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  • 1. Alfimov, V
    et al.
    Aldahan, A
    Possnert, G
    Winsor, P
    Anthropogenic iodine-129 in seawater along a transect from the Norwegian coastal current to the North Pole2004In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 49, no 11-12, p. 1097-1104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variation in the concentrations of iodine-129 (I-129, T-1/2 = 15.7 Myr), a low-level radioactive component of nuclear fuel waste, is documented in surface waters and depth profiles collected during 2001 along a transect from the Norwegian Coastal Current to the North Pole. The surface waters near the Norwegian coast are found to have 20 times higher I-129 concentration than the surface waters of the Arctic Ocean. The depth profiles of I-129 taken in the Arctic Ocean reveal a sharp decline in the concentration to a depth of about 300-500m followed by a weaker gradient extending down to the bottom. A twofold increase in the I-129 concentration is observed in the upper 1000m since 1996. Based on known estimates of marine transient time from the release sources (the nuclear reprocessing facilities at La Hague, France, and Sellafield, UK), a doubling in the I-129 inventory of the top 1000m of the Arctic Ocean is expected to occur between the years 2001 and 2006. As I-129 of polar mixed layer and Atlantic layer of the Arctic Ocean is ventilated by the East Greenland Current into the Nordic Seas and North Atlantic Ocean, further dispersal and increase of the isotope concentration in these regions will be encountered in the near future. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2. Alfimov, V
    et al.
    Possnert, G
    Aldahan, A
    Anthropogenic iodine-129 in the Arctic Ocean and Nordic Seas: Numerical modeling and prognoses2006In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 380-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A numerical model simulation has been used to predict extent and variability in the anthropogenic I-129 pollution in the Arctic Ocean and Nordic Seas region over a period of 100 years. The source function of I-129 used in the model is represented by a well-known history of discharges from the Sellafield and La Hague nuclear reprocessing facilities. The simulations suggest a fast transport and large inventory of the anthropogenic I-129 in the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans. In a fictitious case of abrupt stop of the discharges, a rapid decline of inventories is observed in all compartments except the North Atlantic Ocean, the deep Nordic Seas and the deep Arctic Ocean. Within 15 years after the stop of releases, the model prediction indicates that near-equilibrium conditions are reached in all compartments. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 3. Aminot, A
    et al.
    Kirkwood, D
    Carlberg, Stig
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    The QUASIMEME laboratory performance studies (1993-1995): Overview of the nutrients section1997In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 35, no 1-6, p. 28-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The QUASIMEME Project (1993-1996) was established to assist European laboratories to improve the data they produce in marine monitoring programmes. Through laboratory performance Studies (with six-monthly reports), workshops and expert visits the programme was fully interactive. There were five rounds of laboratory performance studies. For the nutrient section, in which about 50 laboratories took part, the reference materials distributed to the participants consisted of standard solutions of nutrients and seawater samples stabilized by autoclaving. The material included low and high concentrations typical of those encountered in coastal seawater; at least two samples with different concentrations were distributed in each round. Robust statistics were used to determine the means and standard deviations for each set of results. For inorganic nutrients, the assessment of the data for bias and precision was based mainly on a Z- and P-scoring system in which targets of +/- 6% were allocated to the high concentrations, likewise +/- 12.5% to the low concentrations. This overview discusses overall performance separately for nitrate plus nitrite, nitrite, ammonia, phosphate, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, and classifies the performance of individual laboratories in each round, while maintaining their anonymity. Performance for nitrate plus nitrite and nitrite improved steadily and these determinands are now fully under control; at the end of the programme, standard deviations (SD) for nitrate plus nitrite were 0.2 mu mol l(-1) at low concentration and 0.6 mu mol l(-1) (4%) at high concentration, and for nitrite they were 0.03 mu mol l(-1) and 0.06 mu mol l(-1) (5%) respectively. Phosphate showed a somewhat stable level of performance with SD of 0.06 mu mol l(-1) and 0.10 mu mol l(-1) (10%) at low and high concentrations respectively, but this could be improved. Ammonia proved the most difficult to determine, and in spite of a substantial improvement at the beginning of the exercise, this determinand is not under control in many laboratories. At low concentrations, ammonia shows a positive bias of 0.2 mu mol l(-1) and a SD of 0.3 mu mol l(-1), while at high concentrations SD reaches 0.5 mu mol l(-1) (20%). For total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), the exercises show that only two thirds of the participants produced consistent data for TN, and less than half of them produced consistent data for TP. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 4. Andersen, Jesper H.
    et al.
    Murray, Ciaran
    Kaartokallio, Hermanni
    Axe, Philip
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Molvaer, Jarle
    A simple method for confidence rating of eutrophication status classifications2010In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 60, no 6, p. 919-924Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the development of a methodology for assessing confidence in ecological status classifications. The method presented here can be considered as a secondary assessment, supporting the primary assessment of eutrophication or ecological status. The confidence assessment is based on scoring the quality of the indicators on which the primary assessment is made. This represents a first step towards linking status classification with information regarding their accuracy and precision. Applied to an existing data set used for assessment of eutrophication status of the Baltic Sea (including the Kattegat and Danish Straits) we demonstrate that confidence in the assessment is Good or High in 149 out of 189 areas assessed (79%). Contrary to our expectations, assessments of the open parts of the Baltic Sea have a higher confidence than assessments of coastal waters. We also find that in open waters of the Baltic Sea, some biological indicators have a higher confidence than indicators representing physical-chemical conditions. In coastal waters, phytoplankton, submerged aquatic vegetation and indicators of physical-chemical conditions have a higher confidence than indicators of the quality of benthic invertebrate communities. Our analyses also show that the perceived weaknesses of eutrophication assessments are due more to Low confidence in reference conditions and acceptable deviations, rather than in the monitoring data. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Apraiz, Itxaso
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Cajaraville, Miren P.
    Department of Zoology and Cell Biology, University of the Basque Country.
    Cristobal, Susana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Peroxisomal proteomics, biomonitoring in mussles after the Prestige's oil spill2009In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 58, no 12, p. 1815-1826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peroxisomal proteomics was applied to assess possible biological effects after the Prestige's oil spill. Mussels were sampled in July 2004 and 2005 in four stations in the NW (closest to the spill) and NE coasts of the Iberian Peninsula. Principal components analysis (PCA) suggested differences in protein expression among stations and sampling years. Several proteins were putatively identified by mass spectrometry and immunolocalization. PC1 separated the NW stations in 2004 from the rest of the stations and sampling years mainly due to up-regulation of peroxisomal β-oxidation proteins and PMP70. PC3 separated the NE-stations, based on up-regulation of the antioxidant enzyme catalase in 2004 compared to 2005. PC4 separated the stations in the NE and the NW. This work shows that environmental proteomics, together with multivariate data analysis, could provide information to interpret the effects of oil spills at cellular level in mussels also in the absence of historical data.

  • 6. Arce, Fernando
    et al.
    Orizaola, German
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Navedo, Juan G.
    Storm petrel's breeding skipping in response to oil-spill pollution: Raising concerns over Zabala et al. (2011) methodological approach2011In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 62, no 11, p. 2576-2577Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. Artioli, Yuri
    et al.
    Friedeich, Jana
    Gilbert, Alison J.
    McQuatters-Gollop, Abigail
    Mee, Laurence D.
    Vermaat, Jan E.
    Wulff, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Palmeri, Luca
    Pollehne, Falk
    Nutrient budgets for European seas: A measure of the effectiveness of nutrient reduction policies.2008In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 56, no 9, p. 1609-1617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Socio-economic development in Europe has exerted increasing pressure on the marine environment. Eutrophication, caused by nutrient enrichment, is evident in regions of all European seas. Its severity varies but has, in places, adversely impacted socio-economic activities. This paper aims to evaluate the effectiveness of recently adopted policies to reduce anthropogenic nutrient inputs to European seas. Nitrogen and phosphorus budgets were constructed for three different periods (prior to severe eutrophication, during severe eutrophication and contemporary) to capture changes in the relative importance of different nutrient sources in four European seas suffering from eutrophication (Baltic Proper, coastal North Sea, Northern Adriatic and North-Western Black Sea Shelf). Policy success is evident for point sources, notably for P in the Baltic and North Seas, but reduction of diffuse sources has been more problematic.

  • 8.
    Bidleman, Terry F.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Agosta, Kathleen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Liljelind, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Hegmans, Alyse
    Jantunen, Liisa M.
    Nygren, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Poole, Justen
    Ripszam, Matyas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sea-air exchange of bromoanisoles and methoxylated bromodiphenylethers in the Northern Baltic2016In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 112, no 1-2, p. 58-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Halogenated natural products in biota of the Baltic Sea include bromoanisoles (BAs) and methoxylated bromodiphenyl ethers (MeO-BDEs). We identified biogenic 6-MeO-BDE47 and 2'-MeO-BDE68 in Baltic water and air for the first time using gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry. Partial pressures in air were related to temperature by: log p/Pa=m/T(K)+b. We determined Henry's law constants (HLCs) of 2,4-dibromoanisole (2,4-DiBA) and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (2,4,6-TriBA) from 5 to 30°C and revised our assessment of gas exchange in the northern Baltic. The new water/air fugacity ratios (FRs) were lower, but still indicated net volatilization in May-June for 2,4-DiBA and May - September for 2,4,6-TriBA. The net flux (negative) of BAs from Bothnian Bay (38,000km2) between May - September was revised from -1319 to -532kg. FRs of MeO-BDEs were >1, suggesting volatilization, although this is tentative due to uncertainties in their HLCs and binding to dissolved organic carbon.

  • 9.
    Bryhn, Andreas C.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Resources, Skolgatan 6, SE-74242 Oregrund, Sweden..
    Dimberg, Peter H.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bergström, Lena
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Resources, Skolgatan 6, SE-74242 Oregrund, Sweden..
    Fredriksson, Ronny E.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Resources, Skolgatan 6, SE-74242 Oregrund, Sweden..
    Mattila, Johanna
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Resources, Skolgatan 6, SE-74242 Oregrund, Sweden..
    Bergstrom, Ulf
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Resources, Skolgatan 6, SE-74242 Oregrund, Sweden..
    External nutrient loading from land, sea and atmosphere to all 656 Swedish coastal water bodies2017In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 114, no 2, p. 664-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying the main sources of nutrient loading is a key factor for efficient mitigation of eutrophication. This study has investigated the pathways of external nutrient loading to 656 coastal water bodies along the entire Swedish coastline. The studied water bodies have been delineated to meet requirements in the European Union's Water Framework Directive, and recent status assessments have shown that 57% of them fail to attain good or high ecological status with respect to nutrients. The analysis in the study was performed on data from mass balance based nutrient budgets computed using the modelling framework Vattenwebb. The external nutrient contribution from the sea to the water bodies was highly variable, ranging from about 1% to nearly 100%, but the median contribution was >99% of the total external loading regarding both nitrogen and phosphorus. External loading from the atmosphere and local catchment area played a minor role in general. However, 45 coastal water bodies received >25% of the external nitrogen and phosphorus from their catchments. Loading from land typically peaked in April following ice-break and snow melting and was comparatively low during summer. The results indicate that for many eutrophicated Swedish coastal water bodies, nutrient abatement is likely to be optimally effective when potential measures in all of the catchment area of the concerned sea basin are considered. Local-scale mitigation in single water bodies will likely be locally effective only in the small proportion of areas where water and thereby also nutrient input from the catchment is high compared to the influx from the sea. Future studies should include nutrient reduction scenarios in order to refine these conclusions and to identify relevant spatial scales for coastal eutrophication mitigation measures from a water body perspective.

  • 10.
    Carpenter, Angela
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. University of Leeds, School of Earth and Environment, Leeds, West Yorkshire, United Kingdom.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. Organisational Sustainability Ltd., Cardiff, United Kingdom.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Astner, Linda
    Port Authority, Gävle Hamn AB/Port of Gävle AB, Fredriksskans, Gävle, Sweden.
    Securing a port's future through Circular Economy: Experiences from the Port of Gävle in contributing to sustainability2018In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 128, p. 539-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ports are an important player in the world, due to their role in global production and distributions systems. Theyare major intermodal transport hubs, linking the sea to the land. For all ports, a key requirement for commercialand economic viability is to retain ships using them and to remain accessible to those ships. Ports need to findapproaches to help them remain open. They must ensure their continued economic viability. At the same time,they face increasing pressure to become more environmentally and socially conscious. This paper examines theapproach taken by the Port of Gävle, Sweden, which used contaminated dredged materials to create new landusing principles of Circular Economy. The paper demonstrates that using Circular Economy principles can be aviable way of securing a port's future and contributing to its sustainability, and that of the city/region where itoperates.

  • 11.
    Choi, Nicola M. C.
    et al.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Siu, William H. L.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    So, Iris M. K.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Jack, Ralph W.
    Department of Microbiology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Hsieh, Dennis P. H.
    Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Wu, Rudolf S. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Relationships between tissue concentrations of paralytic shellfish toxins and antioxidative responses of clams, Ruditapes philippinarum2006In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 52, no 5, p. 572-578Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12. Cullen-Unsworth, Leanne C.
    et al.
    Mtwana Nordlund, Lina
    Western Indian Ocean – Community, Awareness, Research, and Environment (WIO CARE), Tanzania.
    Paddock, Jessica
    Baker, Susan
    McKenzie, Len J.
    Unsworth, Richard K. F.
    Seagrass meadows globally as a coupled social–ecological system: Implications for human wellbeing2014In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 387-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seagrass ecosystems are diminishing worldwide and repeated studies confirm a lack of appreciation for the value of these systems. In order to highlight their value we provide the first discussion of seagrass meadows as a coupled social–ecological system on a global scale. We consider the impact of a declining resource on people, including those for whom seagrass meadows are utilised for income generation and a source of food security through fisheries support. Case studies from across the globe are used to demonstrate the intricate relationship between seagrass meadows and people that highlight the multi-functional role of seagrasses in human wellbeing. While each case underscores unique issues, these examples simultaneously reveal social–ecological coupling that transcends cultural and geographical boundaries. We conclude that understanding seagrass meadows as a coupled social–ecological system is crucial in carving pathways for social and ecological resilience in light of current patterns of local to global environmental change.

  • 13.
    de la Torre-Castro, Maricela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Di Carlo, Giuseppe
    Jiddawi, Narriman S.
    Seagrass importance for a small-scale fishery in the tropics: The need for seascape management2014In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 398-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale fisheries (SSF) in tropical seascapes (mosaics of interconnected mangroves, seagrasses and corals) are crucial for food and income. However, management is directed mostly to corals and mangroves. This research analyzes the importance of seagrasses compared to adjacent ecosystems in Chwaka Bay, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Using fish landings; the study investigated: location of fishing effort, fish production (biomass and species), and monetary benefits (aggregated value and per capita income). Seagrasses were the most visited grounds providing highest community benefits. Per capita benefits were equivalent to those from corals and mangroves. All three habitats provided income just above extreme poverty levels; however catches from seagrass appeared more stable. Seagrass are key ecosystems supporting SSF and protection and management are urgently needed. Adoption of a seascape approach considering all ecosystems underpinning SSF and the social aspects of fishing and a shift in emphasis from pure conservation to sustainable resource management would be desirable.

  • 14. Dominik, Janusz
    et al.
    Tagliapietra, Davide
    Garcia Bravo, Andrea G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Sigovini, Marco
    Spangenberg, Jorge E.
    Amouroux, David
    Zonta, Roberto
    Mercury in the food chain of the Lagoon of Venice, Italy2014In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 88, no 1-2, p. 194-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sediments and biota samples were collected in a restricted area of the Lagoon of Venice and analysed for total mercury, monomethyl mercury (MMHg), and nitrogen and carbon isotopes. Results were used to examine mercury biomagnification in a complex food chain. Sedimentary organic matter (SOM) proved to be a major source of nutrients and mercury to primary consumers. Contrary to inorganic mercury, MMHg was strongly biomagnified along the food chain, although the lognormal relationship between MMHg and δ15N was less constrained than generally reported from lakes or coastal marine ecosystems. The relationship improved when log MMHg concentrations were plotted against trophic positions derived from baseline δ15N estimate for primary consumers. From the regression slope a mean MMHg trophic magnification factor of 10 was obtained. Filter-feeding benthic bivalves accumulated more MMHg than other primary consumers and were probably important in MMHg transfer from sediments to higher levels of the food chain.

  • 15. Dosis, Ioannis
    et al.
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Karamanlis, Xanthippos
    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in mussels from cultures and natural population2016In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 107, no 1, p. 92-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) mass fractions were determined in mussel samples collected from 6 locations around Thermaikos Gulf in north Greece. PBDEs were present in all sampling sites and the average total (2,PBDEs) ranged from 17.7 to 323 ng/g l.w., characterising Thermaikos as low polluted, a fact further supported by congener ratios and literature comparison. Distribution was even among stations with one exception. Congener profiles exhibited predominance of penta-/octa-BDEs as well as BDE-209. Statistical analysis showed significant difference in pollution levels between the two types of mussel cultures. No variations were observed for mussel bunch position or between cultures and natural population. Congener correlation analysis suggested different pollution sources between higher and lower brominated congeners as well as different metabolic/degradation processes. Bioaccumulation factors indicated that an increase in congener bromination degree leads to bioaccumulation capacity reduction. Consumption of mussels from Thermaikos gulf area poses no threat for public health concerning PBDEs.

  • 16. Elliott, Michael
    et al.
    Snoeijs-Leijonmalm, Pauline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Barnard, Steve
    ‘The dissemination diamond’ and paradoxes of science-to-science and science-to-policy communication: Lessons from large marine research programmes2017In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 125, no 1-2, p. 1-3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    von Brömssen, Claudia
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    The revealed preferences of Baltic Sea governments: Goals, policy instruments, and implementation of nutrient abatement measures2017In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 118, no 1-2, p. 188-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrogen and phosphorus loads are considered a major reason for the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea. Until now, most of the abatement has been made at point sources while the implementation of policies for nonpoint sources has not led to equally large reductions in emissions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the determinants of how nutrient abatement measures are implemented by countries in the agricultural sector of the Baltic Sea region. We investigate how goal setting, policy instrument choice, and the level of implementation is determined by characteristics of the abatement measure as well as socio-economic characteristics of the country where it is implemented. Econometric analysis of a cross-sectional data set suggests that income, institutional capacity, and economies of scope in abatement and enforcement are important determinants of policies developed and their implementation. (C) 2017 The Authors.

  • 18.
    Engwall, Magnus
    et al.
    Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Broman, Dag
    Aquatic Chemical Ecotoxicology, Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Inst. of Appl. Environ. Research, Laboratory for Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Stockholm University, Nyköping, Sweden .
    Näf, Carina
    Aquatic Chemical Ecotoxicology, Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Zebuhr, Yngve
    Aquatic Chemical Ecotoxicology, Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Brunström, Björn
    Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Dioxin-like compounds in HPLC-fractionated extracts of marine samples from the east and west coast of Sweden: bioassay- and instrumentally-derived TCDD equivalents1997In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 34, no 12, p. 1032-1040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lipophilic extracts of sediment, settling particulate matter (SPM) and blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) samples, collected at coastal locations on the east and west coast of Sweden, were HPLC-separated into three fractions containing 1. monoaromatic/aliphatic, 2. diaromatic (e,g, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofuraus (PCDDs/Fs)), and 3, polyaromatic compounds (e,g, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)), The fractions were tested for dioxin-like effects using a sensitive bioassay, based on EROD-induction in cultured chicken embryo livers, The concentrations of PCDDs/Fs, PCBs and 15 PAHs in the samples were also determined, The polyaromatic fractions of the sediment samples were more potent as EROD-inducers than the diaromatic fractions, Only a small part of the EROD-induction caused by the polyaromatic fractions could be explained by the analysed PAHs in the samples, indicating presence of non-quantified polyaromatic EROD-inducing compounds in the samples, A greater pollution by EROD-inducing diaromatic and polyaromatic compounds on the east coast site than on the west coast site was seen, The filtration activities and faeces production of the mussels on the east coast experimental site increased the sedimentation of PCDDs/Fs, PCBs and PAHs, The described bioassay proved very useful in the assessment of dioxin-like compounds in both abiotic and biotic samples from the marine environment,

  • 19.
    Frogner-Kockum, Paul
    et al.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Göransson, Peter
    Åslund, Henrik
    Ländell, Märta
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Stevens, Rodney
    Tengberg, Anders
    Göransson, Gunnel
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Ohlsson, Yvonne
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Metal contaminant fluxes across the sediment water interface2016In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 111, no 1-2, p. 321-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To date, most estimates of contaminant fluxes across the sediment/water interface in risk assessments have been done using diffusive flux models. However, the reliability of these is limited as the overall flux from the sediment may have contributions caused by advection and bioturbation. We found through a comparison of modelled fluxes versus measured fluxes, that the methods Benthic Flux Chamber and surface leaching tests in a risk assessment context showed similar magnitude while calculated fluxes deviated at least by a factor of 100 from measured fluxes. This may be explained by the flux contribution in connection with bioturbation. The chamber- measured fluxes of copper were low compared to those of zinc and cobalt, but this is consistent with leaching tests that indicated copper to be more strongly bound. Risk assessments based on total concentrations may be misleading.

  • 20.
    Frogner-Kockum, Paul
    et al.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, SE-211 22 Malmö, Sweden.
    Kononets, Mikhail
    Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 461, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Apler, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Geological Survey of Sweden, Department of marine environment & planning, Box 670, SE-751 28 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hall, Per O.J.
    Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 461, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Less metal fluxes than expected from fibrous marine sediments2020In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 150, article id 110750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deposits of fibrous sediment, which include fiberbanks and fiber-rich sediments, are known to exist on the Swedish seafloor adjacent to coastally located former pulp and paper industries. These deposits contain concentrations of hazardous substances that exceed national background levels and contravene national environmental quality objectives (EQOs). In this study of metal fluxes from fibrous sediments using benthic flux chamber measurements (BFC) in situ we obtained detected fluxes of Co, Mo, Ni and Zn, but no fluxes of Pb, Hg and Cr. The absence of fluxes of some of the analyzed metals indicates particle bound transport of Pb, Cr and Hg from fiberbanks even though Hg might become methylated under anoxic conditions and, in that case, may enter the food chain. We found less metal fluxes than expected and thus emphasize the importance of in-situ flux measurements as a compliment to sediment metal concentrations within risk assessments of contaminated sediments.

  • 21.
    Gewert, Berit
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Ogonowski, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Aquabiota Water Research, Sweden.
    Barth, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Abundance and composition of near surface microplastics and plastic debris in the Stockholm Archipelago, Baltic Sea2017In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 120, no 1-2, p. 292-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We collected plastic debris in the Stockholm Archipelago using a manta trawl, and additionally along a transect in the Baltic Sea from the island of Gotland to Stockholm in a citizen science study. The samples were concentrated by filtration and organic material was digested using hydrogen peroxide. Suspected plastic material was isolated by visual sorting and 59 of these were selected to be characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Polypropylene and polyethylene were the most abundant plastics identified among the samples (53% and 24% respectively). We found nearly ten times higher abundance of plastics near central Stockholm than in offshore areas (4.2 x 10(5) plastics km(-2) compared to 4.7 x 10(4) plastics km(-2)). The abundance of plastic debris near Stockholm was similar to urban areas in California, USA, and the overall abundance in the Stockholm Archipelago was similar to plastic abundance reported in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

  • 22. Glibert, PA
    et al.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Legrand, Catherine
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Salomon, Paulo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    and, 55 co-authors
    Ocean urea fertilization for carbon credits poses high ecological risks2008In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 1049-1056Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The proposed plan for enrichment of the Sulu Sea, Philippines, a region of rich marine biodiversity, with thousands of tonnes of urea in order to stimulate algal blooms and sequester carbon is flawed for multiple reasons. Urea is preferentially used as a nitrogen source by some cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates, many of which are neutrally or positively buoyant. Biological pumps to the deep sea are classically leaky, and the inefficient burial of new biomass makes the estimation of a net loss of carbon from the atmosphere questionable at best. The potential for growth of toxic dinoflagellates is also high, as many grow well on urea and some even increase their toxicity when grown on urea. Many toxic dinoflagellates form cysts which can settle to the sediment and germinate in subsequent years, forming new blooms even without further fertilization. If large-scale blooms do occur, it is likely that they will contribute to hypoxia in the bottom waters upon decomposition. Lastly, urea production requires fossil fuel usage, further limiting the potential for net carbon sequestration. The environmental and economic impacts are potentially great and need to be rigorously assessed.

  • 23. Goodsir, Freya
    et al.
    Lonsdale, Jemma A.
    Mitchell, Peter J.
    Sühring, Roxana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Farcas, Adrian
    Whomersley, Paul
    Brant, Jan L.
    Clarke, Charlotte
    Kirby, Mark F.
    Skelhorn, Matthew
    Hill, Polly G.
    A standardised approach to the environmental risk assessment of potentially polluting wrecks2019In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 142, p. 290-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential risk to the marine environment of oil release from potentially polluting wrecks (PPW) is increasingly being acknowledged, and in some instances remediation actions have been required. However, where a PPW has been identified, there remains a great deal of uncertainty around the environmental risk it may pose. Estimating the likelihood of a wreck to release oil and the threat to marine receptors remains a challenge. In addition, removing oil from wrecks is not always cost effective, so a proactive approach is recommended to identify PPW that pose the greatest risk to sensitive marine ecosystems and local economies and communities. This paper presents a desk-based assessment approach which addresses PPW, and the risk they pose to environmental and socio-economic marine receptors, using modelled scenarios and a framework and scoring system. This approach can be used to inform proactive management options for PPW and can be applied worldwide.

  • 24.
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Screening for microplastic particles in plankton samples: How to integrate marine litter assessment into existing monitoring programs?2015In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 99, no 1-2, p. 271-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microplastics (MPs) are a newly recognized type of environmental pollution in aquatic systems; however no monitoring of these contaminants is conducted, mostly due to the lack of routine quantification. In the net samples collected with a 90-mu m WP2 net, pelagic MP abundance was quantified by light microscopy and evaluated as a function of inshore-offshore gradient, depth, and season; the same samples were used for zooplankton analysis. The MP abundance was similar to 10(2)-10(4) particles m(-3), with no significant inshore-offshore gradient during summer but increasing offshore in winter. MP abundance in deeper layers was positively affected by zooplankton abundance in the upper layers and significantly lower during winter compared to summer. These findings indicate heterogeneity of MP distribution due to biotic and abiotic factors and suggest that samples collected for other purposes can be used for quantification of MPs in the Baltic Sea, thus facilitating integration of MP assessment into existing monitoring schemes.

  • 25.
    Guban, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Wennerström, Lovisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Elfvving, Tina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Sundelin, Brita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Laikre, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Genetic diversity in Monoporeia affinis at polluted and reference sites of the Baltic Bothnian Bay2015In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 93, no 1-2, p. 245-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amphipod Monoporeia affinis plays an important role in the Baltic Sea ecosystem as prey and as detritivore. The species is monitored for contaminant effects, but almost nothing is known about its genetics in this region. A pilot screening for genetic variation at the mitochondrial COI gene was performed in 113 individuals collected at six sites in the northern Baltic. Three coastal sites were polluted by pulp mill effluents, PAHs, and trace metals, and two coastal reference sites were without obvious connection to pollution sources. An off-coastal reference site was also included. Contaminated sites showed lower levels of genetic diversity than the coastal reference ones although the difference was not statistically significant. Divergence patterns measured as Phi(ST) showed no significant differentiation within reference and polluted groups, but there was significant genetic divergence between them. The off-coastal sample differed significantly from all coastal sites and also showed lower genetic variation.

  • 26.
    Gulkowska, A.
    et al.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    He, Yuhe
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    So, M. K.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Leung, H. W.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Giesy, J. P.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong; Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Canada.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Martin, Michael
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Richardson, Bruce J.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    The occurrence of selected antibiotics in Hong Kong coastal waters2007In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 54, no 8, p. 1287-1293Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27. Hale, Sarah E.
    et al.
    Oen, Amy M. P.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Norway; Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Jonker, Michiel T. O.
    Waarum, Ivar-Kristian
    Eek, Espen
    The role of passive sampling in monitoring the environmental impacts of produced water discharges from the Norwegian oil and gas industry2016In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 111, no 1-2, p. 33-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stringent and periodic iteration of regulations related to the monitoring of chemical releases from the offshore oil and gas industry requires the use of ever changing, rapidly developing and technologically advancing techniques. Passive samplers play an important role in water column monitoring of produced water (PW) discharge to sea-water under Norwegian regulation, where they are used to; i) measure aqueous concentrations of pollutants, ii) quantify the exposure of caged organisms and investigate PW dispersal, and iii) validate dispersal models. This article summarises current Norwegian water column monitoring practice and identifies research and methodological gaps for the use of passive samplers in monitoring. The main gaps are; i) the range of passive samplers used should be extended, ii) differences observed in absolute concentrations accumulated by passive samplers and organisms should be understood, and iii) the link between PW discharge concentrations and observed acute and sub-lethal ecotoxicological end points in organisms should be investigated.

  • 28.
    Hansson, Tomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Barsiene, Janina
    Tjärnlund, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Åkerman, Gun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Linderoth, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Sweden.
    Zebühr, Yngve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Stembeck, John
    Järnberg, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). Bengt Dahlgren Stockholm AB, Sweden.
    Balk, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cytological and biochemical biomarkers in adult female perch (Perca fluviatilis) in a chronically polluted gradient in the Stockholm recipient (Sweden)2014In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 81, no 1, p. 27-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By measuring a battery of cytological and biochemical biomarkers in adult female perch (Perca fluviatilis), the city of Stockholm (Sweden) was investigated as a point source of anthropogenic aquatic pollution. The investigation included both an upstream gradient, 46 km westwards through Lake Malaren, and a downstream gradient, 84 km eastwards through the Stockholm archipelago. Indeed, there was a graded response for most of the biomarkers and for the muscle concentrations of Sigma PBDE, four organotin compounds and PFOS in the perch. The results indicated severe pollution in central Stockholm, with poor health of the perch, characterised by increased frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes, altered liver apoptosis, increased liver catalase activity, decreased brain aromatase activity, and decreased liver lysosomal membrane stability. Some biomarker responses were lowest in the middle archipelago and increased again eastwards, indicating a second, partly overlapping, gradient of toxic effects from the Baltic Sea.

  • 29.
    Hasselström, Linus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Anthesis Enveco AB, Barnhusgatan 4, bv, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Visch, W.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Nylund, G. M.
    Pavia, H.
    The impact of seaweed cultivation on ecosystem services - a case study from the west coast of Sweden2018In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 133, p. 53-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seaweed cultivation attracts growing interest and sustainability assessments from various perspectives are needed. The paper presents a holistic qualitative assessment of ecosystem services affected by seaweed cultivation on the Swedish west coast. Results suggest that supporting, regulating and provisioning services are mainly positively or non-affected while some of the cultural services are likely negatively affected. The analysis opens for a discussion on the framing of seaweed cultivation – is it a way of supplying ecosystem services and/or a way of generating valuable biomass? Exploring these framings further in local contexts may be valuable for identifying trade-offs and designing appropriate policies and development strategies. Many of the found impacts are likely generalizable in their character across sites and scales of cultivation, but for some services, including most of the supporting services, the character of impacts is likely to be site-specific and not generalizable.

  • 30.
    Hernroth, Bodil
    Kristineberg Marine Research Station.
    Differentiation and evaluation of the uncertainty of nutrient measurements that relate to field and laboratory activities1999In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 407-409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When accrediting an environmental monitoring programme, including sampling, storage and analyses of seawater, it is desirable to provide an estimate of the uncertainty of individual components that affect the results, The aim of this study was to clarify the significance between different contributors to the total uncertainty. The Mann-Whitney statistical test showed that the uncertainty associated with sampling conditions was significant when analysing ammonia, nitrite and phosphate, Analyses of ammonia, also showed that the fine structure 'patchiness' of the seawater, reinforced the outdoor contribution of uncertainty.

  • 31.
    Höglund, Anders
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Environmentally safe areas and routes in the Baltic proper using Eulerian tracers2012In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 64, no 7, p. 1375-1385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the shipping of environmentally hazardous cargo has increased considerably in the Baltic proper. In this study, a large number of hypothetical oil spills with an idealized, passive tracer are simulated. From the tracer distributions, statistical measures are calculated to optimize the quantity of tracer from a spill that would stay at sea as long as possible. Increased time may permit action to be taken against the spill before the oil reaches environmentally vulnerable coastal zones. The statistical measures are used to calculate maritime routes with maximum probability that an oil spill will stay at sea as long as possible. Under these assumptions, ships should follow routes that are located south of Bornholm instead of the northern routes in use currently. Our results suggest that the location of the optimal maritime routes depends on the season, although interannual variability is too large to identify statistically significant changes. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 32. Jutterstrom, S.
    et al.
    Andersson, Helén
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Omstedt, A.
    Malmaeus, J. M.
    Multiple stressors threatening the future of the Baltic Sea-Kattegat marine ecosystem: Implications for policy and management actions2014In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 86, no 1-2, p. 468-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper discusses the combined effects of ocean acidification, eutrophication and climate change on the Baltic Sea and the implications for current management strategies. The scientific basis is built on results gathered in the BONUS+ projects Baltic-C and ECOSUPPORT. Model results indicate that the Baltic Sea is likely to be warmer, more hypoxic and more acidic in the future. At present management strategies are not taking into account temporal trends and potential ecosystem change due to warming and/or acidification, and therefore fulfilling the obligations specified within the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, OSPAR and HELCOM conventions and national environmental objectives may become significantly more difficult. The paper aims to provide a basis for a discussion on the effectiveness of current policy instruments and possible strategies for setting practical environmental objectives in a changing climate and with multiple stressors. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 33. Kanhai, La Daana K.
    et al.
    Gårdfeldt, Katarina
    Lyashevska, Olga
    Hassellöv, Martin
    Thompson, Richard C.
    O’Connor, Ian
    Microplastics in sub-surface waters of the Arctic Central Basin2018In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 130, p. 8-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polar oceans, though remote in location, are not immune to the accumulation of plastic debris. The present study, investigated for the first time, the abundance, distribution and composition of microplastics in sub-surface waters of the Arctic Central Basin. Microplastic sampling was carried out using the bow water system of icebreaker Oden (single depth: 8.5 m) and CTD rosette sampler (multiple depths: 8-4369 m). Potential microplastics were isolated and analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Bow water sampling revealed that the median microplastic abundance in near surface waters of the Polar Mixed Layer (PML) was 0.7 particles m^-3. Regarding the vertical distribution of microplastics in the ACB, microplastic abundance (particles m^-3) in the different water masses was as follows: Polar Mixed Layer (0-375) > Deep and bottom waters (0-104) > Atlantic water (0-95) > Halocline i.e. Atlantic or Pacific (0-83).

  • 34.
    Karlsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    A practical ranking system to compare toxicity of anti-fouling paints2006In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, no 52, p. 1661-1667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The toxicity of a number of new anti-fouling paints, claimed to function by physical means and not by leakage of toxic substances, have been tested on two common organisms in the Baltic Sea, i.e., the red macro alga Ceramium tenuicorne and the copepod Nitocra spinipes. In order to compare the toxicity between the paints a ranking system was developed based on the EC50- and LC50-values. The results showed a wide span in toxicity with the most toxic paints ranked 160 times more toxic than the ones ranked least toxic. Also, TBT, irgarol and diuron, which have been used as active ingredients in traditional anti-fouling paints, were used to evaluate the sensitivity of the two test organisms. The results showed that the test organisms were equally sensitive to the substances as similar organisms in earlier studies. In conclusion, the ranking system presented in this study permits ranking and comparison of total toxicity of complex mixtures.

  • 35. Karlsson, Therese M.
    et al.
    Arneborg, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Brostrom, Goran
    Almroth, Bethanie Carney
    Gipperth, Lena
    Hassellov, Martin
    The unaccountability case of plastic pellet pollution2018In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 129, no 1, p. 52-60Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Karlsson, Therese M.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hassellöv, Martin
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jakubowicz, Ignacy
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Influence of thermooxidative degradation on the in situ fate of polyethylene in temperate coastal waters2018In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 135, p. 187-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyethylene is a commonly used polymer in plastic products and is often found as marine litter. Nevertheless there is limited knowledge about what happens to the material when it ends up in the sea. Polyethylene films were therefore thermally oxidised to four different levels of degradation. The films were then placed in stainless-steel cages in the sea off the Swedish west coast for 12 summer weeks. Subsamples were analysed with respect to biofouling, degradation and buoyancy. All levels showed a continued oxidation in the field. The pre-degraded films started fragmenting and the non-degraded films showed a decrease in tensile strain. All levels showed increased biofouling with higher presence of filamentous algae and bryozoans on pre-degraded materials. The density (kg·m−3) of the films was seen to increase slightly, and the apparent density for the pre-degraded films (density of the films with biofilm) showed a strong increase, which resulted in sinking.

  • 37. Kirkwood, D S
    et al.
    Aminot, A
    Carlberg, Stig
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    The 1994 QUASIMEME laboratory performance study: Nutrients in seawater and standard solutions1996In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 32, no 8-9, p. 640-645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 1994 QUASIMEME (nutrients) Laboratory-Performance Study (LPS) is presented, The year's programme consisted of two periods, December-May and June-November, (These are referred to as Round 2 and Round 3, respectively, the previous 1993 LPS being Round 1.) In each period, participating laboratories were sent two types of sample material, that is seawater samples and a standard solution containing a mixture of nutrient salts, The standard solution required dilution (by participants) and multiple analyses over several weeks in order to assess long-term repeatability, In Round 2, a few laboratories, identified as poor performers in Round 1 (1993), undertook a 'learning programme' in which they received, unknowingly, samples identical to those analysed in Round 1, The other laboratories received samples different from those used in Round 1, In Round 3, all laboratories received the same package of samples, different from those used in Round 1 and Round 2, The results clearly indicate that general all-round improvements in data quality have been achieved. Crown copyright (C) 1996 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd

  • 38.
    Kroger, S
    et al.
    CEFAS, Lowestoft NR33 0HT, Suffolk, England; Cranfield University, Bedford MK45 4DT, England; .
    Piletsky, S
    CEFAS, Lowestoft NR33 0HT, Suffolk, England; Cranfield University, Bedford MK45 4DT, England; .
    Turner, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Biosensors for marine pollution research, monitoring and control2002In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 45, no 12-jan, p. 24-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurement of ecological, climatic and anthropogenic changes underpins the formulation of effective management strategies for sustainable use and protection of the marine environment. Sensors are traditionally used in marine studies to determine physical parameters, but there is increasing demand for real-time information about chemical and biological parameters. These parameters are currently measured in samples collected at sea and subsequently analysed in the laboratory. Biosensors fuse the exquisite sensitivity and specificity of living systems with the processing power of microelectronics to deliver simple, inexpensive measurement systems for use in the field or deployment in situ. While their potential for use in the marine environment is enormous, much published work to date has focussed on applications in freshwater and wastewater. Marine applications pose a substantial challenge in the robustness required for remote application, but recent developments in portable medical devices and receptor design suggest that these demands can now be realistically tackled. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 39.
    Krysell, Mikael
    SMHI, Core Services.
    How accreditation changed us1997In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 35, no 1-6, p. 167-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, laboratories involved in national or international marine monitoring programmes are strongly encouraged to seek accreditation or another formal proof of competence, The question often asked is whether a laboratory actually produces more reliable data when a quality system has been set up. A method of monitoring the differences in laboratory performance from year to year is presented in this paper. In the case of the SMHI Oceanographical Laboratory there has been substantial improvement in laboratory performance since formal quality assurance measures were introduced. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 40.
    Lagerström, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Lindgren, J. Fredrik
    Holmqvist, Albin
    Dahlström, Mia
    Ytreberg, Erik
    In situ release rates of Cu and Zn from commercial antifouling paints at different salinities2018In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 127, p. 289-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antifouling paints are environmentally risk assessed based on their biocidal release rates to the water phase. In situ release rates of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were derived for five commercial paints in two recreational marinas with different salinities (5 and 14 PSU) using an X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometer (XRF). Salinity was found to significantly affect the Cu release, with twice the amount of Cu released at the higher salinity, while its influence on the Zn release was paint-specific. Site-specific release rates for water bodies with salinity gradients, e.g. the Baltic Sea, are therefore necessary for more realistic risk assessments of antifouling paints. Furthermore, the in situ release rates were up to 8 times higher than those generated using standardized laboratory or calculation methods. The environmental risk assessment repeated with the field release rates concludes that it is questionable whether the studied products should be allowed on the Swedish market.

  • 41.
    Lagerström, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Lindgren, J. Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Holmqvist, Allbin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Dahlström, Mia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Ytreberg, Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    In situ release rates of Cu and Zn from commercial antifouling paints at different salinities2018In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 127, p. 289-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antifouling paints are environmentally risk assessed based on their biocidal release rates to the water phase. In situ release rates of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were derived for five commercial paints in two recreational marinas with different salinities (5 and 14 PSU) using an X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometer (XRF). Salinity was found to significantly affect the Cu release, with twice the amount of Cu released at the higher salinity, while its influence on the Zn release was paint-specific. Site-specific release rates for water bodies with salinity gradients, e.g. the Baltic Sea, are therefore necessary for more realistic risk assessments of antifouling paints. Furthermore, the in situ release rates were up to 8 times higher than those generated using standardized laboratory or calculation methods. The environmental risk assessment repeated with the field release rates concludes that it is questionable whether the studied products should be allowed on the Swedish market.

  • 42.
    Leung, C C M
    et al.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Jefferson, T A
    Southwest Fisheries Center, NOAA Fisheries, San Diego, CA, United States.
    Hung, S K
    Hong Kong Cetacean Research Project, 12 Kak Tin Kung Miu Village, Tai Wai, New Territories, Hong Kong.
    Zheng, G J
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Yeung, L W Y
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Richardson, B J
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Lam, P K S
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Petroleum hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in tissues of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins from south China waters2005In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 50, no 12, p. 1713-1719Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43. Lu, Liangliang
    et al.
    Goerlandt, Floris
    Banda, Osiris A. Valdez
    Kujala, Pentti
    Höglund, Anders
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Arneborg, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    A Bayesian Network risk model for assessing oil spill recovery effectiveness in the ice-covered Northern Baltic Sea2019In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 139, p. 440-458Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Lyimo, Liberatus D.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. University of Dodoma, Tanzania.
    Gullström, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Lyimo, Thomas J.
    Deyanova, Diana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Dahl, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Hamisi, Mariam
    Björk, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Shading and simulated grazing increase the sulphide pool and methane emission in a tropical seagrass meadow2018In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 134, p. 89-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Though seagrass meadows are among the most productive habitats in the world, contributing substantially to long-term carbon storage, studies of the effects of critical disturbances on the fate of carbon sequestered in the sediment and biomass of these meadows are scarce. In a manipulative in situ experiment, we studied the effects of successive loss of seagrass biomass as a result of shading and simulated grazing at two intensity levels on sulphide (H2S) content and methane (CH4) emission in a tropical seagrass meadow in Zanzibar (Tanzania). In all disturbed treatments, we found a several-fold increase in both the sulphide concentration of the sediment pore-water and the methane emissions from the sediment surface (except for CH4 emissions in the low-shading treatment). This could be due to the ongoing degradation of belowground biomass shed by the seagrass plants, supporting the production of both sulphate-reducing bacteria and methanogens, possibly exacerbated by the loss of downwards oxygen transport via seagrass plants. The worldwide rapid loss of seagrass areas due to anthropogenic activities may therefore have significant effects on carbon sink-source relationships within coastal seas.

  • 45.
    Manzetti, Sergio
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational Biology and Bioinformatics. Fjordforsk AS Midtun, N-6894 Vangsnes, Norway.
    Ghisi, Rossella
    Univ Padua, Dept Agron Food Nat Resources Anim & Environm, I-35020 Legnaro, PD, Italy.
    The environmental release and fate of antibiotics2014In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 79, no 1-2, p. 7-15Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotics have been used as medical remedies for over 50 years and have recently emerged as new pollutants in the environment. This review encompasses the fate of several antibiotics in the environment, including sulfonamides, nitrofurans, terfenadines, cephalosporins and cyclosporins. It investigates the cycle of transfer from humans and animals including their metabolic transformation. The results show that antibiotic metabolites are of considerable persistence and are localized to ground-water and drinking water supplies. Furthermore, the results also show that several phases of the cycle of antibiotics in the environment are not well understood, such as how low concentrations of antibiotic metabolites in the diet affect humans and animals. This review also shows that improved wastewater decontamination processes are remediating factors for these emerging pollutants. The results obtained here may help legislators and authorities in understanding the fate and transformation of antibiotics in the environment. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 46.
    Miller, Aroha
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Research and Monitoring, Swedish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 50 007, SE-104 05 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hedman, Jenny E.
    Department of Environmental Research and Monitoring, Swedish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 50 007, SE-104 05 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Elisabeth
    Department of Environmental Research and Monitoring, Swedish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 50 007, SE-104 05 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Department of Applied Environmental Sciences (ITM), Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7050, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bignert, Anders
    Department of Environmental Research and Monitoring, Swedish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 50 007, SE-104 05 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Temporal trends in dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus)2013In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 73, no 1, p. 220-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (dl-PCBs) concentrations in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) have been relatively stable since the mid to late 1990s. It is unclear why concentrations in Baltic herring are not following the observed decreases in other environmental matrices. Here, changes in long-term temporal trends in Baltic herring were examined. A number of biological variables were examined alongside the temporal trends to investigate whether fish biology e.g., growth (length, weight, age), lipid content, reproductive phase or fishing date may provide an explanation for the temporal trends observed. Significant (p < 0.05) decreasing trends were observed for PCDD/F toxic equivalents (TEQ(PCDD/F)) at three of the four sites (lipid weight (lw) and wet weight (ww), Swedish west coast lw only); however, other TEQ values e.g., TEQ(PCDD), TEQ(PCDF), TEQ(dl-PCB), TEQ(PCDD/F+dl-PCB) were inconsistent, decreasing at some sites but not others. In the most recent 10 years of data, fewer significant decreases were seen overall. Over the examined time period, significant decreases (Bothnian Bay, p < 0.01, southern Baltic Proper, p < 0.02) and increases (Swedish west coast, p < 0.02) in lipid content, growth dilution or lack thereof, and significant changes in age were observed. However herring were not randomly selected which biases this result. Continual efforts to decrease PCDD/F and dl-PCB emissions and to locate/reduce hotspots are necessary, while bearing in mind that herring biology may be impeding faster decreases of these chemicals. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 47. Miller, Aroha
    et al.
    Hedman, Jenny E.
    Nyberg, Elisabeth
    Haglund, Peter
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Wiberg, Karin
    Bignert, Anders
    Temporal trends in dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus)2013In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 73, no 1, p. 220-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (dl-PCBs) concentrations in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) have been relatively stable since the mid to late 1990s. It is unclear why concentrations in Baltic herring are not following the observed decreases in other environmental matrices. Here, changes in long-term temporal trends in Baltic herring were examined. A number of biological variables were examined alongside the temporal trends to investigate whether fish biology e.g., growth (length, weight, age), lipid content, reproductive phase or fishing date may provide an explanation for the temporal trends observed. Significant (p < 0.05) decreasing trends were observed for PCDD/F toxic equivalents (TEQ(PCDD/F)) at three of the four sites (lipid weight (lw) and wet weight (ww), Swedish west coast lw only); however, other TEQ values e.g., TEQ(PCDD), TEQ(PCDF), TEQ(dl-PCB), TEQ(PCDD/F+dl-PCB) were inconsistent, decreasing at some sites but not others. In the most recent 10 years of data, fewer significant decreases were seen overall. Over the examined time period, significant decreases (Bothnian Bay, p < 0.01, southern Baltic Proper, p < 0.02) and increases (Swedish west coast, p < 0.02) in lipid content, growth dilution or lack thereof, and significant changes in age were observed. However herring were not randomly selected which biases this result. Continual efforts to decrease PCDD/F and dl-PCB emissions and to locate/reduce hotspots are necessary, while bearing in mind that herring biology may be impeding faster decreases of these chemicals.

  • 48.
    Miller, Aroha
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of.
    Hedman, Jenny
    Swedish EPA.
    Nyberg, Elisabeth
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University.
    Cousins, Ian
    Stockholm University.
    Bignert, Anders
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of.
    Temporal trends in dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxinand dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in Balticherring (Clupea harengus)2013In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, p. 220-230Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Mtwana Nordlund, Lina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Jackson, Emma L.
    Nakaoka, Masahiro
    Samper-Villarreal, Jimena
    Beca-Carretero, Pedro
    Creed, Joel C.
    Seagrass ecosystem services - What's next?2018In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 134, p. 145-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seagrasses, marine flowering plants, provide a wide range of ecosystem services, defined here as natural processes and components that directly or indirectly benefit human needs. Recent research has shown that there are still many gaps in our comprehension of seagrass ecosystem service provision. Furthermore, there seems to be little public knowledge of seagrasses in general and the benefits they provide. This begs the questions: how do we move forward with the information we have? What other information do we need and what actions do we need to take in order to improve the situation and appreciation for seagrass? Based on the outcomes from an international expert knowledge eliciting workshop, three key areas to advance seagrass ecosystem service research were identified: 1) Variability of ecosystem services within seagrass meadows and among different meadows; 2) Seagrass ecosystem services in relation to, and their connection with, other coastal habitats; and 3) Improvement in the communication of seagrass ecosystem services to the public. Here we present ways forward to advance seagrass ecosystem service research in order to raise the profile of seagrass globally, as a means to establish more effective conservation and restoration of these important coastal habitats around the world.

  • 50.
    Nordlund, Lina Mtwana
    et al.
    Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jackson, Emma L.
    Nakaoka, Masahiro
    Samper-Villarreal, Jimena
    Beca-Carretero, Pedro
    Creed, Joel C.
    Seagrass ecosystem services – What’s next?2017In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seagrasses, marine flowering plants, provide a wide range of ecosystem services, defined here as natural processes and components that directly or indirectly benefit human needs. Recent research has shown that there are still many gaps in our comprehension of seagrass ecosystem service provision. Furthermore, there seems to be little public knowledge of seagrasses in general and the benefits they provide. This begs the questions: how do we move forward with the information we have? What other information do we need and what actions do we need to take in order to improve the situation and appreciation for seagrass? Based on the outcomes from an international expert knowledge eliciting workshop, three key areas to advance seagrass ecosystem service research were identified: 1) Variability of ecosystem services within seagrass meadows and among different meadows; 2) Seagrass ecosystem services in relation to, and their connection with, other coastal habitats; and 3) Improvement in the communication of seagrass ecosystem services to the public. Here we present ways forward to advance seagrass ecosystem service research in order to raise the profile of seagrass globally, as a means to establish more effective conservation and restoration of these important coastal habitats around the world.

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