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  • 1.
    Archer, John
    et al.
    Univ Cent Lancashire, Sch Psychol, Preston PR1 3TQ, Lancs, England .
    Dixon, Louise
    Univ Birmingham, Ctr Forens & Criminol Psychol, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England .
    Graham-Kevan, Nicola
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Perpetrator programmes for partner violence: A rejoinder to Respect2012In: Legal and Criminological Psychology, ISSN 1355-3259, E-ISSN 2044-8333, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 225-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. To reply to the comments made by Debbonaire and Todd (2012) in relation to our critique of Respect's Position Statement. Method. We examined their reply in relation to our original article and to the wider research literature. Results. We show that Debbonaire and Todd's reply is largely a series of assertions, for which little or no supporting evidence is offered. Their argument is first that we are misplaced in criticizing their Position Statement, and second that the main points of the statement are defendable. We indicate why our criticisms of the statement still stand. Conclusions. We argue that Respect have not countered our overall criticism of their position that intimate partner violence (IPV) can only be addressed as a gendered issue, that is as a consequence of patriarchal values enacted at the individual level. Instead we advocate a gender-inclusive approach applying a knowledge base derived from robust empirical research on IPV and more widely from research on human aggression.

  • 2.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Forensic Psychiatric Centre, Sundsvall, Sweden; Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Fransson, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Management of violent behavior in the correctional system using qualified risk assessments2004In: Legal and Criminological Psychology, ISSN 1355-3259, E-ISSN 2044-8333, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 11-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study focused on whether institutional violence in a maximum-security correctional institution could be prevented using comprehensive risk assessments followed by adequate risk management. And, could this be shown by a decrease in risk factors for violence according to the HCR-20 Risk Assessment Scheme in the study group?

    Methods: Offenders with a history of violent criminality were subject to real-life assessments using the HCR-20 Risk Assessment Scheme. The assessments were followed by discussions with members of staff, in which risk management strategies were designed. Thus, the members of staff were fully aware of every inmate's personality characteristics (e.g. psychiatric diagnoses), what risk factors for violence they displayed, and how best to manage those risk factors. With the aim of evaluating the possible effects of our interventions, approximately one third of the study group was reassessed after a mean of 12 months.

    Results: The follow-up showed no significant decrease in important risk factors for violence in the study group. However, the number of violent incidents showed a remarkable decrease during the study period.

    Conclusions: Not being able to reduce important risk factors for violence does not necessarily mean that one cannot decrease the risk for, or the incidence of, violence. This study indicates that proper and adequate risk management, using the best protective factors available, can reduce violence even though important risk factors cannot be decreased. The study also supports the theoretical assumption that changes in risk factors are more possible in some populations (e.g. general psychiatric) than in others (e.g. correctional) depending on the nature of the study group and the risk factors that are at hand (e.g. dynamic vs. static). This seems to be important, to bear in mind when performing evaluation research using risk assessment instruments.

  • 3.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Fransson, Göran
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Management of violent behaviour in the correctional system using qualified risk assessments.2004In: Legal and Criminological Psychology, ISSN 1355-3259, E-ISSN 2044-8333, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 11-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. This study focused on whether institutional violence in a maximum-security correctional institution could be prevented using comprehensive risk assessments followed by adequate risk management. And, could this be shown by a decrease in risk factors for violence according to the HCR-20 Risk Assessment Scheme in the study group? Methods. Offenders with a history of violent criminality were subject to real-life assessments using the HCR-20 Risk Assessment Scheme. The assessments were followed by discussions with members of staff, in which risk management strategies were designed. Thus, the members of staff were fully aware of every inmate's personality characteristics (e.g. psychiatric diagnoses), what risk factors for violence they displayed, and how best to manage those risk factors. With the aim of evaluating the possible effects of our interventions, approximately one third of the study group was reassessed after a mean of 12 months. Results. The follow-up showed no significant decrease in important risk factors for violence in the study group. However, the number of violent incidents showed a remarkable decrease during the study period. Conclusions. Not being able to reduce important risk factors for violence does not necessarily mean that one cannot decrease the risk for, or the incidence of, violence. This study indicates that proper and adequate risk management, using the best protective factors available, can reduce violence even though important risk factors cannot be decreased. The study also supports the theoretical assumption that changes in risk factors are more possible in some populations (e.g. general psychiatric) than in others (e.g. correctional) depending on the nature of the study group and the risk factors that are at hand (e.g. dynamic vs. static). This seems to be important to bear in mind when performing evaluation research using risk assessment instruments.

  • 4.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Validity in judgments of high- and low- accurate witnesses of own and other ethnic groups.2008In: Legal and Criminological Psychology, ISSN 1355-3259, E-ISSN 2044-8333, Vol. 13, p. 107-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Research has shown that people often have difficulties estimating eyewitness accuracy correctly. In most previous studies examining validity in credibility judgments, participants have assessed the accuracy of witnesses who have been homogeneous in their memory performance. This study investigated validity in judgments of witnesses who varied widely in memory. A further purpose was to examine whether judgmental validity was moderated by the witness’ ethnic ingroup/outgroup status.

    Methods: Participants (N=120) rated the credibility of videotaped testimonies of high- and low- accurate in-group (Swedish, n=4) and out-group (immigrants, n=4) witnesses who were genuinely trying to recall a criminal event.

    Results: Participants assigned more credibility to high- than to low- accurate in-group witnesses, while out-group witnesses received low credibility ratings regardless of their actual memory performance. Path analyses demonstrated that the self-reported confidence of in-group, but not of out-group witnesses predicted participants’ accuracy judgments.

    Conclusions: The results indicate that the validity in judgments of in-group witnesses can be better than has previously been implied. Investigators may have difficulty distinguishing high- and low-accurate witnesses from other ethnic groups, and may also systematically underestimate the reliability of ethnic out-group witnesses. Implications for legal practices are discussed.

  • 5.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Validity in judgments of high- and low-accurate witnesses of own and other ethnic groups2008In: Legal and Criminological Psychology, ISSN 1355-3259, E-ISSN 2044-8333, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 107-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. Research has shown that people often have difficulties estimating eyewitness accuracy correctly. In most previous studies examining validity in credibility judgments, participants have assessed the accuracy of witnesses who have been homogeneous in their memory performance. This study investigated validity in judgments of witnesses who varied widely in memory. A further purpose was to examine whether judgmental validity was moderated by the witnesses' ethnic in-group/ out-group status. Methods. Participants (N = 120) rated the reliability of videotaped testimonies of high- and low-accurate in-group (Swedish, N = 4) and out-group (immigrants, N = 4) witnesses who were genuinely trying to recall a criminal event. Results. Participants assigned more reliability to high- than to low-accurate in-group witnesses, while out-group witnesses received low reliability ratings regardless of their actual memory performance. Path analyses demonstrated that the subjective confidence of in-group, but not of out-group, witnesses predicted participants' accuracy judgments. Conclusions. The results indicate that the validity in judgments of in-group witnesses can be better than has previously been implied. Investigators may have difficulty distinguishing high- and low-accurate witnesses from other ethnic groups, and they may also systematically underestimate the reliability of ethnic out-group witnesses. Implications for legal practices are discussed.

  • 6.
    Mac Giolla, Erik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Ly, Alexander
    Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    What to do with all these Bayes factors: How to make Bayesian reports in deception research more informative2019In: Legal and Criminological Psychology, ISSN 1355-3259, E-ISSN 2044-8333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bayes factors quantify the evidence in support of the null (absence of an effect) or the alternative hypothesis (presence of an effect). Based on commonly used cut-offs, Bayes factors between 1/3 and 3 are interpreted as evidentially weak, and one typically concludes there is an absence of evidence. In this commentary on Warmelink, Subramanian, Tkacheva, and McLatchie (Legal Criminol Psychol 24, 2019, 258), we discuss how a Bayesian report can be made more informative. Firstly, this implies a departure from the labels provided by commonly used cut-offs when reporting Bayes factors. Instead, we encourage researchers to report the value of the Bayes factors, or to convert these values into nominal support for the hypotheses. Secondly, researchers can provide recommendations to design follow-up studies by examining the posterior distribution of the magnitude of the effect size. Lastly, we show how individual Bayes factors can be evaluated in the context of large-scale meta-analyses. © 2019 British Psychological Society

  • 7.
    Mac Giolla, Erik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. University of Gothenburg, Department of Psychology, Sweden.
    Ly, Alexander
    University of Amsterdam, Psychological Methods, The Netherlands; Machine Learning Group, Centrum Wiskunde &Informatica, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    What to do with all these Bayes factors: How to make Bayesian reports in deception research more informative2020In: Legal and Criminological Psychology, ISSN 1355-3259, E-ISSN 2044-8333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bayes factors quantify the evidence in support of the null (absence of an effect) or the alternative hypothesis (presence of an effect). Based on commonly used cut-offs, Bayes factors between 1/3 and 3 are interpreted as evidentially weak, and one typically concludes there is an absence of evidence. In this commentary on Warmelink, Subramanian, Tkacheva, and McLatchie (Legal Criminol Psychol 24, 2019, 258), we discuss how a Bayesian report can be made more informative. Firstly, this implies a departure from the labels provided by commonly used cut-offs when reporting Bayes factors. Instead, we encourage researchers to report the value of the Bayes factors, or to convert these values into nominal support for the hypotheses. Secondly, researchers can provide recommendations to design follow-up studies by examining the posterior distribution of the magnitude of the effect size. Lastly, we show how individual Bayes factors can be evaluated in the context of large-scale meta-analyses.

  • 8.
    Roos af Hjelmsäter, Emma
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg.
    Öman, Lisa
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg.
    Granhag, Pär Anders
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg.
    Vrij, Aldert
    University of Portsmouth, UK.
    ‘Mapping’ deception in adolescents: Eliciting cues to deceit through an unanticipated spatial drawing task2014In: Legal and Criminological Psychology, ISSN 1355-3259, E-ISSN 2044-8333, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 179-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. In this experiment we examined whether an unanticipated spatial task couldincrease the differences between lying and truth telling groups of adolescents. In addition,we explored whether there are some elements of such a spatial task that elicit morediagnostic cues to deception than others.

    Methods. In groups of three, adolescents (N = 150, aged 13–14) either experienced(‘truth tellers’) or imagined (‘liars’) an event. In subsequent individual interviews, theadolescents were asked to provide both a general verbal description of the event (theanticipated task), and a spatial description by making marks on a sketch (the unanticipatedtask). Next, adults (N = 200) rated the degree of consistency between either the generaldescriptions or the spatial descriptions from the adolescents in each triad.

    Results. The differences between liars and truth tellers were larger for the spatialmarkings (the unanticipated task) than for the general verbal descriptions (the anticipatedtask). Importantly, as predicted, the difference between lying and truth-telling triads wasmost manifest for markings of salient (vs. non-salient) aspects of the event.

    Conclusions. The results suggests that (a) using spatial tasks may be a useful tool fordetecting deception in adolescents, but that (b) the assessment of credibility should onlydraw on the salient aspects of the unanticipated spatial task.

  • 9.
    Strand, Susanne
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Fransson, G
    Levander, S
    Clinical and risk management facotrs in risk prediction of mentally disordered offenders - More important than historical data?: A retrospective study of 40 mentally disordered offenders assessed with the HCR-20 violence risk assessment scheme1999In: Legal and Criminological Psychology, ISSN 1355-3259, E-ISSN 2044-8333, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 67-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. The predictive validity of the risk prediction instrument HCR-20 was studied. Methods. Two matched groups of discharged forensic psychiatric patients, one who had recidivated into violent criminality and the other not, were assessed with the HCR-20. This was done retrospective and blind to the outcome. Results. The results show an overall high predictive validity (AUC = .80). However, historical data had none, or a low, validity while clinical and risk management data had a very high validity. Conclusions. One of the most interesting findings in this study is that clinical and risk management factors came out as more predictive of future violence than historical factors, which is very much contrary to findings in past research. We think that one has to bear in mind that both clinical and risk management factors are heavily influenced by historical information. Thus, historical data are probably as important as is generally shown in follow-up studies of violence in various offender groups. However, using the HCR-20, which allows systematic and reliable coding of clinical and risk management factors, seems to make it possible to use these factors more successfully than has been hitherto possible.

  • 10.
    Strand, Susanne
    et al.
    Forensic Psychiatric Centre, Research Unit, Växjö, Sweden.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Forensic Psychiatric Centre, Research Unit, Växjö, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fransson, Göran
    Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Levander, Sten
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Lund, Sweden.
    Clinical and risk management factors in risk prediction of mentally disordered offenders: more important than historical data? A retrospective study of 40 mentally disordered offenders assessed with the HCR-20 violence risk assessment scheme1999In: Legal and Criminological Psychology, ISSN 1355-3259, E-ISSN 2044-8333, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 67-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The predictive validity of the risk prediction instrument HCR-20 was studied.

    Methods: Two matched groups of discharged forensic psychiatric patients, one who had recidivated into violent criminality and the other not, were assessed with the HCR-20. This was done retrospective and blind to the outcome.

    Results: The results show an overall high predictive validity (AUC =.80). However, historical data had none, or a low, validity while clinical and risk management data had a very high validity.

    Conclusions: One of the most interesting findings in this study is that clinical and risk management factors came out as more predictive of future violence than historical factors, which is very much contrary to findings in past research. We think that one has to bear in mind that both clinical and risk management factors are heavily influenced by historical information. Thus, historical data are probably as important as is generally shown in follow-up studies of violence in various offender groups. However, using the HCR-20, which allows systematic and reliable coding or clinical and risk management factors, seems to make it possible to use these factors more successfully than has been hitherto possible.

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