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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    What is in a surname? The role of ethnicity in economic decision making2010In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 42, no 21, p. 2715-2723Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports results from two experiments that investigate possible incidence of discrimination against people with foreign backgrounds in Sweden. In the first experiment, participants played the trust game and the dictator game with co-players of different ethnic affiliation. The family name of the players was exposed to their co-players. Results for the trust game showed no significant discrimination against co-players with foreign backgrounds. On the other hand, the results for the dictator game showed a statistically significant discriminatory behaviour by men against co-players with non-European backgrounds. The discriminatory behaviour was solely a male phenomenon. In the second experiment, the dictator game was replicated to check the stability of the results in the first experiment. The second experiment also examined whether people with foreign backgrounds discriminate against other people with foreign backgrounds; that is, the purpose was to discover whether discrimination is systematic. The observations in the second experiment underlined the results found in the first experiment: foreign co-players are discriminated against by Swedish players. However, we did not find that people with foreign backgrounds discriminated against other people with foreign backgrounds.

  • 2.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    What is in a surname? The role of ethnicity in economic decision making2010In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 42, no 21, p. 2715-2723Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports results from two experiments that investigate possible incidence of discrimination against people with foreign backgrounds in Sweden. In the first experiment, participants played the trust game and the dictator game with co-players of different ethnic affiliation. The family name of the players was exposed to their co-players. Results for the trust game showed no significant discrimination against co-players with foreign backgrounds. On the other hand, the results for the dictator game showed a statistically significant discriminatory behaviour by men against co-players with non-European backgrounds. The discriminatory behaviour was solely a male phenomenon. In the second experiment, the dictator game was replicated to check the stability of the results in the first experiment. The second experiment also examined whether people with foreign backgrounds discriminate against other people with foreign backgrounds; that is, the purpose was to discover whether discrimination is systematic. The observations in the second experiment underlined the results found in the first experiment: foreign co-players are discriminated against by Swedish players. However, we did not find that people with foreign backgrounds discriminated against other people with foreign backgrounds.

  • 3.
    Almasri, Abdullah
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Mansson, K.
    Gothenburg Univ, Dept Econ & Stat, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Jonkoping Int Business Sch, Dept Econ Finance & Stat, Jonkoping, Sweden..
    Sjolander, P.
    Jonkoping Int Business Sch, Dept Econ Finance & Stat, Jonkoping, Sweden..
    Shukur, G.
    Jonkoping Int Business Sch, Dept Econ Finance & Stat, Jonkoping, Sweden.;Linnaeus Univ, Dept Econ & Stat, Vaxjo, Sweden..
    A wavelet-based panel unit-root test in the presence of an unknown structural break and cross-sectional dependency, with an application of purchasing power parity theory in developing countries2017In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 49, no 21, p. 2096-2105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article introduces two different non-parametric wavelet-based panel unit-root tests in the presence of unknown structural breaks and cross-sectional dependencies in the data. These tests are compared with a previously suggested non-parametric wavelet test, the parameteric Im-Pesaran and Shin (IPS) test and a Wald type of test. The results from the Monte Carlo simulations clearly show that the new wavelet-ratio tests are superior to the traditional tests both in terms of size and power in panel unit-root tests because of its robustness to cross-section dependency and structural breaks. Based on an empirical Central American panel application, we can, in contrast to previous research (where bias due to structural breaks is simply disregarded), find strong, clear-cut support for purchasing power parity (PPP) in this developing region.

  • 4.
    Almasri, Abdullah
    et al.
    Department of Economics and Statistics, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Statistics. Department of Economics and Statistics, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sjölander, Pär
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Statistics.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Statistics. Department of Economics and Statistics, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    A wavelet-based panel unit-root test in the presence of an unknown structural break and cross-sectional dependency, with an application of purchasing power parity theory in developing countries2017In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 49, no 21, p. 2096-2105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article introduces two different non-parametric wavelet-based panel unit-root tests in the presence of unknown structural breaks and cross-sectional dependencies in the data. These tests are compared with a previously suggested non-parametric wavelet test, the parameteric Im-Pesaran and Shin (IPS) test and a Wald type of test. The results from the Monte Carlo simulations clearly show that the new wavelet-ratio tests are superior to the traditional tests both in terms of size and power in panel unit-root tests because of its robustness to cross-section dependency and structural breaks. Based on an empirical Central American panel application, we can, in contrast to previous research (where bias due to structural breaks is simply disregarded), find strong, clear-cut support for purchasing power parity (PPP) in this developing region.

  • 5.
    Almasri, Abdullah
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    Jönköping University.
    Sjölander, Pär
    Jönköping University.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University.
    A wavelet-based panel unit-root test in the presence of an unknown structural break and cross-sectional dependency, with an application of purchasing power parity theory in developing countries2017In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 49, no 21, p. 2096-2105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article introduces two different non-parametric wavelet-based panel unit-root tests in the presence of unknown structural breaks and cross-sectional dependencies in the data. These tests are compared with a previously suggested non-parametric wavelet test, the parameteric Im-Pesaran and Shin (IPS) testand a Wald type of test. The results from the Monte Carlo simulations clearly show that the new wavelet-ratio tests are superior to the traditional tests both interms of size and power in panel unit-root tests because of its robustness to cross-section dependency and structural breaks. Based on an empirical Central American panel application, we can, in contrast to previous research (where bias due to structural breaks is simply disregarded), find strong, clear-cut support for purchasing power parity (PPP) in this developing region.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Holmgren, Erik
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    MacGregor, James
    International Institute for Environment and Development.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    Formal microlending and adverse (or non-existent) selection: A case study of shrimp farmers in Bangladesh2011In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 43, no 28, p. 4203-4213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microcredit schemes have become a popular means of improving smallholders’ access to credit and making long term investment possible. However, it remains to be explored whether the current microcredit schemes are more successful than earlier formal small scale lending in identifying successful borrowers. We studied shrimp farming in a rural region in Bangladesh where formal microlending is well established, but where more expensive informal microlending coexists with the formal schemes. Farmers – both those who exclusively use formal loans and those who also use informal loans – remain credit-constrained; both types overutilize labour in order to reduce the need for working capital. However, the credit constraint is actually milder for the informal borrowers: the implicit shadow price of working capital is substantially higher in the group that only takes formal loans than in the group that also uses informal loans. These results suggest that informal lenders – with their closer ties to the individual farmers – remain more successful in identifying those smallholder farmers that are most likely to use the borrowed funds successfully. Informal lenders have an information advantage that formal microlenders lack: the latter need to find routes to access this information in order for formal microcredit schemes to succeed.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Umeå University, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Erik
    Department of Economics, Umeå University, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden.
    MacGregor, James
    International Institute for Environment and Development, 3 Endsleigh Street, London WC1H 0DD, United Kingdom.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Economics, Göteborg University.
    Formal microlending and adverse (or nonexistent) selection: a case study of shrimp farmers in Bangladesh2011In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 43, no 28, p. 4203-4211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microcredit schemes have become a popular means of improving smallholders‟ access to credit and making long-term investment possible. However, it remains to be explored whether the current microcredit schemes are more successful than earlier formal small-scale lending in identifying successful borrowers. We studied shrimp farming in a rural region in Bangladesh where formal microlending is well established, but where more expensive informal microlending coexists with the formal schemes. Farmers – both those who exclusively use formal loans and those who also use informal loans – remain credit-constrained; both types overutilise labour in order to reduce the need for working capital. However, the credit constraint is actually milder for the informal borrowers: the implicit shadow price of working capital is substantially higher in the group that only takes formal loans than in the group that also uses informal loans. These results suggest that informal lenders – with their closer ties to the individual farmers – remain more successful in identifying those smallholder farmers that are most likely to use the borrowed funds successfully. Informal lenders have an information advantage that formal microlenders lack: the latter need to find routes to access this information in order for formal microcredit schemes to succeed.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Stage, Jesper
    Institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik, Göteborgs universitet.
    Holmgren, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    MacGregor, James
    International Institute for Environment and Development, United Kingdom.
    Formal microlending and adverse (or non-existent) selection a case study of shrimp farmers in Bangladesh2011In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 43, no 28, p. 4203-4213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microcredit schemes have become a popular means of improving smallholders' access to credit and making long term investment possible. However, it remains to be explored whether the current microcredit schemes are more successful than earlier formal small scale lending in identifying successful borrowers. We studied shrimp farming in a rural region in Bangladesh where formal microlending is well established, but where more expensive informal microlending coexists with the formal schemes. Farmers - both those who exclusively use formal loans and those who also use informal loans - remain credit-constrained; both types overutilize labour in order to reduce the need for working capital. However, the credit constraint is actually milder for the informal borrowers: the implicit shadow price of working capital is substantially higher in the group that only takes formal loans than in the group that also uses informal loans. These results suggest that informal lenders - with their closer ties to the individual farmers - remain more successful in identifying those smallholder farmers that are most likely to use the borrowed funds successfully. Informal lenders have an information advantage that formal microlenders lack: the latter need to find routes to access this information in order for formal microcredit schemes to succeed.

  • 9.
    Andrén, Daniela
    Göteborg University, Department of Economics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    ’Never on a Sunday’: Economic incentives and short-term sick leave in Sweden2005In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 327-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a longitudinal data for about 1800 persons observed between 1986 and 1991, this study investigates the incentive effects on short-term sickness spells of two important regime changes in the social insurance system in Sweden implemented in 1987 and 1991. The results indicate that the rules influenced people’s decisions about when to report the beginning and ending of sickness spells. The 1991 reform, which reduced the replacement rate, had a stronger effect on reducing the duration of short-term absences than the 1987 reform, which restricted the payment of sickness cash benefit to only scheduled workdays.

  • 10.
    Andrén, Thomas
    et al.
    IZA, Bonn, Germany.
    Andrén, Daniela
    Department of Economics, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Assessing the employment effects of vocational training using a one-factor model2006In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 38, no 21, p. 2469-2486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Matching estimators use observed variables to adjust for differences between groups to eliminate sample selection bias. When minimum relevant information is not available, matching estimates are biased. If access to data on usually unobserved factors that determine the selection process is unavailable, other estimators should be used. This study advocates the one-factor control function estimator that allows for unobserved heterogeneity with factor-loading technique. Treatment effects of vocational training in Sweden are estimated with mean and distributional parameters, and then compared with matching estimates. The results indicate that unobservables slightly increase the treatment effect for those treated.

  • 11.
    Anxo, Dominique
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hussain, Shakir
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    The Demand of Part-time in  European Companies: A Multilevel Modeling Approach2012In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 44, no 8, p. 1057-1066Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Part-time work is one of the most well-known « atypical » working time arrangements. In contrast to previous studies focusing on the supply side, the originality of our research is to investigate the demand-side of part-time work and to examine how and why companies use part-time work. Based on a large and unique sample of European firms operating in 21 member states, we use a multilevel multinomial modeling in a Bayesian environment. Our results suggest that the variations in the extent of part-time workers at the establishment level is determined more by country-specific features than by industry specific factors.

  • 12.
    Anxo, Dominique
    et al.
    Department of Economics and Statistics, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden .
    Hussain, Shakir
    Public Health, Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medicine, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK .
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    The demand of part-time in European companies: a multilevel modelling approach2012In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 44, no 8, p. 1057-1066Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Part-time work is one of the most well-known « atypical » working time arrangements. In contrast to previous studies focusing on the supply side, the originality of our research is to investigate the demand-side of part-time work and to examine how and why companies use part-time work. Based on a large and unique sample of European firms operating in 21 member states, we use a multilevel multinomial modeling in a Bayesian environment. Our results suggest that the variations in the extent of part-time workers at the establishment level is determined more by country-specific features than by industry specific factors.

  • 13.
    Arai, Mahmood
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Heyman, Fredrik
    Microdata Evidence on Rent Sharing2009In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 41, no 23, p. 2965-2976Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the effect of firm profits on wages for individual workers while focusing on the empirical complications associated with estimating the extent of rent-sharing. Controlling for worker and firm fixed-effects and using several instruments to deal with the endogeneity of profits, we report results indicating that Ordinary Least Square (OLS)-estimates strongly underestimate the effects of profits on wages. Moreover, the effect of profits on wages are estimated separately for firms with increasing and decreasing profits within a given time period. We find a positive and stable effect only in firms with increasing profits. This is in line with the idea that falling profits do not lead to wage cuts while increasing profits imply higher wages.

  • 14.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Brännäs, Kurt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    The importance of locational choice in an empirical labour supply model1996In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 521-529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An estimation of labour supply is modelled using the theory of urban household behaviour. The major purpose is to test the (implicit) assumption in previous labour supply studies that work travel and housing consumption are weakly separable from the hours of work. The results, which are obtained using Swedish data, imply that the hypothesis of weak separability is clearly rejected. We also find that the choice of location affects policy-relevant conclusions about the labour supply behaviour.

  • 15.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The Demand and Supply of Credit for households2007In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 39, no 21, p. 2681-2692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand and supply of credit in the rural credit markets is investigated in this article using household data from India. The aim is to study the effects of household, farm productive characteristics and the policy variables on the demand and supply of credit. A type 3 Tobit model is estimated which corrects for sample selection and endogeniety bias. In addition, a generalized Double Hurdle model is estimated where the information on the household's access to credit is included to estimate the demand and supply of credit. The results suggest that the size of the operational holdings, net-wealth, dependency ratio, educational level of the household and the wages and output prices are important determinants of the demand and supply of credit for farm households. The Double Hurdle model confirms that the 'size of land owned' plays a crucial role in whether the household has access to a loan or not.

  • 16.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Uppsala University.
    The Demand and Supply of Credit for households2007In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 39, no 21, p. 2681-2692Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17. Bask, Mikael
    et al.
    Lundgren, Jens
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Market power in the expanding Nordic power market2011In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 43, no 9, p. 1035-1043Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine if the Nordic power market, Nord Pool, has been competitive or if electricity suppliers have had market power. Specifically, since the evolution from national markets to a multi-national and largely deregulated power market has taken place stepwise, we also examine how the degree of market power has evolved during this integration process. The Bresnahan-Lau method together with weekly data during 1996-2004 are used in the analysis, which shows that electricity suppliers have had small, but statistically significant, market power, but that the market power has been reduced as the Nord Pool area has expanded

  • 18.
    Bask, Mikael
    et al.
    Department of Finance and Statistics, Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, PO Box 479, FIN-00101 Helsinki, Finland.
    Lundgren, Jens
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Department of Economics, Dalarna University, Borlänge, Sweden ; The Swedish Retail Institute (HUI), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Market power in the expanding Nordic power market2011In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 43, no 9, p. 1035-1043Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine if the Nordic power market, Nord Pool, has been competitive or if electricity suppliers have had market power. Specifically, since the evolution from national markets to a multi-national and largely deregulated power market has taken place stepwise, we also examine how the degree of market power has evolved during this integration process. The Bresnahan–Lau method together with weekly data during 1996–2004 are used in the analysis, which shows that electricity suppliers have had small, but statistically significant, market power, but that the market power has been reduced as the Nord Pool area has expanded.

  • 19. Bitzer, Juergen
    et al.
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    A Schumpeter-inspired Approach to the Construction of R&D Capital Stocks2007In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 179-189Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20. Bjellerup, Mårten
    et al.
    Holgersson, Thomas
    Högskolan i Jönköping.
    A simple multivariate test for asymmetry2009In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 41, no 11, p. 1405-1416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since many macroeconomic models are linear, it is not desirable to use themwith an asymmetric dependent variable. In this article, we formulate aunivariate test for symmetry, based on the third central moment and extendit to a multivariate test; the test does not require modelling and it is robustagainst serial correlation, Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity(ARCH) and nonnormality. In the empirical application of the test it isfound that orthodox theory seem to be supported; consumption expendi-ture on durable goods is found to be symmetric while consumptionexpenditure on nondurable goods is asymmetric for the USA and the UK,with peaks being higher than troughs are deep. Also, the empiricalimportance of the choice between the univariate and the multivariate testfor possibly correlated series is underscored; the results from the twoapproaches  clearly  differ.  Given  the  widespread  practice  of  usingconsumption expenditure on nondurable goods as the dependent variablein linear models for the USA and the UK, our results might be noteworthy.

  • 21. Bjellerup, Mårten
    et al.
    Holgersson, Thomas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    A simple multivariate test for asymmetry2009In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 41, no 11, p. 1405-1416Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Bjuggren, Per-Olof
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO). Ratio Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.;Jonkoping Int Business Sch, Jonkoping, Sweden..
    Marginal q revisited2016In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 52-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two measures of firm investment behaviour used in the empirical research are Tobin's q (average q) and marginal q. The marginal q is a more recently introduced measure than Tobin's q and is not as well known. This article aims to demonstrate the advantages of using marginal q as a performance measure and is a response to an earlier critical article (Berglund, 2011) claiming an elusiveness bias. The pro arguments made in response are that the claimed elusiveness is not a problem. Furthermore, many of the evaluation problems inherent in the empirical use of Tobin's q, like estimation of replacement cost of assets, can be avoided. From a pure theoretical standpoint, it has long been recognized that marginal q is superior to an average measure of investment behaviour such as Tobin's q.

  • 23.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101).
    Svensson, Roger
    Host country characteristics and agglomeration in foreign direct investment1996In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 28, p. 833-840Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Svensson, Roger
    Host Country Characteristics and Agglomeration in Freign Direct Investment1996In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Sjöström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Evaluating market efficiency without price data: The Swedish market for wood fuel2004In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 31-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall objective of this paper is to analyse the price development and price formation for wood fuel used by the Swedish district heating sector. According to Lnner et al., there is a significant potential for increasing the use of wood fuel in Sweden, at a fairly moderate cost. The basic question raised in this paper is then why this potential is not realized. Specifically, a methodology is proposed for testing whether the reason is that market imperfections are present. As a first step the shape of the technology in the Swedish district heating sector is estimated for the period 1989 to 1996. In the second step the estimated technology and the assumption of cost-minimizing firms are combined to calculate shadow prices, i.e. marginal valuation of wood fuel in this sector. If the average shadow price significantly deviates from the average observed price one may conclude that this market is functioning inefficiently due to imperfections. According to constructed bootstrap confidence intervals this difference is significant only for three out of eight years, implying that the quantities of wood fuel traded are too small. For the other years the difference is not significant, implying that one cannot, on statistical grounds, reject the efficient market hypothesis for all years.

  • 26.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Fumarco, Luca
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ethnic discrimination in hiring, labour market tightness and the business cycle: evidence from field experiments2018In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 50, no 24, p. 2652-2663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies using observational data suggest that ethnic discrimination increases in downturns of the economy. We investigate whether ethnic discrimination depends on labour market tightness using data from correspondence studies. We utilize three correspondence studies of the Swedish labour market and two different measures of labour market tightness. These two measures produce qualitatively similar results, and, opposite to the observational studies, suggest that ethnic discrimination in hiring decreases in downturns of the economy.

  • 27.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The Revenues-Expenditures Nexus: Panel Data Evidence from Swedish Municipalities1998In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 30, no 10, p. 1379-1386Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för nationalekonomi.
    de Luna, Xavier
    Efficacy and Cost of Regime Shifts in Inflation Policies: Evidence from New Zealand and Sweden2001In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 217-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a comparative study of the regime shift in inflation policies in New Zealand and Sweden is performed. A nonparametric regression method is used to decompose the inflation time series into three components of variation: a long-term trend, a medium-term (cyclical and transient variations) trend and a short-term shocks component. This allows study of the transition process from the high inflation characterizing the end of the 1970s and the 1980s to the low inflation observed during the 1990s. It is found that in New Zealand, although it is initially delayed, the decrease in inflation happens at a faster pace than in Sweden. This may indicate that reforms were more efficient in New Zealand. A clear link is also shown between the rising unemployment and the transition from high to low inflation. Furthermore, while in New Zealand a downward adjustment of the unemployment rate happens directly after the transition period, in Sweden there seems to be persistence in high unemployment.

  • 29.
    Eek, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Rikner, Klas
    Centre for Public Sector Research, Göteborg University, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden / Vårdal Institute, Göteborg, Sweden.
    What determines people's decisions whether or not to report sick?2005In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 533-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish employees who are temporarily absent from work are compensated for the loss of income from the governmentally regulated sickness insurance. During the 1990s, when the societal costs for covering sickness absence raised dramatically, the sickness insurance underwent several changes, which raised questions about how people reacted to the changes made. This article is based on a survey where individuals were asked several questions about whether they would go to work or report sick, given that they actually felt ill. Respondents were asked the same questions under different hypothetical compensations. The results indicated strong effects of factors related to the financial loss of being absent on the propensity to report sick.

  • 30.
    Eliason, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Income after job loss: the role of the family and the welfare state2011In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 603-618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    That displaced workers suffer long-lasting earnings losses is a stylized fact, raising the question whether these losses are replaced by other means. For married men, increased labour supply by the wife may be one way. Another possibility is that the public welfare system offsets the same losses. I used a Swedish longitudinal data set containing married couples where the husband was either employed or made redundant in 1987 by an establishment closure. There was no evidence that husbands' job loss positively affected wives' annual earnings. Although husbands' utilization of unemployment insurance increased significantly, government transfers including also sickness insurance, disability insurance and means-tested social benefits, did not fully replace husbands' long-run earnings losses. Hence, displaced workers seem to suffer also from long-lasting losses in family income, which in many respects is a better measure of economic welfare than individual earnings or wages.

  • 31.
    Engström, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Holmlund, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Tax evasion and self-employment in a high-tax country: Evidence from Sweden2009In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 41, no 19, p. 2419-2430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-employed individuals have arguably greater opportunities than wage earners to underreport their incomes. This article uses recent Swedish income and expenditure data to examine the extent of underreporting of income among self-employed individuals. A key hypothesis is that underreporting of incomes among the self-employed would be visible in the data as 'excess food consumption', for a given level of observed income. Our results confirm the underreporting hypothesis. In particular, we estimate that households with at least one self-employed member underreport their total incomes by around 30%. Under-reporting appears to be much more prevalent among self-employed people with unincorporated businesses as among those with incorporated businesses.

  • 32.
    Engström, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The medical doctors as gatekeepers in the sickness insurance?2012In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 44, no 28, p. 3615-3625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a randomized experiment, we estimate effects from notification to medical doctors of tighter monitoring of their Medical Certificates (MCs). Both the time prescribed by the doctor certificates for sick leave (prescribed sick leave) and the impact on the length of the actual sickness absence (actual sick leave) is studied. We find no effect on the total number of prescribed sick leave days. However, we do find an increase in both prescribed and actual sick leave with a 25% work inability. We also find that the notification letter causes an increase in actual sick leave (i.e. the number of reimbursed sick days). We discuss a number of potential explanations for this rather surprising result.

  • 33.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Stadin, Karolina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    What are the Determinants of Hiring?: The Importance of Product Market Demand and Search Frictions2017In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 49, p. 5144-5165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we study the importance of product market demand and search frictions for hiring. We use a search-matching model with imperfect competition in the product market to derive an equation for total hiring in a local labour market, and estimate it on Swedish panel data. If product markets are imperfectly competitive, product demand shocks should have a direct effecton employment for given levels of prices and wages. Our main finding is that product demand has such a direct effect on hiring. This highlights the importance of taking imperfect competitionin the product market into account in studies of employment dynamics and hiring. We also find that, for given levels of prices, wages, and product demand, the number of unemployed workersin a local labour market has a positive effect on hiring, suggesting that search frictions matter. Quantitatively, product demand shocks seem to be more important for understanding the variation in hiring than shocks to the number of unemployed workers.

  • 34.
    Gustavsson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The 1990s rise in Swedish earnings inequality - persistent or transitory?2007In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 25-30Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Hacker, R. Scott
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School, PO Box 1026, SE-551 11 Jönköping, Sweden.
    Hatemi-J, Abdulnasser
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Tests for causality between integrated variables using asymptotic and bootstrap distributions: theory and application2006In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 38, no 13, p. 1489-1500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Causality tests in the Granger's sense are increasingly applied in empirical research. Since the unit root revolution in time-series analysis, several modifications of tests for causality have been introduced in the literature. One of the recent developments is the Toda-Yamamoto modified Wald (MWALD) test, which is attractive due to its simple application, its absence of pre-testing distortions, and its basis on a standard asymptotical distribution irrespective of the number of unit roots and the cointegrating properties of the data. This study investigates the size properties of the MWALD test and finds that in small sample sizes this test performs poorly on those properties when using its asymptotical distribution, the chi-square. It is suggested that use be made of a leveraged bootstrap distribution to lower the size distortions. Monte Carlo simulation results show that an MWALD test based on a bootstrap distribution has much smaller size distortions than corresponding cases when the asymptotic distribution is used. These results hold for different sample sizes, integration orders, and error term processes (homoscedastic or ARCH). This new method is applied to the testing of the efficient market hypothesis.

  • 36.
    Hacker, R Scott
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Hatemi-J, Abdulnasser
    Tests for Causality between Integrated Variables Using Asymptotic and Bootstrap Distributions: Theory and Application2006In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 38, no 13, p. 1489-1500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Causality tests in the Granger's sense are increasingly applied in empirical research. Since the unit root revolution in time-series analysis, several modifications of tests for causality have been introduced in the literature. One of the recent developments is the Toda-Yamamoto modified Wald (MWALD) test, which is attractive due to its simple application, its absence of pre-testing distortions, and its basis on a standard asymptotical distribution irrespective of the number of unit roots and the cointegrating properties of the data. This study investigates the size properties of the MWALD test and finds that in small sample sizes this test performs poorly on those properties when using its asymptotical distribution, the chi-square. It is suggested that use be made of a leveraged bootstrap distribution to lower the size distortions. Monte Carlo simulation results show that an MWALD test based on a bootstrap distribution has much smaller size distortions than corresponding cases when the asymptotic distribution is used. These results hold for different sample sizes, integration orders, and error term processes (homoscedastic or ARCH). This new method is applied to the testing of the efficient market hypothesis

  • 37.
    Hacker, R Scott
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Hatemi-J, Abdulnasser
    The Effect of Regime Shifts on the Long-Run Relationships for Swedish Money Demand2005In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 37, no 15, p. 1731-1736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When the possibility of an unknown structural break is allowed and it is taken into account we find a significant long-run relationship between Swedish money demand and its determinants that is not found when no break is considered. The estimated elasticities show that money demand is more responsive to its determinants in the period after the break than before. Possible underlying reasons for the occurrence of this break and its implications are explained.

  • 38.
    Hacker, R. Scott
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School, PO Box 1026, SE-551 11 Jönköping, Sweden.
    Hatemi-J., Abdulnasser
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    The effect of regime shifts on the long-run relationships for Swedish money demand2005In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 37, no 15, p. 1731-1736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When the possibility of an unknown structural break is allowed and it is taken into account we find a significant long-run relationship between Swedish money demand and its determinants that is not found when no break is considered. The estimated elasticities show that money demand is more responsive to its determinants in the period after the break than before. Possible underlying reasons for the occurrence of this break and its implications are explained.

  • 39.
    Hammar, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Gteborg University, Gteborg, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Sjöström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Andersson, Matts
    WSP Analysis & Strategy, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The kilometer tax and Swedish industry-effects on sectors and regions2011In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 43, no 22, p. 2907-2917Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An introduction of a kilometer tax for heavy goods vehicles can be constrained by the risk of that higher production costs than competitors in other countries will negatively affect regions and industries of policy concern. We estimate factor demand elasticities in the Swedish manufacturing industry using firm level data for the 1990 to 2001 period on input prices and quantities. The results show that the introduction of a kilometer tax for heavy goods vehicles decreases transport demand and increases labour demand. The effects are less pronounced in terms of changes in output, though some industries (e.g. wood, pulp and paper) can be expected to be affected more than others due to their dependence on road freight transport. The regional dimension regarding the consequences of a kilometer tax seems to be small or even nonexisting.

  • 40.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    The predicted earnings differential and immigrant self-employment in Sweden2006In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 619-630Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Hatemi-J, Abdulnasser
    et al.
    Economics, UAE University.
    Hacker, R Scott
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Can the LR Test Be Helpful in Choosing the Otpimal Lag Order in the VAR Model When Information Criteria Suggest Different Lag Orders?2009In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 41, no 9, p. 1121-1125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this simulation study is to investigate whether the likelihood ratio (LR) test can pick the optimal lag order in the vector autoregressive model when the most applied information criteria (i.e. vector Schwarz--Bayesian, SBC and vector Hannan-Quinn, HQC) suggest two different lag orders. This lag-choosing procedure has been suggested by Hatemi-J (1999). The results based on the Monte Carlo simulations show that combining the LR test with SBC and HQC causes a substantial increase in the success rate of choosing the optimal lag order compared to cases when only SBC or HQC are used. This appears to be the case irrespective of homoscedasticity or conditional heteroscedasticity properties of the error-term in small sample sizes. This improvement in choosing the right lag order also tends to improve the forecasting capability of the underlying model.

  • 42.
    Hatemi-J, Abdulnasser
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Irandoust, Manuchehr
    Department of Economics, University of Örebro, SE-701 82 Örebro, Sweden.
    The Response of Industry Employment to Exchange Rate Shocks: evidence from panel cointegration2006In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 415-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the long-run relationship between employment and exchange rate shocks at the industry level for France. Using panel unit roots and panel cointegration analysis, it is found that the French industries are quite sensitive to exchange rate changes. The estimated long-run elasticities reveal that exchange rates do influence industry employment in the expected way, that is, real appreciations are associated with decline in manufacturing for all industries in the sample

  • 43.
    Hatemi-J, Abdulnasser
    et al.
    UAE University, U Arab Emirates .
    Salah Uddin, Gazi
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    On the causal nexus of remittances and poverty reduction in Bangladesh2014In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 374-382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to investigate the causal relationship between remittances and poverty reduction in Bangladesh over the period 1976 to 2010. This issue is of fundamental importance for the developing economy of Bangladesh. We apply newly developed methods by Hacker and Hatemi-J (2006, 2012) that are based on simulations and are robust to the violation of statistical assumptions especially when the sample size is small, as is the case in this article. Our estimation results reveal that causality nexus of poverty and remittances is bi-directional. We also find that the causal impact of poverty reduction on remittance is stronger than the reverse impact. This finding implies that Bangladeshi policy-makers can influence remittances through poverty reduction in the long run.

  • 44. Helms McCarty, Sara
    et al.
    Angner, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Scott, Brian
    Culver, Sarah
    Mandated volunteering: an experimental approach2018In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 50, no 27, p. 2992-3006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study employs a novel experimental paradigm to examine crowdout effects in volunteering. Using a framework modelled upon money donation experiments, we examine the impact of ‘forced’ volunteering on the amount of time volunteered. We find that subjects exposed to forced volunteering on the mean voluntarily donate less time than subjects in the control condition. Among religious subjects, the crowdout is 52.8%, suggesting warm-glow giving. Among non-religious subjects, the crowdout is 138%, implying altruistic giving. Thus, policies mandating volunteer activity may be associated with sizeable crowdout effects and might have heterogeneous effects across subpopulations.

  • 45. Henrik, Hammar
    et al.
    Tommy, Lundgren
    Sjöström, Magnus
    Andersson, Matts
    The kilometer tax and Swedish industry - effects on sectors and regions2009In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, p. 2907-2917Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An introduction of a kilometer tax for heavy goods vehicles can be constrained by the risk of that higher production costs than competitors in other countries will negatively affect regions and industries of policy concern. We estimate factor demand elasticities in the Swedish manufacturing industry using firm level data for the 1990 to 2001 period on input prices and quantities. The results show that the introduction of a kilometer tax for heavy goods vehicles decreases transport demand and increases labour demand. The effects are less pronounced in terms of changes in output, though some industries (e. g. wood, pulp and paper) can be expected to be affected more than others due to their dependence on road freight transport. The regional dimension regarding the consequences of a kilometer tax seems to be small or even nonexisting.

  • 46.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Economic Statistics, Stockholm School of Economics, Box 6501, S-11383, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Efficiency measurement in rotating panel data1998In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 30, no 7, p. 919-930Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rotating panel data are used with estimation of stochastic production frontier. The model can be viewed as a generalization of the regular production function estimation that accommodates technical inefficiency as well as firm heterogeneity. In particular, while estimating technical efficiency for each firm over time we control for firm-specific effects and separate them from technical inefficiency. Estimation of the model is considered in two steps. In the first step we estimate parameters of the underlying production function using generalized least squares method which are then used in the estimation of technical efficiency in the second step. As an empirical application we used rotating data on 1425 Swedish dairy farms observed during 1976-1988. The mean technical efficiency of these farms is found to be 94.5% and 16% of the farms are fully efficient. Evidence of technical regress about 1% annum is observed during 1976 to 1984.

  • 47.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Karlström, Anders
    KTH.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    The value of commuting time in an empirical on-the-job search model: an application based on moments from two samples2013In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 45, no 19, p. 2827-2837Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article estimates the Value of Commuting Time (VOCT) among Swedish males in an empirical on-the-job search model. It uses a large sample of employee-establishment linked data obtained from administrative registers. The sample lacks information on mode choice for the journey to work. We therefore estimate a mode choice model on another sample and use this model to link the administrative data to the relevant set of travel times, costs and distances. The VOCT is found to be 1.8 times the net hourly wage rate in the sample. The relatively high estimate results from a high VOCT among cohabiting men.

  • 48.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Transport Economics Unit, National Road and Transportations Research Institute, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Karlström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Transport Economics Unit, National Road and Transportations Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The value of commuting time in an empirical on-the-job search model: An application based on moments from two samples2013In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 45, no 19, p. 2827-2837Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article estimates the Value of Commuting Time (VOCT) among Swedish males in an empirical on-the-job search model. It uses a large sample of employee-establishment linked data obtained from administrative registers. The sample lacks information on mode choice for the journey to work. We therefore estimate a mode choice model on another sample and use this model to link the administrative data to the relevant set of travel times, costs and distances. The VOCT is found to be 1.8 times the net hourly wage rate in the sample. The relatively high estimate results from a high VOCT among cohabiting men.

  • 49.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School. Norwegian Social Res NOVA, Oslo, Norway..
    Svensson, Mikael
    Univ Orebro, Dept Econ, Orebro, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Hlth Metr, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    The effect of copayments on primary care utilization: results from a quasi-experiment2016In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 48, no 39, p. 3752-3762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses how health-care utilization is affected by copayments in a tax-financed health-care system. The article utilizes a natural experiment in which a health-care region in Sweden changed the price of healthcare in such a way that primary care general physician prices increased by 33%. We use daily visit data in the treatment region and a neighbouring control region where no price change took place and analyse the effect using differences-in-differences as well as differences-in-differences-in-differences models. The results from the preferred models indicate no effect on health-care utilization due to the price change, a result that also holds across different socio-economic subregions in the treatment region.

  • 50.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden; Norwegian Social Research (NOVA), Oslo, Norway.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Health Metrics, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The effect of copayments on primary care utilization: results from a quasi-experiment2016In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 48, no 39, p. 3752-3762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses how health-care utilization is affected by copayments in a tax-financed health-care system. The article utilizes a natural experiment in which a health-care region in Sweden changed the price of healthcare in such a way that primary care general physician prices increased by 33%. We use daily visit data in the treatment region and a neighbouring control region where no price change took place and analyse the effect using differences-in-differences as well as differences-in-differences-in-differences models. The results from the preferred models indicate no effect on health-care utilization due to the price change, a result that also holds across different socio-economic subregions in the treatment region.

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