracy, but few empirical studies have examined how changes in the access to education influence the chances of becoming a politician. In this paper, we analyze the effects of a large series of school openings in Sweden during the early 20th century, which provided adolescents with better access to secondary education. We use administrative data pertaining to the entire Swedish population born between 1916 and 1945. According to our empirical results, the opening of a new lower secondary school in a municipality increased the baseline probability of running for political office by 10–20%, and the probability of holding office by 20–30%.

  • 15.
    Löfgren, Curt
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Ohlsson, Henry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    What determines when undergraduates complete their theses?: Evidence from two economics departments1999In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 79-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most economics students at Uppsala and Umeå do not complete their undergraduate thesis within the intended time. We find that coauthoring, compared to writing alone, increases the probability of completing a thesis. A second thesis is less likely to be completed than a first. The two departments also differ in completion time. The probability of completing decreases over time. There is also some weaker evidence that students with high grades are more likely to complete and that women take a longer time to complete their theses.

  • 16.
    Persson, Mattias
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The Willingness to Pay to Reduce School Bullying2013In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 35, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Persson, Mattias
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    The willingness to pay to reduce school bullying2013In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 35, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of programs used to reduce bullying in schools is increasing, but often with a lack of understanding of the effectiveness and monetary benefits. This paper uses a discrete choice experiment conducted in Sweden in the spring of 2010 to elicit the willingness to pay (WTP) to reduce school bullying. Non-parametric and parametric approaches indicate a mean marginal WTP of 5.95-8.48 Swedish kronor ((sic)0.66-0.95) for each reduced victim of bullying. The aggregate societal WTP for each reduced statistical victim of bullying, referred to here as the value of a statistical bullying-victim (VSBV), is then 585,090-835,280 Swedish kronor ((sic)65,446-93,431). The VSBV may be interpreted as the aggregate WTP to prevent one statistical case of a bullying-victim. The result may be used to conduct economic evaluations of antibullying programs, which is demonstrated here by a simple cost-benefit analysis of one of the most common antibullying programs. The VSBV may also be relevant for providing policymakers with useful information on taxpayers' preferred allocations to antibullying programs in general.

  • 18.
    Persson, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government. Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Oskarsson, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    How does education affect adolescents'€™ political development?2016In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 53, p. 182-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper employs a between-grades regression discontinuity design to estimate the causal effect of education on political knowledge, intention to participate and democratic values. Using data on attitudes and knowledge among about 30,000 students from Greece, Norway, Slovenia and Sweden, we employ a fuzzy regression discontinuity design in which we exploit the exogenous variation related to school entry age. By comparing students who are born around the New Year cut-off point we estimate the causal effect of the ninth year of schooling. Results show that an additional year of schooling has no detectable effect on political knowledge, democratic values or political participation.

  • 19.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Nordin, Martin
    Persson, Inga
    Education–occupation mismatch: Is there an income penalty?2010In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 1047-1059Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper adds to the sparse literature on the consequences of education–occupation mismatches. It examines the income penalty for field of education–occupation mismatches for men and women with higher education degrees in Sweden and reveals that the penalty for such mismatches is large for both men and women. For mismatched men the income penalty is about twice as large as that found for US men, whereas for women the penalty is of about the same size as for US women. Controlling for cognitive ability further establishes that the income penalty is not caused by a sorting by ability, at least for Swedish men. The income penalty for men decreases with work experience, which is an indication that education-specific skills and work experience are substitutes to some extent.

  • 20.
    Schneider, Andrea
    Helmut Schmidt University, Hamburg, Germany.
    Redistributive taxation vs. education subsidies: Fostering equality and social mobility in an intergenerational model2010In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 597-605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Redistributive taxation and education subsidies are common policies intended to foster education attendance of poor children. However, this paper shows that in an intergenerational framework, these policies can raise social mobility only for some investment situations but not in general. I also study the impact of both policies on the aggregate skill ratio and inequality. While redistributive taxation can raise social mobility but at the same time never reduces inequality, education subsidies can, under some conditions, achieve both simultaneously. Unfortunately, these conditions necessarily require a population in which the skill ratio is already quite high. 

  • 21.
    Stenberg, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Using Longitudinal Data to Evaluate Publicly Provided Formal Education for Low skilled2011In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 30, no 6, p. 1262-1280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern societies would potentially reap large benefits from upgrading low skilled's education. However, this is difficult to put into practice because employers are reluctant to train low skilled and because low skilled are unwilling to participate. To circumvent this potential market imperfection, a large supply of formal education in Sweden is complemented with the eligibility of enrollees for financial support. This study uses detailed data on Swedish siblings aged 24-43 in 1994 to evaluate the impact on annual earnings. The estimated average return was 4.4% in 2004. Calculations indicate that this is barely sufficient to cover society's total costs.

  • 22.
    Sund, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Estimating peer effects in Swedish high school using school, teacher and student fixed effects2009In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 28, p. 329-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I use a rich dataset in order to observe each student in different subjects and courses over time. Unlike most peer studies, I identify the peers and the teachers that each student has had in every classroom. This enables me to handle the simultaneity and selection problems, which are inherent in estimating peer effects in the educational production function. I use a value-added approach with lagged peer achievement to avoid simultaneity and extensive fixed effects to rule out selection. To be specific, it is within-student acrosssubject variation with additional controls for time-invariant teacher characteristics that is exploited. Moreover, I identify students that are attending classes in which they have no peers from previous education which otherwise might bias the result. I find positive peer effects for the average student but also that there is a non-linear dimension. Lowerachieving students benefit more from an increase in both mean peer achievement and the spread in peer achievement within the classroom than their higher-achieving peers.

  • 23.
    Wikström, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Grade inflation and school competition: an empirical analysis based on the Swedish upper school grades2005In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 309-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the connection between grade inflation and school competition by studying graduates from the Swedish upper secondary schools in 1997. The final grades are compared to the SweSAT national test scores. Single school municipalities are compared with multiple school municipalities in order to study if potential intra-municipal school competition leads to grade inflation. We also compare independent schools with public schools. It is found that intra-municipal school competition leads to modest levels of grade inflation. Foremost, non-native students fare better being graded in municipalities with potential competition than in single school environments. Independent schools appear to inflate grades heavily. A male student with average previous educational achievement improves his position in the grade distribution by approximately 15% if graded in an independent school.

  • 24.
    Åslund, Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Engdahl, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    The value of earning for learning: Performance bonuses in immigrant language training2018In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 62, p. 192-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effects of performance bonuses in immigrant language training for adults. A Swedish policy pilot conducted in 2009-2010 gave a small randomly assigned group of municipalities the right to grant substantial cash bonuses to recently arrived migrants. A conservative interpretation of our results, building on a difference in-differences approach, suggests that the bonus did not improve student achievement on average. However, we find substantial positive effects where institutional features and participant characteristics made it ex ante more likely for the bonus to have an impact.

  • 25.
    Öckert, Björn
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    What's the value of an acceptance letter?: Using admissions data to estimate the return to college2010In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 504-516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper exploits discontinuities and randomness in the college admissions in Sweden in 1982, to estimate the economic return to college in the 1990s. At the time, college admissions were highly selective and applicants were ranked with respect to their formal merits. Admissions were given to those ranked higher than some threshold value. At the margin, applicants were sometimes randomly assigned to college. Exploiting this Regression-Discontinuity design, individuals who were admitted in 1982 are estimated to have about 0.20 years longer college education in 1996. However, the earnings effects for applicants at the margin of admission are insignificant. Controlling for the college admission determinants, the OLS-estimates of the return to college is 1.4 percent in 1991-96. The IV-estimates are not significantly different from the OLS counterparts.

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