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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Uppsala University, Sweden and Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Women are not always less competitive than men: evidence from Come Dine with Me2011In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 18, no 12, p. 1099-1101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Are women less competitive than men? Many experimental and nonexperimental studies have documented gender differences in competitiveness. This article presents the results from a study that examines gender differences in competitiveness in the television show Come Dine with Me. It is a cooking show in which amateur chefs compete against each other for a cash prize. The show provides an unusual opportunity to study gender differences in a high-stakes game environment. The results demonstrate that there are no gender differences in competitiveness.

  • 2.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Women are not always less competitive than men: Evidence from Come Dine with Me2011In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 18, no 12, p. 1099-1101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Are women less competitive than men? Many experimental and nonexperimental studies have documented gender differences in competitiveness. This article presents the results from a study that examines gender differences in competitiveness in the television show Come Dine with Me. It is a cooking show in which amateur chefs compete against each other for a cash prize. The show provides an unusual opportunity to study gender differences in a high-stakes game environment. The results demonstrate that there are no gender differences in competitiveness.

  • 3.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Does age matter for employability? A field experiment on ageism in the Swedish labour market2012In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 403-406Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden and Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Andersson, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Does age matter for employability? A field experiment on ageism in the Swedish labor market2012In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 403-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the findings of the first field experiment on age discrimination in the Swedish labour market. Pairs of matched applications, one from a fictitious 31-year-old male applicant and one from a fictitious 46-year-old male applicant, were sent to employers with job openings for restaurant workers and sales assistants. Employers' responses to the applicants were then recorded. The experimental data provide clear and strong evidence of significant ageism in the Swedish labour market. On average, the younger applicant received over 3 times more responses from employers looking to hire a restaurant worker and over 4 times more responses from employers looking to hire a sales assistant than the older applicant. Therefore, the older applicant received significantly fewer invitations for interviews and job offers than the younger applicant in both occupations examined.

  • 5.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Granberg, Mark
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Lång, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Does having ones own place to live make someone more employable?2017In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 24, no 18, p. 1327-1330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article encapsulates the findings of a randomized correspondence test field experiment investigating whether job candidates home status influences their employability. More than 2000 employers with vacancies in the Swedish labour market received a job application from a fictitious candidate. A job candidates home status (his or her own place to live or temporary housing with a friend) was randomized across employers. Results show that home status indeed affected the number of positive employer responses received by job candidates, mainly in low-skilled occupations. Not having a place to live at the time of the application proved a disadvantage when applying for positions within but an advantage when applying for positions outside the city of residence at the time of the application.

  • 6.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus Univ, Sweden; Res Inst Ind Econ IFN Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ethnic discrimination in contacts with public authorities: a correspondence test among swedish municipalities2020In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 27, no 17, p. 1391-1394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a field experiment conducted in order to explore the existence of ethnic discrimination in contact with public authorities. Two fictitious parents, one with a Swedish-sounding name and one with an Arabic-sounding name, sent email inquiries to all Swedish municipalities asking for information about preschool admission for their children. Results show that the parents were treated differently by the municipalities since the individual with the Swedish-sounding name received significantly more responses that answered the question in the inquiry than the individual with the Arabic-sounding name. Also, the individual with the Swedish-sounding name received more warm answers than the individual with the Arabic-sounding name in the sense that the answer from the municipality started with a personal salutation. We conclude that ethnic discrimination is prevalent in public sector contacts and that this discrimination has implications for the integration of immigrants and their children.

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  • 7.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Ethnic discrimination in contacts with public authorities: a correspondence test among Swedish municipalities2020In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 27, no 17, p. 1391-1394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a field experiment conducted in order to explore the existence of ethnic discrimination in contact with public authorities. Two fictitious parents, one with a Swedish-sounding name and one with an Arabic-sounding name, sent email inquiries to all Swedish municipalities asking for information about preschool admission for their children. Results show that the parents were treated differently by the municipalities since the individual with the Swedish-sounding name received significantly more responses that answered the question in the inquiry than the individual with the Arabic-sounding name. Also, the individual with the Swedish-sounding name received more warm answers than the individual with the Arabic-sounding name in the sense that the answer from the municipality started with a personal salutation. We conclude that ethnic discrimination is prevalent in public sector contacts and that this discrimination has implications for the integration of immigrants and their children.

  • 8.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    Uppsala University, The Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study in the Social Sciences (SCASSS).
    Women are not always less competitive than men: evidence from Come Dine with Me2011In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 18, no 12, p. 1099-1101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Are women less competitive than men? Many experimental and nonexperimental studies have documented gender differences in competitiveness. This article presents the results from a study that examines gender differences in competitiveness in the television show Come Dine with Me. It is a cooking show in which amateur chefs compete against each other for a cash prize. The show provides an unusual opportunity to study gender differences in a high-stakes game environment. The results demonstrate that there are no gender differences in competitiveness.

  • 9. Almenberg, Johan
    et al.
    Gerdes, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Exponential growth bias and financial literacy2012In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 19, no 17, p. 1693-1696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tendency to underestimate the future value of a variable growing at a constant rate, an example of exponential growth bias, has been linked to household financial decision-making. We show that exponential growth bias and standard measures of financial literacy are negatively correlated in a representative sample of Swedish adults. Since financial literacy is linked to household decision-making, our results indicate that examining the relationship between exponential growth bias and household finance without adequate controls for financial literacy may generate biased results.

  • 10.
    Arvidsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sjöstrand, James
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The economics of the Swedish online gambling market2017In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 24, no 16, p. 1135-1137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study how the Swedish online gambling market has developed and how the availability of foreign-based online gambling has affected the domestic state-owned gambling monopoly, AB Svenska Spel. We find that online gambling and the traditional state-managed gambling are relatively weak substitutes. Thus, concerns about the availability of online gambling being able to undercut domestic gambling policies may be overstated.

  • 11.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Uppsala University.
    Differential impact of microfinance delivery mechanism on vulnerability2012In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 19, no 8, p. 721-724Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Differential impact of microfinance delivery mechanism on vulnerability2012In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 19, no 8, p. 721-724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microfinance reduces vulnerability. We investigate if this impact varies by the delivery mechanism used. Correcting for the membership selection bias using Propensity Score Matching (PSM), the household's vulnerability is estimated using the Self-Help Group (SHG) microfinance programme data in India. The results show that the reduction in vulnerability is greater for villages with better infrastructure and for SHGs that are formed by NGOs and linked by banks (linkage model 2).

  • 13.
    Bandick, Roger
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Koch, Michael
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark.
    Domestic and foreign acquisitions, plant survival and employment effects2023In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 30, no 7, p. 923-926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate causal treatment effects of domestic and foreign acquisitions on plant survival, employment (growth) and the skill composition within acquired plants. To do so, we look at takeovers of private firms in Danish manufacturing and service sectors during the period 2002-2015. We use plant-, firm-, and industry-level information to control for the non-random selection of the acquisition targets, differentiated for domestic and foreign acquirers, by combining a difference-in-differences approach with a propensity score weighting estimator. Our results reveal positive effects on plant survival, employment (growth) and the skill intensity for domestic targets, while foreign targets reduce their skill intensity following an acquisition.

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  • 14.
    Beechey, Meredith
    et al.
    Sveriges Riksbank, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Österholm, Pär
    National Institute of Economic Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Policy interest-rate expectations in Sweden: a forecast evaluation2014In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 21, no 14, p. 984-991Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we evaluate two types of Swedish policy interest-rate expectations: survey expectations and expectations inferred from market pricing. The data are drawn from the most prominent survey of financial-market economists and from Swedish financial markets, and they are carefully matched by date to ensure comparability. Results show that both kinds of expectations suffer from bias and inefficiency, and in terms of forecast precision there is no clear winner. We do find, though, evidence that the forecast accuracy of both kinds of policy-rate expectations has improved since the Riksbank started publishing its own policyrate forecast, suggesting that this communication strategy has been beneficial from a policy perspective.

  • 15.
    Bengtsson, Ragnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Iverman, Ellis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Hinnerich, Bjorn Tyrefors
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Gender and ethnic discrimination in the rental housing market2012In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a field experiment to measure discrimination in the housing market in Stockholm. Four fictitious persons, of different gender, with distinct-sounding Arabic or Swedish names, are randomly assigned to vacant apartments. We extend the study by Ahmed and Hammarstedt ( 2008). There are two new results. First, we provide evidence that there is no or little gender premium for the female with the Arabic name, which suggests that ethnic discrimination dominates the effects of gender. Second, discriminatory behaviour is only found in the suburbs or satellite cities/towns of Stockholm County not in the densely populated, affluent, city centre. Moreover, we can replicate that there is a gender premium for females with Swedish names. However, we are not able to confirm that males with Arabic names face discrimination.

  • 16.
    Berg, Petter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Palmgren, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Tyrefors, Björn
    Gender grading bias in junior high school mathematics2020In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 27, no 11, p. 915-919Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Admission to high school in Sweden is based on the final grades from junior high. This article compares students' final mathematics grade with new data from a high school introductory test score in mathematics. Both the grades and the test are based on the same syllabus, but teachers enjoy great discretion when deciding grades. The results show a substantial grading difference, consistent with grading bias against boys.

  • 17.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Thulin, Per
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Does Innovation Lead to Firm Growth?: Explorative versus Exploitative Innovations2022In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we examine the relationship between innovation and firm growth. Drawing on previous research, we implement a classification of innovations based on whether they are explorative or exploitative. Access to Swedish register data comprising the entire private sector from 1997 to 2012 allows us to construct innovation patterns for more than 480,000 firms. GMM-estimations confirm a significant and positive effect of both exploitative and explorative innovation on firms’ employment growth. More radical explorative innovations are shown to have a more persistent growth effect, while exploitative innovation increases labour demand in the short run.

  • 18.
    Brännäs, Kurt
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Nordman, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Conditional skewness modelling for stock returns2003In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 10, no 11, p. 725-728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two approaches to modelling conditional skewness in a nonlinear model for stock returns are studied. It is found that a normal distribution can be rejected. A log-generalized gamma distribution with one time-varying density parameter, and a Pearson IV specification with three parameters are better supported by data. While the log-generalized gamma indicates that time-varying skewness is an important feature of the daily composite returns of NYSE, the Pearson IV model suggests that excess kurtosis rather than skewness should be accounted for.

  • 19.
    Button, Kenneth J.
    et al.
    George Mason Univ, USA.
    Eklund, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Are there inherent biases in applying cost-benefit analysis?2018In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 461-464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article extends discussions of potential biases that can exist in applying cost-benefit analysis. While there is extensive evidence that capture can result in stakeholder manipulation of inputs, there are also claims that the analysis is inherently theoretically bias in favour of over acceptance. The article shows that, contrary to these latter claims, treating projects in isolation is unlikely to produce such bias; indeed, it is as likely as not to lead to suboptimally low acceptance rates. The reason for excessive acceptance of projects therefore is largely due to institutional capture of the analysis for either self-interest or natural human over-optimism.

  • 20.
    Button, Kenneth J.
    et al.
    Schar School of Policy and Government, George Mason University, Arlington VA, USA.
    Eklund, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO). Department of Industrial Economics, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Are there inherent biases in applying cost–benefit analysis?2018In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 461-464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article extends discussions of potential biases that can exist in applying cost–benefit analysis. While there is extensive evidence that capture can result in stakeholder manipulation of inputs, there are also claims that the analysis is inherently theoretically bias in favour of over acceptance. The article shows that, contrary to these latter claims, treating projects in isolation is unlikely to produce such bias; indeed, it is as likely as not to lead to suboptimally low acceptance rates. The reason for excessive acceptance of projects therefore is largely due to institutional capture of the analysis for either self-interest or natural human over-optimism.

  • 21.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Optimal retail location and CO2-emissions2013In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 20, no 14, p. 1357-1361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the p-median model is used to find the location of retail stores that minimizes CO2-emissions from consumer travel. The optimal location is then compared with the existing retail location,and the excess CO2-emissions compared with the optimal solution is calculated. The results show that by using the environmentally optimal location, CO2-emissions from consumer travel could be reduced by approximately 25 per cent.

  • 22.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Revealing taste-based discrimination in hiring: a correspondence testing experiment with geographic variation2012In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 19, no 18, p. 1861-1864Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The standard Correspondence Testing Experiment (CTE) does not identify whether employer prejudice, as opposed to statistical discrimination, drives discriminatory behaviour when hiring. This article proposes a new methodology using geographic variation to explore the link between employer attitudes towards ethnic minorities and the ethnic difference in callbacks for a job interview. Using already existing Swedish data we find that a randomly selected employer is more likely to discriminate against a minority job applicant in regions where the average employer has more negative attitudes.

  • 23.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Tovmo, Per
    NTNU, Trondheim.
    Power Properties of the Sargan Test in the Presence of Measurement Errors in Dynamic Panels2008In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 349-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the power properties of the Sargan test in the presence of measurement errors in dynamic panel data models. The conclusion from Monte Carlo simulations, and an application on the data used by Arellano and Bond (1991), is that in the very likely case of measurement errors in either the dependent or any of the independent variables, we will, if we rely on the Sargan test, quite likely accept a mis-specified model and end up with biased results.

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  • 24.
    Dahlbom, L
    et al.
    Ctr Traumat Stress CTS, SE-65340 Karlstad, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Norwegian Social Res NOVA.
    Kotsadam, Andreas
    Norwegian Social Res NOVA.
    Gender and Overconfidence: Are Girls really overconfident?2011In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 325-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research finds that people are overconfident and that men are more overconfident than women. Using a very precise confidence measure, this article shows, however, that whereas boys are overconfident, girls are actually underconfident regarding their mathematics performance. We conducted a survey where 14-year-old high school students were asked what grade they thought they would get in a mathematics test a week later. These results were then compared with their actual grade. Boys were overconfident about their grades, whereas girls were underconfident.

  • 25.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för nationalekonomi. The Swedish Retail Institute (HUI), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för nationalekonomi. The Swedish Retail Institute (HUI), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Revenues as a proxy for profits: a cautionary note2009In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 16, no 7, p. 679-681, article id PII 785052957Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the entry literature, researchers sometimes use revenues as a proxy for profits because this is the only data available. Doing so could seriously bias the results.

  • 26.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    The Swedish Retail Institute (HUI) , SE-103 29, Stockholm, Sweden; The Department of Economics , University of Gävle , SE-801 76, Gävle, Sweden.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    The Swedish Retail Institute (HUI) , SE-103 29, Stockholm, Sweden; The Department of Economics , University of Gävle , SE-801 76, Gävle, Sweden.
    Revenues as a Proxy for Profits: A Cautionary Note2009In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 16, no 7, p. 679-681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the entry literature, researchers sometimes use revenues as a proxy for profits because this is the only data available. Doing so could seriously bias the results.

  • 27. De Poli, Silvia
    et al.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Schueller, Simone
    The drowning-refugee effect: media salience and xenophobic attitudes2017In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 24, no 16, p. 1167-1172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study whether salient media coverage of refugees drowning in the Mediterranean affects individual xenophobic attitudes. We combine a randomized survey experiment - a variant of the classic trolley dilemma' - that implicitly elicits individual attitudes towards foreigners, with variation in interview timing, and find that such issue salience significantly decreases xenophobic attitudes by 2.2 percentage points. Our results thus support the idea that exposure to news describing immigrants as victims (instead of a threat) can significantly affect public opinion and mitigate bias against immigrants.

  • 28. Dreber, A.
    et al.
    Gerdes, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Gränsmark, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Little, A. C.
    Facial masculinity predicts risk and time preferences in expert chess players2013In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 20, no 16, p. 1477-1480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we examine the relationship between risk-taking, impatience and facial masculinity in expert chess players. We combine a large panel data set from high-level chess games with measures of both risk-taking and impatience in chess with facial masculinity, a proxy for testosterone exposure in puberty. We find that male players with high pubertal testosterone exposure are more impatient by playing shorter chess games. For female players, we find that facial masculinity is negatively correlated with risk-taking.

  • 29. Edgerton, David
    et al.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Some Questions Concerning Dynamic Almost Ideal Demand Systems1996In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 3, no 11, p. 693-695Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Eidinejad, Shahin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Dahlem, Elena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    The existence and historical development of the holiday effect on the Swedish stock market2022In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 29, no 19, p. 1855-1858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the holiday effect on the Swedish stock market over a 40-year period. We use a regression-based approach on daily price data to ascertain if the holiday effect is present on the Swedish stock market, analyse its historical development using 10-year subsamples, and assess whether its effects vary for different holidays. We find evidence for a positive post-holiday effect using the full sample period. When looking at the subsamples, however, we only find evidence for its existence in the 1990s and 2000s. We do not find evidence for the existence of a pre-holiday effect for any period. No holiday, considered by itself, shows evidence of a pre-holiday effect over the full sample period. For the holidays included, we only find evidence of a post-holiday effect after New Year's.

  • 31.
    Ericson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    The effects of wage compression on general and firm-specific training2008In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 165-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of who finances on-the-job training has important implications for labour markets. It is persistently difficult to test empirically whether it is the employer or the employee who carries the costs of general training. This article presents a simple method that compares the effect of wage inequality on duration of general training and firm-specific training. The result is consistent with the proposition that it is the worker who bears a greater part of the costs associated with general training than in the case of firm-specific training.

  • 32.
    Finseraas, Henning
    et al.
    Institute for Social Research, Oslo.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Does a simple information intervention change the perception of a reform?2014In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 18, p. 1266-1268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the results of a survey experiment where the respondents were randomly assigned the opportunity to read an information brochure regarding recently implemented changes in the Norwegian pension system. We find that those given the opportunity to read the information material are more likely to believe that the reform has made the pension system easier to understand.

  • 33. Fritsch, Michael
    et al.
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Measuring Performance Heterogeneity Within Groups: A Two-Dimensional Approach2006In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 17-20Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Fritsch, Michael
    et al.
    Technical University Bergakademie, Germany;DIW Berlin, Germany.
    Stephan, Andreas
    European University Viadrina, Germany;DIW Berlin, Germany.
    Measuring Performance Heterogeneity Within Groups: A Two-Dimensional Approach2006In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 17-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce a two-dimensional measure for the heterogeneity of performance within groups. It leads to a much more differentiated description of heterogeneity than alternative measures and it is relatively robust with regard to extreme values of small units (‘outliers’).

  • 35.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    A Monte Carlo Simulation Study of Tobit Models2001In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 8, no 9, p. 581-584Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on a comparison of diOEerent kinds of Tobit models. According to the ® ndings, a simple Tobit I method can produce results that are similar to and in some cases better than much more sophisticated methods. This is especially true if the participation or index equation is incorrectly speci® ed.

  • 36.
    Gunduz, Lokman
    et al.
    Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Beykent University, 34900 Istanbul, Turkey.
    Hatemi-J, Abdulnasser
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Is the tourism-led growth hypothesis valid for Turkey?2005In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 12, no 8, p. 499-504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Like many developing countries, Turkey has also given priority to the development of tourism industry as a part of its economic growth strategy. This study intends to investigate whether tourism has really contributed to the economic growth in Turkey. The interaction between tourism and economic growth is investigated by making use of leveraged bootstrap causality tests. This method is robust to the existence of non-normality and ARCH effects. Special attention is given to the choice of the optimal lag order of the empirical model. It is found that the tourism-led growth hypothesis is supported empirically in the case of Turkey.

  • 37.
    Gustavsson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The Evolution of the Swedish Wage Structure: New Evidence for 1992–20012006In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 36p. 279-286Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Gustavsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Österholm, Pär
    Hysteresis and Non-Linearities in Unemployment Rates2006In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 13, no 9, p. 545-548Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Gustavsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Österholm, Pär
    Mean reversion in the US unemployment rate - evidence from bootstrapped out-of-sample forecasts2011In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 18, no 7, p. 643-646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates whether the US unemployment rate is best described as a unit-root or mean-reverting process. An out-of-sample forecast exercise is conducted in which the performance of an autoregressive (AR) model with an imposed unit root is compared with that of a mean-reverting AR model. A bootstrap distribution for the relative root mean square forecast error is generated and provides strong support for mean reversion in the US unemployment rate.

  • 40.
    Hacker, R Scott
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Hatemi-J, Abdulnasser
    A Test for Multivariate ARCH Effects2005In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 12, no 7, p. 411-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper extends Engle's LM test for ARCH affects to multivariate cases. The size and power properties of this multivariate test for ARCH effects in VAR models are investigated based on asymptotic and bootstrap distributions. Using the asymptotic distribution, deviations of actual size from nominal size do not appear to be very excessive. Nevertheless, there is a tendency for the actual size to overreject the null hypothesis when the nominal size is 1% and underreject the null when the nominal size is 5% or 10%. It is found that using a bootstrap distribution for the multivariate LM test is generally superior in achieving the appropriate size to using the asymptotic distribution when (1) the nominal size is 5%; (2) the sample size is small (40 observations) and/or the VAR system is stable. With a small sample, the power of the test using the bootstrap distribution also appears better at the 5% nominal size.

  • 41.
    Hacker, R. Scott
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School, PO Box 1026, SE-551 11 Jönköping, Sweden.
    Hatemi-J., Abdulnasser
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    A Test for Multivariate ARCH Effects2005In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 12, no 7, p. 411-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper extends Engle's LM test for ARCH affects to multivariate cases. The size and power properties of this multivariate test for ARCH effects in VAR models are investigated based on asymptotic and bootstrap distributions. Using the asymptotic distribution, deviations of actual size from nominal size do not appear to be very excessive. Nevertheless, there is a tendency for the actual size to overreject the null hypothesis when the nominal size is 1% and underreject the null when the nominal size is 5% or 10%. It is found that using a bootstrap distribution for the multivariate LM test is generally superior in achieving the appropriate size to using the asymptotic distribution when (1) the nominal size is 5%; (2) the sample size is small (40 observations) and/or the VAR system is stable. With a small sample, the power of the test using the bootstrap distribution also appears better at the 5% nominal size

  • 42.
    Hacker, R Scott
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Hatemi-J, Abdulnasser
    Capital Mobility in Sweden: A Time Varying Parameter Approach2007In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 14, no 15, p. 1115-1118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the degree of capital mobility in Sweden during 1993 to 2004 using quarterly data. A time varying parameter model is estimated by the Kalman filter, and it shows that the relationship between investment as share in gross domestic product (GDP) and saving as share in GDP is much less than one (within the interval of 0.25–0.35), indicating substantial capital mobility. However, since the coefficient in each period is statistically different from zero, capital is still not perfectly mobile. Nevertheless, capital mobility seems to have increased until 1995 when Sweden became a member of EU and after membership there seems to be no significant increase in capital mobility.

  • 43.
    Halvarsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Ratio Institute, Sweden.
    Lark, Olga
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Vahter, Priit
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Videnord, Josefin
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Do gender norms travel within corporations?: The impact of foreign subsidiaries on the home country’s gender wage gap2023In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this note we study how the share of workers in a corporation located in a high gender wage gap country impacts the wage gap in their home country operations. Our findings support the hypothesis that firms with strong intra-firm linkages to a high gender wage gap country also display a relatively large gender wage gap at home. 

  • 44.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Centre for Labour Market Policy Research (CAFO), Växjö University, Sweden.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Testing the home-country self-employment hypothesis on immigrants in Sweden2009In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 16, no 7, p. 745-748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article tests the home-country self-employment hypothesis on immigrants in Sweden. The results show that the self-employment rates vary between different immigrant groups but we find no support for the home-country self-employment hypothesis using traditional estimation methods. However, when applying quantile regression method we find such evidence when testing results from the 90th quantile. This indicates that home-country self-employment traditions are important for the self-employment decision among immigrant groups with high self-employment rates in Sweden. Furthermore, the result underlines the importance of utilizing robust estimation methods when the home-country self-employment hypothesis is tested.

  • 45.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Testing the home-country self-employment hypothesis on immigrants in Sweden2009In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 16, no 7, p. 745-748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article tests the home-country self-employment hypothesis on immigrants in Sweden. The results show that the self-employment rates vary between different immigrant groups but we find no support for the home-country self-employment hypothesis using traditional estimation methods. However, when applying quantile regression method we find such evidence when testing results from the 90th quantile. This indicates that home-country self-employment traditions are important for the self-employment decision among immigrant groups with high self-employment rates in Sweden. Furthermore, the result underlines the importance of utilizing robust estimation methods when the home-country self-employment hypothesis is tested.

  • 46.
    Hatemi-J, Abdulnasser
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. Department of Business and Management, University of Kurdistan-Hawler.
    Forecasting properties of a new method to determine optimal lag order in stable and unstable VAR models2008In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 239-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This simulation study investigates the forecasting performance of a new information criterion suggested by Hatemi-J (2003) to pick the optimal lag length in the stable and unstable vector autregression (VAR) models. The conducted Monte Carlo experiments reveal that this information criterion is successful in selecting the optimal lag order in the VAR model when the main aim is to draw ex-ante (forecasting) inference regardless if the VAR model is stable or not. In addition, the simulations indicate that this information criterion is robust to autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity effects.

  • 47.
    Hatemi-J, Abdulnasser
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Hacker, R. Scott
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Capital mobility in Sweden: a time-varying parameter approach2007In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 14, no 15, p. 1115-1118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the degree of capital mobility in Sweden during 1993 to 2004 using quarterly data. A time varying parameter model is estimated by the Kalman filter, and it shows that the relationship between investment as share in gross domestic product (GDP) and saving as share in GDP is much less than one (within the interval of 0.25-0.35), indicating substantial capital mobility. However, since the coefficient in each period is statistically different from zero, capital is still not perfectly mobile. Nevertheless, capital mobility seems to have increased until 1995 when Sweden became a member of EU and after membership there seems to be no significant increase in capital mobility.

  • 48.
    Hatemi-J., Abdulnasser
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. Department of Business and Management , University of Kurdistan-Mawler.
    Irandoust, Manuchehr
    Department of Economics and Finance, UAE University, P.O. Box 17555, AL-Ain, United Arab Emirates.
    The Fisher effect: a Kalman filter approach to detecting structural change2008In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 15, no 8, p. 619-624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article uses quarterly data on short-run nominal interest rates and inflation rates over the last four or three decades collected from Australia, Japan, Malaysia and Singapore to test whether the Fisher relation has empirical support. Since meaningful Fisher effect tests critically depend on the integration and cointegration properties of the variables, we present some empirical evidence on these issues and we also apply the Kalman filter to estimate the time-varying parameters. The results show that the data are generally rejecting a full Fisher effect. This implies that nominal interest rates do not respond point-for-point to changes in the expected inflation rates. The possible reasons for the inability to detect a full Fisher effect are also discussed.

  • 49.
    Hatemi-J, Abdulnasser
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Roca, Eduardo
    Department of Accounting, Finance and Economics, Centre for Corporate Governance and Firm Performance, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111, Australia.
    Calculating the optimal hedge ratio: constant, time varying and the Kalman Filter approach2006In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 293-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A crucial input in the hedging of risk is the optimal hedge ratio - defined by the relationship between the price of the spot instrument and that of the hedging instrument. Since it has been shown that the expected relationship between economic or financial variables may be better captured by a time varying parameter model rather than a fixed coefficient model, the optimal hedge ratio, therefore, can be one that is time varying rather than constant. This study suggests and demonstrates the use of the Kalman Filter approach for estimating time varying hedge ratio - a procedure that is statistically more efficient and with better forecasting properties.

  • 50.
    Heller-Sahlgren, Gabriel
    et al.
    London School of Economics, London, UK; Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Test scores and economic growth: update and extension2024In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 31, no 11, p. 1024-1027Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research indicates that education quality – measured by test scores in international student surveys – predicts economic growth. In this paper, we extend previous findings up to 2016 and analyse test scores of upper-secondary school students only. We find that the positive relationship between growth and test scores holds in both cases. The share of top-performing students exhibits a stronger correlation with economic growth than does the share of students who meet basic requirements.

123 1 - 50 of 105
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